WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature coefficient composites

  1. The effect of filler on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of PTFE/ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Jantunen, H.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    High permittivity and low-loss ceramic fillers have been prepared by means of the solid state ceramic route. Ceramic-filled composites were prepared by the Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering, which was followed by the Hot pressing (SMECH) process. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-band waveguide cavity perturbation technique. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites was investigated in the 0-100 °C temperature range using a hot and cold chamber coupled with an impedance analyzer. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites showed strong dependence on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the filler material. In the present study, a high-permittivity polymer/ceramic composite, having τεr ∼63 ppm/K, has been realized. This composite is suitable for outdoor wireless applications.

  2. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.

    2017-12-01

    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  3. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  4. Accuracy of critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients predicted by multilayered composite plate theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Burton, Scott

    1992-01-01

    An assessment is made of the accuracy of the critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients of multilayered plates predicted by different modeling approaches, based on two-dimensional shear-deformation theories. The sensitivity coefficients considered measure the sensitivity of the critical temperatures to variations in different lamination and material parameters of the plate. The standard of comparison is taken to be the sensitivity coefficients obtained by the three-dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Numerical studies are presented showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters of the plate on the accuracy of both the sensitivity coefficients and the critical temperatures predicted by the different modeling approaches.

  5. Chromium carbide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structure Assisted Copper Composites with Low Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungchan; Kikuchi, Keiko; Lee, Eunkyung; Choi, Moonhee; Jo, Ilguk; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kawasaki, Akira

    2017-11-02

    In order to explore the possibility of using carbon nanotube (CNT) to introduce and control the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of metal matrix composite, relatively thick and short multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) were introduced in the metal matrix with in-situ formation of chromium carbide (Cr7C3) at the CNT/copper (Cu) interface. We demonstrate that incompatible properties such as electrical conductivity and TCR can be achieved simultaneously by introducing MWCNTs in the Cu matrix, with control of the interfacial resistivity using the MWCNT/Cr7C3-Cu system. High electrical conductivity of 94.66 IACS and low TCR of 1,451 10(-6) °C(-1) are achieved in the 5 vol.% MWCNT-CuCr composite. In-situ formation of Cr7C3 nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface by reaction of diffused Cr atoms and amorphous carbon of MWCNTs would assist in improving the electrical properties of the MWCNT-CuCr composites.

  6. Investigation on low room-temperature resistivity Cr/(Ba0.85Pb0.15)TiO3 positive temperature coefficient composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Ma, J.; Qu, Yuanfang

    2009-01-01

    Low room-temperature resistivity positive temperature coefficient (PTC) Cr/(Ba0.85Pb0.15)TiO3 composites were produced via a reducing sintering and a subsequent oxidation treatment. The effects of metallic content and processing conditions on materials resistivity–temperature properties were...... discussed. Using these special processes, the prepared composite with 20 wt% Cr possessed low room-temperature resistivity (2.96 Ω cm at 25 °C) and exhibited PTC effect (resistivity jump of 10), which is considered as a promising candidate for over-current protector when working at low voltage. The grain......-boundary potential barrier of the prepared PTC composite was evaluated based on the Heywang model and the experimental data. The potential barrier was from 0.00 to 0.11 V in the temperature range of 180–270 °C, which is believed to be the first reported intrinsic parameter for PTC composite, determined from...

  7. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  8. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  9. Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.

  10. Enhanced room temperature coefficient of resistance and magnetoresistance of Ag-added La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3-x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Rahul; Awana, V P S; Agarwal, S K; Kishan, H [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Panwar, Neeraj [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016 (India); Bhalla, G L [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-1100007 (India); Habermier, H U, E-mail: awana@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [Max Planck Institut fur Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse-70569, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-09-07

    In this paper we report an enhanced temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) close to room temperature in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3-x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} + Ag{sub y} (x = 0.10, 0.15 and 0 {<=} y {<=} 1.0) (LCBMO + Ag) composite manganites. The observed enhancement of TCR is attributed to the grain growth and opening of new conducting channels in the composites. Ag addition has also been found to enhance intragranular magnetoresistance. Intergranular MR, however, is seen to decrease with Ag addition. The enhanced TCR and MR at/near room temperature open up the possibility of the use of such materials as infrared bolometric and magnetic field sensors, respectively.

  11. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  12. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2 theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity, while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  13. Modelling of tandem cell temperature coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the temperature dependence of the basic solar-cell operating parameters for a GaInP/GaAs series-connected two-terminal tandem cell. The effects of series resistance and of different incident solar spectra are also discussed.

  14. Temperature and Coefficient of Restitution of a Table Tennis Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonyoung Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coefficient of restitution (COR of a bouncing table tennis ball was measured at varying ball temperatures with a Motion Detector. It was found that there is a negative linear relationship between the COR and the temperature of the table tennis ball for temperatures ranging from 5 to 56 ̊C.

  15. Determining Composite Validity Coefficients for Army Jobs and Job Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeidner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) is to compute composite validity coefficients. using criterion data derived from the 1987 - 1989 Skill Qualifications Test program, for the 7-test ASVAB for 150, 17, and 9 job family structures...

  16. The HD+ dissociative recombination rate coefficient at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rotational temperature of the ions is considered for low-energy dissociative recombination (DR of HD+. Merged beams measurements with HD+ ions of a rotational temperature near 300 K are compared to multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The thermal DR rate coefficient for a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution is derived from the merged-beams data and compared to theoretical results for a range of rotational temperatures. Good agreement is found for the theory with 300 K rotational temperature. For a low-temperature plasma environment where also the rotational temperature assumes 10 K, theory predicts a considerably higher thermal DR rate coefficient. The origin of this is traced to predicted resonant structures of the collision-energy dependent DR cross section at few-meV collision energies for the particular case of HD+ ions in the rotational ground state.

  17. Estimation of high temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Capobianco, Christopher J.; Drake, Michael J.

    1992-12-01

    It has been known for some time that abundances of siderophile elements in the upper mantle of the Earth are far in excess of those expected from equilibrium between metal and silicate at low pressures and temperatures. Murthy (1991) has re-examined this excess of siderophile element problem by estimating liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients reduces from their measured values at a lower temperature, implying that siderophile elements become much less siderophilic at high temperatures. Murthy then draws the important conclusion that metal/silicate equilibrium at high temperatures can account for the abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle. Of course, his conclusion is critically dependent on the small values of the partition coefficients he calculates. Because the numerical values of most experimentally-determined partition coefficients increase with increasing temperature at both constant oxygen fugacity and at constant redox buffer, we think it is important to try an alternative extrapolation for comparison. We have computed high temperature metal/silicate partition coefficients under a different set of assumptions and show that such long temperature extrapolations yield values which are critically dependent upon the presumed chemical behavior of the siderophile elements in the system.

  18. The temperature variation of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients were measured as a function of temperature for a few metal alloys using an electrochemical evolution technique. Results from these measurements are compared to those obtained by the time-lag method. In all cases, diffusion coefficients obtained by the electrochemical method are larger than those by the time-lag method by an order of magnitude or more. These differences are attributed mainly to hydrogen trapping.

  19. Temperature dependence of electron impact ionization coefficient in bulk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mowfaq Jalil

    2017-09-01

    This work exhibits a modified procedure to compute the electron impact ionization coefficient of silicon for temperatures between 77 and 800K and electric fields ranging from 70 to 400 kV/cm. The ionization coefficients are computed from the electron momentum distribution function through solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The arrangement is acquired by joining Legendre polynomial extension with BTE. The resulting BTE is solved by differences-differential method using MATLAB®. Six (X) equivalent ellipsoidal and non-parabolic valleys of the conduction band of silicon are taken into account. Concerning the scattering mechanisms, the interval acoustic scattering, non-polar optical scattering and II scattering are taken into consideration. This investigation showed that the ionization coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. The overall results are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical reported data predominantly at high electric fields.

  20. Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Shen, Jun; Gieleciak, Rafal; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Rohling, Jurandir H.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.

    2014-05-01

    Temperature coefficients of the refractive index () in the to temperature interval for hydrocarbon mixtures containing as many as 14 compounds were investigated in this work. The measured of the mixtures were compared with calculations based on the values for each compound and their concentrations. Differences of about 1 % between measured and calculated values were observed for all mixtures. The additivity of for these hydrocarbons enables preparation of surrogate fuels that are formulated to have properties like those of specific diesel fuels.

  1. Temperature Control of Autothermal Reformer System with Coefficient Diagram Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisiriwat, N.; Wutthithanyawat, C.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to design the autothermal reformer (ATR) temperature control by using a coefficient diagram method (CDM). The adiabatic temperature is a main controlled variable of the ATR which is a combination of endothermic and exothermic reactions. The simulation results of control parameters were calculated to maintain the ATR reaction temperature by manipulating air feed flow rate. In this work, two strategies of ATR temperature controller system with and without the feed temperature control of a preheater unit are compared to investigate the appropriate controller system when the change of surrounding temperature is considered as a key disturbance. The results showed that by using the CDM, the stability and robustness for controlling the ATR temperature system were considered to offer the proper control parameters and the designed temperature control of ATR system gave a good performance to maintain the controlled variables and reject the disturbance. Moreover, the ATR control system design with the feed temperature controller can compensate the surrounding temperature better than that without the feed temperature control.

  2. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1996-01-01

    on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustical elements of the microphone, assuming the velocity distribution of the diaphragm to follow the zero-order Bessel function. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first......-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each of the coefficients, for a given type of microphone, can be expressed by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency axis normalized by the individual resonance frequency...... of the microphone. The static pressure and temperature coefficients were determined experimentally for about twenty samples of type BK 4160 and BK 4180 microphones. The results agree almost perfectly with the predictions for BK 4160, while some modifications of the lumped parameter values are called for to make...

  3. Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chenyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2002-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and Van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interfaces are used to invetigate the thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Additions of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix are found to increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. These findings could have implic...

  4. Temperature and concentration dependences of the activity coefficients of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2017-10-01

    A model has been suggested that describes the interaction of hydrated ions in electrolytes and allows the calculation of the main physical effects. The model explains the character of the curves of the activity coefficients. Binary solutions of uni-univalent electrolytes at concentrations from zero to several moles per liter and at temperatures from zero to a few dozens of degrees were studied. The results of simulation were verified by comparing them with many literature data.

  5. THE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF THE UREA DENATURATION OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J H

    1945-07-20

    Evidence is brought forward to show that at concentrations of urea high enough to split the egg albumin molecule the solubility changes produced by urea are profoundly modified. The degree of precipitation after dialysis is the net result of two changes produced by the urea: the first, normally spoken of as denaturation, which makes the protein insoluble in dilute solution and the second, a splitting of the molecule which makes it soluble. These two reactions may proceed independently and simultaneously or the second reaction may follow the first, taking place in the denatured molecule only. In view of the decrease in the opalescence with time, the latter process is more probable. Both of these reactions have positive temperature coefficients, but as the concentration of urea increases the second reaction is more affected by increase in temperature than the first, and consequently the resulting opalescence decreases rather than increases with temperature. This accounts for and explains reports of negative temperature coefficients of denaturation, when denaturation is measured by the amount of insoluble material found on dilution. The occurrence of these two reactions, one leading to an increase and the other to a decrease in the amount of insoluble protein, should be taken into account when denaturation changes in egg albumin with urea are studied.

  6. Longitudinal spin Seebeck coefficient: heat flux vs. temperature difference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, A; Bougiatioti, P; Kuepferling, M; Meier, D; Reiss, G; Pasquale, M; Kuschel, T; Basso, V

    2017-04-25

    The determination of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) coefficient is currently plagued by a large uncertainty due to the poor reproducibility of the experimental conditions used in its measurement. In this work we present a detailed analysis of two different methods used for the determination of the LSSE coefficient. We have performed LSSE experiments in different laboratories, by using different setups and employing both the temperature difference method and the heat flux method. We found that the lack of reproducibility can be mainly attributed to the thermal contact resistance between the sample and the thermal baths which generate the temperature gradient. Due to the variation of the thermal resistance, we found that the scaling of the LSSE voltage to the heat flux through the sample rather than to the temperature difference across the sample greatly reduces the uncertainty. The characteristics of a single YIG/Pt LSSE device obtained with two different setups was (1.143 ± 0.007) 10-7 Vm/W and (1.101 ± 0.015) 10-7 Vm/W with the heat flux method and (2.313 ± 0.017) 10-7 V/K and (4.956 ± 0.005) 10-7 V/K with the temperature difference method. This shows that systematic errors can be considerably reduced with the heat flux method.

  7. Selecting Temperature for Protein Crystallization Screens Using the Temperature Dependence of the Second Virial Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Wang, Xi-Kai; Xie, Si-Xiao; Lu, Qin-Qin; Liu, Yong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Protein crystals usually grow at a preferable temperature which is however not known for a new protein. This paper reports a new approach for determination of favorable crystallization temperature, which can be adopted to facilitate the crystallization screening process. By taking advantage of the correlation between the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient (B22) and the solubility of protein, we measured the temperature dependence of B22 to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility. Using information about solubility versus temperature, a preferred crystallization temperature can be proposed. If B22 is a positive function of the temperature, a lower crystallization temperature is recommended; if B22 shows opposite behavior with respect to the temperature, a higher crystallization temperature is preferred. Otherwise, any temperature in the tested range can be used. PMID:21479212

  8. Effect of graphene nanoplatelets on coefficient of thermal expansion of polyetherimide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huang, E-mail: huang.wu.84@gmail.com [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Drzal, Lawrence T. [Composite Materials and Structures Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Thermal expansion is one of the major concerns for polymer composites. In this research, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added to polyetherimide (PEId) thermoplastic polymer in order to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the injection molded composite. First, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion (LTE) was measured in three directions in the anisotropic coupon: 0°, 90° and the out of plane Z direction. It is found that the GNP particles are very effective in terms of reducing the LTE in 0° direction due to high degree of alignment. After annealing above glass transition temperature, significant increase of 0° LTE and decrease of Z° LTE were observed. The bulk CTE was calculated by adding up the LTEs in all three directions and is found to be independent of annealing. Second, several models were applied to predict both CTE and LTE. It is found that Schapery's lower limit model fits the experimental CTE very well. Chow's model was applied for LTEs in three directions. The behavior of GNP-5/PEId composites is explained by the combination of Chow's model and morphology obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Highlights: • Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of polymer composite is characterized. • Reduction of linear thermal expansion depends on filler orientation. • Filler orientation is characterized based on the location of the specimen. • Filler orientation is changed by annealing, causing subsequent change in CTE. • CTE and linear thermal expansion coefficient are modeled.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen

    2017-03-01

    Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ  >  1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.

  10. Moisture Absorption Model of Composites Considering Water Temperature Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water temperature on composite moisture absorption parameters was investigated in temperature-controlled water bath. Experiments of carbon fiber/bismaleimide resin composites immersed in water of 60℃, 70℃and 80℃ were developed respectively. According to the moisture content-time curves obtained from the experimental results, the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content of the composites immersed in different water temperature could be calculated. What's more, the effect of water temperature on the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content were discussed too. According to the Arrhenius equation and the law of Fick, a moisture absorption model was proposed to simulate the hygroscopic behaviour of the composite laminates immersed in different water temperature which can predict the absorption rate of water of the composites immersed in distilled water of 95℃ at any time precisely and can calculate how long it will take to reach the specific absorption rate.

  11. Design and fabrication of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a low temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X.G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the temperature coefficients of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the influencing factors on temperature coefficients, especially the reversible temperature coefficient β of intrinsic coercivity Hcj, were analyzed. The results showed that the absolute value of β decreased with increasing Hcj and also the ratio of microstructure parameter c to Neff, indicating that the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy field HA and c/Neff can effectively decrease the absolute value of β. On the basis of this analysis, a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with a low temperature coefficient of Hcj was fabricated through composition design, and the value of β was only -0.385%/ºC in the temperature interval of 20-150ºC.

  12. Temperature dependence of Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qieni Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI. And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.

  13. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of working standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. Working standard microphones are not exempt of these influences. However, manufacturers usually provide a low frequency value of the environmental coefficient. While in some applications the influence of this coefficient may be negligible, in others it may...... be a significant contribution to the uncertainty of the measurement. Determining the environmental coefficients of individual specimens of measurement microphones can be a straightforward though time-consuming procedure provided the appropriate facilities are available. An alternative is to determine them using...

  14. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  15. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  16. Temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films and aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, C., E-mail: rsl@zurich.ibm.com; Sousa, M.; Abel, S.; Caimi, D. [IBM Research—Zurich, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Suhm, A.; Abergel, J.; Le Rhun, G.; Defay, E. [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-21

    We present a technique to measure the temperature dependence of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f} of thin films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), aluminum nitride, and BaTiO{sub 3} deposited on Si wafers. It is based on the collection of electric charges induced by the deflection of a Si cantilever coated with the piezoelectric film. The aim of this work is to assess the role of temperature in the decay of the remnant polarization of these materials, in particular, in optimized gradient-free PZT with composition PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}. It is found that in contrast to theoretical predictions, e{sub 31,f} decreases with temperature because of the dominance of relaxation effects. The observation of steps in the logarithmic aging decay law is reminiscent of memory effects seen in frustrated spin glasses.

  17. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  18. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  19. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...

  20. Determination of temperature coefficients of open-circuit voltage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The power output of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells decreases by every 0C rise in temperature above the operating temperature. Typically, multi-crystalline silicon solar cells rated 45 Watts power output decreases by 63% while 70 Watts power output decreases by 48% for every 0C rise in operating temperature.

  1. Transverse shear stresses and their sensitivity coefficients in multilayered composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Yong H.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1994-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the accurate determination of transverse shear stresses and their sensitivity coefficients in flat multilayered composite panels subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the transverse shear stresses to variations in the different lamination and material parameters of the panel. The panel is discretized by using either a three-field mixed finite element model based on a two-dimensional first- order shear deformation plate theory or a two-field degenerate solid element with each of the displacement components having a linear variation throughout the thickness of the laminate. The evaluation of transverse shear stresses can be conveniently divided into two phases. The first phase consists of using a superconvergent recovery technique for evaluating the in-plane stresses in the different layers. In the second phase, the transverse shear stresses are evaluated by using piecewise integration, in the thickness direction, of the three-dimensional equilibrium equations. The same procedure is used for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the transverse shear stresses. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by means of numerical examples of multilayered cross-ply panels subjected to transverse loading, uniform temperature change, and uniform temperature gradient through the thickness of the panel. In each case the standard of the comparison is taken to be the exact solution of the three dimensional thermoelasticity equations of the panel.

  2. The static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of condenser measurement microphones depends on the environmental conditions due to the changes in the acoustic properties of the air enclosed between diaphragm and backelectrode and in the cavity behind the backelectrode. A theoretical investigation has been performed based...... on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustic elements of the microphone. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each coefficient...

  3. The effect of ambient temperature on the shoe-surface interface release coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torg, J S; Stilwell, G; Rogers, K

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of the shoe-surface interface correlated foot fixation with cleat length, configuration, and material composition as well as turf type and surface conditions. Our study examined the effect of temperature on the rotational torsion resistance of artificial turf football shoes. Five football shoe models, a flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe, a natural grass soccer-style shoe, and three multistudded turf shoes, were studied on dry Astro Turf at five temperatures (range, 52 degrees F to 110 degrees F). An assay device, a prosthetic foot mounted on a loaded stainless steel shaft, was used to determine the force necessary to release a shoe from the turf's surface. We used a torque wrench to apply a rotational force so that each shoe was pivoted counterclockwise through an arc of 60 degrees. Our results indicated that release coefficients differ within and among the shoe models at various turf temperatures. We also found that an increase in turf temperature, in combination with cleat characteristics, affects shoe-surface interface friction and potentially places the athlete's knee and ankle at risk of injury. Based on an established risk criterion, which correlated shoe-surface interface combinations in the laboratory with documented clinical occurrences, only the flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe could be designated "safe" or "probably safe" at all five temperatures.

  4. Modeling temperature dependence of trace element concentrations in groundwater using temperature dependent distribution coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Saito, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In our previous study, we have observed trace element concentrations in groundwater increased when groundwater temperature was increased with constant thermal loading using a 50-m long vertical heat exchanger installed at Saitama University, Japan. During the field experiment, 38 degree C fluid was circulated in the heat exchanger resulting 2.8 kW thermal loading over 295 days. Groundwater samples were collected regularly from 17-m and 40-m deep aquifers at four observation wells located 1, 2, 5, and 10 m, respectively, from the heat exchange well and were analyzed with ICP-MS. As a result, concentrations of some trace elements such as boron increased with temperature especially at the 17-m deep aquifer that is known as marine sediment. It has been also observed that the increased concentrations have decreased after the thermal loading was terminated indicating that this phenomenon may be reversible. Although the mechanism is not fully understood, changes in the liquid phase concentration should be associated with dissolution and/or desorption from the solid phase. We therefore attempt to model this phenomenon by introducing temperature dependence in equilibrium linear adsorption isotherms. We assumed that distribution coefficients decrease with temperature so that the liquid phase concentration of a given element becomes higher as the temperature increases under the condition that the total mass stays constant. A shape function was developed to model the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient. By solving the mass balance equation between the liquid phase and the solid phase for a given element, a new term describing changes in the concentration was implemented in a source/sink term of a standard convection dispersion equation (CDE). The CDE was then solved under a constant ground water flow using FlexPDE. By calibrating parameters in the newly developed shape function, the changes in element concentrations observed were quite well predicted. The

  5. Temperature dependence of transport coefficients of 'simple liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (MD) simulations has been investigated. The study carried out at two densities, r* = 0.60 and r* = 0.95. Result shows erratic variations of the shear viscosity in the two lattices structures. KeyWords: Temperature effect, face centred, simple cubic, transport properties, simple liquid. [Global Jnl Pure & Appl. Sci. Vol.9(3) 2003: ...

  6. Two-temperature transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi, E-mail: wuyic51@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui [Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Company, Xian (China)

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is widely adopted in electric power industry, especially in high-voltage circuit breakers and gas-insulated switchgear. However, the use of SF{sub 6} is limited by its high liquidation temperature and high global warming potential. Recently, research shows SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture, which shows environmental friendliness and good electrical properties, may be a feasible substitute for pure SF{sub 6}. This paper is devoted to the calculation of and transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture under both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE condition. The two–temperature mass action law was used to determine the composition. The transport coefficients were calculated by classical Chapman–Enskog method simplified by Devoto. The thermophysical properties are presented for electron temperatures of 300–40 000 K, ratios of electron to heavy species temperature of 1–10 and N{sub 2} mole fraction of 0%–100% at atmospheric pressure. The ionization processes under both LTE and non-LTE have been discussed. The results show that deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium significantly affect the properties of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma, especially before the plasma is fully ionized. The different influence of N{sub 2} on properties for SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma in and out of LTE has been found. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of the behavior of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasmas.

  7. Temperature effects on the electrical properties of multiphase polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Biagio; Guadagno, Liberata; Lamberti, Patrizia; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Vertuccio, Luigi; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2014-05-01

    A study concerning the temperature dependence of some electrical properties of multiphase nanocomposite systems based on epoxy matrix, loaded with a 1% of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and different amounts of Hydrotalcite clay (HT), is presented. An extensive electrical characterization in DC was carried out highlighting that, consistently with the fluctuation-induced tunneling model, the electrical resistivity of the composites are characterized by a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) since it decreases monotonically with increasing temperature in the range 30-110°C. Furthermore, current-voltage (I-V) and temperature-voltage (T-V) characteristics with a perfect linear behavior are detected. The influence of different clay content on the electrical performance of the composites is also investigated. The interesting results open a new routes for such composites due their possible applications in the field of temperature sensor.

  8. Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young

    2006-03-16

    The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.

  9. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  10. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  11. On the Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Absorption Coefficient of NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aousgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressure and temperature on the absorption coefficient of ammonia (NH3 gas self-perturbed and perturbed by nitrogen (N2 gas have been measured. We varied the gas pressure from 10 to 160 Torr and the temperature from 235 to 296 K in order to study the absorption coefficient at the center and the wings of lines in the ν4 band of NH3. These measurements were made using a high resolution (0.0038 cm-1 Bruker Fourier-transform spectrometer. These spectra have been analyzed using the method of multipressure technique permitting to succeed to an evolution of the absorption coefficient with the pressure and the quantum numbers J and K of the NH3 molecule. The results show that the absorption coefficient varies as a quadratic function of the pressure at the center of a given line. However, it has a linear evolution in the wings of the line. Moreover, the absorption coefficients are inversely proportional to temperature in the wings when NH3 lines are broadened by N2. The retrieved values of these coefficients were used to derive the temperature dependence of N2 broadening NH3 lines. The absorption coefficients were shown to fit closely the well-known exponential law.

  12. Influence of the Previous Preheating Temperature on the Static Coefficient of Friction with Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Živković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations static coefficient of friction in lubricated conditions and pre-heating of the sample pin at high temperatures is discussed in this paper. The static coefficient of friction was measured in the sliding steel copper pins per cylinder of polyvinylchloride. Pins are previously heated in a special chamber from room temperature to a temperature of 800 oC with a step of 50 °C. Tribological changes in the surface layer of the pins caused by pre-heating the pins at high temperatures and cooling systems have very significantly influenced the increase in the coefficient of static friction. The results indicate the possibility of improving the friction characteristics of metal materials based on their thermal treatment at elevated temperatures.

  13. Determination of Radiative Heat Transfer Coefficient at High Temperatures Using a Combined Experimental-Computational Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Kočí, Jan; Korecký, Tomáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert Č.

    2015-04-01

    The radiative heat transfer coefficient at high temperatures is determined using a combination of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the experimental part, cement mortar specimen is heated in a laboratory furnace to 600°C and the temperature field inside is recorded using built-in K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The measured temperatures are then used as input parameters in the three dimensional computational modeling whose objective is to find the best correlation between the measured and calculated data via four free parameters, namely the thermal conductivity of the specimen, effective thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, and heat transfer coefficients at normal and high temperatures. The optimization procedure which is performed using the genetic algorithms provides the value of the high-temperature radiative heat transfer coefficient of 3.64 W/(m2K).

  14. Connection between diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity of a metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, M. A.; Knyazeva, A. G.; Sevostianov, I.

    2017-02-01

    The paper discusses the calculation of the effective thermal and diffusion properties of metal matrix composites containing diamond particles. The effective properties are calculated using Maxwell homogenization scheme. We also establish cross-property connection between overall thermal conductivity and diffusion coefficient and illustrate it on example of Al\\diamond composites.

  15. Glass Transition Temperature- and Specific Volume- Composition Models for Tellurite Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report provides models for predicting composition-properties for tellurite glasses, namely specific gravity and glass transition temperature. Included are the partial specific coefficients for each model, the component validity ranges, and model fit parameters.

  16. Determination of density of temperature coefficients for the Earth's atmosphere muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchukovskiy, Valeriy; Kuzmenko, Vasiliy

    2015-06-01

    When studying variations of cosmic ray intensity, by the use of muon telescopes located deep in the atmosphere it is necessary to take into account changes in atmospheric parameters, mainly pressure and temperature. The density distribution of temperature coefficients of the atmosphere muon intensity needs to be estimated from observations. To this purpose, the method of principal components regression and methods of projection to latent structures (PLS-1 and PLS-2). We used data of continuous recording of muons, as well as Novosibirsk 2004-2010 aerological data. As shown by comparing results, PLS-2 method allows us to estimate the density distribution of muon intensity temperature coefficients with minimal errors.

  17. Characteristics of Thermal Coefficient of Fiber Bragg Grating for Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heonyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Daehyun [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Donghoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A fiber Bragg grating sensor is considered a smart sensor that shows outstanding performance in the field of structural health monitoring (Sham). It has a powerful advantage, especially that of multiplexing, which enables several parameters to be sensed at multiple points by using a single optical fiber line. Among several parameters, the thermal expansion coefficient and thermo-optic coefficient are required to measure temperature. In previous studies, these were considered constant variables. This study shows that two parameters vary with temperature and newly proposes a temperature function for these two parameters. Specifically, these two parameters were defined as a single variable, and then, it was experimentally verified that this variable is a function of temperature. Finally, it was shown that temperature from RT to 100 .deg. C was precisely measured by using the temperature function that was defined through the experiment.

  18. Temperature effects on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol in subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.

  19. Simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients with fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of animal diets provides essential insights into their life history and ecology, although diet estimation is challenging and remains an active area of research. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) has become a popular method of estimating diet composition, especially for marine species. A primary assumption of QFASA is that constants called calibration coefficients, which account for the differential metabolism of individual fatty acids, are known. In practice, however, calibration coefficients are not known, but rather have been estimated in feeding trials with captive animals of a limited number of model species. The impossibility of verifying the accuracy of feeding trial derived calibration coefficients to estimate the diets of wild animals is a foundational problem with QFASA that has generated considerable criticism. We present a new model that allows simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients based only on fatty acid signature samples from wild predators and potential prey. Our model performed almost flawlessly in four tests with constructed examples, estimating both diet proportions and calibration coefficients with essentially no error. We also applied the model to data from Chukchi Sea polar bears, obtaining diet estimates that were more diverse than estimates conditioned on feeding trial calibration coefficients. Our model avoids bias in diet estimates caused by conditioning on inaccurate calibration coefficients, invalidates the primary criticism of QFASA, eliminates the need to conduct feeding trials solely for diet estimation, and consequently expands the utility of fatty acid data to investigate aspects of ecology linked to animal diets.

  20. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  1. Estimation of water diffusion coefficient into polycarbonate at different temperatures using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirabadi, P. Shojaee; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-06-08

    Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Mass transport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture and temperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC) is widely used in the electronics industry. Thus, in this work the water diffusion coefficient into PC is investigated. Furthermore, numerical methods used for estimation of the diffusion coefficient and their assumptions are discussed. 1D and 3D numerical solutions are compared and based on this, it is shown how the estimated value can be different depending on the choice of dimensionality in the model.

  2. The Effect of Baffles on the Temperature Distribution and Heat-transfer Coefficients of Finned Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.

  3. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different composite nanolubricant concentrations on Aluminium 2024 plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. N. M.; Azmi, W. H.; Redhwan, A. A. M.; Sharif, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Wear of sliding parts and operational machine consistency enhancement can be avoided with good lubrication. Lubrication reduce wear between two contacting and sliding surfaces and decrease the frictional power losses in compressor. The coefficient of friction and wear rate effects study were carried out to measure the friction and anti-wear abilities of Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants a new type of compressor lubricant to enhanced the compressor performances. The tribology test rig employing reciprocating test conditions to replicate a piston ring contact in the compressor was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different Al2O3-SiO2/PAG composite nanolubricants of Aluminium 2024 plate for 10-kg load at different speed were investigated. Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG 46) lubricant using two-steps method of preparation. The result shows that the coefficient friction and wear rate of composite nanolubricants decreased compared to pure lubricant. The maximum reduction achievement for friction of coefficient and wear rate by Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants by 4.78% and 12.96% with 0.06% volume concentration. Therefore, 0.06% volume concentration is selected as the most enhanced composite nanolubricants with effective coefficient of friction and wear rate reduction compared to other volume concentrations. Thus, it is recommended to be used as the compressor lubrication to enhanced compressor performances.

  4. Effect of stacking sequence on the coefficients of mutual influence of composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupir (Hudișteanu, I.; Țăranu, N.; Axinte, A.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are nowadays widely used in engineering applications due to their outstanding features, such as high specific strength and specific stiffness as well as good corrosion resistance. A major advantage of fibrous polymeric composites is that their anisotropy can be controlled through suitable choice of the influencing parameters. The unidirectional fiber reinforced composites provide much higher longitudinal mechanical properties compared to the transverse ones. Therefore, composite laminates are formed by stacking two or more laminas, with different fiber orientations, as to respond to complex states of stresses. These laminates experience the effect of axial-shear coupling, which is caused by applying normal or shear stresses, implying shear or normal strains, respectively. The normal-shear coupling is expressed by the coefficients of mutual influence. They are engineering constants of primary interest for composite laminates, since the mismatch of the material properties between adjacent layers can produce interlaminar stresses and/or plies delamination. The paper presents the variation of the in-plane and flexural coefficients of mutual influence for three types of multi-layered composites, with different stacking sequences. The results are obtained using the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) and are illustrated graphically in terms of fiber orientations, for asymmetric, antisymmetric and symmetric laminates. Conclusions are formulated on the variation of these coefficients, caused by the stacking sequence.

  5. Temperature coefficients for in vivo RL and OSL dosimetry using Al2O3 : C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Damkjaer, S.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A radiotherapy dosimetry system based on radiolurninescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from small carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals attached to optical-fiber cables has been developed. To quantify the influence of temperature variations on clinical RL and OSL...... with both it-radiation temperature, stimulation temperature, and OSL integration time. Typically, the temperature coefficients are of the order of 0.2%/K, and these thermal effects are therefore large enough to be of importance for clinical measurements. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  6. Low-Temperature Seebeck Coefficients for Polaron-Driven Thermoelectric Effect in Organic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; da Silva Filho, Demétrio A; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Acioli, Paulo H; E Silva, Geraldo Magela

    2016-07-14

    We report the results of electronic structure coupled to molecular dynamics simulations on organic polymers subject to a temperature gradient at low-temperature regimes. The temperature gradient is introduced using a Langevin-type dynamics corrected for quantum effects, which are very important in these systems. Under this condition we were able to determine that in these no-impurity systems the Seebeck coefficient is in the range of 1-3 μV/K. These results are in good agreement with reported experimental results under the same low-temperature conditions.

  7. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  8. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  9. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants and octanol/water partition coefficients for key plant volatile monoterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolovici, Lucian O; Niinemets, Ulo

    2005-12-01

    To model the emission dynamics and changes in fractional composition of monoterpenoids from plant leaves, temperature dependencies of equilibrium coefficients must be known. Henry's law constants (H(pc), Pa m3 mol(-1) and octanol/water partition coefficients (K(OW), mol mol(-1)) were determined for 10 important plant monoterpenes at physiological temperature ranges (25-50 degrees C for H(pc) and 20-50 degrees C for K(OW)). A standard EPICS procedure was established to determine H(pc) and a shake flask method was used for the measurements of K(OW). The enthalpy of volatilization (deltaH(vol)) varied from 18.0 to 44.3 kJ mol(-1) among the monoterpenes, corresponding to a range of temperature-dependent increase in H(pc) between 1.3- and 1.8-fold per 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The enthalpy of water-octanol phase change varied from -11.0 to -23.8 kJ mol(-1), corresponding to a decrease of K(OW) between 1.15- and 1.32-fold per 10 degrees C increase in temperature. Correlations among physico-chemical characteristics of a wide range of monoterpenes were analyzed to seek the ways of derivation of H(pc) and K(OW) values from other monoterpene physico-chemical characteristics. H(pc) was strongly correlated with monoterpene saturated vapor pressure (P(v)), and for lipophilic monoterpenes, deltaH(vol) scaled positively with the enthalpy of vaporization that characterizes the temperature dependence of P(v) Thus, P(v) versus temperature relations may be employed to derive the temperature relations of H(pc) for these monoterpenes. These data collectively indicate that monoterpene differences in H(pc) and K(OW) temperature relations can importantly modify monoterpene emissions from and deposition on plant leaves.

  10. Zirconium tungstate/epoxy resin nanocomposites with negative coefficient of thermal expansion for all-dielectric cryogenic temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Erich; Kochergin, Vladimir; Neely, Lauren; Zayetnikov, Madrakhim; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Robinson, Hans

    2012-02-01

    The α-phase of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) has the remarkable property that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is negative over its entire range of thermal stability (0-1050K), and through this range it has a nearly constant negative CTE. When ZrW2O8 nanoparticles are mixed into a polymer resin, the resulting composite has a reduced CTE when compared with that of the pure polymer. However, previous research on such composites has occurred only near room temperature. We show that at cryogenic temperatures, it is possible to make ZrW2O8/resin nanocomposites with negative CTE. By coating a fiber-optic Bragg grating with such a composite, we were able to create an all-optical temperature sensor without the use of metals, which would be of particular use in superconducting RF cavities. The sensor has sensitivity down to at least 2 K, six times lower than previous fiber-optic temperature sensors.

  11. Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D

  12. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  13. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  14. Improved AIOMFAC model parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients for aqueous organic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbavale, G.; Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients in the AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) model applicable for aqueous as well as water-free organic solutions. For electrolyte-free organic and organic-water mixtures the AIOMFAC model uses a group-contribution approach based on UNIFAC (UNIversal quasi-chemical Functional-group Activity Coefficients). This group-contribution approach explicitly accounts for interactions among organic functional groups and between organic functional groups and water. The previous AIOMFAC version uses a simple parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients, aimed to be applicable in the temperature range from ~ 275 to ~ 400 K. With the goal to improve the description of a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend the AIOMFAC parameterisation for the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon to atmospherically relevant low temperatures. To this end we introduce a new parameterisation for the temperature dependence. The improved temperature dependence parameterisation is derived from classical thermodynamic theory by describing effects from changes in molar enthalpy and heat capacity of a multi-component system. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of aqueous organic and water-free organic mixtures from the literature are carefully assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database, covering a wide temperature range (~ 190 to ~ 440 K) for many of the functional group combinations considered. Different experimental data types and their processing for the estimation of AIOMFAC model parameters are discussed. The new AIOMFAC parameterisation for the temperature dependence of activity coefficients from low to high temperatures shows an overall improvement of 28% in

  15. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  16. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  17. Calculation of an axial temperature distribution using the reflection coefficient of an acoustic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal

    2015-10-01

    This work verifies the idea that in principle it is possible to reconstruct axial temperature distribution of fluid employing reflection or transmission of acoustic waves. It is assumed that the fluid is dissipationless and its density and speed of sound vary along the wave propagation direction because of the fluid temperature distribution. A numerical algorithm is proposed allowing for calculation of the temperature distribution on the basis of known frequency characteristics of reflection coefficient modulus. Functionality of the algorithm is illustrated on a few examples, its properties are discussed.

  18. Path-integral calculation of the third virial coefficient of quantum gases at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Harvey, Allan H

    2011-04-07

    We derive path-integral expressions for the second and third virial coefficients of monatomic quantum gases. Unlike previous work that considered only Boltzmann statistics, we include exchange effects (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics). We use state-of-the-art pair and three-body potentials to calculate the third virial coefficient of (3)He and (4)He in the temperature range 2.6-24.5561 K. We obtain uncertainties smaller than those of the limited experimental data. Inclusion of exchange effects is necessary to obtain accurate results below about 7 K.

  19. Variational calculation of the slip coefficient and the temperature jump for arbitrary gas-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercignani, C.; Lampis, M.

    The aim of this paper is to compute the slip and temperature jump coefficients for a rarefied gas having an arbitrary interaction with a solid surface by means of a variational technique. This problem was considered by Klinc and Kuscer (1972), using a variational principle for the integral version of the Boltzmann equation. In this paper a variational method is used for the integrodifferential version of the Boltzmann equation, proposed by Cercignani (1969). With the simplest trial functions, general formulas are obtained that look simpler than those proposed by Klinc and Kuscer, but reduce to the latter when all of the accommodation coefficients are equal. Numerical values compare favorably with existing numerical solutions.

  20. Effective higher-order nonlinear coefficients of composites with weakly nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natenapit, Mayuree; Thongboonrithi, Chaivej

    2010-05-01

    The field equations, based on the third-order perturbation expansion of electrostatic potential, are derived, and our general formulae for higher-order effective nonlinear coefficients based on the energy definition, are presented and applied to dielectric composites consisting of dilute linear cylindrical inclusions randomly dispersed in a weakly nonlinear host media. The effective nonlinear coefficients are determined up to the ninth order. In addition, the results are also compared to those obtained using the average field method and likely to provide more accurate predictions of effective higher-order nonlinear responses.

  1. High temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Dirisaglik, F.; Cywar, A.; Cil, K.; Zhu, Y.; Lam, C.; Anwar, A. F. M.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature characterization of the thermoelectric properties of chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is critical for phase change memory devices, which utilize self-heating to quickly switch between amorphous and crystalline states and experience significant thermoelectric effects. In this work, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 600 °C, on 50 nm and 200 nm GST thin films deposited on silicon dioxide. Multiple heating and cooling cycles with increasingly maximum temperature allow temperature-dependent characterization of the material at each crystalline state; this is in contrast to continuous measurements which return the combined effects of the temperature dependence and changes in the material. The results show p-type conduction (S > 0), linear S(T), and a positive Thomson coefficient (dS/dT) up to melting temperature. The results also reveal an interesting linearity between dS/dT and the conduction activation energy for mixed amorphous-fcc GST, which can be used to estimate one parameter from the other. A percolation model, together with effective medium theory, is adopted to correlate the conductivity of the material with average grain sizes obtained from XRD measurements. XRD diffraction measurements show plane-dependent thermal expansion for the cubic and hexagonal phases.

  2. Temperature dependence of ion diffusion coefficients in NaCl electrolyte confined within graphene nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Xiaorui; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2017-03-15

    The behavior of ion diffusion in nano-confined spaces and its temperature dependence provide important fundamental information about electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) employing nano-sized active materials. In this work, the ion diffusion coefficients of NaCl electrolyte confined within neutral and charged graphene nanochannels at different temperatures are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that ions confined in neutral nanochannels diffuse faster (along the graphene surfaces) than those in bulk solution, which could be attributed to the relatively smaller concentration in confined spaces and the solvophobic nature of graphene surfaces. In charged nanochannels where the electrostatic interactions between counter-ions and charged channel surfaces govern the motion of ions, the diffusion coefficients are found to be lower than those in the neutral counterparts. The increase of temperature will lead to enhanced vibrant thermal motion of ions. Due to the significant role of ion-surface interactions, ion diffusion coefficients in nano-confined spaces are more stable, that is, insensitive to the temperature variation, than those in bulk solution. The electrical conductivity is further estimated using the Nernst-Einstein equation. The findings of the current work could provide basic data and information for research studies on the thermal effects of graphene-based EDLCs.

  3. An apparatus for high temperature measurement of the resistivity and Hall coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Kasper Andersen; Toberer, Eric; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements are outlined. The VDP method is convenient for use in thermoelectrics research since it accepts sample geometries compatible with measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. This allows for the thermoelectric figure of merit to be measured......Two instruments implementing the van der Pauw (VDP) method for measuring the specific resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures are described. Several features to minimize the measurement errors are proposed and some of the advantages compared with traditional six-probe combined...... using a single sample and without shaping the sample between measurement of individual properties. The technique is simple and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. The two instruments are currently in use at Caltech...

  4. Measurement of the high-temperature strain of UHTC materials using chemical composition gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, F.; Huo, Shiyu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a simple bonding and measuring technique to realise silica-based chemical composition gratings’ (CCGs) high temperature applications on hot structures. We describe a series of experiments on CCGs to measure the thermal and mechanical response characteristics of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials when the maximum temperature is above 1000 °C. Response characteristics are obtained at the heating and cooling stages. Results show that the wavelength response of the CCGs bonded on the UHTC plate increases non-linearly with increasing temperatures, but decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature-dependent strain transfer coefficients are calculated theoretically and experimentally; results show that the values of strain transfer coefficients below 1000 °C are significantly affected by the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and the interface. The strain transfer coefficient value tends to vary slowly between 0.616 and 0.626 above 700 °C.

  5. Data-driven analysis of the temperature and momentum dependence of the charm quark diffusion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingru; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bernhard, Jonah; Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen

    2017-09-01

    Heavy quarks (charm and bottom) have been considered as valuable probes of the QGP medium created in heavy-ion collisions. The interaction strength between heavy quarks and the medium, commonly characterized by their diffusion coefficients, is not directly measurable, but can be estimated by comparison between theoretical model calculations and experimental data on observables such as elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor. In this work, we conduct a data-driven model-to-data analysis to systematically and quantitatively study the evolution of heavy quarks in the QGP medium. We start by proposing a generalized ansatz for the heavy quark diffusion coefficient, then subsequently calibrate our model calculation to the experimental data utilizing a modern Bayesian analysis. We then are able to extract the functional form (with quantified uncertainties) of the transport coefficients. Our model can simultaneously describe the experimental data of D-meson RAA and v2 for different collision systems at both RHIC and LHC, utilizing our extracted diffusion coefficients. It is found that the heavy quark spatial diffusion coefficient has a non-trivial temperature dependence at low momentum and converges to the pQCD calculation in the intermediate/high momentum region. DE-FG02-05ER41367 (DOE).

  6. Measuring convective heat transfer coefficients of nanofluids over a circular fine wire maintaining a constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shinpyo [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    This paper describes a measuring apparatus that can be used to appraise the effectiveness of nanofluids as new heat transfer enhancing fluids. A couple of apparatuses using fine hot wires as sensors have been proposed for this purpose; however, they have a technical weakness related to the uncertain working conditions of the sensor. The present method used the convective heat transfer coefficient from a hot wire as an indication of the heat transfer effectiveness of the nanofluid, where the temperature of the wire remains constant during the experiment. The operating principle and experimental procedure are explained in detail, and the validity of the system is tested with pure base fluids. The effects of particle concentration, velocity, and temperature on the heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids are discussed comprehensively using the experimental data for graphite nanolubrication oil.

  7. Dependences of the osmotic coefficients of aqueous calcium chloride solutions on concentration at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, A. M.; Sergievskii, V. V.; Nagovitsyna, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    A model that considers the contributions from hydration, ion association, and electrostatic interactions to the nonideality of 2‒1 electrolyte solutions is substantiated. The parameters of the model's equations are the mean ion hydration number, the spread of the distribution of hydrated ion stoichiometric coefficients in the standard state, and the number of association. The model is successfully used to describe literature experimental data on the concentration dependence of osmotic coefficients of aqueous CaCl2 solutions at temperatures ranging from 0 to 100°C. The modeling of the above systems shows that as the temperature rises, the hydration number falls slightly, the distribution of the hydration number broadens, and the ion paring of the salt rises by the first degree.

  8. Lithium-doped hydroxyapatite nano-composites: Synthesis, characterization, gamma attenuation coefficient and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, H.; Yahia, I. S.; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Awwad, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-hydroxyapatite (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% Li-HAp) nano-composites were synthesized by sol-gel technique followed by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman techniques. Gamma attenuation coefficient and the dielectric properties for all composites were investigated. The crystallinity degree of Li-doped HAp was higher than that of un-doped HAp. Gamma attenuation coefficient values increased from 0.562 cm-1 for 0 wt% Li-HAp to 2.190 cm-1 for 40 wt% Li-HAp. The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency. The concentration of Li affect the values of dielectric constant where Li doped HAp of low dielectric constant can have an advantage for healing in bone fractures. The calcium to phosphorus ratio decreased from 1.43 to 1.37 with the addition of lithium indicating the Ca deficiency in the studied composites. Our findings lead to the conclusion that Li-HAp is a new nano-composite useful for medical applications and could be doped with gamma shield materials.

  9. Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Reaction of CH2OO with Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mica C; Chao, Wen; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2017-02-09

    The reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO with hydrogen sulfide was measured with transient UV absorption spectroscopy in a temperature-controlled flow reactor, and bimolecular rate coefficients were obtained from 278 to 318 K and from 100 to 500 Torr. The average rate coefficient at 298 K and 100 Torr was (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -13 cm 3 s -1 . The reaction was found to be independent of pressure and exhibited a weak negative temperature dependence. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficient at the QCISD(T)/CBS level are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The reaction of CH 2 OO with H 2 S is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the reaction with H 2 O monomer. Though rates of CH 2 OO scavenging by water vapor under atmospheric conditions are primarily controlled by the reaction with water dimer, the H 2 S loss pathway will be dominated by the reaction with monomer. The agreement between experiment and theory for the CH 2 OO + H 2 S reaction lends credence to theoretical descriptions of other Criegee intermediate reactions that cannot easily be probed experimentally.

  11. Transport coefficients in high temperature gauge theories, 2. Beyond leading log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Peter; Moore, Guy D.; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2003-05-01

    Results are presented of a full leading-order evaluation of the shear viscosity, flavor diffusion constants,and electrical conductivity in high temperature QCD and QED. The presence of Coulomb logarithms associated with gauge interactions imply that the leading-order results for transport coefficients may themselves be expanded in an infinite series in powers of 1/log (1/g); the utility of this expansion is also examined. A next-to-leading-log approximation is found to approximate the full leading-order result quite well as long as the Debye mass is less than the temperature.

  12. The effect of core configuration on temperature coefficient of reactivity in IRR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettan, M.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Nagler, A. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1997-08-01

    Experiments designed to measure the effect of coolant moderator temperature on core reactivity in an HEU swimming pool type reactor were performed. The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity ({alpha}{sub {omega}}) was obtained and found to be different in two core loadings. The measured {alpha}{sub {omega}} of one core loading was {minus}13 pcm/{degrees}C at the temperature range of 23-30{degrees}C. This value of {alpha}{sub {omega}} is comparable to the data published by the IAEA. The {alpha}{sub {omega}} measured in the second core loading was found to be {minus}8 pcm/{degrees}C at the same temperature range. Another phenomenon considered in this study is core behavior during reactivity insertion transient. The results were compared to a core simulation using the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants. It was found that in the second core loading factors other than the moderator temperature influence the core reactivity more than expected. These effects proved to be extremely dependent on core configuration and may in certain core loadings render the reactor`s reactivity coefficient undesirable.

  13. Temperature dependence of stream aeration coefficients and the effect of water turbulence: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, B O L; Manson, J R

    2013-01-01

    The gas transfer velocity (K(L)) and related gas transfer coefficient (k(2) = K(L)A/V, with A, area and V, volume) at the air-water interface are critical parameters in all gas flux studies such as green house gas emission, whole stream metabolism or industrial processes. So far, there is no theoretical model able to provide accurate estimation of gas transfer in streams. Hence, reaeration is often estimated with empirical equations. The gas transfer velocity need then to be corrected with a temperature coefficient θ = 1.0241. Yet several studies have long reported variation in θ with temperature and 'turbulence' of water (i.e. θ is not a constant). Here we re-investigate thoroughly a key theoretical model (Dobbins model) in detail after discovering important discrepancies. We then compare it with other theoretical models derived from a wide range of hydraulic behaviours (rigid to free continuous surface water, wave and waterfalls with bubbles). The results of the Dobbins model were found to hold, at least theoretically in the light of recent advances in hydraulics, although the more comprehensive results in this study highlighted a higher degree of complexity in θ's behaviour. According to the Dobbins model, the temperature coefficient θ, could vary from 1.005 to 1.042 within a temperature range of 0-35 °C and wide range of gas transfer velocities, i.e. 'turbulence' condition (0.005 turbulence', and only modest variability in θ with change in temperature. However, the other theoretical models did not have the same temperature coefficient θ (with 1.000 turbulence and bubble mediated gas transfer velocities suggested a lower temperature dependence for bubble (1.013turbulence (1.023turbulence on the temperature dependence of gas transfer at the air-water interface has still to be clarified, although many models simulate different flow conditions which may explain some of the observed discrepancies. We suggest that the temperature dependence curves produced by

  14. Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, M J; Hemmerling, T M

    2008-07-01

    To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.

  15. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  16. Re-evaluation of SiC permeation coefficients at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi, E-mail: yama3707@kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Murakami, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Hirosato; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yonetsu, Daigo [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai Univ., Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The deuterium permeation coefficients of CVD-SiC at 600–950 °C were evaluated. • The wraparound flow was reduced to less than 1/100th of the permeation flow. • CVD-SiC materials are very effective as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. - Abstract: Since 2007, our group has studied the deuterium permeation and diffusion coefficients for SiC materials at temperatures above 600 °C as a means of evaluating the tritium inventory and permeation in fusion blankets. During such measurements, control and evaluation of the wraparound flow through the sample holder are important, and so the heated sample holder is enclosed by a glass tube and kept under vacuum during experimental trials. However, detailed studies regarding the required degree of vacuum based on model calculations have shown that the wraparound flow is much larger than expected, and so can affect measurements at high temperatures. We therefore modified the measurement apparatus based on calculations involving reduced pressure in the glass tube, and are now confident that the measurement error is only several percent, even at 950 °C. In this paper, recent experimental results obtained with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC sample over the temperature range of 600–950 °C are presented, showing that the permeation coefficient for CVD-SiC is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that for stainless steel (SS316) at 600 °C, and that at 950 °C, the coefficient for CVD-SiC is almost equal to that for SUS316 at 550 °C.

  17. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu

    2017-10-01

    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.

  18. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zerong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  19. Thermal Stability and Coefficient of Friction of the Diamond Composites with the Titanium Compound Bonding Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan, S.; Jaworska, L.; Putyra, P.; Ratuszek, W.; Cyboron, J.; Klimczyk, P.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, processes occurring during heat treatment of the diamond-Ti compound composites without Co addition were investigated and compared with commercial PCD. Three types of materials were prepared. The first material was sintered using the mixture containing diamond and 10 mass% of TiC, the second material was prepared using diamond powder and 10 mass% of Ti-Si-C, and the third composite was sintered using the addition of 10 mass% of TiB2. During the research, it was proved that TiO2 formation contributes to material swelling and WO3 (W is present from the milling process) causes a significant increase in coefficient of friction. TiC and Ti-Si-C bonded materials are very susceptible to this process of oxidation; their hardness drops absolutely after wear test at 600 °C. The diamond composite with TiB2 is the most resistant to oxidation from investigated materials.

  20. The empirical evaluation of thermal conduction coefficient of some liquid composite heat insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. V.; Rekunov, V. S.; Babuta, M. N.; Bach Lien, Nguyen Thi Hong

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally determined the coefficients of thermal conductivity of some ultra thin liquid composite heat insulating coatings, for sample #1 λ = 0.086 W/(m·°C), for sample #2 λ = 0.091 W/(m·°C). We performed the measurement error calculation. The actual thermal conduction coefficient of the studied samples was higher than the declared one. The manufactures of liquid coatings might have used some "ideal" conditions when defining heat conductivity in the laboratory or the coefficient was obtained by means of theoretical solution of heat conduction problem in liquid composite insulating media. However, liquid insulating coatings are of great interest to builders, because they allow to warm objects of complex geometric shapes (valve chambers, complex assemblies, etc.), which makes them virtually irreplaceable. The proper accounting of heating qualities of paints will allow to avoid heat loss increase above the specified limits in insulated pipes with heat transfer materials or building structures, as well as protect them from possible thawing in the period of subzero weather.

  1. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-11-01

    Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring on internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding fiber Bragg grating for early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    The abnormal temperature rise is the precursor of the defective composite insulator in power transmission line. However no consolidated techniques or methodologies can on line monitor its internal temperature now. Thus a new method using embedding fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rod is adopted to monitor its internal temperature. To correctly demodulate the internal temperature of FRP rod from the Bragg wavelength shift of FBG, the conversion coefficient between them is deduced theoretically based on comprehensive investigation on the thermal stresses of the metal-composite joint, as well as its material and structural properties. Theoretical model shows that the conversion coefficients of FBG embedded in different positions will be different because of non-uniform thermal stress distribution, which is verified by an experiment. This work lays the theoretical foundation of monitoring the internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding FBG, which is of great importance to its health structural monitoring, especially early diagnosis.

  3. Comparative Study of Equivalent Manning Roughness Coefficient for Channel with Composite Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Djajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applicability of nine selected expressions in determining the equivalent value of the Manning coefficient of roughness. For this purpose, a prismatic 4m-long and 0.05m-wide trapezoidal-shape channel was constructed, namely the homogeneous channel and the composite channel. The homogeneous channel had the same surface lining, whereas the composite channel had two different surface linings. Four different lining materials were considered: plaster, small, medium, and large-sized aggregates. The homogeneous channel showed a reliable Manning coefficient prediction, provided that a uniform flow was achieved. The roughness of the composite channel can be predicted accurately by the nine expressions; the average was 0.96, with standard deviation of 11.13%. Out of the nine expressions, the expression that considers wet-perimeter as its main parameter showed the best estimate. The error was about 2% with standard deviation of 5.15%. This can be actually traced back to the limited width of the test channel, thereby increasing the role of wet perimeter.

  4. Measurement of temperature inside die and estimation of interfacial heat transfer coefficient in squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-fan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an advanced near-net shape technology, squeeze casting is an excellent method for producing high integrity castings. Numerical simulation is a very effective method to optimize squeeze casting process, and the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is an important boundary condition in numerical simulation. Therefore, the study of the IHTC is of great significance. In the present study, experiments were conducted and a “plate shape” aluminum alloy casting was cast in H13 steel die. In order to obtain accurate temperature readings inside the die, a special temperature sensor units (TSU was designed. Six 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep grooves were machined in the sensor unit for the placement of the thermocouples whose tips were welded to the end wall. Each groove was machined to terminate at a particular distance (1, 3, and 6 mm from the front end of the sensor unit. Based on the temperature measurements inside the die, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC at the metal-die interface was determined by applying an inverse approach. The acquired data were processed by a low pass filtering method based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The feature of the IHTC at the metal-die interface was discussed.

  5. Adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient influenced by separated supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontiev Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of supersonic air flow around plane surface behind a rib perpendicular to the flow direction are performed. Research was carried out for free stream Mach number 2.25 and turbulent flow regime - Rex>2·107. Rib height was varied in range from 2 to 8 mm while boundary layer thickness at the nozzle exit section was about 6 mm. As a result adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient are obtained for flow around plane surface behind a rib incontrast with the flow around plane surface without any disturbances.

  6. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  7. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  8. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fiber Composites under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, G.; Hiller, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are however brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that friction...... materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fiber composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fiber composite...... materials running against a steel surface are presented. All tests were carried out on a pin-on-disc test-rig at a fixed sliding speed and various pressure levels for both dry and grease lubricated conditions....

  9. Self-diffusion coefficients for water and organic solvents at high temperatures along the coexistence curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Nakahara, Masaru

    2008-12-01

    The self-diffusion coefficients D for water, benzene, and cyclohexane are determined by using the pulsed-field-gradient spin echo method in high-temperature conditions along the liquid branch of the coexistence curve: 30-350 °C (1.0-0.58 g cm-3), 30-250 °C (0.87-0.56 g cm-3), and 30-250 °C (0.77-0.48 g cm-3) for water, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The temperature and density effects are separated and their origins are discussed by examining the diffusion data over a wide range of thermodynamic states. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient for water is larger than that for organic solvents due to the large contribution of the attractive hydrogen-bonding interaction in water. The density dependence is larger for organic solvents than for water. The difference is explained in terms of the van der Waals picture that the structure of nonpolar organic solvents is determined by the packing effect due to the repulsion or exclusion volumes. The dynamic solvation shell scheme [K. Yoshida et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174509 (2007)] is applied for the molecular interpretation of the translational dynamics with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. In water at high temperatures, the velocity relaxation is not completed before the relaxation of the solvation shell (mobile-shell type) as a result of the breakdown of the hydrogen-bonding network. In contrast, the velocity relaxation of benzene is rather confined within the solvation shell (in-shell type).

  10. Replacement of unsteady heat transfer coefficient by equivalent steady-state one when calculating temperature oscillations in a thermal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supel’nyak, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.

  11. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary energy on energy partitioning coefficients of female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J

    2015-10-01

    With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( broiler breeders fed the HE diet.

  12. Anomalous enhancement of Seebeck coefficients of the graphene/hexagonal boron nitride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Akaishi, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Thermoelectric devices convert heat energy to electric power. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, is used as a standard criterion for efficiency of thermoelectric conversion. This criterion requires a high Seebeck coefficient, a high electric conductivity, and a low thermal conductivity. In this regard, PbTe, BiTe, and their alloys consisting of relatively heavier elements have been found to show higher values of ZT. In this paper, we focus on the potential of graphene-based composites as thermoelectric materials. Graphene was considered to be a disadvantageous material because of its extremely high thermal conductance and relatively low Seebeck coefficient. However, it has been reported recently that a structural modulation is an effective way of raising the thermoelectric ability of graphene. We introduce the recent progress in the design of graphene-based materials for thermoelectric devices. In particular, we provide a focused investigation of our recent progress regarding the thermopower enhancement in nanoarchitectonics, superlattices, and composites consisting of graphene and hexagonal BN nanoribbons. It has been shown that low-dimensional modulations are effective ways of obtaining a high thermoelectric performance of graphene-based materials.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Study on Effects of Airflow and Aqueous Ammonium Temperature on Ammonia Mass Transfer Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 × 104 to 5.43 × 104 (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies...... greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation...... constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under...

  14. Intelligent Detector of Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Pressure and Sensitivity Temperature Coefficient Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beirong Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detecting device based on mechanical mechanism is far from the measurement of internal combustion engine cylinder explosion and compression pressure. This pressure detection is under the environment of pulsed gas (over 500 times per one minute and mechanical impactive vibration. Piezoresistive detection with silicon on insulator (SOI strain gauges to pressure seems to be a good solution to meet such special applications. In this work, separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX wafer was used to fabricate the high temperature pressure sensor chip. For high accuracy and wide temperature range application, this paper also presents a novel pressure sensitivity temperature coefficient (TCS compensation method, using integrated constant current network. A quantitative compensation formula is introduced in mathematics. During experiments, the absolute value of the compensated TCS is easy to be 10 × 10−6/°C~100 × 10−6/°C by individual adjustment and calibration of each device’s temperature compensation. Therefore, the feasibility and practicability of this technology are tested. Again, the disadvantages are discussed after the research of the experiment data and the improvement methods are also given in the designing period. This technology exhibits the great potential practical value of internal combustion engine cylinder pressure with volume manufacturing.

  15. A Derivation of a Quadratic Activity Coefficient vs Composition Relationship in a Quaternary System, A-B-C-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2010-12-01

    In the literature, no direct derivation exists of the quadratic activity coefficient vs composition relationships for a quaternary system with high solute concentrations. Such relations for a ternary system (1-2-3) were derived by Darken by extending the results of a binary system (1-2), introducing a new concept of “hypothetical system” (2-3). To present a better scheme to find the activity coefficient-composition relations for multicomponent systems, derivations are made for a quaternary system A-B-C-D in the current work. Using a MacLaurin series expansion, the (Raoultian) activity coefficient, ln γ i , of each component is equated with a quadratic expression of mole fractions ( x), involving the activity coefficient at zero concentration left( {γi0 } right) and nine interaction coefficients ( ɛ). Subsequently, with the help of a Gibbs-Duhem equation, followed by a comparison of coefficients, most preceding 9 × 4, i.e., 36 interaction coefficients are eliminated, leaving behind only three self- and three ternary interaction coefficients, which are enough to express the activity coefficient vs composition relationships for the solutes B, C, and D, as well as for the solvent A. Setting the mole fraction x D = 0, the preceding expressions establish the same relations as proposed by Darken for the ternary system A-B-C. The derivation also clarifies how the quadratic concentration terms accompany the first-order interaction coefficients, not the second-order ones. Applications of the derived relations to determine simultaneously the activity coefficients γi0 and the interaction coefficients ɛ in a new way in some iron- and steelmaking systems are presented. A new data on interaction coefficients in liquid iron at 1873 K (1600 °C), \\varepsilon_{text{V}}^{text{V}} = - 6. 1, has been generated through such an application.

  16. Temperature coefficient of sideband frequency produced by polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in highly nonlinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Suzuki, Kohei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of the polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum using a highly nonlinear fiber. The temperature coefficient is 168 kHz/K, which is 1.7 times larger than that of small-core photonic crystal fibers. This result indicates that highly temperature-sensitive GAWBS-based sensing is feasible.

  17. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  18. MM98.04 Measurement of temperature and determination of heat transfer coefficient in backward can extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras

    1998-01-01

    in the die insert. The die insert is divided into two halves where the thermocouples are welded to the end of milled grooves in the lower part. The temperature of the workpiece is measured by welding a thermocouple directly onto the free surface.All of the temperature measurements in the tool...... and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients. The current heat transfer coefficient is determined from the simulations....

  19. Temperature dependent rate coefficients for the reactions of Criegee biradicals with selected alcohols and sulphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max; McMahon, Laura; Curchod, Basile; Shallcross, Dudley; Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The reactions of Criegee biradicals have received much attention in recent years, yet few reactive systems have undergone direct experimental measurement, and fewer still have been measured as a function of temperature. In this study, absolute temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of a suite of alcohols and sulphides with both formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetone oxide ((CH3)2COO) are determined experimentally between 254 and 328 K using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for detecting Criegee biradicals. Major differences in reactivity and temperature dependence are observed both in terms of the functionality (between alcohols and sulphides) and also the degree of alkyl substitution about the Criegee biradical. This diverse behaviour represents a uniquely challenging problem for atmospheric chemistry since the atmosphere contains a large variety of both functionalized compounds and Criegee biradicals, leading to a formidable parameter space which may be impossible to cover experimentally. Notwithstanding, new experimental data such as these are vital for understanding the general behaviour of Criegee biradicals in the atmosphere.

  20. Estimation of Temperature Conductivity Coefficient Impact upon Fatigue Damage of Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibik, V.; Galeeva, A.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we consider the peculiarities of adhesive wear of cutting tools. Simulation of heat flows in the cutting zone showed that, as thermal conduction and heat conductivity of tool material grow, the heat flows from the front and back surfaces to tool holder will increase and so, the temperature of the contact areas of the tool will lower. When estimating the adhesive wear rate of cemented-carbide tool under the cutting rates corresponding to the cutting temperature of up to 900 °C, it is necessary to take the fatigue character of adhesive wear into consideration. The process of accumulation and development of fatigue damage is associated with micro- and macroplastic flowing of material, which is determined by the processes of initiation, motion, generation, and elimination of line defects - dislocations. Density of dislocations grows with increase of the loading cycles amount and increase of load amplitude. Growth of dislocations density leads to loosening of material, formation of micro- and macrocracks. The heat capacity of material grows as the loosening continues. In the given paper the authors prove theoretically that temperature conductivity coefficient which is associated with heat capacity of material, decreases as fatigue wear grows.

  1. Excitation and temperature dependent exciton-carrier transport in CVD diamond: Diffusion coefficient, recombination lifetime and diffusion length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ščajev, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.scajev@ff.vu.lt

    2017-04-01

    Time-resolved induced absorption (IA) and light induced transient grating (LITG) techniques were applied for the investigation of nonequilibrium exciton-carrier diffusion and recombination processes in a high-purity CVD diamond. Injection range from 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} carrier density was achieved by combining one photon and two photon excitations. The measurements were performed in the 10–750 K temperature range. The LITG diffusion coefficient peaked at 44 cm{sup 2}/s value at room temperature under low injection conditions. At lower temperatures it transferred to much lower exciton diffusion coefficient. A strong decrease of diffusion coefficient under higher injection conditions was explained by exciton formation with a low diffusion coefficient and many body effects, as polyexciton and electron-hole droplet formation. High temperature phonon-limited diffusion coefficient was weakly injection dependent. Low excitation carrier lifetime was about 700 ns above 200 K. At lower temperatures, the decay time reduced by two orders of magnitude, which was explained by the formation of biexcitons. At lowest temperatures, an increase of the carrier recombination rate at high injection was attributed to Auger recombinations of polyexcitons and electron-hole droplets. While at high temperatures, the increase of the recombination rate with 490 meV activation energy was observed. The combination of IA and LITG measurements provided effective diffusion lengths in a 0.3–50 µm range, being strongly dependent on the excess carrier density and temperature.

  2. Rate Coefficients of the Reaction of OH with Allene and Propyne at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-09-28

    Allene (H2C═C═CH2; a-C3H4) and propyne (CH3C≡CH; p-C3H4) are important species in various chemical environments. In combustion processes, the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a-C3H4 and p-C3H4 are critical in the overall fuel oxidation system. In this work, rate coefficients of OH radicals with allene (OH + H2C═C═CH2 → products) and propyne (OH + CH3C≡CH → products) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 843–1352 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3–CO–OH), and monitored by narrow line width laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) electronic transition of the OH A–X (0,0) electronic system near 306.7 nm. Results show that allene reacts faster with OH radicals than propyne over the temperature range of this study. Measured rate coefficients can be expressed in Arrhenius form as follows: kallene+OH(T) = 8.51(±0.03) × 10–22T3.05 exp(2215(±3)/T), T = 843–1352 K; kpropyne+OH(T) = 1.30(±0.07) × 10–21T3.01 exp(1140(±6)/T), T = 846–1335 K.

  3. Temperature Dependence of the Seebeck Coefficient in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Amirreza; Masoumi, Saeed; Hashemi, Najmeh

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric devices are reliable tools for converting waste heat into electricity as they last long, produce no noise or vibration, have no moving elements, and their light weight makes them suitable for the outer space usage. Materials with high thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) have the most important role in the fabrication of efficient thermoelectric devices. Metal oxide semiconductors, specially zinc oxide has recently received attention as a material suitable for sensor, optoelectronic and thermoelectric device applications because of their wide direct bandgap, chemical stability, high-energy radiation endurance, transparency and acceptable zT. Understanding the thermoelectric properties of the undoped ZnO thin films can help design better ZnO-based devices. Here, we report the results of our experimental work on the thermoelectric properties of the undoped polycrystalline ZnO thin films. These films are deposited on alumina substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc in vacuum followed by a controlled oxidation process in air carried out at the 350-500 °C temperature range. The experimental setup including gradient heaters, thermometry system and Seebeck voltage measurement equipment for high resistance samples is described. Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity of the samples are measured at different conditions. The observed temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

  4. Accurate potential energy curve for helium dimer retrieved from viscosity coefficient data at very low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Éderson D.'M.; Lemes, Nelson H. T.; Braga, João P.

    2017-12-01

    The long range potential of helium-helium interaction, which requires accurate ab initio calculation, due to the small value of the potential depth, approximately 11 K (9 . 5 × 10-4 eV = 0 . 091 kJ / mol) at 2.96 Å, will be obtained in this study by an alternative technique. This work presents a robust and consistent procedure that provides the long range potential directly from experimental data. However, it is difficult to obtain experimental data containing information regarding such a small potential depth. Thereby, sensitivity analysis will be used to circumvent this difficulty, from which viscosity data at lower temperatures (< 5 K) were chosen as appropriate data to be used to retrieve the potential function between 3 and 4 Å. The linear relationship between the potential energy function and the viscosity coefficient will be established under quantum assumptions and the Bose-Einstein statistics. The use of quantum theory is essential, since the temperatures are below 5 K. The potential obtained in this study describes the viscosity with an average error of 1.7% that is less than the experimental error (5%), with the results being similar to those obtained for recent ab initio potentials.

  5. Geometry dependence of temperature coefficient of resonant frequency in highly sensitive resonant thermal sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoki; Ono, Takahito

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the geometry dependence of the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCRF) is investigated and compared with a theoretical thermal stress change using Si mechanical microresonators. The used resonators have Y, T, I (conventional double-supported type) and arrow shapes, and in each shape the resonant frequency change of the resonator is measured in relation to changes in the amount of heat input to the resonator. The change trend in the experimental resonant frequency and the theoretical thermal stress in changing the temperature are consist. The TCRF in each resonator is Y: -653, T: -162, I: -417, and the arrow is 174 ppm/K. These absolute values are much higher than those of conventional cantilevered Si resonators (-34.9 ppm/K). In addition, the frequency fluctuations based on Allan deviation are experimentally evaluated considering the theoretical thermal fluctuation noise. It is considered that use of this technique to improve the TCRF of resonators by changing the geometry has the possibility of creating a sensor with highly sensitive thermal detection.

  6. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that frict......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre...... composite materials running against a steel surface are presented. All tests were carried out on a pinon-disc test-rig in reciprocating operation at a fixed sliding speed and various pressure levels for both dry and grease lubricated conditions. Moreover, a generic theoretical framework is introduced...

  7. Universal predictive models on octanol-air partition coefficients at different temperatures for persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Harner, Tom; Ding, Guanghui; Quan, Xie; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-10-01

    Owing to the importance of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) in describing the partition of organic pollutants from air to environmental organic phases, the paucity of KOA data at different environmental temperatures, and the difficulty or high expenditures involved in experimental determination, the development of predictive models for KOA is necessary. Approaches such as this are greatly needed to evaluate the environmental fate of the ever-increasing list of production chemicals. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with 18 molecular structural descriptors was used to develop predictive models based on directly measured KOA values of selected chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorine pesticides (OPs). An optimization procedure resulted in two temperature-dependent universal predictive models that explained at least 91 % of the variance of log KOA. Model 1 was the more general of the two models that could be used for all the persistent organic pollutant (POP) classes investigated. Although model 1 performed poorly for select OPs, this was attributed to wide variability in structural types within this subset of POPs and their diversity compared to the other POP classes that were investigated. The exclusion of the structurally complex OP subset resulted in a more precise model, model 5. Intermolecular dispersive interactions (induced dipole-induced dipole forces) between octanol and solute molecules play a decisive role in governing KOA and its temperature dependence. Further investigations are needed to better characterize the steric structures of the POPs under study, especially of OPs.

  8. Effect of fuel burnup and cross sections on modular HTGR (High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) reactivity coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, W.; Baxter, A.; Mathews, D.

    1987-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the reactivity coefficient in a prismatic block Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design is examined and found to be large and negative. Temperature coefficient results obtained with the ENDF/B-V data library were almost the same as results obtained with the earlier versions of the ENDF/B data library usually used at GA Technologies Inc., in spite of a significant eigenvalue increase with the ENDF/B-V data. The effects of fuel burnup and arbitrarily assumed cross section variations were examined and tabulated.

  9. Experimental and numerical study on effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 x 10(4) to 5.43 x 10(4) (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the conditions that the liquid temperature is lower than the air temperature. Although there are differences of mass transfer coefficients between these two methods, the mass transfer coefficients determined by these two methods are significantly related.

  10. Charge effect on the diffusion coefficient and the bimolecular reaction rate of diiodide anion radical in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshio; Terazima, Masahide; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2009-04-16

    The diffusion coefficients of diiodide anion radical, I(2)(-), in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were determined by the transient grating (TG) method using the photochemical reaction of iodide. The diffusion coefficients we obtained were larger in RTILs than the theoretical predictions by the Stokes-Einstein relation, whereas both values are similar in conventional solvents. By comparison with the diffusion coefficients of neutral molecules, it was suggested that the Coulomb interaction between I(2)(-) and constituent ions of RTILs strongly affects the diffusion coefficients. The bimolecular reaction rates between I(2)(-) were calculated by the Debye-Smoluchowski equation using the experimentally determined diffusion coefficients. These calculated reaction rate were much smaller than the experimentally determined rates (Takahashi, K.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 4807), indicating the charge screening effect of RTILs.

  11. MM98.34 Experimental Measurements of Die temperatures and determination of heat transfer coefficient in backward can extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras

    1998-01-01

    from the surface. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, Which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients....... The current heat transfer coefficient is determined as the one resulting in the best agreement between measurements and the simulations....

  12. Wrinkle-stabilized metal-graphene hybrid fibers with zero temperature coefficient of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bo; Xi, Jiabin; Liu, Yingjun; Guo, Fan; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Weiwei; Guo, Daoyou; Li, Peigang; Gao, Chao

    2017-08-24

    The interfacial adhesion between graphene and metals is poor, as metals tend to generate superlubricity on smooth graphene surface. This problem renders the free assembly of graphene and metals to be a big challenge, and therefore, some desired conducting properties (e.g., stable metal-like conductivities in air, lightweight yet flexible conductors, and ultralow temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR) likely being realized by integrating the merits of graphene and metals remains at a theoretical level. This work proposes a wrinkle-stabilized approach to address the poor adhesion between graphene surface and metals. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests and theoretical analysis by Scharifker-Hills models demonstrate that multiscale wrinkles effectively induce nucleation of metal particles, locking in metal nuclei and guiding the continuous growth of metal islands in an instantaneous model on rough graphene surface. The universality and practicability of the wrinkle-stabilized approach is verified by our investigation through the electrodeposition of nine kinds of metals on graphene fibers (GF). The strong interface bonding permits metal-graphene hybrid fibers to show metal-level conductivities (up to 2.2 × 107 S m-1, a record high value for GF in air), reliable weatherability and favorable flexibility. Due to the negative TCR of graphene and positive TCR of metals, the TCR of Cu- and Au-coated GFs reaches zero at a wide temperature range (15 K-300 K). For this layered model, the quantitative analysis by classical theories demonstrates the suitable thickness ratio of graphene layer and metal layer to achieve zero TCR to be 0.2, agreeing well with our experimental results. This wrinkle-stabilized approach and our theoretical analysis of zero-TCR behavior of the graphene-metal system are conducive to the design of high-performance conducting materials based on graphene and metals.

  13. Experimental high temperature coefficients of compressibility and expansivity of liquid sodium and other related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das Gupta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The subcooled compressibility of liquid sodium was directly measured up to 200 atm between 900 K and 1867 K, utilizing a new multi-property apparatus which was previously tested with water. The experimental data were correlated by a 6-term equation with a standard deviation of 9.2 percent. The equation can be used to estimate the subcooled compressibilities and densities of liquid sodium up to 2300 K and 500 ata. The thermal expansion of liquid sodium was also measured along the isobars 1 ata, 28.9 ata and 69 ata. Densities within 1 percent of those obtained from the compressibilities were obtained. The above compressibility data were used to calculate the thermal pressure coefficient of saturated liquid sodium. Also, Bhise and Bonilla's correlations for the vapor pressure and the saturated liquid density of sodium were improved by including more data in the analysis. The critical temperature and density were thus reestimated as 2508.7 K and 0.2141 g/cc. Furthermore, a new correlation was developed to determine the heat of vaporization of sodium up to the critical point, which was then used to estimate the internal energy and the entropy of vaporization and the saturated vapor density of sodium up to the critical point.

  14. Rational design and synthesis of an orally bioavailable peptide guided by NMR amide temperature coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Conan K.; Northfield, Susan E.; Colless, Barbara; Chaousis, Stephanie; Hamernig, Ingrid; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Nielsen, Daniel S.; Schroeder, Christina I.; Liras, Spiros; Price, David A.; Fairlie, David P.; Craik, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the oral bioavailability of peptide drug leads is a major challenge in drug design. As such, methods to address this challenge are highly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we propose a strategy to identify appropriate amides for N-methylation using temperature coefficients measured by NMR to identify exposed amides in cyclic peptides. N-methylation effectively caps these amides, modifying the overall solvation properties of the peptides and making them more membrane permeable. The approach for identifying sites for N-methylation is a rapid alternative to the elucidation of 3D structures of peptide drug leads, which has been a commonly used structure-guided approach in the past. Five leucine-rich peptide scaffolds are reported with selectively designed N-methylated derivatives. In vitro membrane permeability was assessed by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Caco-2 assay. The most promising N-methylated peptide was then tested in vivo. Here we report a novel peptide (15), which displayed an oral bioavailability of 33% in a rat model, thus validating the design approach. We show that this approach can also be used to explain the notable increase in oral bioavailability of a somatostatin analog. PMID:25416591

  15. The behavior of the diffusion coefficients in salting of herring in a fixed brine at subzero temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of herring brine salting at subzero temperatures, taking into account the positive dynamics of its catching, its reserves, a favorable cooling effect on the suppression of microorganizms activity, improvement of product quality and increasing of storage time are indicated in this paper. Changes in such a significant characteristics as the diffusion coefficient in the process of salting at subzero temperatures were studied. Method of photon correlation spectroscopy, based on the Rayleigh scattering of radiation from the substance was used for the study. The experimental diffusion coefficient dependences on the depth of penetration of the salt in brine, skin and meat of herring at temperatures ranging from -16 ° C to -6 ° C were obtained. They are of wave-like nature. The dependence of the diffusion coefficients on subzero temperature ranging from -18 ° C to 0 ° C, and having a harmonic form was also obtained in the work. The resulting temperature gradient is a source of perturbations, giving rise to thermoconvective waves. According to the theoretical research of Academician A.V. Lykov and chemical processes occurring at the border (skin of phase separation using the basic equation of thermochemistry - Gibbs law, mechanism of thermoconvective waves influencing the diffusion coefficient is explained. A relation between the diffusion coefficients with the size of the diffusing particles, having hyperbolic character in the temperature range from -18 ° C to 0 ° C in the in brine, skin and meat of herring was determined . The possibility of acceleration of salting by means of mechanical impact on the object under study (in particular sound or ultrasound was expressed. The destruction of the diffusing particles, representing the union of Na+ and Cl- with water molecules, increases the diffusion coefficient.

  16. Temperature gradient measurements by using thermoelectric effect in CNTs-silicone adhesive composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Saeed Chani

    Full Text Available This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1∶1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results.

  17. High Piezoelectric Voltage Coefficient in Structured Lead-Free (K,Na,Li)NbO3 Particulate—Epoxy Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Deutz, D.B.; Bose, R.J.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, P.

    2016-01-01

    A high-voltage coefficient has been found in lead-free piezoelectric particulate composites based on epoxy with lead-free (K0.50Na0.50)0.94Li0.06NbO3 (KNLN) piezoceramic particles with a natural cubic morphology. The KNLN powder used in the composites has been prepared using a new solid-state double

  18. Hot embossing and thermal bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips using positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2011-11-01

    As a self-regulating heating device, positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater was employed for hot embossing and thermal bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip because it supplied constant-temperature heating without electrical control circuits. To emboss a channel plate, a piece of poly(methyl methacrylate) plate was sandwiched between a template and a microscopic glass slide on a positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater. All the assembled components were pressed between two elastic press heads of a spring-driven press while a voltage was applied to the heater for 10 min. Subsequently, the embossed poly(methyl methacrylate) plate bearing negative relief of channel networks was bonded with a piece of poly(methyl methacrylate) cover sheet to obtain a complete microchip using a positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater and a spring-driven press. High quality microfluidic chips fabricated by using the novel embossing/bonding device were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of three cations. Positive temperature coefficient ceramic heater indicates great promise for the low-cost production of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips and should find wide applications in the fabrication of other thermoplastic polymer microfluidic devices.

  19. Zero temperature coefficient of resistivity induced by photovoltaic effect in Y Ba2Cu3O6.96 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I-V characteristics of YBCO-Ag system under blue laser (λ = 450 nm illumination were studied from 100 to 300 K and obvious photovoltaic effects were observed. All the I-V curves in the temperature range intersect at a point in the first quadrant while the laser points to the cathode electrode, indicating a zero temperature coefficient of resistivity. This implies that the outputting voltage keeps constant in a broad temperature range when a critical bias current is assigned. The intersection points of different laser intensities fall in a straight line, the slope of which (Rc is independent of temperature and laser intensity.

  20. Composite material having controlled coefficient of thermal expansion with oxidic ceramics and procedure for the obtainment thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Torrecillas, Ramón; García Moreno, Olga; Fernández, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a composite material comprising a ceramic component, characterized in having a negative coefficient of thennal expansion, and oxidic ceramic particles, to the procedure for the obtainment thereof, and to the uses thereof in microelectronics, precision optics, aeronautics and aerospace.

  1. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah

    2015-07-08

    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  2. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alajmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE, Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE, and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE. The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR and coefficient of friction (COF of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs, as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  3. Non-linear dynamo waves in an incompressible medium when the turbulence dissipative coefficients depend on temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pataraya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.

  4. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  5. Bivariate functional data clustering: grouping streams based on a varying coefficient model of the stream water and air temperature relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Li; X. Deng; Andy Dolloff; E. P. Smith

    2015-01-01

    A novel clustering method for bivariate functional data is proposed to group streams based on their water–air temperature relationship. A distance measure is developed for bivariate curves by using a time-varying coefficient model and a weighting scheme. This distance is also adjusted by spatial correlation of streams via the variogram. Therefore, the proposed...

  6. Data-driven analysis of the temperature dependence of the heavy-quark transport coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingru; Cao, Shanshan; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-08-01

    By applying a Bayesian model-to-data comparison, our improved Langevin transport model simultaneously describes the D-meson nuclear modification factor RAA and elliptic flow v2 in heavy-ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies on an event-by-event basis. We extract the diffusion coefficients of charm quarks in a quark-gluon plasma medium and find the resulting spatial diffusion coefficient Ds is compatible with lattice QCD calculations.

  7. Temperature Effects on Hybrid Composite Plates Under Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SAYER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, impact responses of carbon-glass fiber/epoxy (hybrid composites were investigated under various temperatures and increasing impact energies. The increasing impact energies were applied to the specimens at various temperatures as -20, 0, 20 and 40 oC until perforation took place of specimens. Those specimens are composed by two types of fiber orientation with eight laminates hybrid composites. An Energy profiling diagram, used for showing the relationship between impact and absorbed energy, has been used to obtain penetration and perforation thresholds of hybrid composites. Beside those, temperature effects on impact characteristics such as maximum contact force (Fmax, total deflection (d and maximum contact duration (t were also presented in figures. Finally, glass and carbon fibers exhibited more brittle characteristics at -20 oC according to other temperatures. So, perforation threshold of each hybrid composites at -20 oC was found higher than other temperatures. Keywords : Hybrid composite

  8. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have le...

  9. Study of acetylene diluted in xenon by diode-laser spectroscopy: I. Temperature dependence of the broadening coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyne, Miguël; Joubert, Pierre; Populaire, Jean-Claude; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the Xe-broadening coefficients of 18 rovibrational lines in the ν4+ν5 band of C212H2 (near 1330 cm-1) determined at five temperatures, ranging from 173.2 K to 298.2 K. The measurement of these coefficients was realized with a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. A low temperature cell was coupled with the spectrometer in order to determine their temperature dependence. The line parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental profiles by the Voigt lineshape and the Rautian and the Galatry models, which take into account the collisional narrowing. The results were compared with previous experimental data reporting for other vibrational bands and agree with them. This indicates that they are insensitive to vibrational excitation.

  10. Temperature stable low loss PTFE/rutile composites using secondary polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-07-01

    Rutile filled PTFE composites have been fabricated through Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering and Hot pressing (SMECH) process. Dielectric constant (\\varepsilonr') and loss tangent (tan δ) of filled composites at microwave frequency region were measured by waveguide cavity perturbation technique using a Vector Network Analyzer. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (tau_{\\varepsilonr'}) was measured in the 0-100°C temperature range. In order to tailor the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant of the composite, thermoplastic Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) has been used as a secondary polymer. Flexible laminate having a dielectric constant, \\varepsilonr'˜10.4, loss tangent tan δ˜0.0045 and tau_{\\varepsilonr'}˜-40 ppm/K was realized in Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE)/rutile composites with the addition of 8 wt% PEEK. The reduction in tau_{\\varepsilonr'} is mainly attributed to the positive tau_{\\varepsilonr'} of PEEK and increased interface region in the composites as a result of the PEEK addition.

  11. High temperature metal matrix composites for future aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted on metal matrix composites and intermetallic matrix composites to understand their behavior under anticipated future operating conditions envisioned for aerospace power and propulsion systems of the 21st century. Extremes in environmental conditions, high temperature, long operating lives, and cyclic conditions dictate that the test evaluations not only include laboratory testing, but simulated flight conditions. The various processing techniques employed to fabricate composites are discussed along with the basic research underway to understand the behavior of high temperature composites, and the relationship of this research to future aerospace systems.

  12. Experience-based learning on determining the frictional coefficients of thermoset polymers incorporated with silicon carbide whiskers and chopped carbon fibers at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Edward; Alamir, Mohammed; Alzahrani, Naif; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-04-01

    High temperature applications of materials have been increasing for various industrial applications, such as automobile brakes, clutches and thrust pads. The big portion of these materials are made out of the polymeric materials with various reinforcements. In the present study, high temperature polymeric materials were incorporated with SiC whiskers and chopped carbon fibers at 0, 5, 10 and 20wt.% and molded into desired size and shape prior to the curing process. These inclusions were selected because of their high mechanical strengths and thermal conductivity values to easily dissipate the frictional heat energy and sustain more external loads. The method of testing involves a metal ramp with an adjustable incline to find the coefficients of static and kinetic frictions by recording time and the angle of movement at various temperatures (e.g., -10°C and 50°C). The test results indicated that increasing the inclusions made drastic improvements on the coefficients of static and kinetic frictions. The undergraduate students were involved in the project and observed all the details of the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This study will be useful for the future trainings of the undergraduate engineering students on the composite, automobile and other manufacturing industries.

  13. Iron Disilicide as High-Temperature Reference Material for Traceable Measurements of Seebeck Coefficient Between 300 K and 800 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide ( β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.

  14. Temperature and time dependence of the electro-mechanical properties of flexible active fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Atitallah, H.; Ounaies, Z.; Muliana, A.

    2016-04-01

    Active fiber composites (AFCs) are comprised of piezoelectric fibers embedded in a polymeric matrix. AFCs use interdigitated electrodes, which produce electric field lines parallel to the fiber direction, thus taking advantage of the larger d 33 piezoelectric coefficient. The polymer volume content of the AFCs is generally more than 50%; since polymers tend to have behaviors affected by their viscoelastic characteristics especially at elevated temperatures, it is necessary to understand the thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of AFCs at different loading rates. In this study, mechanical, electrical and electromechanical properties of AFCs were measured at different isothermal temperatures, namely 25 °C, 50 °C and 75 °C and at different loading rates. The measurements of all the properties of AFCs were done along the fiber direction. It was found that at higher temperatures, the modulus and tensile strength decreased for all strain rates and the strain at failure increased. The remnant polarization increased with decrease in frequency and increase in temperature; however, the coercive field decreased with temperature and was not affected by the frequency. Due to the viscoelastic behavior of the epoxy, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 increased at higher temperature and lower frequency. It was also noted that this coefficient is dependent on the magnitude of the electric field.

  15. Viscous-slip, thermal-slip, and temperature-jump coefficients as defined by the linearized Boltzmann equation and the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, C. E.

    2003-06-01

    A polynomial expansion procedure and an analytical discrete-ordinates method are used to evaluate the viscous-slip coefficient, the thermal-slip coefficient, and the temperature-jump coefficient as defined by a rigorous version of the linearized Boltzmann equation for rigid-sphere interactions and the Cercignani-Lampis boundary condition.

  16. Temperature and thermo-optic coefficient measurements using optical fibre long period gratings operating at phase matching turning point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korposh, S.; Wong, R.; James, S.; Tatam, R.

    2013-05-01

    The response of optical fibre long period gratings (LPGs), fabricated with precise control of the grating period to operate at or near the phase matching turning point (PMTP), to temperature was studied. The effect of the grating period on sensor performance was studied. The sensitivity of the LPG operating at the phase matching turning point to temperature was 0.99 nm/°C for 111.5 μm grating period that is ca. 7 times higher than that of an LPG operating far from turning point. The possibility of using LPG sensors to determine the thermo-optic coefficient of the surrounding material was explored.

  17. Positive temperature coefficient of photovoltaic efficiency in solar cells based on InGaN/GaN MQWs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoying; Zheng, Xiantong; Li, Zhilong; Wang, Ping; Rong, Xin; Wang, Tao; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Ge, Weikun [State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Bo; Wang, Xinqiang, E-mail: wangshi@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-08-08

    We report a 23.4% improvement of conversion efficiency in solar cells based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells by using a patterned sapphire substrate in the fabrication process. The efficiency enhancement is due to the improvement of the crystalline quality, as proven by the reduction of the threading dislocation density. More importantly, the better crystalline quality leads to a positive photovoltaic efficiency temperature coefficient up to 423 K, which shows the property and advantage of wide gap semiconductors like InGaN, signifying the potential of III-nitride based solar cells for high temperature and concentrating solar power applications.

  18. Describing Temperature-Dependent Self-Diffusion Coefficients and Fluidity of 1- and 3-Alcohols with the Compensated Arrhenius Formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Allison M; Forsythe, Grant E; Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2016-09-22

    The location of the hydroxyl group in monohydroxy alcohols greatly affects the temperature dependence of the liquid structure due to hydrogen bonding. Temperature-dependent self-diffusion coefficients, fluidity (the inverse of viscosity), dielectric constant, and density have been measured for several 1-alcohols and 3-alcohols with varying alkyl chain lengths. The data are modeled using the compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF). The CAF follows a modified transition state theory using an Arrhenius-like expression to describe the transport property, which consists of a Boltzmann factor containing an energy of activation, Ea, and an exponential prefactor containing the temperature-dependent solution dielectric constant, εs(T). Both 1- and 3-alcohols show the Ea of diffusion coefficients (approximately 43 kJ mol(-1)) is higher than the Ea of fluidity (approximately 35 kJ mol(-1)). The temperature dependence of the exponential prefactor in these associated liquids is explained using the dielectric constant and the Kirkwood-Frölich correlation factor, gk. It is argued that the dielectric constant must be used to account for the additional temperature dependence due to variations in the liquid structure (e.g., hydrogen bonding) for the CAF to accurately model the transport property.

  19. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes...

  20. Negative temperature coefficient of the action of DDT in a sense organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercken, J. van den; Akkermans, L.M.A.

    1972-01-01

    DDT induced repetitive spontaneuos activity inthe afferent nerve fibers of the lateral-line organ of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. The action of DDT increased markedly with lowered temperature. This temperature-effect was easily reversible. The results demonstrate that DDT has a definite negative

  1. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  2. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data......Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis...... require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal...

  3. Temperature dependent thermoelectric property of reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Mousumi, E-mail: mousumimitrabesu@gmail.com; Banerjee, Dipali, E-mail: dipalibanerjeebesu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Howrah-711103 (India); Kargupta, Kajari, E-mail: karguptakajari2010@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Ganguly, Saibal, E-mail: gangulysaibal2011@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2016-05-06

    A composite material of reduced graphene oxide (rG) nanosheets with polyaniline (PANI) protonated by 5-sulfosalicylic acid has been synthesized via in situ oxidative polymerization method. The morphological and spectral characterizations have been done using FESEM and XRD measurements. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of the reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite (rG-P) has been studied in the temperature range from 300-400 K. The electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of rG-P is higher than the of pure PANI, while the thermal conductivity of the composite still keeps much low value ensuing an increase in the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) in the whole temperature range.

  4. Temperature dependent thermoelectric property of reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Mousumi; Banerjee, Dipali; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal

    2016-05-01

    A composite material of reduced graphene oxide (rG) nanosheets with polyaniline (PANI) protonated by 5-sulfosalicylic acid has been synthesized via in situ oxidative polymerization method. The morphological and spectral characterizations have been done using FESEM and XRD measurements. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of the reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite (rG-P) has been studied in the temperature range from 300-400 K. The electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of rG-P is higher than the of pure PANI, while the thermal conductivity of the composite still keeps much low value ensuing an increase in the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) in the whole temperature range.

  5. Temperature effects on polymer-carbon composite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. R.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A.; Lara, L.; Jewell, A. D.; Shevade, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    At JPL we have investigated the effects of temperature on polymer-carbon black composite sensors. While the electrical properties of polymer composites have been studied, with mechanisms of conductivity described by connectivity and tunneling, it is not fully understood how these properties affect sensor characteristics and responses.

  6. Temperature induced changes in the heterocyst glycolipid composition of N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauersachs, T.; Stal, L.J.; Grego, M.; Schwark, L.; Schwark, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the heterocyst glycolipid (HG) composition of the diazotrophic heterocystous cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. strain CCY9613 and Nostoc sp. strain CCY9926 grown at 9, 12, 16, 20 and 24 degrees C. Both strains contained an overall similar composition of

  7. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  8. Estimation of Water Diffusion Coefficient into Polycarbonate at Different Temperatures Using Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many electronic systems are exposed to harsh conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Masstransport properties of electronic packaging materials are needed in order to investigate the influence of moisture andtemperature on reliability of electronic devices. Polycarbonate (PC...

  9. Effect of Two Temperatures on Reflection Coefficient in Micropolar Thermoelastic with and without Energy Dissipation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflection of plane waves at the free surface of thermally conducting micropolar elastic medium with two temperatures is studied. The theory of thermoelasticity with and without energy dissipation is used to investigate the problem. The expressions for amplitudes ratios of reflected waves at different angles of incident wave are obtained. Dissipation of energy and two-temperature effects on these amplitude ratios with angle of incidence are depicted graphically. Some special and particular cases are also deduced.

  10. The simultaneous retrieval of surface evaporative fraction and heat transfer coefficients using variational data assimilation and surface radiometric temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Kustas, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in land data assimilation have yielded data assimilation techniques designed to solve the surface energy balance based on remote observations of surface radiometric temperature and a simple prognostic equation for surface temperature. These approaches have a number of potential advantages over existing diagnostic models, including the ability to make energy flux predictions between satellite overpass times, more physically realistic representations of ground heat flux, and reduced requirements for ancillary parameter estimation. Of particular interest is the variational approach presented by Caparrini et al. (Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2003) which uses a force-restore equation for surface temperature as a constraint for the simultaneous estimation of both evaporative fraction and bulk heat transfer coefficients from sequences of surface radiometric temperature observations. Using eddy correlation flux tower data and analogous energy balance results obtained from the diagnostic Two-Source Model (TSM), this presentation will examine the performance of the Caparrini et al. algorithm over a range of vegetative and hydrologic conditions in the southern United States. Results identify circumstances under which the simultaneous - and unambiguous - retrieval of both surface evaporation fraction and heat transfer coefficients is possible and clarify parameter interpretation issues associated with the single-source geometry of the variational approach. Inter-comparison with the TSM model illustrates circumstances under which the increased parameter complexity of the TSM model is justified by its more accurate two-source representation of thermal emission from partial vegetation canopies. Potential improvements to current variational data assimilation techniques will also be discussed.

  11. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to ...

  12. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  13. The protein amide ¹H(N) chemical shift temperature coefficient reflects thermal expansion of the N-H···O=C hydrogen bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingbo; Jing, Qingqing; Yao, Lishan

    2013-01-01

    The protein amide (1)H(N) chemical shift temperature coefficient can be determined with high accuracy by recording spectra at different temperatures, but the physical mechanism responsible for this temperature dependence is not well understood. In this work, we find that this coefficient strongly correlates with the temperature coefficient of the through-hydrogen-bond coupling, (3h)J(NC'), based on NMR measurements of protein GB3. Parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulation suggests that the hydrogen bond distance variation at different temperatures/replicas is largely responsible for the (1)H(N) chemical shift temperature dependence, from which an empirical equation is proposed to predict the hydrogen bond thermal expansion coefficient, revealing responses of individual hydrogen bonds to temperature changes. Different expansion patterns have been observed for various networks formed by β strands.

  14. Note: Second osmotic virial coefficients of short alkanes and their alcohol counterparts in water as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Du; Delpo, Courtney; Blackmon, Odella; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2018-01-07

    While molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions are readily evaluable from molecular simulations, it is challenging to compare these predictions against experiment as a result of the sparing solubility of purely non-polar species. Recent theoretical and simulation advances have enabled the determination of second osmotic virial coefficients for solutes in aqueous solution, providing an alternate route for experimental validation. Here we report simulation predictions for the second osmotic virial coefficients for methane and ethane as well as those for their alcohol counterparts, methanol and ethanol, in water over a broad temperature range. The results for the alcohols quantitatively agree with available experimental results, providing support for simulation predictions for molecular-scale hydrophobic interactions.

  15. Temperature and hydroxyl concentration dependences of diffusion coefficients of hydroxyl groups in vitreous silica at temperatures of 850–1200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuu, Nobu; Sato, Naoya; Arakawa, Yu; Horikoshi, Hideharu; Horii, Naohiro

    2017-11-01

    The hydroxyl concentration and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients of hydroxyl groups in vitreous silica were investigated by analyzing the change in the hydroxyl concentration distribution caused by heat treatment around the binding interface between silica glass plates with different hydroxyl concentrations. We confirmed experimentally that the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the hydroxyl concentration, which had been predicted theoretically, and obtained the empirical formula D(c OH) = [(4.9 ± 1.0) × 10‑14 m2/s·wt ppm] × exp[‑(8.1 ± 0.3) × 103 K/T] c OH with the hydroxyl concentration c OH and the absolute temperature T, which is valid at least in the temperature range of 850–1200 °C. Using the values calculated using this formula, we can reproduce the hydroxyl concentration profile after diffusion from a silica glass surface induced by heating in a water vapor atmosphere in the literature, which supports the validity of the empirical formula obtained in this study. The relationship between the effective diffusion coefficient in the literature and our result is discussed.

  16. Temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficient and Henry's law constant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    The water solubility of 9,10-dihydroanthracene was experimentally determined between 278.12 and 313.17 K. Determinations were carried out by an experimental procedure developed in our laboratory, which is a modification of the dynamic coupled column liquid chromatographic technique. The uncertainty of the experimental determinations ranged from +/- 0.50% to +/- 3.10%. These data, as well as the water solubility data of other five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) previously studied, were used to calculate the temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficient of 9,10-dihydroanthracene, anthracene, pyrene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene in water. Molar excess enthalpies and entropies at infinite dilution, at 298.15 K, were also derived. The temperature dependence of the infinite dilution activity coefficients was used, together with literature values of the vapor pressures of supercooled liquid PAHs (p(B)(sc)), to estimate their Henry's law constants (HLC). Only HLC for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene were calculated, since no p(B)(sc) data were available in the literature for 9,10-dihydroanthracene, m-terphenyl, and guaiazulene. From the observed temperature dependence of the Henry's law constants the enthalpy and entropy of the phase change from the dissolved phase to the gas phase were also derived for anthracene, pyrene, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene.

  17. Iridescent cellulose nanocrystal/polyethylene oxide composite films with low coefficient of thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Julia L. Braun; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous control over optical and thermal properties is particularly challenging and highly desired in fields like organic electronics. Here we incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into polyethylene oxide (PEO) in an attempt to preserve the iridescent CNC optical reflection given by their chiral nematic organisation, while reducing the composite thermal...

  18. Estimation of Pressure Index and Temperature Sensitivity Coefficient of Solid Rocket Propellants by Static Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Shekhar

    2009-01-01

    Burning rate of a solid rocket propellant depends on pressure and temperature. Conventional strand burner and Crawford bomb test on propellant strands was conducted to assess these dependent parameters. However, behaviour of propellant in rocket motor is different from its behaviour in strand form. To overcome this anomaly, data from static evaluation of rocket motor was directly used for assessment of these burningrate controlling parameters. The conventional empirical power law (r=aoexp[p{T...

  19. Heat transfer analysis of a fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirgolbabaee

    2015-02-01

    Results are presented for the dimensionless temperature distribution and fin efficiency for different values of the problem parameters which for the purpose of comparison, obtained equation were calculated with mentioned methods. It was found the proposed solution is very accurate, efficient, and convenient for the discussed problem, furthermore convergence problems for solving nonlinear equations by using AGM appear small so the results demonstrate that the AGM could be applied through other methods in nonlinear problems with high nonlinearity.

  20. Temperature-related changes in respiration and Q10 coefficient of Guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron Ilana Urbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a tropical fruit that presents fast post-harvest ripening; therefore it is a very perishable product. Inappropriate storage temperature and retail practices can accelerate fruit quality loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory activity (RA, the ethylene production (EP and Q10 of guava fruit at different storage temperatures. 'Paluma' guava fruits were harvested at maturity stage 1 (dark-green skin and stored at either 1, 11, 21, 31 or 41ºC; RA and EP were determined after 12, 36, 84 and 156 h of storage. RA and EP rates at 1 and 11ºC were the lowest - 0.16 and 0.43 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.003 and 0.019 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively. When guavas were stored at 21ºC, a gradual increase occurred in RA and EP, reaching 2.24 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.20 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, after 156 h of storage. The highest RA and EP were recorded for guavas stored at 31ºC. In spite of high RA, guavas stored at 41ºC presented EP similar to guavas stored at 11ºC, an indicator of heat-stress injury. Considering the 1-11ºC range, the mean Q10 value was around 3.0; the Q10 value almost duplicated at 11-21ºC range (5.9. At 21-31ºC and 31-41ºC, Q10 was 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. Knowing Q10, respiratory variation and ripening behavior in response to different temperatures, fruit storage and retail conditions can be optimized to reduce quality losses.

  1. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luscino Alves de Castro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8×2 mm were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI. Three temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 60°C and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1; B: 7 days after storage (M2; C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3. The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%. Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p0.05. The 60°C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10°C temperature (p0.05. Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05, but was higher at 10°C than at 60°C for all curing times (p0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and curing times.

  2. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of variable heat transfer coefficient on tissue temperature next to a large vessel during radiofrequency tumor ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Cleber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.

  4. Demonstration of capabilities of high temperature composites analyzer code HITCAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Lackney, Joseph J.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities a high temperature composites analyzer code, HITCAN which predicts global structural and local stress-strain response of multilayered metal matrix composite structures, are demonstrated. The response can be determined both at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) and the structure level and includes the fabrication process effects. The thermo-mechanical properties of the constituents are considered to be nonlinearly dependent on several parameters including temperature, stress, and stress rate. The computational procedure employs an incremental iterative nonlinear approach utilizing a multifactor-interactive constituent material behavior model. Various features of the code are demonstrated through example problems for typical structures.

  5. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Volume 3. Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-02

    funcions of 00. For an incrase in temperature and stress denoted by A6, and so, we can now write do, - BAz; 6) do + b.(x; 9,) Ae, (5.1) with b,(x 9...Plasticity Theory of Fibrous Composite Materials," Metal Matriz Composites: Testig, Ana44iis, an Faiure Modes, ASTM STP 1032, W.S. Johnson, ed., American...diagraams of matriz material at various temperatures. 420 Table 1. Elastic Properties for Boron and Graphite Fibers Properties B Gr (****) E13 (MPa

  6. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  7. The impact of fuel temperature reactivity coefficient on loss of reactivity control accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Ryu, E. H.; Song, Y. M.; Jung, J. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear reactors experience small power fluctuations or anticipated operational transients during even normal power operation. During normal operation, the reactivity is mainly controlled by liquid zone controllers, adjuster rods, mechanical control absorbers, and moderator poison. Even when the reactor power is increased abruptly and largely from an accident and when reactor control systems cannot be actuated quickly due to a fast transient, the reactor should be controlled and stabilized by its inherent safety parameter, such as a negative PCR (Power Coefficient of Reactivity) feedback. A PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor), it is well designed for the reactor to have a negative PCR so that the reactor can be safely shut down or stabilized whenever an abrupt reactivity insertion into the reactor core occurs or the reactor power is abruptly increased. However, it is known that a CANDU reactor has a small amount of PCR, as either negative or positive, because of the different design basis and safety concepts from a PWR. CNSC's regulatory and safety regime has stated that; The PCR of CANDU reactors does not pose a significant risk. Consistent with Canadian nuclear safety requirements, nuclear power plants must have an appropriate combination of inherent and engineered safety features incorporated into the design of the reactor safety and control systems. A reactor design that has a PCR is quite acceptable provided that the reactor is stable against power fluctuations, and that the probability and consequences of any potential accidents that would be aggravated by a positive reactivity feedback are maintained within CNSCprescribed limits. Recently, it was issued licensing the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 in Korea to be operated continuously after its design lifetime in which the calculated PCR was shown to have a small positive value by applying the recent physics code systems, which are composed of WIMS IST, DRAGON IST, and RFSP IST. These code systems were

  8. The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

    2008-05-01

    The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

  9. Modelling hand skin temperature in relation to body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Katarina; Li, Rongling; Kingma, Boris; Zeiler, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Skin temperature is a challenging parameter to predict due to the complex interaction of physical and physiological variations. Previous studies concerning the correlation of regional physiological characteristics and body composition showed that obese people have higher hand skin temperature compared to the normal weight people. To predict hand skin temperature in a different environment, a two-node hand thermophysiological model was developed and validated with published experimental data. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed which showed that the variations in skin blood flow and blood temperature are most influential on hand skin temperature. The hand model was applied to simulate the hand skin temperature of the obese and normal weight subgroup in different ambient conditions. Higher skin blood flow and blood temperature were used in the simulation of obese people. The results showed a good agreement with experimental data from the literature, with the maximum difference of 0.31°C. If the difference between blood flow and blood temperature of obese and normal weight people was not taken into account, the hand skin temperature of obese people was predicted with an average deviation of 1.42°C. In conclusion, when modelling hand skin temperatures, it should be considered that regional skin temperature distribution differs in obese and normal weight people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature Dependence of the Resistivity and Seebeck Coefficient of Individual Single-Crystal Bismuth Nanowires of 345-nm and 594-nm Diameters Encased in a Quartz Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mioko; Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Temperature dependence measurements of resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient were performed using individual bismuth nanowires of 345-nm and 594-nm diameters encased in a quartz template. Each nanowire was confirmed as a single crystal by Laue measurement, and an advanced mean free path model was utilized to explain both temperature dependencies. The model successfully explains the dependence over 100 K, which occurs because the carrier mobility is restricted by boundary scattering at the nanowire surface considering the crystal orientation along the wire length direction, band structure, and isotropic Fermi surface. However, it is difficult to determine the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the low-temperature region, in which a much higher temperature coefficient is indicated, especially at temperatures lower than 50 K. Although we calculated the temperature dependence of the resistivity with the influence of p-type contamination in the nanowire because a positive Seebeck coefficient at low temperatures was observed, an explanation of the resistivity in the low-temperature region has not been developed. Therefore, a hypothesis was introduced in which the hole mobility was not restricted in the nanowire, and the hole mobility was estimated by the mobility ratio from the Seebeck coefficient, the measured resistivity, and the electron mobility using the model. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the resistivity can be explained over the entire temperature region. This result suggests that the scattering mechanism between holes and electrons in the nanowire differs and depends on the crystal orientation in the low-temperature region.

  11. Low-temperature MIR to submillimeter mass absorption coefficient of interstellar dust analogues. II. Mg and Fe-rich amorphous silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of

  12. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published “new” WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a “gold standard” for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  13. Glass Fiber Resin Composites and Components at Arctic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GLASS FIBER RESIN ...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GLASS FIBER RESIN COMPOSITES AND COMPONENTS AT ARCTIC TEMPERATURES 5...dependent on the reaction between the fiber and the resin , but little research has been conducted that was geared toward naval applications at arctic

  14. High-Temperature, Self-Lubricating Ceramic/Metal Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Edwards, Philip

    1994-01-01

    Four documents provide detailed information on ceramic/metal composite materials that are self-lubricating at temperatures as high as 900 degrees C. Materials used in bearings and seals for turbomachines, new energy-efficient automotive engines, power generators, pumps, and furnaces.

  15. Impact of the thermal scattering law of H in H2O on the isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX fuel lattices in cold operating conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scotta, Juan Pablo; Noguere, Gilles; Bernard, David; Damian, Jose Ignacio Marquez; Santamarina, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the thermal scattering law of hydrogen in light water to isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX lattices was studied in the frame of the MISTRAL critical...

  16. Temperature Effects on the Friction and Wear Behaviors of SiCp/A356 Composite against Semimetallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low density and high temperature resistance, the SiCp/A356 composites have great potential for weight reduction and braking performance using the brake disc used in trains and automobiles. But the friction coefficient and braking performance are not stable in the braking process because of temperature rising. In this paper, friction and wear behaviors of SiCp/A356 composite against semimetallic materials were investigated in a ring-on-disc configuration in the temperature range of 30°C to 300°C. Experiments were conducted at a constant sliding speed of 1.4 m/s and an applied load of 200 N. Worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris were also examined by using SEM and EDS techniques. The third body films (TBFs lubricated wear transferred to the third body abrasive wear above 200°C, which was a transition temperature. The friction coefficient decreased and weight of semimetallic materials increased with the increase of temperature and the temperature had almost no effect on the weight loss of composites. The dominant wear mechanism of the composites was microploughing and slight adhesion below 200°C, while being controlled by cutting grooves, severe adhesion, and delamination above the 200°C.

  17. Tribological properties of PM212: A high-temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  18. Tribological properties of PM212 - A high temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  19. Search for room temperature high-TCR manganite/silver composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Rahul [National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)], E-mail: awana@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Kishan, H. [National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Bhalla, G.L. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2008-05-15

    We have synthesized La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LBMO):wt%Ag{sub x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO):wt%Ag{sub x} composites with x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 at different sintering temperatures of 1300 and 1400 {sup o}C by solid-state reaction route. In our previous work [Awana et al. Solid State Commun. 140 (2006) 410] on La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO):Ag{sub x} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) composites, we reported about 12% temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for Ag{sub 0.4} samples near metal-insulator (MI) transition, which was explained on the basis of better grains connectivity. A sharp MI transition results in high TCR. Such high-TCR material can be used as a bolometer or infrared detector at room temperature. In the present work, it is shown that the TCR is improved with Ag addition for both LBMO:wt%Ag{sub x} and LSMO:wt%Ag{sub x} composites. In addition to improvement in TCR, high MR is also achieved in the vicinity of room temperature.

  20. Electron transport in mercury vapor: cross sections, pressure and temperature dependence of transport coefficients and NDC effects★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirić, Jasmina; Simonović, Ilija; Petrović, Zoran Lj.; White, Ronald D.; Dujko, Saša

    2017-11-01

    In this work we propose a complete and consistent set of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor. The set is validated through a series of comparisons between swarm data calculated using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulations, and the available experimental data. Other sets of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury vapor were also used as input in our numerical codes with the aim of testing their completeness, consistency and accuracy. The calculated swarm parameters are compared with measurements in order to assess the quality of the cross sections in providing data for plasma modeling. In particular, we discuss the dependence of transport coefficients on the pressure and temperature of mercury vapor, and the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the limit of lower values of E/N. We have shown that the phenomenon of NDC is induced by the presence of mercury dimers and that can be controlled by varying either pressure or temperature of mercury vapor. The effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers is estimated for a range of pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the measured and calculated drift velocities agree very well only if the effective inelastic cross section for mercury dimers and thermal motion of mercury atoms are carefully considered and implemented in numerical calculations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  1. Influence of the temperature on the composites' fusion bonding quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkous, Ali; Jurkowski, Tomasz; Bailleul, Jean-Luc; Le Corre, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Thermoplastic composite parts are increasingly used to replace metal pieces in automotive field due to their mechanical properties, chemical properties and recycling potential [1]. To assemble and give them new mechanical functions, fusion bonding is often used. It is a type of welding carried out at a higher temperature than the fusion one [2]. The mechanical quality of the final adhesion depends on the process parameters like pressure, temperature and cycle time [3]. These parameters depend on two phenomena at the origin of the bonding formation: intimate contact [4] and reptation and healing [5]. In this study, we analyze the influence of the temperature on the bonding quality, disregarding in this first steps the pressure influence. For that, two polyamide composite parts are welded using a specific setup. Then, they undergo a mechanical test of peeling in order to quantify the adhesion quality.

  2. Identification and classification of failure modes in laminated composites by using a multivariate statistical analysis of wavelet coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccar, D.; Söffker, D.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable method to monitor the health of composite structures in real-time. However, AE-based failure mode identification and classification are still complex to apply due to the fact that AE waves are generally released simultaneously from all AE-emitting damage sources. Hence, the use of advanced signal processing techniques in combination with pattern recognition approaches is required. In this paper, AE signals generated from laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) subjected to indentation test are examined and analyzed. A new pattern recognition approach involving a number of processing steps able to be implemented in real-time is developed. Unlike common classification approaches, here only CWT coefficients are extracted as relevant features. Firstly, Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) is applied to the AE signals. Furthermore, dimensionality reduction process using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is carried out on the coefficient matrices. The PCA-based feature distribution is analyzed using Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) allowing the determination of a specific pattern for each fault-specific AE signal. Moreover, waveform and frequency content of AE signals are in depth examined and compared with fundamental assumptions reported in this field. A correlation between the identified patterns and failure modes is achieved. The introduced method improves the damage classification and can be used as a non-destructive evaluation tool.

  3. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Development of a non-intrusive method for the determination of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C

    2000-07-01

    The Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity (MTC) plays an important role in the feedback mechanism and thus in the inherent stability of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). Due to the inaccuracy of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques, many power utilities nowadays only measure the zero-power MTC since its determination is relatively straightforward and accurate. For the at-power MTC determination during the remaining fuel cycle, core calculations are assumed to be reliable enough. Nevertheless, these calculations were never benchmarked and most importantly, the use of high burnup fuel might induce a slightly positive MTC at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) due to the high initial boron concentration. Even if in such a case the Doppler effect would still insure a negative reactivity feedback, monitoring the MTC throughout the cycle could become crucial. In this respect, not only the sign of the MTC is of importance, but also its magnitude. Consequently, developing a method that would permit monitoring the MTC during the fuel cycle is of great interest. One of the main disadvantages of the traditional at-power MTC measurement techniques is that the reactor has to be perturbed in order to induce a change of the moderator temperature. The modification of other parameters that can only be estimated by core calculation represents also a severe drawback of these methods, both for their precision and their reliability. A measurement performed at Ringhals-4 by using the so-called boron dilution method revealed that the uncertainty associated to the MTC estimation could even be much larger than previously expected due to the calculated reactivity corrections. These corrections are very sensitive to the input parameters chosen for the core simulation, and slight mis-estimations of these have large reactivity effects. It is known that if the reactivity noise and the moderator temperature noise could be measured, the MTC could be determined without disturbing

  5. High Temperature Lightweight Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2014-01-01

    The present research effort was undertaken to develop a new generation of SiC fiber- reinforced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) with sufficient high temperature plasticity to reduce crack propagation and self-healing capabilities to fill surface-connected cracks to prevent the oxygen ingress to the fibers. A matrix engineered with these capabilities is expected to increase the load bearing capabilities of SiCSiC CMCs at high temperatures. Several matrix compositions were designed to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the SiC fibers using a rule of mixture (ROM) approach. The CTE values of these matrices were determined and it was demonstrated that they were generally in good agreement with that of monolithic SiC between room temperature and 1525 K. The parameters to hot press the powders were optimized, and specimens were fabricated for determining bend strength, CTE, oxidation and microstructural characteristics of the engineered matrices. The oxidation tests revealed that some of the matrices exhibited catastrophic oxidation, and therefore, these were eliminated from further consideration. Two promising compositions were down selected based on these results for further development. Four-point bend tests were conducted on these two promising matrices between room temperature and 1698 K. Although theses matrices were brittle and failed at low stresses at room temperature, they exhibited high temperature ductility and higher stresses at the higher temperatures. The effects of different additives on the self-healing capabilities of these matrices were investigated. The results of preliminary studies conducted to slurry and melt infiltration trials with CrSi2 are described.

  6. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k- ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  7. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  8. Microstructure and temperature coefficient of resistance of thin cermet resistor films deposited from CrSi{sub 2}-Cr-SiC targets by S-gun magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmetsger, Valery V. [Tegal Corporation, 51 Daggett Drive, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Technological solutions for producing nanoscale cermet resistor films with sheet resistances above 1000 {Omega}/{open_square} and low temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) have been investigated. 2-40 nm thick cermet films were sputter deposited from CrSi{sub 2}-Cr-SiC targets by a dual cathode dc S-gun magnetron. In addition to studying film resistance versus temperature, the nanofilm structural features and composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. This study has revealed that all cermet resistor films deposited at ambient and elevated temperatures were amorphous. The atomic ratio of Si to Cr in these films was about 2 to 1. The film TCR displayed a significant increase when the deposited film thickness was reduced below 2.5 nm. An optimized sputter process consisting of wafer degassing, cermet film deposition at elevated temperature with rf substrate bias, and a double annealing in vacuum, consisting of in situ annealing following the film sputtering and an additional annealing following the exposure of the wafers to air, has been found to be very effective for the film thermal stabilization and for fine tuning the film TCR. Cermet films with thicknesses in the range of 2.5-4 nm deposited using this technique had sheet resistances ranging from 1800 to 1200 {Omega}/{open_square} and TCR values from -50 ppm/ deg. C to near zero, respectively. A possible mechanism responsible for the high efficiency of annealing the cermet films in vacuum (after preliminary exposure to air), resulting in resistance stabilization and TCR reduction, is also discussed.

  9. Carbon Black - Polyethylene Composites for PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Thermistor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Different grades of carbon black are distinguished 4 mainly by their surface area, structure, and surface chemistry . High surface area, high porosity...I -to remove polUmer skin Diphasikc Trjhaslc RADIATE -20 megeRed exposureELTRD I IEELECTROD EL ECT RODE MEASUREMENTS] Figure 2.1.1 Outline of Sample

  10. Computational analysis of frp composite under different temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, P.; Manigandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Composite material strength depends on the stiffness of fiber and the resin which is used for reinforcement. The strength of the laminate can be increased by applying good manufacturing practices. The strength is directly depending on the property of resin. The property of the any compound subjected to changed when they exposed to the temperature. This paper investigates the strength of laminate when they subjected to different temperature gradient of resin while manufacturing. The resin is preheated before adding hardener with them. These types of laminate reinforced with resin at different levels of temperature 20c, 40c, and 60c. These different temperature resin are used for reinforcement and the specimen tested. The comparative results are made to find how the stiffness of laminate changes with respect to the thermal property of resin. The results are helpful to obtain high strength laminate.

  11. Buckling and postbuckling of composite panels with cutouts subjected to combined edge shear and temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Yong H.

    1995-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the buckling and postbuckling responses of composite panels with central circular cutouts are presented. The panels are subjected to combined edge shear and temperature change. The panels are discretized by using a two-field degenerate solid element with each of the displacement components having a linear variation throughout the thickness of the panel. The fundamental unknowns consist of the average mechanical strains through the thickness and the displacement components. The effects of geometric nonlinearities and laminated anisotropic material behavior are included. The stability boundary, postbuckling response and the hierarchical sensitivity coefficients are evaluated. The hierarchical sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the buckling and postbuckling responses to variations in the panel stiffnesses, and the material properties of both the individual layers and the constituents (fibers and matrix). Numerical results are presented for composite panels with central circular cutouts subjected to combined edge shear and temperature change, showing the effects of variations in the hole diameter, laminate stacking sequence and fiber orientation, on the stability boundary and postbuckling response and their sensitivity to changes in the various panel parameters.

  12. Room temperature synthesis of high temperature stable lanthanum phosphate–yttria nano composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Raj, Athira N.; Jyothi, C.K. [Material Sciences and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Warrier, K.G.K., E-mail: wwarrierkgk@yahoo.co.in [Material Sciences and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile aqueous sol–gel route involving precipitation–peptization mechanism followed by electrostatic stabilization is used for synthesizing nanocrystalline composite containing lanthanum phosphate and yttria. Highlights: ► A novel lanthanum phosphate–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano composite is synthesized for the first time using a modified facile sol gel process. ► The composite becomes crystalline at 600 °C and X-ray diffraction pattern is indexed for monoclinic LaPO{sub 4} and cubic yttria. ► The composite synthesized was tested up to 1300 °C and no reaction between the phases of the constituents is observed with the morphologies of the phases being retained. -- Abstract: A facile aqueous sol–gel route involving precipitation–peptization mechanism followed by electrostatic stabilization is used for synthesizing nanocrystalline composite containing lanthanum phosphate and yttria. Lanthanum phosphate (80 wt%)–yttria (20 wt%) nano composite (LaPO{sub 4}–20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), has an average particle size of ∼70 nm after heat treatment of precursor at 600 °C. TG–DTA analysis reveals that stable phase of the composite is formed on heating the precursor at 600 °C. The TEM images of the composite show rod shape morphology of LaPO{sub 4} in which yttria is acquiring near spherical shape. Phase identification of the composite as well as the phase stability up to 1300 °C was carried out using X-ray diffraction technique. With the phases being stable at higher temperatures, the composite synthesized should be a potential material for high temperature applications like thermal barrier coatings and metal melting applications.

  13. Relationships between Conversion, Temperature and Optical Properties during Composite Photopolymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas D.; Sheldon M. Newman; Pfeifer, Carmem S.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Optical properties of composite restoratives, both cured and uncured, are of obvious importance in a procedure reliant on photoactivation, since they may affect light transmission and therefore, materials conversion upon which mechanical properties and ultimate clinical performance are dependent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate simultaneous, real-time conversion, temperature and optical properties development. The dimethacrylate resin (BisGMA / TEGDMA 70/30 mass %) was prep...

  14. High Temperature Permeability of Carbon Cloth Phenolic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O. Y.; Lawrence, T. W.

    2003-01-01

    The carbon fiber phenolic resin composite material used for the RSRM nozzle insulator occasionally experiences problems during operation from pocketing or spalling-like erosion and lifting of plies into the char layer. This phenomenon can be better understood if the permeability of the material at elevated temperatures is well defined. This paper describes an experimental approach to determining high temperature permeability of the carbon phenolic material used as the RSRM nozzle liner material. Two different approaches were conducted independently using disk and bar type specimens with the designed permeability apparatus. The principle of the apparatus was to subject a test specimen to a high pressure differential and a heat supply and to monitor both the pressure and temperature variations resulting from gas penetration through the permeable wall between the two chambers. The bar types, especially designed to eliminate sealing difficulties at a high temperature environment, were directly exposed to real time temperature elevation from 22 C to 260 C during the test period. The disk types were pre-heat treated up to 300 C for 8 hours and cooled to room temperature before testing. Nonlinear variation of downstream pressure at a certain temperature range implied moisture release and matrix pyrolysis. Permeability was calculated using a semi-numerical model of quasi-steady state. The test results and the numerical model are discussed in the paper.

  15. High temperature deformation behaviour of particulate reinforced aluminium composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk Chon; Yoon, Eui Pak [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    The hot deformation behaviour of particulate reinforced aluminium 6061 Al composite were investigated by hot compression tests in the temperature range from 623 K to 823 K with strain rate of 10{sup -3} {approx} 5.0 S{sup -1}. The effect of reinforced particulate volume fraction, mean diameter on the high temperature flow stress has also been studied. Experimental results showed that the increase in the volume fraction of reinforcement contributed to the rising of yield stress, but the stress above the yield point appeared to be steady at all volume fractions. The apparent activation energy for deformation was 290 kJ/mol for un reinforced 6061 Al, 327 kJ/mol for 6061 Al-20 vol.% SiC composite and 531 kJ/mol for 6061 Al-20 vol.% Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} composite. It appeared that Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} reinforced composites was more difficult to hot deform. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs., 3 tab.

  16. Robust high temperature composite and CO sensor made from such composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Li, Xiaogan; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2010-04-13

    Described herein is a composite exhibiting a change in electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of a reducing gas present in a gas mixture, detector and sensor devices comprising the composite, a method for making the composite and for making devices comprising the composite, and a process for detecting and measuring a reducing gas in an atmosphere. In particular, the reducing gas may be carbon monoxide and the composite may comprise rutile-phase TiO2 particles and platinum nanoclusters. The composite, upon exposure to a gas mixture containing CO in concentrations of up to 10,000 ppm, exhibits an electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of the CO present. The composite is useful for making sensitive, low drift, fast recovering detectors and sensors, and for measuring CO concentrations in a gas mixture present at levels from sub-ppm up to 10,000 ppm. The composites, and devices made from the composites, are stable and operable in a temperature range of from about 450.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C., such as may be found in a combustion chamber.

  17. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with the atmospheric biogenics isoprene, alpha-pinene and delta-3-carene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Terry J.; Dulitz, Katrin; Groß, Christoph B. M.; Crowley, John N.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsed laser methods for OH generation and detection were used to study atmospheric degradation reactions for three important biogenic gases: OH + isoprene (Reaction R1), OH +α-pinene (Reaction R2) and OH + Δ-3-carene (Reaction R3). Gas-phase rate coefficients were characterized by non-Arrhenius kinetics for all three reactions. For (R1), k1 (241-356 K) = (1.93±0.08) × 10-11exp{(466±12)/T} cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was determined, with a room temperature value of k1 (297 K) = (9.3±0.4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of bath-gas pressure (5-200 Torr) and composition (M = N2 or air). Accuracy and precision were enhanced by online optical monitoring of isoprene, with absolute concentrations obtained via an absorption cross section, σisoprene = (1.28±0.06) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at λ = 184.95 nm, determined in this work. These results indicate that significant discrepancies between previous absolute and relative-rate determinations of k1 result in part from σ values used to derive the isoprene concentration in high-precision absolute determinations.Similar methods were used to determine rate coefficients (in 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for (R2)-(R3): k2 (238-357 K) = (1.83±0.04) × exp{(330±6)/T} and k3 (235-357 K) = (2.48±0.14) × exp{(357±17)/T}. This is the first temperature-dependent dataset for (R3) and enables the calculation of reliable atmospheric lifetimes with respect to OH removal for e.g. boreal forest springtime conditions. Room temperature values of k2 (296 K) = (5.4±0.2) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k3 (297 K) = (8.1±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were independent of bath-gas pressure (7-200 Torr, N2 or air) and in good agreement with previously reported values. In the course of this work, 184.95 nm absorption cross sections were determined: σ = (1.54±0.08) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for α-pinene and (2.40±0.12) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for Δ-3-carene.

  18. Effect of fluctuations of the linear feedback coefficient on the frequency spectrum of averaged temperature in a simple energy balance climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Using the stochastic approach, we analyze the effect of fluctuations of the linear feedback coefficient in a simple zero-dimensional energy balance climate model on the frequency spectrum of averaged temperature. An expression is obtained for the model spectrum in the weak noise approximation. Its features are investigated in two cases: when the frequency spectrum of the feedback coefficient is a constant (white noise) and when the spectrum contains one resonant frequency and has a Lorentz form. We consider the issue whether the feedback coefficient fluctuations can be an independent mechanism for a qualitative change in the spectrum of the climate system.

  19. Concurrent Probabilistic Simulation of High Temperature Composite Structural Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Frank

    1996-01-01

    A computational structural/material analysis and design tool which would meet industry's future demand for expedience and reduced cost is presented. This unique software 'GENOA' is dedicated to parallel and high speed analysis to perform probabilistic evaluation of high temperature composite response of aerospace systems. The development is based on detailed integration and modification of diverse fields of specialized analysis techniques and mathematical models to combine their latest innovative capabilities into a commercially viable software package. The technique is specifically designed to exploit the availability of processors to perform computationally intense probabilistic analysis assessing uncertainties in structural reliability analysis and composite micromechanics. The primary objectives which were achieved in performing the development were: (1) Utilization of the power of parallel processing and static/dynamic load balancing optimization to make the complex simulation of structure, material and processing of high temperature composite affordable; (2) Computational integration and synchronization of probabilistic mathematics, structural/material mechanics and parallel computing; (3) Implementation of an innovative multi-level domain decomposition technique to identify the inherent parallelism, and increasing convergence rates through high- and low-level processor assignment; (4) Creating the framework for Portable Paralleled architecture for the machine independent Multi Instruction Multi Data, (MIMD), Single Instruction Multi Data (SIMD), hybrid and distributed workstation type of computers; and (5) Market evaluation. The results of Phase-2 effort provides a good basis for continuation and warrants Phase-3 government, and industry partnership.

  20. Facesheet Delamination of Composite Sandwich Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herring, Helen M.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of space transportation vehicles will require advances in lightweight structural materials and related design concepts to meet the increased demands on performance. One potential source for significant structural weight reduction is the replacement of traditional metallic cryogenic fuel tanks with new designs for polymeric matrix composite tanks. These new tank designs may take the form of thin-walled sandwich constructed with lightweight core and composite facesheets. Life-time durability requirements imply the materials must safely carry pressure loads, external structural loads, resist leakage and operate over an extremely wide temperature range. Aside from catastrophic events like tank wall penetration, one of the most likely scenarios for failure of a tank wall of sandwich construction is the permeation of cryogenic fluid into the sandwich core and the subsequent delamination of the sandwich facesheet due to the build-up of excessive internal pressure. The research presented in this paper was undertaken to help understand this specific problem of core to facesheet delamination in cryogenic environments and relate this data to basic mechanical properties. The experimental results presented herein provide data on the strain energy release rate (toughness) of the interface between the facesheet and the core of a composite sandwich subjected to simulated internal pressure. A unique test apparatus and associated test methods are described and the results are presented to highlight the effects of cryogenic temperature on the measured material properties.

  1. Effects of base doping and carrier lifetime on differential current gain and temperature coefficient of 4H-SiC power bipolar junction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.; Fardi, H.

    2012-04-01

    4H-SiC NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is studied systematically by performing two-dimensional numerical simulations. Several design issues are discussed. Depending on the doping concentration of the base and the carrier lifetimes, both positive and negative temperature coefficients in the common emitter current gain could exist in 4H-SiC NPN BJTs with aluminium-doped base. The temperature coefficients of the current gain at different base doping concentrations and different carrier lifetimes have been determined. A high base doping concentration can reduce the requirement for the carrier lifetime in order to obtain negative temperature coefficient in current gain. Device simulations are performed to evaluate the carrier lifetimes by fitting the measured output IC -VCE curves. An excellent fitting is obtained and the base electron lifetime and the emitter hole lifetime are extracted to be about 22 and 5.7 ns, respectively.

  2. Simulation of Fatigue Behavior of High Temperature Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mike T.; Singhal, Suren N.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized relatively new approach is described for the computational simulation of fatigue behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMCs). This theory is embedded in a specialty-purpose computer code. The effectiveness of the computer code to predict the fatigue behavior of HT-MMCs is demonstrated by applying it to a silicon-fiber/titanium-matrix HT-MMC. Comparative results are shown for mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermomechanical (in-phase and out-of-phase) fatigue, as well as the effects of oxidizing environments on fatigue life. These results show that the new approach reproduces available experimental data remarkably well.

  3. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  4. High Temperature Composites Using Schiff’s Base Pyropolymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-15

    temperature on the AS4/T1000 material using the ASTM D3039 -76 test method. Mode I fracture toughness of AS4/T1000 was evaluated with the double cantilever beam...and Mode I fracture toughness tests. Interlaminar shear was evaluated with the ASTM D2344-76 short beam method. Testing was performed at room...Electrical Properties", Society of Plastics Engineers, April 1988, pp. 896-899. 8 NADC-88096-60 10. " Standard Tests for Toughened Resin Composites

  5. Evolution of temperature and gas composition in coal piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andres, J.M.; Schmal, D. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Instituto de Carboquimica

    1995-12-31

    The evolution of temperature and gas composition in coal piles was followed for eleven months at three different depths using special probes. For all the piles studied the slope exposed to the wind showed the most severe weathering. The kind of coal in the piles has a strong effect on the extent of the oxidation which can reach 300{degree}C. The analysis of gas evolution showed a strong correlation between oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations, pointing to a combined pyrolysis-combustion process. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  7. Pressure broadening and shift coefficients for the nu_ {2} and 3nu_ {2} bands of CH3D : rotational and temperature dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussin, C.; Regalia, L.; Plateaux, J. J.; Hamdouni, A.; Lutz, B. L.; de Bergh, C.; Barbe, A.

    1998-09-01

    We have measured broadening and shift coefficients for ro-vibrational lines of the nu_ {2} and 3nu_ {2} bands of CH3D, with the most abundant gases in planetary atmospheres (i.e. H2 and He for the giant planets and in the case of Titan, N2) as the foreign buffer gases, using a multispectral fitting technique developed by the Reims group. The spectra of the nu_ {2} band, near 5 microns, were recorded under high resolution and two temperatures (295 and 197K) using a FTS at the G.S.M.A. Reims laboratory. Those of the 3nu_ {2} band, near 1.6 microns, were recorded also under high resolution but only at room temperature with the FTS at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Broadening and shift coefficients were determined for lines of nu_ {2} up to J=20 in the P-branch and up to J=19 in the R-branch. For 3nu_ {2}, measurements were made up to J=14 in the P-branch and up to J=12 in the R-branch. In addition, for nu_ {2}, the temperature dependences of many of these coefficients were derived. Comparisons of the room temperature coefficients for the two bands show strong similarities in both their magnitudes and dependences with J and K. These similarities suggest that the temperature dependence determined for nu_ {2} can be used for 3nu_ {2}.

  8. Compositional effects on the low temperature pumpability of engine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Alpine, G.A.; May, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    An in-depth study of the additive and basestock component factors affecting low temperature viscometrics and oil pumpability of multigrade engine oils has been made. Basestock pour points or residual wax contents alone do not predict low shear viscometric properties of the finished oils under slow cool conditions. Rather, the composition of the wax itself is a key factor with both normal and non-normal paraffins contributing to viscometric increases at low temperatures. It is shown that viscosity index improver and pour depressant selection can prove to be critical in the prevention of oil gelation leading to pumpability failure. The results of these lab viscometric studies have been confirmed in all weather chassis dynamometer tests on five 4-cylinder overhead cam engines.

  9. Thermal Response and Stability Characteristics of Bistable Composite Laminates by Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties and Resin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.; Ziaei-Rad, S.; Salehi, H.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the stability characteristics and thermal response of a bistable composite plate with different asymmetric composition were considered. The non-linear finite element method (FEM) was utilized to determine the response of the laminate. Attention was focused on the temperature dependency of laminate mechanical properties, especially on the thermal expansion coefficients of the composite graphite-epoxy plate. Also the effect of including the resin layers on the stability characteristics of the laminate was investigated. The effect of the temperature on the laminate cured configurations in the range of 25°C to 180°C and -60°C to 40°C was examined. The results indicate that the coefficient of thermal expansions has a major effect on the cured shapes. Next, optical microscopy was used to characterize the laminate composition and for the first time the effect of including the resin layers on the actuation loads that causes snapping behavior between two stable shapes was studied. The results obtained from the finite element simulations were compared with experimental results and a good correlation was obtained. Finally, the stability characteristics of a tapered composite panel were investigated for using in a sample winglet as a candidate application of bistable structures.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  11. Polyimide/Glass Composite High-Temperature Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Vasquez, Peter; Chatlin, Richard L.; Smith, Donald L.; Skalski, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary S.; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight composites of RP46 polyimide and glass fibers have been found to be useful as extraordinarily fire-resistant electrical-insulation materials. RP46 is a polyimide of the polymerization of monomeric reactants (PMR) type, developed by NASA Langley Research Center. RP46 has properties that make it attractive for use in electrical insulation at high temperatures. These properties include high-temperature resistance, low relative permittivity, low dissipation factor, outstanding mechanical properties, and excellent resistance to moisture and chemicals. Moreover, RP46 contains no halogen or other toxic materials and when burned it does not produce toxic fume or gaseous materials. The U. S. Navy has been seeking lightweight, high-temperature-resistant electrical-insulation materials in a program directed toward reducing fire hazards and weights in ship electrical systems. To satisfy the requirements of this program, an electrical-insulation material must withstand a 3-hour gas-flame test at 1,600 F (about 871 C). Prior to the development reported here, RP46 was rated for use at temperatures from -150 to +700 F (about -101 to 371 C), and no polymeric product - not even RP46 - was expected to withstand the Navy 3-hour gas-flame test.

  12. Implementation Challenges for Ceramic Matrix Composites in High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, electronics, nuclear, and transportation industries. In the aeronautics and space exploration systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters (DPFs), and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. There are a number of critical issues and challenges related to successful implementation of composite materials. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, microstructure and thermomechanical properties of composites fabricated by two techniques (chemical vapor infiltration and melt infiltration), will be presented. In addition, critical need for robust joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed. Other implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  13. Relationships between conversion, temperature and optical properties during composite photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas D; Newman, Sheldon M; Pfeifer, Carmem S; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Optical properties of composite restoratives, both cured and uncured, are of obvious importance in a procedure reliant on photoactivation, since they may affect light transmission and therefore materials conversion upon which mechanical properties and ultimate clinical performance are dependent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate simultaneous, real-time conversion, and the development of the temperature and optical properties. The dimethacrylate resin (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 70/30mass%) was prepared at three filler loading (0, 35 or 70mass%: no fill, low and high fill, respectively) combined with three initiator concentrations (CQ/EDMAB: 0/0, 0.2/0.8 or 1.0/1.6mass%). Specimens were exposed to either low (50mWcm(-2)) or high (500mWcm(-2)) irradiance. Simultaneous conversion (near-IR peak area), temperature (thermocouple) and visible light transmission (UV-vis spectroscopy) measurements were conducted throughout the polymerization process. The refractive index of the resin rises linearly with conversion (r(2)=0.976), producing a refractive index match between resin/filler at approximately 58% conversion in these materials. The percentage increase in light transmission during conversion was greater for increasing filler levels. Higher CQ content led to maximum light transmission at slightly higher levels of conversion (60-65% and 50-55% for the high and low filled materials, respectively). The broad distribution of filler concentrations allows for the clinically relevant generalization that highly filled composites not only jeopardize absolute light transmission, conversion and depth of cure, but also demonstrate the complex interrelationship that exists between materials, processing conditions and the optical properties of dental composites. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Composite Materials Sliding Against Smooth and Rough Mild Steel Counterfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, friction coefficient and wear rate of gear fiber reinforced plastic (gear fiber and glass fiber reinforced plastic (glass fiber sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally. In order to do so, a pin on disc apparatus is designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out when smooth or rough mild steel pin slides on gear fiber and glass fiber disc. Experiments are conducted at normal load 10, 15 and 20 N, sliding velocity 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s and relative humidity 70%. Variations of friction coefficient with the duration of rubbing at different normal loads and sliding velocities are investigated. Results show that friction coefficient is influenced by duration of rubbing, normal load and sliding velocity. In general, friction coefficient increases for a certain duration of rubbing and after that it remains constant for the rest of the experimental time. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient decreases with the increase in normal load for gear fiber and glass fiber mating with smooth or rough mild steel counterface. On the other hand, it is also found that friction coefficient increases with the increase in sliding velocity for both of the tested materials. Moreover, wear rate increases with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity. The magnitudes of friction coefficient and wear rate are different depending on sliding velocity and normal load for both smooth and rough counterface pin materials.

  16. Quantifying the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Intra-Urban Air Temperature Variations at a Mid-Latitude City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Fan, Shuxin; Guo, Chenxiao; Hu, Jie; Dong, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effects of land cover on urban-rural and intra-urban temperature differences have been extensively documented. However, few studies have quantitatively related air temperature to land cover composition at a local scale which may be useful to guide landscape planning and design. In this study, the quantitative relationships between air temperature and land cover composition at a neighborhood scale in Beijing were investigated through a field measurement campaign and statistical analysis. The results showed that the air temperature had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of man-made surfaces, but the degree of correlation varied among different times and seasons. The different land cover types had different effects on air temperature, and also had very different spatial extent dependence: with increasing buffer zone size (from 20 to 300 m in radius), the correlation coefficient of different land cover types varied differently, and their relative impacts also varied among different times and seasons. At noon in summer, ∼37% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage tree cover, while ∼87% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage of building area and the percentage tree cover on summer night. The results emphasize the key role of tree cover in attenuating urban air temperature during daytime and nighttime in summer, further highlighting that increasing vegetation cover could be one effective way to ameliorate the urban thermal environment. PMID:25010134

  17. Quantifying the impact of land cover composition on intra-urban air temperature variations at a mid-latitude city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Fan, Shuxin; Guo, Chenxiao; Hu, Jie; Dong, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effects of land cover on urban-rural and intra-urban temperature differences have been extensively documented. However, few studies have quantitatively related air temperature to land cover composition at a local scale which may be useful to guide landscape planning and design. In this study, the quantitative relationships between air temperature and land cover composition at a neighborhood scale in Beijing were investigated through a field measurement campaign and statistical analysis. The results showed that the air temperature had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of man-made surfaces, but the degree of correlation varied among different times and seasons. The different land cover types had different effects on air temperature, and also had very different spatial extent dependence: with increasing buffer zone size (from 20 to 300 m in radius), the correlation coefficient of different land cover types varied differently, and their relative impacts also varied among different times and seasons. At noon in summer, ∼ 37% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage tree cover, while ∼ 87% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage of building area and the percentage tree cover on summer night. The results emphasize the key role of tree cover in attenuating urban air temperature during daytime and nighttime in summer, further highlighting that increasing vegetation cover could be one effective way to ameliorate the urban thermal environment.

  18. Tribological Properties of Ni3Al Matrix Composite Sliding Against Si3N4, SiC and Al2O3 at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chengqi; Kang, Yonghai; Kong, Lingqian; Zhu, Shengyu

    2017-01-01

    The Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composite was fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The tribological behavior of the composite sliding against commercial Si3N4, SiC and Al2O3 ceramic balls was investigated from 20 to 1000 °C. It was found that the composite demonstrated excellent lubricating properties with different friction pairs at a wide temperature range, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of Ag, fluorides, and molybdates formed by oxidations. The Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composite/Si3N4 couple possessed the stable friction coefficient and wear rate.

  19. Relation between the structural parameters of metallic glasses at the onset crystallization temperatures and threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, V. I.; Svyrydova, K. A.; Vasiliev, S. V.; Kovalenko, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    Using the results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry, an analysis has been carried out of the initial stages of the eutectic and primary mechanisms of crystallization of a series of metallic glasses based on Fe and Al with the established temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficients. Analytical relationships, which relate the volume density of crystallites formed in the glasses at the temperatures of the onset of crystallization with the values of the effective diffusion coefficients at these temperatures have been proposed. It has been established that, in the glasses, the crystallization of which begins at the lower boundary of the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients ( 10-20 m2/s), structures are formed with the volume density of crystallites on the order of 1023-1024 m-3 and, at the upper boundary (10-18 m2/s), of the order of 1018 and 1020 m-3 in the glasses that are crystallized via the eutectic and primary mechanisms, respectively. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental estimates indicates that the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients are the main factors that determine the structure of glasses at the initial stages of crystallization.

  20. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  1. Nonlinear temperature dependent failure analysis of finite width composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, A. P.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    A quasi-three dimensional, nonlinear elastic finite element stress analysis of finite width composite laminates including curing stresses is presented. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and two quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates are studied. Curing stresses are calculated using temperature dependent elastic properties that are input as percent retention curves, and stresses due to mechanical loading in the form of an axial strain are calculated using tangent modulii obtained by Ramberg-Osgood parameters. It is shown that curing stresses and stresses due to tensile loading are significant as edge effects in all types of laminate studies. The tensor polynomial failure criterion is used to predict the initiation of failure. The mode of failure is predicted by examining individual stress contributions to the tensor polynomial.

  2. Model for the Surface Tension of Dilute and Concentrated Binary Aqueous Mixtures as a Function of Composition and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardt, Nadia; Elliott, Janet A W

    2017-10-17

    Surface tension dictates fluid behavior, and predicting its magnitude is vital in many applications. Equations have previously been derived to describe how the surface tension of pure liquids changes with temperature, and other models have been derived to describe how the surface tension of mixtures changes with liquid-phase composition. However, the simultaneous dependence of surface tension on temperature and composition for liquid mixtures has been less studied. Past approaches have required extensive experimental data to which models have been fit, yielding a distinct set of fitting parameters at each temperature or composition. Herein, we propose a model that requires only three fitting procedures to predict surface tension as a function of temperature and composition. We achieve this by analyzing and extending the Shereshefsky (J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1967, 24 (3), 317-322), Li et al. (Fluid Phase Equilib. 2000, 175, 185-196), and Connors-Wright (Anal. Chem. 1989, 61 (3), 194-198) models to high temperatures for 15 aqueous systems. The best extensions of the Shereshefsky, Li et al., and Connors-Wright models achieve average relative deviations of 2.11%, 1.20%, and 0.62%, respectively, over all systems. We thus recommend the extended Connors-Wright model for predicting the surface tension of aqueous mixtures at different temperatures with the tabulated coefficients herein. An additional outcome of this study is the previously unreported equivalence of the Li et al. and Connors-Wright models in describing experimental data of surface tension as a function of composition at a single temperature.

  3. High-Temperature Oxidation-Resistant and Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion NiAl-Base Bond Coat Developed for a Turbine Blade Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many critical gas turbine engine components are currently made from Ni-base superalloys that are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The TBC consists of a ZrO2-based top coat and a bond coat that is used to enhance the bonding between the superalloy substrate and the top coat. MCrAlY alloys (CoCrAlY and NiCrAlY) are currently used as bond coats and are chosen for their very good oxidation resistance. TBC life is frequently limited by the oxidation resistance of the bond coat, along with a thermal expansion mismatch between the metallic bond coat and the ceramic top coat. The aim of this investigation at the NASA Glenn Research Center was to develop a new longer life, higher temperature bond coat by improving both the oxidation resistance and the thermal expansion characteristics of the bond coat. Nickel aluminide (NiAl) has excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and can sustain a protective Al2O3 scale to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to MCrAlY alloys. Cryomilling of NiAl results in aluminum nitride (AlN) formation that reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy and enhances creep strength. Thus, additions of cryomilled NiAl-AlN to CoCrAlY were examined as a potential bond coat. In this work, the composite alloy was investigated as a stand-alone substrate to demonstrate its feasibility prior to actual use as a coating. About 85 percent of prealloyed NiAl and 15 percent of standard commercial CoCrAlY alloys were mixed and cryomilled in an attritor with stainless steel balls used as grinding media. The milling was carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The milled powder was consolidated by hot extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing. From the consolidated material, oxidation coupons, four-point bend, CTE, and tensile specimens were machined. The CTE measurements were made between room temperature and 1000 C in an argon atmosphere. It is shown that the CTE of the NiAl-AlN-CoCrAlY composite bond coat

  4. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  5. Tribological Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered Aluminum-Graphene Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rengifo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs as a solid lubricant additive to aluminum. Pure Al and Al-2 vol % GNP pellets are sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. Their tribological properties are evaluated by a ball-on-disk tribometer at room temperature (RT and high temperature (200 °C. Al-2 vol % GNP composite displayed poor densification (91% and low hardness, resulting in poor wear resistance as compared to pure Al. However GNP addition resulted in a lower coefficient of friction (COF as compared to pure aluminum at both temperatures. The results demonstrated that GNPs contribute to reducing COF by forming a protective tribolayer. GNPs also play a unique role in reducing oxygen ingress at 200 °C. It is concluded that the packing density of a starting powder blend of Al-GNP needs to be improved by using irregular shaped aluminum powder mixed with both larger and smaller GNPs. This would result in greater densification and improve wear rate while maintaining low COF.

  6. Analysis of benchmarks on the reactivity temperature coefficient using new libraries based on ENDF/B-VI (release 5) and JEF2-2 data

    CERN Document Server

    Erradi, L; Chakir, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents, the analysis of discrepancies between calculation and experiments in the prediction of isothermal moderator temperature coefficient of a set of lattice experiments, using WIMSD4, WIMSD5B and APOLLO1 lattice codes. In this analysis we have used the original cross sections libraries (CEA-86 library for APOLLO1 and both of 1981 and 1986 libraries for WIMS) and the updated ones based on JEF2.2 data for APOLLO code and both of ENDF/B6 and JEF2.2 data for WIMS code. We have also analysed the numerical benchmark proposed by Mosteller to evaluate the accuracy in predicting Doppler coefficient in light water type lattices. This study on Doppler coefficient was performed using, in addition to APOLLO and WIMS codes, the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for which a new library based on ENDF/B6 nuclear data file, have been processed using the NJOY system.

  7. Composite pellets of coal - Binders and high temperature testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, V.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is a report on Phase III of Project B1-315, 'Technics for production and combustion of composite pellets', including environmental aspects on the method of application. Recipes were developed and tested for the following four binders: CMC, Slaggcement, water glass, and bentonite. Determinations of softening temperatures shows that all four pellet types are stable in nitrogen-atmosphere up to 1500/sup 0/C. When simulating combustion in air, softening starts at 1050 - 1200/sup 0/C, the best results being achieved with bentonite. Combusiton tests were first performed on separate pellets in order to keep conditions well within control. Very soon it showed that unsufficiently small retention of sulphur was achieved, in spite of low combustion temperature and high Ca/S-relation. As an explanation to this it was suggested that no reaction between SO/sub 2/ and CaO can be expected within pellets which still contain coal. The sulphur is presumable excaping as COS, H/sub 2/ S or elementary sulphur. These compounds do not react with CaO, but they are oxidized outside the pellets forming SO/sub 2/ which later is absorbed by CaO - containing ash. This pattern makes it less interesting to study the combustion of single pellets. So, the test programme was changed and combustion tests with bedded pellets were introduced which gave a better result. At 1050/sup 0/C lower retention was attained, possibly because the combustion was carried out too far. The burning time was long because of the low temperature.

  8. Temperature and compositional variations in the Australian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Aitken, Alan; Kennett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The upper mantle of the Australian continent has been deeply investigated in the last two decades using a variety of geophysical methods. The resulting models have revealed the robust large-scale features of the continental lithosphere of Australia, i.e., faster seismic velocities in the Archean and Proterozoic cratons in the West, North and South Australia and slower velocities in the eastern Phanerozoic margin. Furthermore, it has been identified a layered velocity structure in central Australia. The zone of low seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle is underlain by the high-velocity zone. This layered structure may have a thermal origin, due to a redistribution of high heat producing elements within the crust or reflect compositional changes, e.g. a presence of amphibole. To discern temperature and compositional variations in the Australian upper mantle, we apply an iterative technique, which employs a joint inversion of the seismic tomography and gravity data. This technique consists in removing the effect of the crust from the observed gravity field and topography. In the second step, the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography are inverted to obtain a 3-D density model of the upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the notion that these fields are controlled by the same factors but in a different way (e.g., depending on depth and horizontal dimension of the heterogeneity.) This enables us to locate the position of principal density anomalies in the upper mantle. Afterwards, the thermal contribution to the density structure is estimated by inverting the seismic tomography model AusREM (http://rses.anu.edu.au/seismology/AuSREM/index.php). Based on the residual fields, we construct an initial compositional model of the upper mantle. In particular, a negative residual density anomaly is interpreted as the material having a larger Mg# and depleted in garnet and CPX Then, the initial thermal model is re-estimated with the new

  9. Mechanical properties of three-component additive manufactured composites at elevated and cool temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Eliseev, A. A.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Elevated and cool temperature tensile tests on three-component composite materials made of carbon fibers, thermoplastic and thermosetting bonding agents have been carried out. The results of tests testify the increasing the composite strength at negative temperature -120°C and reducing it at elevated temperature +120°C. The low temperature fracture of samples resulted in formation of numerous small fragments by cracking and delamination in deformation. The high temperature tests produced numerous delaminated fibers.

  10. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  11. Modelling the evolution of composition-and stress-depth profiles in austenitic stainless steels during low-temperature nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    . In the present paper solid mechanics was combined with thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics to simulate the evolution of composition-depth and stress-depth profiles resulting from nitriding. The model takes into account a composition-dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite, short range...... that accompanies the dissolution of high nitrogen contents in expanded austenite. An intriguing phenomenon during low-temperature nitriding is that the residual stresses evoked by dissolution of nitrogen in the solid state, affect the thermodynamics and the diffusion kinetics of nitrogen dissolution...... ordering (trapping) of nitrogen atoms by chromium atoms, and the effect of composition-induced stress on surface concentration and diffusive flux. The effect of plasticity and concentration-dependence of the yield stress was also included....

  12. Light-induced changes in the solar cell parameters and temperature coefficient of n-C/p-Si heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Babita; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya-466-8555 (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Department of Electronic Engineering,Chubu University, Matsumoto 1200, Kasugai-shi, 487-8501 (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) is a potential material for the development of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell. We report the study of the influence of light soaking up to 100h on n-C/p-Si heterojunction solar cell. It is observed that the deterioration in the fill factor and the efficiency are significantly smaller as compared to that observed in a-Si:H solar cell. Variations in the temperature coefficients of the I-V characteristics subjected to light degradation and recovery has also been investigated. A good correlation between change in the temperature coefficient and the degradation/recovery state of cell's conversion efficiency has been observed.

  13. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  14. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under Phase I, the feasibility of a novel thermal stress-free ceramic composite mechanical fastener system suitable for assembly of high-temperature composite...

  15. Temperature-(208–318 K and pressure-(18–696 Torr dependent rate coefficients for the reaction between OH and HNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dulitz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rate coefficients (k5 for the title reaction were obtained using pulsed laser photolytic generation of OH coupled to its detection by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP–LIF. More than 80 determinations of k5 were carried out in nitrogen or air bath gas at various temperatures and pressures. The accuracy of the rate coefficients obtained was enhanced by in situ measurement of the concentrations of both HNO3 reactant and NO2 impurity. The rate coefficients show both temperature and pressure dependence with a rapid increase in k5 at low temperatures. The pressure dependence was weak at room temperature but increased significantly at low temperatures. The entire data set was combined with selected literature values of k5 and parameterised using a combination of pressure-dependent and -independent terms to give an expression that covers the relevant pressure and temperature range for the atmosphere. A global model, using the new parameterisation for k5 rather than those presently accepted, indicated small but significant latitude- and altitude-dependent changes in the HNO3 ∕ NOx ratio of between −6 and +6 %. Effective HNO3 absorption cross sections (184.95 and 213.86 nm, units of cm2 molecule−1 were obtained as part of this work: σ213.86  =  4.52−0.12+0.23  ×  10−19 and σ184.95  =  1.61−0.04+0.08  ×  10−17.

  16. Estimating Seebeck Coefficient of a p-Type High Temperature Thermoelectric Material Using Bee Algorithm Multi-layer Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Fatih; Kilinc, Enes; Kurt, Huseyin; Celik, Erdal; Dugenci, Muharrem; Sagiroglu, Selami

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat into electrical energy. These energy-conversion systems do not involve any moving parts and are made of thermoelectric (TE) elements connected electrically in a series and thermally in parallel; however, they are currently not suitable for use in regular operations due to their low efficiency levels. In order to produce high-efficiency TEGs, there is a need for highly heat-resistant thermoelectric materials (TEMs) with an improved figure of merit ( ZT). Production and test methods used for TEMs today are highly expensive. This study attempts to estimate the Seebeck coefficient of TEMs by using the values of existing materials in the literature. The estimation is made within an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the amount of doping and production methods. Results of the estimations show that the Seebeck coefficient can approximate the real values with an average accuracy of 94.4%. In addition, ANN has detected that any change in production methods is followed by a change in the Seebeck coefficient.

  17. Effect of Fermentation Temperature on the Volatile Composition of Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Pil; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Young Ho; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-17

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0.59% and 0.76% for the Kimchi fermented at 4 and 20 °C, respectively. Forty different types of volatile compounds, including alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and sulfur compounds, were identified. The Kimchi fermented at 20 °C produced greater amounts of volatile compounds than that at 4 °C. The amounts of most volatiles increased as the fermentation time increased, but those of aldehydes decreased rapidly during both 4 and 20 °C fermentation. Organic acids, ester, and nitriles were detected only in Kimchi fermented at 20 °C. The amounts of dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide produced from the Kimchi fermented at 20 °C were more than 2-times of those at 4 °C. Therefore, it is concluded that the strong pungent odor of Kimchi fermented at 20° C is probably due to the high amount of organic acids (low pH) and sulfur compounds (dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide) between the 2 Kimchi. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Test method development for structural characterization of fiber composites at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Edwards, B.

    1985-01-01

    Test methods used for structural characterization of polymer matrix composites can be applied to glass and ceramic matrix composites only at low temperatures. New test methods are required for tensile, compressive, and shear properties of fiber composites at high temperatures. A tensile test which should be useful to at least 1000 C has been developed and used to characterize the properties of a Nicalon/glass composite up to the matrix limiting temperature of 600 C. Longitudinal and transverse unidirectional composite data are presented and discussed.

  19. Effect of TiB2 on Tribological Properties of TiAl Self-lubricating Composites Containing Ag at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zhai, Wenzheng; Ibrahim, Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud; Xu, Zengshi; Song, Siyuan; Chen, Long; Zhu, Qingshuai; Xiao, Yecheng; Zhang, Qiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    TiB2 was chosen to further improve the tribological properties of TiAl matrix self-lubricating composites containing Ag. The possible synergetic action of a combination of TiB2 and Ag was investigated using a pin-on-disk high temperature tribometer from room temperature to 600 °C. The tribological test results indicated that the addition of TiB2 obviously enhanced the wear resistance of the composites over a wide temperature range. Moreover, the composites containing TiB2 had a low friction coefficient at 600 °C. The subsurface analysis of cross sections of worn surfaces showed that TiB2 played the role in wear-resistant skeleton and restricted the plastic flow of Ag during dry friction process. The investigation showed that TiB2 and Ag could exhibit good synergistic effect on improving the tribological properties of composites.

  20. Low temperature rate coefficients of the H + CH(+) → C(+) + H2 reaction: New potential energy surface and time-independent quantum scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.

  1. Temperature Induced Degradation of Nb Ti/Cu Composite Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Senatore, C; Di Michiel, M; Thilly, L; Gerardin, A; Reluner, B; Oberli, L; Willering, G; Bottura, L

    2009-01-01

    The degradation mechanisms of state-of-the-art Nb-Ti/Cu superconductors are described, based on in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements during heat treatment. A quantitative description of the Nb-Ti/Cu degradation in terms of critical current density, Cu stabiliser resistivity and mechanical composite strength is presented. In an applied magnetic field a significant critical current degradation is already observed after a 5-minute 400 °C heat treatment, due to variations of a-Ti precipitate size and distribution within the Nb-Ti alloy filaments. A strong degradation of the strand mechanical properties is observed after several minutes heating above 550 °C, which is also the temperature at which the formation of Cu Ti intermetallic phases is detected. Several minutes heating at 250 °C are sufficient to increase the RRR of the strongly cold work strands inside a Rutherford type cable from about 80 to about 240. Heating for several minutes at 400 °C does not cause a significant conductor degradati...

  2. The Effect of Temperature on Kinetics and Diffusion Coefficients of Metallocene Derivatives in Polyol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Bahadori

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the density, dynamic viscosity and ionic conductivity of several deep eutectic solvents (DESs containing ammonium-based salts and hydrogen bond donvnors (polyol type are investigated. The temperature-dependent electrolyte viscosity as a function of molar conductivity is correlated by means of Walden's rule. The oxidation of ferrocene (Fc/Fc+ and reduction of cobaltocenium (Cc+/Cc at different temperatures are studied by cyclic voltammetry and potential-step chronoamperometry in DESs. For most DESs, chronoamperometric transients are demonstrated to fit an Arrhenius-type relation to give activation energies for the diffusion of redox couples at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the measured conductivities of DES1 and DES2 are better correlated with the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The kinetics of the Fc/Fc+ and Cc+/Cc electrochemical systems have been investigated over a temperature range from 298 to 338 K. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is then calculated at different temperatures by means of a logarithmic analysis. The glycerol-based DES (DES5 appears suitable for further testing in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  3. Effect of elevated temperatures on flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, W. M. A. W.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Rahman, M. N.; Azduwin, Y. K.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Hybrid composites laminates were fabricated using untreated, 5%, or 10% alkali-treated Napier fibres with woven E-glass fibres and epoxy resin. The composites were manufactured using a vacuum infusion process; the volume fraction of the Napier, glass fibres and epoxy resin were 24%, 6% and 70% respectively. When tested at room temperature (RT), the maximum flexural strength was recorded for the hybrid composites with the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres. When the test temperature greater than 60°C, the matrix cracking and delamination were occurred due to the temperature that approached the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, which resulted in a reduction of the flexural strength. The fracture surface morphologies indicated that the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres improved the fibre-matrix interfacial bonding of the hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites.

  4. High temperature tensile properties and deep drawing of fully green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research and development of materials using biomass sources are much expected to construct a sustainable society. The so-called green composite consisting of natural fibers and biodegradable resin, is one of the most promising materials in developing biomass products. In this study, especially, we focus on the tensile deformation behavior of the green composites reinforced with ramie woven fabrics at high temperature. The results show that the fracture strain at high temperatures increases larger than that of room temperature, and initial deformation resistance of the composites seen at room temperature does not appear at high temperatures. Thus, several conditions to cause more deformability of the green composites were found. Finally, in order to utilize such deformability, Lankford-values of the green composites were clarified, and deep drawing was carried out for sheet materials made of the green composites.

  5. High Performance High Temperature Thermoelectric Composites with Metallic Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, James M. (Inventor); Bux, Sabah K. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Star, Kurt (Inventor); Kaner, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention provides a composite thermoelectric material. The composite thermoelectric material can include a semiconductor material comprising a rare earth metal. The atomic percent of the rare earth metal in the semiconductor material can be at least about 20%. The composite thermoelectric material can further include a metal forming metallic inclusions distributed throughout the semiconductor material. The present invention also provides a method of forming this composite thermoelectric material.

  6. Data-driven analysis for the temperature and momentum dependence of the heavy-quark diffusion coefficient in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingru; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Nahrgang, Marlene; Cao, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    By applying a Bayesian model-to-data analysis, we estimate the temperature and momentum dependence of the heavy quark diffusion coefficient in an improved Langevin framework. The posterior range of the diffusion coefficient is obtained by performing a Markov chain Monte Carlo random walk and calibrating on the experimental data of D -meson RAA and v2 in three different collision systems at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collidaer (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. The spatial diffusion coefficient is found to be consistent with lattice QCD calculations and comparable with other models' estimation. We demonstrate the capability of our improved Langevin model to simultaneously describe the RAA and v2 at both RHIC and the LHC energies, as well as the higher order flow coefficient such as D meson v3. We show that by applying a Bayesian analysis, we are able to quantitatively and systematically study the heavy flavor dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized 3He gas in the temperature range 1 mK-4 K from the quantum second virial coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maaitah, A. F.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.

    2017-11-01

    The quantum second virial coefficient Bq of 3He↑ gas is determined in the temperature range 0.001-4 K from the Beth-Uhlenbeck formula. The corresponding phase shifts are calculated from the Lippmann-Schwinger equation using a highly-accurate matrix-inversion technique. A positive Bq corresponds to an overall repulsive interaction; whereas a negative Bq represents an overall attractive interaction. It is found that in the low-energy limit, Bq tends to increase with increasing spin polarization. The compressibility Z is evaluated as another measure of nonideality of the system. Z becomes most significant at low temperatures and increases with polarization. From the pressure-temperature (P-T) behavior of 3He↑ at low T, it is deduced that P decreases with increasing T below 8 mK.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Composite Materials Sliding Against Smooth and Rough Mild Steel Counterfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, M A; D. M. Nuruzzaman; B. K. Roy; Samad, S; Sarker, R.; A.H.M. Rezwan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, friction coefficient and wear rate of gear fiber reinforced plastic (gear fiber) and glass fiber reinforced plastic (glass fiber) sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally. In order to do so, a pin on disc apparatus is designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out when smooth or rough mild steel pin slides on gear fiber and glass fiber disc. Experiments are conducted at normal load 10, 15 and 20 N, sliding velocity 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s and relative h...

  9. Using Variable Temperature Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise was developed by using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…

  10. Fracture behavior of C/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae Hoon; Shin, Ihn Cheol; Lim, Byung Joo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The fracture behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composites used in rocket nozzles has been investigated under tension, compression, and fracture conditions at room temperature, 773 K and 1173 K. The C/SiC composites used in this study were manufactured by liquid silicon infiltration process at ~1723 K. All experiments were conducted using two types of specimens, considering fiber direction and oxidation condition. Experimental results show that temperature, fiber direction, and oxidation condition affect the behavior of C/SiC composites. Oxidation was found to be the main factor that changes the strength of C/SiC composites. By applying an anti-oxidation coating, the tensile and compressive strengths of the C/SiC composites increased with temperature. The fracture toughness of the C/SiC composites also increased with increase temperature. A fractography analysis of the fractured specimens was conducted using a scanning electron microscope.

  11. Reliability and life prediction of ceramic composite structures at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are highlighted that ascertain the structural reliability of components fabricated of composites with ceramic matrices reinforced with ceramic fibers or whiskers and subject to quasi-static load conditions at elevated temperatures. Each method focuses on a particular composite microstructure: whisker-toughened ceramics, laminated ceramic matrix composites, and fabric reinforced ceramic matrix composites. In addition, since elevated service temperatures usually involve time-dependent effects, a section dealing with reliability degradation as a function of load history has been included. A recurring theme throughout this chapter is that even though component failure is controlled by a sequence of many microfailure events, failure of ceramic composites will be modeled using macrovariables.

  12. Compositional dependence of the Young's modulus and piezoelectric coefficient of (110)-oriented pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the compositional dependence of the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of Pb(ZrₓTi₿₋ₓ)O₃ (PZT) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These films grow epitaxially on silicon with a (110) preferred orientation and have excellent piezoelectric

  13. Imbedded fiber optic pressure and temperature sensors enable cure monitoring of pultruded composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, David

    1990-05-01

    The application of fiberoptic multifunction sensing system for the measurement of temperature and pressure during the curing of fiberglass/epoxy composite structure is described. The system employs interferometric principles to measure temperature, pressure, and refractive index of liquids as well as other physical parameters. Fiberoptic pressure and temperature sensors have been employed in monitoring composites pultrusion and molding. The system is ideally suited for monitoring a variety of composite curing processes because of the sensor's microminiature size, tolerance of moderately high temperatures, non-metallic construction, and inherent immunity to electromagnetic and radio frequency signals.

  14. Temperature-induced plasticity in membrane and storage lipid composition: thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dooremalen, Coby; Koekkoek, Jacco; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-02-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor inducing phenotypic plasticity in a wide range of behavioral, morphological, and life history traits in ectotherms. The strength of temperature-induced responses in fitness-related traits may be determined by plasticity of the underlying physiological or biochemical traits. Lipid composition may be an important trait underlying fitness response to temperature, because it affects membrane fluidity as well as availability of stored energy reserves. Here, we investigate the effect of temperature on lipid composition of the springtail Orchesella cincta by measuring thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures after four weeks of cold or warm acclimation. Fatty acid composition in storage and membrane lipids showed a highly plastic response to temperature, but the responses of single fatty acids revealed deviations from the expectations based on HVA theory. We found an accumulation of C(18:2n6) and C(18:3n3) at higher temperatures and the preservation of C(20:4n6) across temperatures, which is contrary to the expectation of decreased unsaturation at higher temperatures. The thermal response of these fatty acids in O. cincta differed from the findings in other species, and therefore shows there is interspecific variation in how single fatty acids contribute to HVA. Future research should determine the consequences of such variation in terms of costs and benefits for the thermal performance of species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of experiments on the reactivity temperature coefficient for UO{sub 2} and MOX light water moderated lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erradi, L.; Chetaine, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Groupe de Physique des Reacteurs, Rabat Maroc (Morocco); Chakir, E.; Kharchaf, A. [Faculte des sciences de Kenitra, Dept. de physique (Morocco); Elbardouni, T. [Faculte des Sciences de Tetouan, Dept. de Physique (Morocco); Elkhoukhi, T. [CNESTEN, Rabat (Morocco)

    2005-07-01

    In a previous work, we have analysed the main French experiments available on the reactivity temperature coefficient (RTC): CREOLE and MISTRAL experiments. In these experiments, the RTC has been measured in both UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} PWR type lattices. Our calculations, using APOLLO2 code with CEA93 library based on JEF2.2 evaluation, have shown that the calculation error in UO{sub 2} lattices is less than 1 pcm/C degrees which is considered as the target accuracy. On the other hand the calculation error in the MOX lattices is more significant in both low and high temperature ranges: an average error of -2 {+-} 0.5 pcm/C degrees is observed in low temperatures and an error of +3 {+-} 2 pcm/C degrees is obtained for temperatures higher than 250 C degrees. In the present work, we analysed additional experimental benchmarks on the RTC of UO{sub 2} and MOX light water moderated lattices. To analyze these benchmarks and with the aim of minimizing uncertainties related to modelling of the experimental set up, we chose the Monte Carlo method which has the advantage of taking into account in the most exact manner the geometry of the experimental configurations. This analysis shows for the UO{sub 2} lattices, a maximum experiment-calculation deviation of about 0,7 pcm/C degrees, which is below the target accuracy for this type of lattices. For the KAMINI experiment, which relates to the measurement of the RTC in a light water moderated lattice using U-233 as fuel our analysis shows that the ENDF/B6 library gives the best result, with an experiment-calculation deviation of the order of -0,16 pcm/C degrees. The analysis of the benchmarks using MOX fuel made it possible to highlight a discrepancy between experiment and calculation on the RTC of about -0.7 pcm/C degrees (for a range of temperatures going from 20 to 248 C degrees) and -1,2 pcm/C degrees (for a range of temperatures going from 20 to 80 C degrees). This result, in particular the tendency which has the

  16. A new predictive dynamic model describing the effect of the ambient temperature and the convective heat transfer coefficient on bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaghlene, H; Leguerinel, I; Hamdi, M; Mafart, P

    2009-07-31

    In this study, predictive microbiology and food engineering were combined in order to develop a new analytical model predicting the bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. The proposed model associates a simplified primary bacterial growth model without lag, the secondary Ratkowsky "square root" model and a simplified two-parameter heat transfer model regarding an infinite slab. The model takes into consideration the product thickness, its thermal properties, the ambient air temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient and the growth parameters of the micro organism of concern. For the validation of the overall model, five different combinations of ambient air temperature (ranging from 8 degrees C to 12 degrees C), product thickness (ranging from 1 cm to 6 cm) and convective heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 8 W/(m(2) K) to 60 W/(m(2) K)) were tested during a cooling procedure. Moreover, three different ambient air temperature scenarios assuming alternated cooling and heating stages, drawn from real refrigerated food processes, were tested. General agreement between predicted and observed bacterial growth was obtained and less than 5% of the experimental data fell outside the 95% confidence bands estimated by the bootstrap percentile method, at all the tested conditions. Accordingly, the overall model was successfully validated for isothermal and dynamic refrigeration cycles allowing for temperature dynamic changes at the centre and at the surface of the product. The major impact of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the product thickness on bacterial growth during the product cooling was demonstrated. For instance, the time needed for the same level of bacterial growth to be reached at the product's half thickness was estimated to be 5 and 16.5 h at low and high convection level, respectively. Moreover, simulation results demonstrated that the predicted bacterial growth at the air ambient temperature cannot be assumed to be

  17. Temperature dependence of the strain response of chemical composition gratings in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoyu; Guan, Bai-ou

    2008-11-01

    Chemical composition gratings, used as strain sensing elements at high temperature environments, show a temperature dependence of their strain response. Temperature dependence of the strain response of CCGs over a range of temperatures from 24°C to 900°C has been measured. It is found that the wavelength shift of CCGs is linear with applied tensile strain at a constant temperature, and the strain sensitivity is 0.0011nm/μɛ.

  18. Influence of process temperature on AZ91 matrix microstructure of composites with aluminosilicate glass cenospheres

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kamieniak; A. Żydek; K.N. Braszczyńska-Malik

    2011-01-01

    AZ91 magnesium alloy matrix composites with aluminosilicate glass cenospheres were fabricated successfully by the pressure infiltration method. Different parameters of the fabrication process, such as temperature of the mould and temperature of cenospheres were used. Influence of the temperature variation of particular parameters on the microstructure has been investigated. The microstructure of AZ91 magnesium alloy and fabricated composites have been investigated by light microscopy (LM) and...

  19. Room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in lead-free and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cótica, Luiz F., E-mail: lfcotica@dfi.uem.br [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Department of Physics, State University of Maringá, Maringá – PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Santos, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ivair A. [Department of Physics, State University of Maringá, Maringá – PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Freitas, Valdirlei F. [Department of Physics, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava – PR 85040-080 (Brazil); Coelho, Adelino A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas – SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, José A. [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos – SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-02-14

    It is still a challenging problem to obtain technologically useful materials displaying strong magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. In the search for new effects and materials to achieve this kind of coupling, a nonlinear magnetoelectric effect was proposed in the magnetically disordered relaxor ferroelectric materials. In this context, the aluminum iron oxide (AlFeO{sub 3}), a room temperature ferroelectric relaxor and magnetic spin glass compound, emerges as an attractive lead-free magnetoelectric material along with nonlinear magnetoelectric effects. In this work, static, dynamic, and temperature dependent ferroic and magnetoelectric properties in lead-free AlFeO{sub 3} and 2 at. % Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} multiferroic magnetoelectric compositions are studied. Pyroelectric and magnetic measurements show changes in ferroelectric and magnetic states close to each other (∼200 K). The magnetoelectric coefficient behavior as a function of H{sub bias} suggests a room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in both single-phase and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3}-based ceramic compositions.

  20. Low resistivity WxV1-xO2-based multilayer structure with high temperature coefficient of resistance for microbolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Émond, Nicolas; Hendaoui, Ali; Chaker, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Materials that exhibit semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (SMT) are commonly used as sensing layers for the fabrication of uncooled microbolometers. The development of highly responsive microbolometers would benefit from using a sensing material that possesses a large thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) close to room temperature and a resistivity low enough to compromise between noise reduction and high TCR, while it should also satisfies the requirements of current CMOS technology. Moreover, a TCR that remains constant when the IR camera surrounding temperature varies would contribute to achieve reliable temperature measurements without additional corrections steps for TCR temperature dependence. In this paper, the characteristics of the SMT occurring in undoped and tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide thin films deposited on LaAlO3 (100) substrates are investigated. They are further exploited to fabricate a WxV1-xO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) multilayer structure exhibiting a bottom-up gradient of tungsten content. This MLS displays a combination of properties that is promising for application to uncooled microbolometer, such as a large TCR of -10.4%/ °C and low resistivity values ranging from 0.012 to 0.10 Ω-cm over the temperature range 22 °C-42 °C.

  1. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn [Center for Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  2. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn3+xNi1-xN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  3. Influence of temperature on fracture mechanisms of magnesium composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertnerova, V.; Jaeger, A.; Trojanova, Z. [Dept. of Metal Physics, Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Chalupova, M. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Univ. of Zilina, Zilina (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloy AZ91 (9% Al, 1% Zn, 0.2% Mn in wt.%) with different reinforcements has been used to study fracture mechanisms and crack development. SiC particles and/or Saffil fibres were used as the reinforcement. Fracture surfaces of specimens prepared by impact tests in the temperature range from room temperature to 300 C were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Possible mechanisms of fracture are discussed in the relation to the test temperature. (orig.)

  4. Dry Sliding Wear of TiAl-Graphene-Silver Composite at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jialiang; Shi, Xiaoliang; Shen, Qiao; Yang, Kang; Zhai, Wenzheng; Huang, Yuchun

    2017-09-01

    The dry sliding friction and wear behaviors of TiAl matrix self-lubricating composite (TMSC) containing multilayer graphene (MLG), silver (Ag) and MLG-Ag sliding against Si3N4 balls from 25 to 750 °C were comparatively studied in this paper. The results suggested that TMSC containing MLG-Ag (TMA) showed better tribological properties over the wide temperature range, if compared to TMSC only containing MLG or Ag. Moreover, TMA exhibited the lower fiction coefficient and the less wear rate at 450 °C, which was attributed to the formation of intact lubricating films containing MLG and Ag on the worn surface. Furthermore, in the formed lubricating films, Ag worked as the solid lubricant to provide good lubricating effect, while MLG with high strength played the active role in enhancing the anti-rupture ability of lubricating films. The study indicated that TMA obtained the excellent tribological performance at 450 °C due to the remarkable synergistic effect of MLG and Ag.

  5. Ballistic performance of a Kevlar-29 woven fibre composite under varied temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykasap, O.; Colakoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    Armours are usually manufactured from polymer matrix composites and used for both military and non-military purposes in different seasons, climates, and regions. The mechanical properties of the composites depend on temperature, which also affects their ballistic characteristics. The armour is used to absorb the kinetic energy of a projectile without any major injury to a person. Therefore, besides a high strength and lightness, a high damping capacity is required to absorb the impact energy transferred by the projectile. The ballistic properties of a Kevlar 29/polyvinyl butyral composite are investigated under varied temperatures in this study. The elastic modulus of the composite is determined from the natural frequency of composite specimens at different temperatures by using a damping monitoring method. Then, the backside deformation of composite plates is analysed experimentally and numerically employing the finite-element program Abaqus. The experimental and numeric results obtained are in good agreement.

  6. Computer simulation of low-temperature composites sintering processes for additive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovpinets, A. O.; Leytsin, V. N.; Dmitrieva, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This is impact research of mixture raw components characteristics on the low-temperature composites structure formation during the sintering process. The obtained results showed that the structure determination of initial compacts obtained after thermal destruction of the polymer binder lets quantify the concentrations of main components and the refractory crystalline product of thermal destruction. Accounting for the distribution of thermal destruction refractory product allows us to refine the forecast of thermal stresses in the matrix of sintered composite. The presented results can be considered as a basis for optimization of initial compositions of multilayer low-temperature composites obtained by additive technologies.

  7. Impacts of Temperature Disparity on Surface Modification of Short Jute Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Reshmi; Choudhury, P. L.; Pandey, K. M.

    2017-08-01

    Chase for manufacturing composite materials without negotiating on the physio-mechanical performance has been prevailing since long. Short jute fiber-reinforced epoxy based composites are prepared and their mechanical properties have been analyzed. The fibers are peroxide-silane treated under varying conditions of temperature from low to high. Results display that the jute composites set at higher temperature values indicate higher values of mechanical properties compared to those synthesized under lower temperature range. The same can be cited for liquid retaining capacity.

  8. High Temperature Joining and Characterization of Joint Properties in Silicon Carbide-Based Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Advanced silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites are being developed for a wide variety of high temperature extreme environment applications. Robust high temperature joining and integration technologies are enabling for the fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped components. The development of a new joining approach called SET (Single-step Elevated Temperature) joining will be described along with the overview of previously developed joining approaches including high temperature brazing, ARCJoinT (Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology), diffusion bonding, and REABOND (Refractory Eutectic Assisted Bonding). Unlike other approaches, SET joining does not have any lower temperature phases and will therefore have a use temperature above 1315C. Optimization of the composition for full conversion to silicon carbide will be discussed. The goal is to find a composition with no remaining carbon or free silicon. Green tape interlayers were developed for joining. Microstructural analysis and preliminary mechanical tests of the joints will be presented.

  9. Ignition Temperature of Magnesium Powder and Pyrotechnic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen-Guang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Min, Li

    2014-07-01

    Using potassium nitrate, strontium nitrate, and potassium perchlorate as the oxidizing agents, the ignition and combustion behaviors of magnesium powders with different specific surface area were studied. The ignition temperature (Te) was extrapolated using a differential thermal analyzer, and the pyrotechnic spontaneous reaction temperature (Ts) was inferred from the temperature curve by inflection point analysis. The results showed that Ts has much better reproducibility than the extrapolated Te in characterizing the ignition of the pyrotechnic formulations. Increasing the specific surface area of the magnesium powder resulted in decreased Ts of the pyrotechnics.

  10. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brian Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg grating (FBG temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  11. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R Brian; Joyce, Peter; Mechtel, Deborah

    2017-01-27

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  12. Impact of the thermal scattering law of H in H2O on the isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX fuel lattices in cold operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotta Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the thermal scattering law of hydrogen in light water to isothermal temperature reactivity coefficients for UOX and MOX lattices was studied in the frame of the MISTRAL critical experiments carried out in the zero power reactor EOLE of CEA Cadarache (France. The interpretation of the core residual reactivity measured between 6 °C to 80 °C (by step of 5 °C was performed with the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI4®. The nuclear data from the JEFF-3.1.1 library were used in the calculations. Three different thermal scattering laws of hydrogen in light water were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the MISTRAL calculations. The thermal scattering laws of interest were firstly those recommended in JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and also that recently produced at the atomic center of Bariloche (CAB, Argentina with molecular dynamic simulations. The present work indicates that the calculation-to-experimpental bias is −0.4 ± 0.3 pcm/°C in the UOX core and −1.0 ± 0.3 pcm/°C in the MOX cores, when the JEFF-3.1.1 library is used. An improvement is observed over the whole temperature range with the CAB model. The calculation-to-experimpental bias vanishes for the UOX core (−0.02 pcm/°C and becomes close to −0.7 pcm/°C for the MOX cores. The magnitude of these bias have to be connected to the typical value of the temperature reactivity coefficient that ranges from −5 pcm/°C at Begining Of Cycle (BOC up to −50 pcm/°C at End Of Cycle (EOC, in PWR conditions.

  13. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  14. Elevated Temperature Behavior of Glass and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    reactor condition, porosity of final product and the total processing time can also be predicted- The analytical results of the second model indicate...and Tsu-Wei Chou, "Three-Dimensional Transient Interlaminar Thermal Stresses In Angle-Ply Composites", Journal of Applied Mechinics , VoL 10, 1154-1163

  15. Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    classes of materials, half-Heusler intermetallic bulk nanocomposites and bismuth -telluride based nanocomposites; • Complete structural and...measurements K. Stokes Physics/AMRI Bismuth telluride/metallic nanoparticle composites, transport measurements J. Wiley Chemistry/AMRI Chemical...as inclusions for nanocomposites. Here, the nanoparticles are synthesized by sol-gel chemistry using hafnium(IV) tert-butoxide and ammonium hydroxide

  16. Thermomechanical properties of zirconium tungstate/hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) composites for low-temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulichev, Anton G.; Alcock, Ben; Tiwari, Avinash; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.

    2016-12-01

    Rubber compounds for pressure sealing application typically have inferior dimensional stability with temperature fluctuations compared with their steel counterparts. This effect may result in seal leakage failures when subjected to decreases in temperature. Composites of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and zirconium tungstate as a negative thermal expansion filler were prepared in order to control the thermal expansivity of the material. The amount of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) was varied in the range of 0 to about 40 vol%. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), bulk modulus, uniaxial extension and compression set properties were measured. The CTE of the ZrW2O8-filled HNBR decreases with the filler content and it is reduced by a factor of 2 at the highest filler concentration used. The filler effect on CTE is found to be stronger when HNBR is below the glass transition temperature. The experimental thermal expansion data of the composites are compared with the theoretical estimates and predictions given by FEA. The effect of ZrW2O8 on the mechanical characteristics and compression set of these materials is also discussed.

  17. Numerical evaluation of the coefficients of thermal expansion of fibers in composite materials using a lamina-scale cost function with quasi-analytical gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hyuk [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Charpentier, Jean Baptiste [École Nationale Supérieur des Mines de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Étienne (France); Sohn, Dong Woo [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of fibers in composite materials that contain microstructures are numerically evaluated using a lamina-scale cost function with quasi-analytical gradients. To consider the effects of fiber arrangements and local defects, such as interface debonding and voids, a variety of representative volume elements are modeled with a number of finite element meshes. Then, the CTEs of fibers are evaluated by minimizing a lamina-scale cost function that represents the difference between the measured CTEs and the computed CTEs by means of a computational homogenization scheme for the composite lamina. The descent direction of the cost function is obtained using quasi-analytical gradients that take partial derivatives from prediction models, such as the Schapery model and Hashin model defined in an explicit manner, which accelerates the minimization procedure. To verify the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of accuracy and efficiency, the CTEs of constituents calculated using the proposed scheme in a unidirectional composite lamina are compared with experimental values reported in the literature. Furthermore, the convergence behavior of the proposed scheme with quasi-analytical gradients is also investigated and compared with other minimization methods.

  18. High-temperature tensile strength of near-stoichiometric SiC/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironaka, K.; Nozawa, T.; Hinoki, T.; Igawa, N.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Kohyama, A.

    2002-12-01

    In an attempt to characterize mechanical properties of near-stoichiometric SiC/SiC composites, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in air and at elevated temperature under mild oxidizing gases atmosphere. SiC/SiC composites were fabricated by forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration method using two-dimensional fabrics of carbon coated near-stoichiometric Tyranno™SA fibers. Tensile tests were conducted on composites with two types of lay-up schemes using edge-loading small specimens. The effect of lay-up orientation on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of composites were also examined. Tensile strength of composite was slightly decreased at 1573 K, while it retained approximately 80% of the strength at room temperature. Porosity dependence on elastic modulus was clearly exhibited.

  19. High-temperature tensile strength of near-stoichiometric SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hironaka, K. E-mail: keisuke@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nozawa, T.; Hinoki, T.; Igawa, N.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L.L.; Kohyama, A

    2002-12-01

    In an attempt to characterize mechanical properties of near-stoichiometric SiC/SiC composites, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in air and at elevated temperature under mild oxidizing gases atmosphere. SiC/SiC composites were fabricated by forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration method using two-dimensional fabrics of carbon coated near-stoichiometric Tyranno SA fibers. Tensile tests were conducted on composites with two types of lay-up schemes using edge-loading small specimens. The effect of lay-up orientation on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of composites were also examined. Tensile strength of composite was slightly decreased at 1573 K, while it retained approximately 80% of the strength at room temperature. Porosity dependence on elastic modulus was clearly exhibited.

  20. Influence of ethanol and temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baleiras Couto, M.M.; Huis in 't Veld, J.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile of Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains, isolated from different sources, after growth at increasing concentrations of ethanol and/or decreasing temperatures were determined. Differences in fatty acid composition between Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains at standard

  1. Reactive Processing and Co-Extrusion of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Faenza, Italy. Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are a unique class of materials with melting temperatures in excess of 3000’C. The borides ...composites with silicon carbide (SiC) and molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2) were examined. Two main approaches were pursued: 1) the use of reactive processing...Diboride- Molybdenum Disilicide Ceramics," pp. 299-308 in Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites IX, Ceramic Transactions, Volume 153, ed. by N.P. Bansal, J.P

  2. The Determination of the Magnetoelectric Coupling Coefficient in Ferroelectric–Ferromagnetic Composite Based on PZT–Ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkowska J.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W niniejszej pracy określono współczynnik sprzężenia magnetoelektrycznego na podstawie pomiarów temperaturowych zależności przenikalności dielektrycznej, wykonanych dla multiterroikowego kompozytu. Materiałem badań był ferroelektrycz.no- terromagnetyczny kompozyt powstały na bazie PZT i ferrytu. Przebadano temperaturowe zależności przenikalności dielek- trycznej (e dla kilku różnych częstotliwości pola pomiarowego. Z pomiarów dielektrycznych określono temperaturę przemiany fazowej z fazy ferroelektrycznej do fazy paraelektrycznej. Do teoretycznego opisu temperaturowych zależności stałej dielek- trycznej zastosowano hamiltonian Alcantary. Gheringa i Janssena. Do badania własności dielektrycznych multiterroikowego kompozytu, hamiltonian ten został przedstawiony w przybliżeniu średniego pola. Bazując na pomiarach dielektrycznych oraz teoretycznych rozważaniach określono wartość współczynnika sprzężenia magnetoelektrycznego.

  3. Continuously tunable temperature coefficient of resistivity in antiperovskite AgN1-xCxMn3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Tong, P.; Lin, S.; Wang, B. S.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The antiperovskite intermetallic compounds AgN1-xCxMn3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) have been synthesized. As x increases, the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) above room temperature decreases monotonically and finally changes the sign from positive to negative above x = 0.1. Meanwhile, the temperature range is gradually broadened. For x = 0.07, TCR is ˜3.1 ppm/K between 280 K and 375 K. Both the resistivity and its slope are insensitive to the external magnetic field, indicating an insignificant contribution from magnetic scattering or short-range magnetic ordering to the observed low-TCR. As manifested by the Hall effect, the charge carrier density in the paramagnetic state for x = 0.15 is reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with that for x = 0. The reduction of carrier density and the enhancive disorders when x increases was proposed to be responsible for the decrease in TCR and its sign switch.

  4. Elevated Temperature Behavior of Metal-Matrix Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    in the absence of axial shear. The one dimensional stress- strain relation may be written in the Ramberg - Osgood form PT PT m-l T T =G l( + ( -T) (3...relations in terms of the initial yield stresses TTo and TAo’ the Ramberg - Osgood parameters sT’ m, sA and n and the elastic shear moduli GT and GA. We... Ramberg - Osgood parameters for that temperature. Thus, if the shear stress-strain relations at temperature are ex- pressed as 23 + 2 ( - -23 - 2GT (W

  5. Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fiber Bragg grating embedded in a composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Berggren, S.; Zhu, Y.; Han, M.; Huang, H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a fiber Bragg gating (FBG) sensor that can be surface mounted for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements. By embedding a conventional FBG sensor in a composite laminate, local birefringence is introduced, which causes the bandwidth of the FBG spectrum to vary with strain as well as temperature. As such, temperature and strain can be simultaneously determined from two FBG spectral parameters, i.e. the spectral bandwidth and the Bragg wavelength. Techniques for improving the spectrum of the FBG-composite sensor and for inversely determining the strain and temperature from the measured FBG spectral parameters are discussed. Thermal–mechanical testing of the FBG-composite sensor was carried out to validate the sensor performance. The measurement errors, within one standard deviation, for the strain and temperature measurements were found to be ±62 με and ±1.94 °C, respectively.

  6. Temperature induced changes in the heterocyst glycolipid composition of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauersachs, T.; Stal, L.J.; Grego, M.; Schwark, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the heterocyst glycolipid (HG) composition of the diazotrophic heterocystous cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. strain CCY9613 and Nostoc sp. strain CCY9926 grown at 9, 12, 16, 20 and 24 °C. Both strains contained an overall similar composition of heterocyst

  7. A comparative study of 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance in multiwall and single-wall carbon nanotube bolometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongtao; Kamal, Rayyan; Wu, Judy Z

    2011-07-01

    The 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are investigated in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film bolometers since both affect the bolometer detectivity directly. A comparison is made between the MWCNT film bolometers and their single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) counterparts. The intrinsic noise level in the former has been found at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in the latter, which outweighs the moderately lower TCR absolute values in the former and results in higher bolometer detectivity in MWCNT bolometers. Interestingly, reduced noise and enhanced TCR can be obtained by improving the inter-tube coupling using thermal annealing in both SWCNT and MWCNT films, suggesting much higher detectivity may be achieved via engineering the inter-tube coupling.

  8. Liquid-phase diffusion bonding: Temperature effects and solute redistribution in high temperature lead-free composite solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Choquette, Stephanie [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-05-17

    Liquid-phase diffusion bonding (LPDB) is being studied as the primary phenomena occurring in the development of a high temperature lead-free composite solder paste composed of gas-atomized Cu-10Ni, wt.% (Cu-11Ni, at.%) powder blended with Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni-0.01Ge (Sn-1.3Cu-0.1Ni-0.02Ge, at.%) Nihon-Superior SN100C solder powder. Powder compacts were used as a model system. LPDB promotes enhanced interdiffusion of the low-melting alloy matrix with the solid Cu-10Ni reinforcement powder above the matrix liquidus temperature. The initial study involved the effective intermetallic compound (IMC) compositions and microstructures that occur at varying reflow temperatures and times between 250-300°C and 30-60s, respectively. Certain reflow temperatures encourage adequate interdiffusion to form a continuous highly-conductive network throughout the composite solder joints. The diffusion of nickel, in particular, has a disperse pattern that foreshadows the possibility of a highly-conductive low-melting solder that can be successfully utilized at high temperatures.

  9. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Kusai; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pulpal temperature rise induced during the polymerization of flowable and non-flowable composites using light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen (quartz-tungsten-halogen) light-curing units (LCUs). Five flowable and three non-flowable composites were examined. Pulpal temperature changes were recorded over 10 min in a sample primary tooth by a thermocouple. A conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen source and two LEDs, one of which was programmable, were used for light curing the resin composites. Three repetitions per material were made for each LCU. There was a wide range of temperature rises among the materials (P Temperature rises ranged between 1.3 degrees C for Filtek Supreme irradiated by low-power LED and 4.5 degrees C for Grandio Flow irradiated by high-power LED. The highest temperature rises were observed with both the LED high-power and soft-start LCUs. The time to reach the exothermic peak varied significantly between the materials (P temperature rise is related to both the radiant energy output from LCUs and the polymerization exotherm of resin composites. A greater potential risk for heat-induced pulp damage might be associated with high-power LED sources. Flowable composites exhibited higher temperature rises than non-flowable materials, because of higher resin contents.

  10. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  11. Fatigue of a 3D Orthogonal Non-crimp Woven Polymer Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. P.; Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Tension-tension fatigue behavior of two polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was studied at elevated temperature. The two PMCs consist of the NRPE polyimide matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, but have different fiber architectures: the 3D PMC is a singly-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite and the 2D PMC, a laminated composite reinforced with 15 plies of an eight harness satin weave (8HSW) fabric. In order to assess the performance and suitability of the two composites for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all elevated temperature tests performed in this work, one side of the test specimen was at 329 °C while the other side was open to ambient laboratory air. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the two composites was investigated and the tensile properties measured for both on-axis (0/90) and off-axis (±45) fiber orientations. Elevated temperature had little effect on the on-axis tensile properties of the two composites. The off-axis tensile strength of both PMCs decreased slightly at elevated temperature. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at elevated temperature at a frequency of 1.0 Hz with a ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress of R = 0.05. Fatigue run-out was defined as 2 × 105 cycles. Both strain accumulation and modulus evolution during cycling were analyzed for each fatigue test. The laminated 2D PMC exhibited better fatigue resistance than the 3D composite. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Post-test examination under optical microscope revealed severe delamination in the laminated 2D PMC. The non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite offered improved delamination resistance.

  12. Fatigue of a 3D Orthogonal Non-crimp Woven Polymer Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. P.; Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.

    2017-02-01

    Tension-tension fatigue behavior of two polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was studied at elevated temperature. The two PMCs consist of the NRPE polyimide matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, but have different fiber architectures: the 3D PMC is a singly-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite and the 2D PMC, a laminated composite reinforced with 15 plies of an eight harness satin weave (8HSW) fabric. In order to assess the performance and suitability of the two composites for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all elevated temperature tests performed in this work, one side of the test specimen was at 329 °C while the other side was open to ambient laboratory air. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the two composites was investigated and the tensile properties measured for both on-axis (0/90) and off-axis (±45) fiber orientations. Elevated temperature had little effect on the on-axis tensile properties of the two composites. The off-axis tensile strength of both PMCs decreased slightly at elevated temperature. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at elevated temperature at a frequency of 1.0 Hz with a ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress of R = 0.05. Fatigue run-out was defined as 2 × 105 cycles. Both strain accumulation and modulus evolution during cycling were analyzed for each fatigue test. The laminated 2D PMC exhibited better fatigue resistance than the 3D composite. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Post-test examination under optical microscope revealed severe delamination in the laminated 2D PMC. The non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite offered improved delamination resistance.

  13. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  14. Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gopal, AK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of polymer composites using a curing process requires the specification of the temperature as a function of time, i.e., the temperature profile. It is of utmost importance that the selected profile satisfies a number of criteria which...

  15. Viscosity-based high temperature waste form compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    High-temperature waste forms such as iron-enriched basalt are proposed to immobilize and stabilize a variety of low-level wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The combination of waste and soil anticipated for the waste form results in high SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} producing a viscous melt in an arc furnace. Adding a flux such as CaO to adjust the basicity ratio (the molar ratio of basic to acid oxides) enables tapping the furnace without resorting to extreme temperatures, but adds to the waste volume. Improved characterization of wastes will permit adjusting the basicity ratio to between 0.7 and 1.0 by blending of wastes and/or changing the waste-soil ratio. This minimizes waste form volume. Also, lower pouring temperatures will decrease electrode and refractory attrition, reduce vaporization from the melt, and, with suitable flux, facilitate crystallization. Results of laboratory tests were favorable and pilot-scale melts are planned; however, samples have not yet been subjected to leach testing.

  16. High temperature coefficient of resistance of low-temperature-grown VO{sub 2} films on TiO{sub 2}-buffered SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kenichi, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Suzuki, Megumi; Wado, Hiroyuki [DENSO Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Shibuya, Keisuke, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Sawa, Akihito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The introduction of a TiO{sub 2} buffer layer significantly improved the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), a measure of the sharpness of the metal–insulator transition, for films of VO{sub 2} grown on SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates at growth temperatures below 670 K. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements revealed that polycrystalline VO{sub 2} films were formed on the TiO{sub 2}-buffered substrates at low temperatures below 600 K, whereas amorphous films were formed at these temperatures on SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates without a TiO{sub 2} buffer layer. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that the TiO{sub 2} buffer layer enhanced the grain growth of VO{sub 2} films at low growth temperatures. The VO{sub 2} films grown at 600 K on TiO{sub 2}-buffered substrates showed a large TCR of more than 80%/K as a result of the improved crystallinity and grain size of the VO{sub 2} films. Our results provide an effective approach toward the integration of VO{sub 2}-based devices onto Si platforms at process temperatures below 670 K.

  17. Engineering method of calculation temperature fields and thermal stresses in the initial stage of radiation convection heating (cooling body with variable heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing solutions of radiant and convective heating (cooling body problems at the initial stage at unsteady heat transfer coefficients and temperatures are rather cumbersome. The purpose of this work is getting simpler dependencies. Decisions are based on the analysis of relations between the cause (heat flow and the effect (surface temperature in the initial period of heating. Two simple and effective engineering methods of calculation of unsteady temperature fields, and axial thermal stresses at the initial stage of heating (cooling of body of canonical form for both convection and radiation heat transfer at variable ambient temperature and environmental factors have been developed. Some of the solutions are generic in nature, which allows significantly reducing the number of variables and thus using the graphical method of problem solving. The formulas for calculating the bulk and central temperature in the initial stage are provided; other researchers of nonlinear heat conduction problems did not usually do this. It has been found that the axial thermal stresses are determined entirely by the heat flow on the surface. The adequacy of the developed techniques is based on five cases of calculation of heating (cooling plates under various conditions of its thermal loading. It is shown that the error in determining the surface temperature does not exceed 6%, and that the developed method can be used up to Fourier numbers Fo<0.4

  18. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  19. Influence of process temperature on AZ91 matrix microstructure of composites with aluminosilicate glass cenospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamieniak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AZ91 magnesium alloy matrix composites with aluminosilicate glass cenospheres were fabricated successfully by the pressure infiltration method. Different parameters of the fabrication process, such as temperature of the mould and temperature of cenospheres were used. Influence of the temperature variation of particular parameters on the microstructure has been investigated. The microstructure of AZ91 magnesium alloy and fabricated composites have been investigated by light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed that AZ91 magnesium alloy consists of -Mg matrix and eutectic -Mg17Al12 and a small amount of discontinuous precipitates of  phase. The microstructure of matrix AZ91 in fabricated composites is characterized also by the presence of -Mg matrix and eutectic -Mg17Al12. However, in the composite fabricated byusingthe mould heated to 500 °C more discontinuous precipitates of  phase were observed.

  20. Effects of sintering temperatures on microstructure and wear resistance of iron-silica composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Adibah; Mamat, Othman

    2015-07-01

    Ceramic particle reinforced into metal base matrix composite has been reported to produce higher strength and wear resistance than its alloys because the ceramic phases can strongly resist abrasion. In this study the iron matrix was reinforced with two compositions of 20 and 25 wt. % fine silica particles. The compacts were produced by using powder metallurgy fabrication technique and sintered at three sintering temperatures: 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Effects of various sintering temperatures on microstructures and the composite's wear resistance were evaluated via optical and SEM microscopy. Both compositions were also subjected to ball-on-disk wear test. The results showed the reinforcement weight fraction of 20 wt.% of silica and sintering temperature at 1100°C exhibited better result, in all aspects. It possessed higher mechanical properties, it's microstructure revealed most intact reinforcing region and it displayed higher wear resistance during wear test.

  1. Impact of temperature and nitrogen composition on the growth of GaAsPN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Keisuke; Mugikura, Shun; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Goto, Masaya; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the impact of temperature and nitrogen-composition on the growth mode and crystallinity of GaAsPN alloys. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction results combined with transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that maintaining two-dimensional (2-D) growth required higher temperatures when nitrogen composition increased. Outside the 2-D growth windows, stacking faults and micro-twins were preferentially formed at {1 1 1} B planes rather than at the {1 1 1} A planes and anomalous growth was observed. The photoluminescence spectra of GaAsPN layers implies that the higher temperature growth is effective for reducing the nitrogen-related point defects.

  2. Robust Joining and Assembly of Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of CMC components require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in melt infiltrated and CVI Sic matrix composites will be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed.

  3. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

    2014-01-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  4. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  5. Electrolysis test of different composite membranes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    sprayed directly onto the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). For the anode side GDL a tantalum covered stainless steel felt was used, whereas on the cathode side, the GDLs were wet-proofed carbon cloth. The composite membranes were prepared from commercial available Nafion® membranes. They were treated over.......7V for a Nafion® 115 treated with both H3PO4 and ZrP. Variations of the GDL on the anode side were tested. Different kinds of stainless steel felts were examined to find the best candidate for the final electrolysis setup. The felts differed in both tread thickness and overall thickness. The felts...... were covered with tantalum to protect the stainless steel. The felts were covered either once or twice to obtain different thicknesses of the tantalum. Experiments with PTFE treated felt was also preformed to examine if wet-proofing the anode GDL would improve the overall performance of the cell...

  6. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-15

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  7. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  8. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Ramakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  9. Phytoplankton responses to temperature increases are constrained by abiotic conditions and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striebel, Maren; Schabhüttl, Stefanie; Hodapp, Dorothee; Hingsamer, Peter; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    Effects of temperature changes on phytoplankton communities seem to be highly context-specific, but few studies have analyzed whether this context specificity depends on differences in the abiotic conditions or in species composition between studies. We present an experiment that allows disentangling the contribution of abiotic and biotic differences in shaping the response to two aspects of temperature change: permanent increase of mean temperature versus pulse disturbance in form of a heat wave. We used natural communities from six different sites of a floodplain system as well as artificially mixed communities from laboratory cultures and grew both, artificial and natural communities, in water from the six different floodplain lakes (sites). All 12 contexts (2 communities × 6 sites) were first exposed to three different temperature levels (12, 18, 24 °C, respectively) and afterward to temperature pulses (4 °C increase for 7 h day(-1)). Temperature-dependent changes in biomass and community composition depended on the initial composition of phytoplankton communities. Abiotic conditions had a major effect on biomass of phytoplankton communities exposed to different temperature conditions, however, the effect of biotic and abiotic conditions together was even more pronounced. Additionally, phytoplankton community responses to pulse temperature effects depended on the warming history. By disentangling abiotic and biotic effects, our study shows that temperature-dependent effects on phytoplankton communities depend on both, biotic and abiotic constraints.

  10. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-02

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  11. Artificial Composites for High Temperature Applications; A Review (Composites Artificiels Destines a des Applications a Haute Temperature; Un Expose),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    metallique et c~ramique pouvant servir dans des applications comportant des temp-ratures ilevies, comme dans les turbines i gaz . On s’intiresse surtout...the hot sections of gas turbine engines. Emphasis is placed on developments which have occured since 1975. An attempt is made to assess the current...Page I Projected use temperatures of : a) turbine blade alloys, b) turbine disc alloys and c) turbine vane materials

  12. Effect of calcination temperature on formaldehyde oxidation performance of Pt/TiO2 nanofiber composite at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feiyan; Le, Yao; Cheng, Bei; Jiang, Chuanjia

    2017-12-01

    Catalytic oxidation at room temperature over well-designed catalysts is an environmentally friendly method for the abatement of indoor formaldehyde (HCHO) pollution. Herein, nanocomposites of platinum (Pt) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers with various phase compositions were prepared by calcining the electrospun TiO2 precursors at different temperatures and subsequently depositing Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on the TiO2 through a NaBH4-reduction process. The phase compositions and structures of Pt/TiO2 can be easily controlled by varying the calcination temperature. The Pt/TiO2 nanocomposites showed a phase-dependent activity towards the catalytic HCHO oxidation. Pt/TiO2 containing pure rutile phase showed enhanced activity with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 16.6 min-1 (for a calcination temperature of 800 °C) as compared to those containing the anatase phase or mixed phases. Density functional theory calculation shows that TiO2 nanofibers with pure rutile phase have stronger adsorption ability to Pt atoms than anatase phase, which favors the reduction of Pt over rutile phase TiO2, leading to higher contents of metallic Pt in the nanocomposite. In addition, the Pt/TiO2 with rutile phase possesses more abundant oxygen vacancies, which is conducive to the activation of adsorbed oxygen. Consequently, the Pt/rutile-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better catalytic activity towards HCHO oxidation at room temperature.

  13. Effect of Particle Size on Wear of Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Pandey, Ratandeep; Panwar, Ranvir Singh; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-11-01

    The present paper describes the effect of particle size on operative wear mechanism in particle reinforced aluminum alloy composites at elevated temperatures. Two composites containing zircon sand particles of 20-32 μm and 106-125 μm were fabricated by stir casting process. The dry sliding wear tests of the developed composites were performed at low and high loads with variation in temperatures from 50 to 300 °C. The transition in wear mode from mild-to-severe was observed with variation in temperature and load. The wear at 200 °C presented entirely different wear behavior from the one at 250 °C. The wear rate of fine size reinforced composite at 200 °C at higher load was substantially lower than that of coarse size reinforced composite. Examination of wear tracks and debris revealed that delamination occurs after run in wear mode followed by formation of smaller size wear debris, transfer of materials from the counter surfaces and mixing of these materials on the contact surfaces. The volume loss was observed to increase with increase in load and temperature. Composite containing bigger size particles exhibit higher loss under similar conditions.

  14. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of Aluminium-Aluminium Oxide Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composites of different weight percentage reinforcements of aluminium oxide were processed at different sintering temperatures. In order to prepare these composite specimens, conventional powder metallurgy (PM method was used. Three types specimens of different compositions such as 95%Al+5%Al2O3, 90%Al+10%Al2O3 and 85%Al+15%Al2O3 were prepared under 20 Ton compaction load. Then, all the specimens were sintered in a furnace at two different temperatures 550oC and 580oC. In each sintering process, two different heating cycles were used. After the sintering process, it was observed that undistorted flat specimens were successfully prepared for all the compositions. The effects of sintering temperature and weight fraction of aluminium oxide particulates on the density, hardness and microstructure of Al-Al2O3 composites were observed. It was found that density and hardness of the composite specimens were significantly influenced by sintering temperature and percentage aluminium oxide reinforcement. Furthermore, optical microscopy revealed that almost uniform distribution of aluminium oxide reinforcement within the aluminium matrix was achieved.

  15. High-temperature oxidation behavior of carbon-carbon composites in the field of combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushitani, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Arai, Norio [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effects of equivalence ratio and temperature on oxidation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites (C/C composites) were studied experimentally. Rates of weight loss of C/C composites in the field of combustion with methane-air were measured. The experiments were conducted at equivalence ratios of 0 = 0.8 and 1.3, and at temperatures of 1200, 1300 and 1400{degrees}C. It was found that higher equivalence ratio and lower temperature of methane-air were more effective in protecting C/C composites from oxidation. Changes of chemical structure on surface of C/C composites before and after experiment were also observed by Raman spectroscopy to evaluate chemically the degree of oxidation. The two peaks of Raman spectra from C/C composites appeared strongly at 1580 cm{sup -1} and weakly at 1360 cm{sup -1}. The ratios of the peak intensities at their wave numbers, R=I{sub 1360}/I{sub 1580}, which may indicate the degree of degradation of carbonaceous materials were measured. The dependence of equivalence ratio and temperature on R-value was similar to those on behavior of weight loss. This suggested that R-value obtained by Raman spectroscopy may be useful for estimation of the degree of oxidation. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte exhibits the Arrhenius relationship, which represents the hopping of ions in polymer composites. Cation and anion diffusion coefficients are evaluated using the Trukhan model. The transference number and enhanced conductivity imply that the charge ...

  17. Thermal buffering performance of composite phase change materials applied in low-temperature protective garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xueying; Liu, Rangtong; Cao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is increasingly being applied in the manufacturing of functional thermo-regulated textiles and garments. This paper investigated the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCMs which are suitable for the application in functional low-temperature protective garments. First, according to the criteria selecting PCM for functional textiles/garments, three kinds of pure PCM were selected as samples, which were n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and n-eicosane. To get the adjustable phase change temperature range and higher phase change enthalpy, three kinds of composite PCM were prepared using the above pure PCM. To evaluate the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCM samples, the simulated low-temperature experiments were performed in the climate chamber, and the skin temperature variation curves in three different low temperature conditions were obtained. Finally composite PCM samples’ thermal buffering time, thermal buffering capacity and thermal buffering efficiency were calculated. Results show that the comprehensive thermal buffering performance of n-octadecane and n-eicosane composite PCM is the best.

  18. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraldo Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Materials and Methods: Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46. A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk of 1.0 mm thickness obtained from bovine tooth. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer mold of 2.0 mm was adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite light curing. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test (HMV-2000, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey′s test (a = 0.05. Results: For both composites, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the top surface hardness; however, PAC promoted statistically lower (P < 0.05 Knoop hardness number values in the bottom. The mean temperature increase showed no significant statistical differences (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The standardized radiant exposure showed no influence on the temperature increase of the composite, however, showed significant effect on hardness values.

  19. Influence of cookies composition on temperature profiles and qualitative parameters during baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Kožul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During baking of bakery products temperature of baking, temperature profiles, moisture content, volume and colour changes are strongly coupled. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of the cookies composition on temperature profiles and quality parameters (width and thickness, colour formation and textural properties: hardness, fracturability and work of breaking force during baking process. Composition of cookies differs due to flour type and initial moisture content. Cookies were baked at 205 °C and temperature was measured in the centre of samples which were 7 mm thick with a 60 mm diameter. The results of temperature profiles of the cookies during baking have shown the same trend for all of the 18 samples. Samples with the higher initial water content have lower values of total colour difference and also significantly affect textural properties.

  20. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Subodh, E-mail: subodhphy@gmail.com; Sharma, Preetam; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K. [Thin Film and Membrane Science Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur- 302004 (India); Sharma, S. S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh [Centre for Converging Technology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  1. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  2. Proton conducting, composite sulfonated polymer membrane for medium temperature and low relative humidity fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Won; Kang, Na Rae; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Cho, Doo Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Won Hyo; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic-organic composite membranes are fabricated using zirconium acetylacetonate nanoparticles and biphenol-based sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) as an inorganic, proton conducting nanomaterial and a polymer matrix, respectively. An amphiphilic surfactant (Pluronic®) induces distribution of the inorganic nanoparticles over the entire polymer membrane. The composite membranes are thermally stable up to 200 °C. Zirconium acetylacetonate improves inter-chain interactions and the robustness of polymer membranes resulting in excellent membrane mechanical properties. In addition, composite membranes show outstanding proton conductivity compared to that of the pristine membrane at medium temperatures (80-120 °C) and low relative humidity (<50%) conditions. This improvement is due to the presence of acetylacetonate anions, which bind water molecules and act as an additional proton conducting site and/or medium. Therefore, the composite membranes significantly outperform the pristine membrane in fuel cell performance tests at medium temperatures and low relative humidity.

  3. Wear Response of Aluminium 6061 Composite Reinforced with Red Mud at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the investigations on dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium metal matrix composite at room and elevated temperature. Aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with red mud are prepared by stir casting method. The experiments are planned using Taguchi technique. An orthogonal array, analysis of variance and signal to noise ratio are used to check the influence of wear parameters like temperature, percentage of reinforcement, mesh size, load, sliding distance and sliding speed on dry sliding wear of composites. The optimal testing parameters are found and their values are calculated which are then compared with predicted values. A reasonable agreement is found between predicted and actual values. The model prepared in the present work can be effectively used to predict the specific wear rate of the composites.

  4. Modeling the thermo-mechanical behavior of a woven ceramic matrix composite at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Enakoutsa, Koffi; Hammi, Youssef; Crawford, John E.; Abraham, Joseph; Magallanes, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at extending a model developed by Ladeveze to capture thermal expansion and coupled thermo-mechanical phenomena, as such as those encountered at elevated and extreme temperatures. In the new model a linear thermal expansion coefficient is added to equation of state to account for the thermal to mechanical coupling effects. The mechanical to thermal effects are introduced by assuming an internal heat generation due to residual strain effects. The constitutive relations of the ...

  5. Composition-independent mean temperature measurements in laminar diffusion flames using spectral lineshape information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, D.; Narayanaswamy, V.

    2017-10-01

    Temperature is an important thermochemical property in combusting flows that holds the key to uncovering pollutant formation, flame extinction, and heat release. In a practical combustion environment, the local composition is typically unknown, which hinders the effectiveness of many traditional non-intrusive thermometry techniques. This study aims to offset this limitation by developing a laser-based thermometry technique that does not require prior knowledge of the local composition. Two methods for obtaining temperature are demonstrated in this work, both of which make use of the spectral line broadening of an absorbing species (krypton) seeded into the flow. In the first method, the local Doppler broadening is extracted from an excitation scan to yield the corresponding temperature, while the second method utilizes compositional scaling information of the collisional broadening and collisional shift to determine the temperature. Both methods are demonstrated by measuring the radial temperature profile of a steady laminar CH4/N2 diffusion flame with an air co-flow. The accuracy of the temperature measurements obtained using both methods are evaluated using corresponding temperature profiles determined from computational simulations.

  6. Lipid composition of wine strains of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Rozès, Nicolas; Querol, Amparo; Guillamón, José Manuel

    2012-04-16

    Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. That is the case of the cryophilic yeast Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Several studies have revealed the importance of the lipid composition in the yeast adaptive response at different environmental temperatures. Thus we analysed the lipid composition of three S. kudriavzevii strains during growth at optimum (28°C) and low temperature (12°C), and compared them with different commercial strains; one S. cerevisiae strain and two hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Our results show a general increase in the medium-chain fatty acid, triacylglyceride, sterol esters and squalene and a decrease in the chain length of the fatty acids, in phosphatidic acid and in the ratio phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine at low temperatures. The S. kudriavzevii strains had higher percentages of medium-chain fatty acids and squalene and shorter chain lengths regardless of the growth temperature. This differential lipid composition may partially explain the better adaptation of S. kudriavzevii at low temperatures. We have also confirmed the better fermentation performance of the strains of this species at low temperature, being an appealing alternative to S. cerevisiae for cold fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High temperature formability of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composites fabricated by stir-casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outstanding mechanical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs make them ideal reinforcement for mass production of composites. In this research, the composites were fabricated by stir-casting method. GNPs were added in 1.5 and 3.0 wt.% into Mg–3wt.% Al–1wt.% Zn (AZ31 magnesium alloy. As cast ingots were preheated for one hour and extruded at 350 °C with extrusion ratio of 5.2:1. As extruded AZ31-GNPs composites were micro-structurally characterized with X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers micro-hardness of synthesized materials was investigated both in parallel and perpendicular to extrusion directions. Room temperature mechanical testing revealed that with increasing GNP's content, tensile fracture strain was remarkably increased without significant compromise in tensile strength. Furthermore, as extruded AZ31-3GNPs composites were subjected to tensile testing at temperatures ranging from 75 °C to 300 °C with initial strain rate of 2 × 10−3 s−1 to evaluate high temperature formability of composite. It was found that like CNTs, GNPs also have the potential to sustain tensile strength at high temperatures.

  8. Measurement of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for semivolatile organic compounds as a function of temperature: Application to passive air sampler monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana Paula; Harner, Tom; Eng, Anita

    2017-05-01

    Polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients (KPUF-air) for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 10 alkyl-substituted PAHs, 4 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dibenzothiophene were measured as a function of temperature over the range 5 °C-35 °C, using a generator column approach. Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPUF-air, kJ/mol) were determined from the slopes of log KPUF-air versus 1000/T (K), and have an average value of 81.2 ± 7.03 kJ/mol. The log KPUF-air values at 22 °C ranged from 4.99 to 7.25. A relationship for log KPUF-air versus log KOA was shown to agree with a previous relationship based on only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and derived from long-term indoor uptake study experiments. The results also confirm that the existing KOA-based model for predicting log KPUF-air values is accurate. This new information is important in the derivation of uptake profiles and effective air sampling volumes for PUF disk samplers so that results can be reported in units of concentration in air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Miyazaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr and niobium (Nb co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1−x−yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.

  10. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kenichi, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Shibuya, Keisuke, E-mail: kenichi-miyazaki@denso.co.jp, E-mail: k.shibuya@aist.go.jp; Sawa, Akihito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Suzuki, Megumi; Sakai, Kenichi [Denso Corporation, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ichi [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr) and niobium (Nb) co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V{sub 1−x−y}Cr{sub x}Nb{sub y}O{sub 2} films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V{sub 0.90}Cr{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.04}O{sub 2} film grown on a TiO{sub 2}-buffered SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO{sub 2}-based uncooled bolometers.

  11. Changes in graphite coefficient of thermal expansion due to fast neutron irradiation and applied stress in the temperature range 300C-1200C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, B.J. [AEA Technology Plc, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Arai, Taketoshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); McLachlan, N. [Nuclear Electric Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Changes in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in nuclear graphite are important because they are related to dimensional change and the thermal stressing of graphite moderated reactor graphite components. The CTE of nuclear graphite can be modified by fast neutron irradiation, stress and creep strain. Various theories exist which relate the CTE of the individual graphite crystallite to the CTE of the polycrystalline graphite through a structure factor. This structure factor is a function of the graphite crystal orientation and the accommodation available due to local crystal porosity. The porosity can be taken up by raising the temperature of the graphite, which causes the lattice `c` spacing to expand, or by fast neutron irradiation induced crystal dimensional changes. It is also proposed that this porosity can be taken up by stressing unirradiated graphite, although there appears to be some evidence from Japan that the anisotropy of graphite is also altered by pre-stress. Annealing of creep strain specimens has shown that not all of irradiation induced creep strain is responsible for modifying CTE. 12 refs.

  12. Joining and Assembly of Silicon Carbide-based Advanced Ceramics and Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics and fiber reinforced composites are under active consideration for use in wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, space transportation, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of ceramic and composite component require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. In addition these components have to be joined or assembled with metallic sub-components. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing o high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics (CVD and hot pressed), and C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of joints in silicon carbide ceramics and CVI and melt infiltrated SiC matrix composites will,be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of ceramics and composites well be discussed.

  13. The Influence Of The Temperature Of Liquid Nitrogen On The Physical Properties Of Powder Magnetic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapelski D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the physical properties of soft magnetic iron composites and Nd-Fe-B bonded permanent magnets measured at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen. The objective of research was a determination of influence of liquid nitrogen temperature on the magnetic properties, resistivity and mechanical properties of different powder magnetic materials. Research was carried out for three powder materials: soft magnetic, i.e. Somaloy 700, AncorLam and hard magnetic powder MQP-B used for production of bonded magnets. Composite specimens were prepared by compression moulding technology.

  14. Temperature rise due to mechanical energy dissipation in undirectional thermoplastic composites(AS4/PEEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgious, I. T.; Sun, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The history of temperature rise due to internal dissipation of mechanical energy in insulated off-axis uniaxial specimens of the unidirectional thermoplastic composite (AS4/PEEK) has been measured. The experiment reveals that the rate of temperature rise is a polynomial function of stress amplitude: It consists of a quadratic term and a sixth power term. This fact implies that the specific heat of the composite depends on the stretching its microstructure undergoes during deformation. The Einstein theory for specific heat is used to explain the dependence of the specific heat on the stretching of the microstructure.

  15. Biochemical composition and sediment temperature in relation to the reproductive cycle in the Lugworm arenicola marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, E.; Howie, D. I. D.

    Sediment temperature, and the biochemical composition of lugworm tissues, have been studied in relation to the reproductive cycle. Frequency distributions of oocyte diameter were used as an index of reproductive maturity. There is some evidence that the annual cycle of sediment temperature has a role in controlling events in the reproductive cycle. Fluctuations in biochemical composition are due chiefly to the storage and utilisation of reserve materials in the reproductive process. Protein and lipid in the gut tissue are the main reserves used in gametogenesis.

  16. Evaluation of CVI SiC/SiC Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, D.; Almansour, A.; Smith, C.; Gorican, D.; Phillips, R.; Bhatt, R.; McCue, T.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are candidate materials for various high temperature turbine engine applications because of their high specific strength and good creep resistance at temperatures of 1400 C (2552 F) and higher. Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMC) incorporating Sylramic-iBN SiC fiber were evaluated via fast fracture tensile tests (acoustic emission damage characterization to assess cracking behavior), tensile creep testing, and microscopy. The results of this testing and observed material behavior degradation mechanisms are reviewed.

  17. Effect of matrix composition, sphere size and hormone concentration on diffusion coefficient of insulin for controlled gastrointestinal delivery for diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde Cendon, Fernando; Matos Jorge, Regina Maria; Weinschutz, Regina; Mathias, Alvaro Luiz

    2017-12-12

    Oral insulin administration is limited due to its degradation by proteases. The hormone was encapsulated in spheres made of either pure calcium alginate (ALG) or its association with whey protein isolate (WPI-ALG) in order to minimise loss in the stomach region while allowing liberation in the maximum absorption area, located in the intestine. Diffusion coefficients for both matrix compositions were determined in vitro for gastric pH (5.88 and 10.26 × 10-12 m2 s-1) and intestinal pH (21.11 and 79.29 × 10-12 m2 s-1). Higher initial insulin concentrations and lower diameters accelerated its release, confirming Fickian behaviour. The analytic model exhibited a good fit in most cases. Computer simulations revealed that ALG spheres are more convenient for oral administration because they release more insulin in the intestine than the WPI-ALG ones, thus supporting its therapeutic viability for the purpose of reducing stress in those who depend on insulin.

  18. TEMPERATURE HETEROGENEITY OF TRAVELLING FIRE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITE STEEL-CONCRETE FLOOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Horová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to follow modern trends in contemporary building architecture, which is moving off the limits of current fire design models, assumption of homogeneous temperature conditions used for structural fire analysis needs to be revised. In this paper fire dynamics of travelling fire is investigated experimentally by conducting fire test in two-storey experimental building. To evaluate the impact of travelling fire on the mechanical behaviour of a structure, the spatial and temporal evolution of the gas temperature calculated in NIST code FDS, which was validated to experimental measurements, is applied to the composite floor of dimensions 9.0 m by 9.0 m. Mechanical behaviour of the composite slab highly affected by regions of high temperatures and areas with only elevated temperatures is solved in code Vulcan. To highlight the severity of spreading fire causing non-uniform temperature conditions, which after-effects differ from traditional methods, a comparison of both methods is introduced. The calculation of mechanical behaviour of the composite floor is repeated in a series of three different thermal loading cases. Results of all cases are then compared in terms of vertical displacement and axial force in several positions of the composite floor.

  19. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  20. Modelling the evolution of composition-and stress-depth profiles in austenitic stainless steels during low-temperature nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    . In the present paper solid mechanics was combined with thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics to simulate the evolution of composition-depth and stress-depth profiles resulting from nitriding. The model takes into account a composition-dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite, short range...

  1. Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea. Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) of 48 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda; Bradshaw, Clare (Dept. of Systems Ecology, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    In this study the elemental composition of biota, water and sediment from a shallow bay in the Forsmark region have been determined. The report presents data for 48 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, I, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Ra, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) in all major functional groups of the coastal ecosystem (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic microalgae, macroalgae, macrophytes, benthic herbivores, benthic filter feeders, benthic detrivores, planktivorous fish, benthic omnivorous fish, carnivorous fish, dissolved and particulate matter in the water and the sediment) during spring 2005. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of ecological properties and processes that govern uptake and transfer of trace elements, heavy-metals, radionuclides and other non-essential elements/contaminants in coastal environments of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the data was collected to provide site-specific Bioconcentration Factors (BCF), Biomagnification Factors (BMF), partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) and element ratios (relative to carbon) for use in ongoing SKB safety assessments. All these values, as well as the element concentration data from which they are derived, are presented here. As such, this is mainly a data report, although initial interpretations of the data also are presented and discussed. Reported data include element concentrations, CNP-stoichiometry, and multivariate data analysis. Elemental concentrations varied greatly between organisms and environmental components, depending on the function of the elements, and the habitat, ecosystem function, trophic level and morphology (taxonomy) of the organisms. The results show for instance that food intake and metabolism strongly influence the elemental composition of organisms. The three macrophytes had quite similar elemental composition (despite their taxonomic

  2. Low Temperature Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Biss, Emily J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of cryogenic fuels (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) in current space transportation vehicles, in combination with the proposed use of composite materials in such applications, requires an understanding of how such materials behave at cryogenic temperatures. In this investigation, tensile intralaminar shear tests were performed at room, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen temperatures to evaluate the effect of temperature on the mechanical response of the IM7/8551-7 carbon-fiber/epoxy-resin system. Quasi-isotropic lay-ups were also tested to represent a more realistic lay-up. It was found that the matrix became both increasingly resistant to microcracking and stiffer with decreasing temperature. A marginal increase in matrix shear strength with decreasing temperature was also observed. Temperature did not appear to affect the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond.

  3. Influence of temperature during grain filling on gluten viscoelastic properties and gluten protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shiori; Böcker, Ulrike; Moldestad, Anette; Tosi, Paola; Shewry, Peter R; Mosleth, Ellen F; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low to moderate temperatures on gluten functionality and gluten protein composition. Four spring wheat cultivars were grown in climate chambers with three temperature regimes (day/night temperatures of 13/10, 18/15 and 23/20 °C) during grain filling. The temperature strongly influenced grain weight and protein content. Gluten quality measured by maximum resistance to extension (Rmax ) was highest in three cultivars grown at 13 °C. Rmax was positively correlated with the proportion of sodium dodecyl sulfate-unextractable polymeric proteins (%UPP). The proportions of ω-gliadins and D-type low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) increased and the proportions of α- and γ-gliadins and B-type LMW-GS decreased with higher temperature, while the proportion of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) was constant between temperatures. The cultivar Berserk had strong and constant Rmax between the different temperatures. Constant low temperature, even as low as 13 °C, had no negative effects on gluten quality. The observed variation in Rmax related to temperature could be explained more by %UPP than by changes in the proportions of HMW-GS or other gluten proteins. The four cultivars responded differently to temperature, as gluten from Berserk was stronger and more stable over a wide range of temperatures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Temperature-dependence of creep behaviour of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of temperature, over a clinically relevant range, on the creep behaviour of a set of conventional and flowable resin-composites including two subgroups having the same resin matrix and varied filler loading. Eight dental resin-composites: four flowable and four conventional were investigated. Stainless steel split moulds (4 mm × 6 mm) were used to prepare cylindrical specimens for creep examination. Specimens were irradiated in the moulds in layers of 2mm thickness (40s each), as well as from the radial direction after removal from the moulds, using a light-curing unit with irradiance of 650 mW/cm(2). A total of 15 specimens from each material were prepared and divided into three groups (n=5) according to the temperature; Group I: (23°C), Group II: (37°C) and Group III: (45°C). Each specimen was loaded (20 MPa) for 2h and unloaded for 2h. Creep was measured continuously over the loading and unloading periods. At higher temperatures greater creep and permanent set were recorded. The lowest mean creep occurred with GS and GH resin-composites. Percentage of creep recovery decreased at higher temperatures. At 23°C, the materials exhibited comparable creep. At 37°C and 45°C, however, there was a greater variation between materials. For all resin-composites, there was a strong linear correlation with temperature for both creep and permanent set. Creep parameters of resin-composites are sensitive to temperature increase from 23 to 45°C, as can occur intra-orally. For a given resin matrix, creep decreased with higher filler loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials; Outils de caracterisation thermophysique et modeles numeriques pour les composites thermostructuraux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorrette, Ch

    2007-04-15

    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  6. High-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and study of the thermal properties of ZrW2O8/Cu composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fang, Leiming; Chen, Bo; He, Duanwei

    2016-04-01

    ZrW2O8/Cu composites with high thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) are desired to be utilized in thermal management applications. The ZrW2O8/Cu composites were synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions and annealing method. We found that the thermal conductivity and CTE of the ZrW2O8/Cu composites could be controlled through suitable HPHT sintering. In addition, cyclic heating-cooling is crucial to recrystallize the composite and reduce the thermal mismatch stress to produce a composite with high thermal conductivity and a low CTE. Under HPHT (3 GPa, 500 °C) conditions and annealing at 700 °C, the thermal conductivity and CTE of the ZrW2O8/Cu composites have been determined directly to 165 W/(m k) and 6.8×10-6 K-1. Our results help to understand the structural origins of the high thermal conductivity and low CTE, and aid in designing ZrW2O8/Cu composites with improved performance.

  7. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  8. Evaluation of temperature rise with different curing methods and units in two composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The majority of commercial curing units in dentistry are of halogen lamp type. The new polymerizing units such as blue LED are introduced in recent years. One of the important side effects of light curing is the temperature rise in composite resin polymerization which can affect the vitality of tooth pulp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature rise in two different composite resins during polymerization with halogen lamps and blue LED. Materials and Methods: This experimental study investigated the temperature rise in two different composites (Hybrid, Tetric Ceram/Nanofilled, Filteke Supreme of A2 shade polymerized with two halogen lamps (Coltolux 50, 350 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 in standard, 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp, 100-1030 mW/cm2 operating modes and one blue LED with the intensity of 620 mW/cm2. Five samples for each group were prepared and temperature rise was monitored using a k-type thermocouple. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Light curing units and composite resins had statistically significant influence on the temperature rise (p<0.05. Significantly, lower temperature rise occurred in case of illumination with Coltolux 50.There was no significant difference between Optilux 501 in standard curing mode and LED. Tetric Ceram showed higher temperature rise. Conclusion: According to the results of this study the high power halogen lamp and LED could produce significant heat which may be harmful to the dental pulp.

  9. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Volume 2. Ceramic Matrix Composites, Fiber Processing and Properties, and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-02

    The obvious problems with this approach to a high melting point, creep resistance and service life are 9, n to corre for poble m temperaththe eed ct...divided by the frequency of measurement (in radians per sec ). Figure 4 shows the data for one of the load/temperature histories plotted as real (in...measurements are an exceedingly useful complement to the creep results, especially at short timescales (less than I sec .) for which creep results are

  10. Elevated temperature strength, aging response and creep of aluminum matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.B.; Amateau, M.F.; House, M.B.; Meinert, K.C.; Nisson, P. (Pennsylvania State University, State College (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement on the high-temperature performance of aluminum matrix composites was investigated using samples of 6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with planar-random graphite fibers, SiC whiskers, or alumina particles, which were aged at 150 and 200 C for up to 500 hrs. As indicated by the results of microhardness tests, all specimens exhibited accelerated aging response, with the response depending on the characteristics of the reinforcement. Both the graphite-fiber- and SiC-whisker-reinforced composites showed a substantially increased strengths over that of the wrought 6061 Al at all temperatures. The graphite-fiber- and the SiC-whisker-reinforced composites were found to retain their tensile strength and stiffness in the overaged condition of the matrix. The whisker-reinforced composite showed significant resistance to creep at temperatures between 232 and 350 C under stresses of up to 100 MPa, while the particulate composite had a moderate increase in creep resistance. 51 refs.

  11. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  12. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute/Biopolymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Laursen, Louise Løcke; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    properties of two biomass-based polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose acetate (CA), as a function of ambient temperature in the range from 5 to 80C. Tests were done for neat polymers and for jute fiber/biopolymer composites. Micromechanical models were applied to back-calculate the reinforcement...... efficiency of the jute fibers. The elastic modulus of neat PLA is constant until a temperature of about 45C, after which it is decreased rapidly. For neat CA, the elastic modulus is almost constant in the whole temperature range. The maximum stress of the neat biopolymers is consistently reduced...

  13. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Polysiloxanes contain a silicon oxycarbide backbone when pyrolized up to 1000C. Polycarbosilane, an organosilicon polymer, contain a silicon-carbon backbone; around 1200C, beta-SiC begins to crystallize. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Basalt is a naturally occurring material found in volcanic rock. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. Thermal and mechanical testing includes oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing.

  14. Pressure and temperature induced electrical resistance change in nano-carbon/epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J. T.; Buschhorn, S. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Schulte, K.; Fiedler, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the changes of electrical resistance of the carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube (CNT) filled epoxy composites upon compression, swelling and temperature variation. For all samples we observe a decrease of electrical resistance under compression, while an increase of

  15. Phytoplankton biomass, composition and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kehoe, M.J.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63 N in the northeast Atlantic

  16. THE TEMPERATURE AND COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE OF THE MODULATION WAVE VECTOR OF INCOMMENSURATE CALAVERITE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALZUWEIT, K; HOVESTAD, A; MEEKES, H; DEBOER, JL

    Single crystals of incommensurately modulated calaverite, with and without silver were grown and analysed using different techniques. The modulation wave vectors of some well characterised samples were measured as a function of both composition and temperature. The thus obtained results were

  17. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

  18. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooremalen, J.A.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

  19. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...

  20. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin...

  1. The pigment composition of Phaeocystis antarctica (Haptophyceae) under varius conditions of light, temperature, salinity, and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Stefels, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The pigment composition of Phaeocystis antarctica was monitored under various conditions of light, temperature, salinity, and iron. 19'-Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (Hex-fuco) always constituted the major light-harvesting pigment, with remarkably stable ratios of Hex-fuco-to-chl a under the various

  2. High temperature C/C–SiC composite by liquid silicon infiltration: a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The ceramic matrix carbon fibre (CMC) reinforced composite has received great attention for use in aerospace engineering. In aerospace, the atmosphere is highly oxidative and experiences very high temperature. In addition to this, the materials require high thermal stability and high abrasion resistance in that ...

  3. High temperature C/C–SiC composite by liquid silicon infiltration: a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ceramic matrix carbon fibre (CMC) reinforced composite has received great attention for use in aerospace engineering. In aerospace, the atmosphere is highly oxidative and experiences very high temperature. In addition to this, the materials require high thermal stability and high abrasion resistance in that atmosphere.

  4. Temperature effects on an acoustic emission based SHM system - Applied to composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargalui, A.; Martinez, M.J.; Zarouchas, D.; Pant, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the effect of temperature variations and the position of the piezoelectric sensors with respect to fiber orientation angle, as it relates to acoustic emission wave velocity in composite structures. A hybrid panel consisting of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber (UDCF)

  5. Advanced processing of lead titanate-polyimide composites for high temperature piezoelectric sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanbareh, H.; Hegde, M.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance polymer-ceramic composites are presented as promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric sensing applications. lead-titanate (PT) ceramic particulate is incorporated into a polyetherimide polymer matrix, (PEI) at a specific volume fraction of 20% in the forms of 0-3 and

  6. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Wang, Xin; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Polysiloxanes contain a silicon oxycarbide backbone when pyrolized up to 1000 deg C. Polycarbosilane, an organosilicon polymer, contain a silicon-carbon backbone; around 1200 deg C, Beta-SiC begins to crystallize. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Basalt is a naturally occurring material found in volcanic rock. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. Thermal and mechanical testing includes oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing.

  7. Cure Cycle Effect on High-Temperature Polymer Composite Structures Molded by VARTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khattab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of cure cycle effect on carbon-fiber reinforced high-temperature polymer composite structures molded by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM. The molded composite structure consists of AS4-8 harness carbon-fiber fabrics and a high-temperature polymer (Cycom 5250-4-RTM. Thermal and resin cure analysis is performed to model the cure cycle of the VARTM process. The temperature and cure variations with time are determined by solving the three-dimensional transient energy and species equations within the composite part. Several case studies were investigated by the developed analytical model. The same cases were also experimentally investigated to determine the ultimate tensile strength for each case. This study helps in developing a science based technology for the VARTM process for the understanding of the process behavior and the effect of the cure cycle on the properties of the molded high-temperature polymer composites.

  8. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C/SiC composites, new approaches and coating systems to the selection of protective coatings materials were examined. The focus of future work was on optimization by further multilayer coating systems and the anti-oxidation ability of C/SiC composites at temperatures up to 2073 K or higher in water vapor.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  10. Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Sumberejo Kenaf Fiber Composites with Fiber Content Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivia, S. L.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, Seto

    2017-05-01

    The use of synthetic fibers as reinforcement in composites has disadvantage which are unsustainable and an adverse impact on the environment. An alternative reinforcement for composites is natural fiber. Polypropylene and Sumberejo kenaf fibers were used respectively as the matrix and reinforcement. The aim of this research was to obtain the optimum tensile properties and deflection temperature with the variation of kenaf fiber fractions. Polypropylene/kenaf fiber composites were fabricated by hot press method. The kenaf fiber was soaked in NaOH solution before being used as the reinforcement and polypropylene was extruded before being used as the matrix. The weight fractions were varied to produce composites and pristine polypropylene samples were also prepared for comparison. The optimum tensile strength, modulus and deflection temperature were found in the composites with the 40 wt% kenaf fiber fraction with an increase up to 80% and 170% compared to the pristine polypropylene with the values of (60.3 ± 4,3) MPa and (159.1 ± 1,8) °C respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope observation results in the fracture surface of the composites with the 40 wt% fiber fraction showed a relatively good bonding interface between fibers and the matrix and the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failures.

  11. Flexural Fatigue Behavior of an EBC CMC Composite System In Air and Steam at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha; Bur, Michael; Harder, Bryan; Gorican, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Both coated and uncoated SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) samples were tested in flexure under sustained peak low cycle fatigue (SPLCF) conditions in air or steam at elevated temperatures. The SiCSiC composites were reinforced with 2-D plies of boron nitride coated Hi-Nicalon Type-S SiC fibers which were woven as 5 harness satin (5HS) cloth. The composites were densified by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) followed by slurry melt infiltration (SMI). A multilayer barium strontium aluminosilicate (BSAS) coating was applied to the samples by a plasma spray method. Fatigue loading limits were determined from monotonic flexure tests at room temperature and 1200oC. Stress levels under the proportional limit of the composite material were selected for the SPLCF tests. After cyclic testing, the composites were evaluated to determine crack propagation and failure modes in the coated and uncoated composites. Microstructural examination was used to identify coating degradation and failure modes of the EBCCMC system.

  12. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Oliveira; Farias, Natália Coelho de; Medeiros, Luciano Marcelo de Mello; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Specimens (8 x 2 x 2 mm) were obtained according to the factors: I) Composites (3M ESPE): Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II) Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III) Energy dose: 24 J/cm(2) and 48 J/cm(2). After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37 ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S) and flexural modulus (E) were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures.

  13. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira CHAVES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Material and Methods: Specimens (8x2x2 mm were obtained according to the factors: I Composites (3M ESPE: Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III Energy dose: 24 J/cm2 and 48 J/cm2. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S and flexural modulus (E were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures.

  14. Fracture Characteristics of C/SiC Composites for Rocket Nozzle at Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sihn, Ihn Cheol; Lim, Byung Joo [Dai-Yang Industries Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In a solid propulsion system, the rocket nozzle is exposed to high temperature combustion gas. Hence, choosing an appropriate material that could demonstrate adequate performance at high temperature is important. As advanced materials, carbon/silicon carbide composites (C/SiC) have been studied with the aim of using them for the rocket nozzle throat. However, when compared with typical structural materials, C/SiC composites are relatively weak in terms of both strength and toughness, owing to their quasi-brittle behavior and oxidation at high temperatures. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of this material before using it in this application. This study presents an experimental method to investigate the fracture behavior of C/SiC composite material manufactured using liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) method at elevated temperatures. In particular, the effects of major parameters, such as temperature, loading, oxidation conditions, and fiber direction on strength and fracture characteristics were investigated. Fractography analysis of the fractured specimens was performed using an SEM.

  15. Temperature-driven shifts in the epibiotic bacterial community composition of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Stephanie B; Neulinger, Sven C; Knecht, Henrik; Friedrichs, Anette K; Wahl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The thallus surface of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus is covered by a specific biofilm community. This biofilm supposedly plays an important role in the interaction between host and environment. So far, we know little about compositional or functional shifts of this epibiotic bacterial community under changing environmental conditions. In this study, the response of the microbiota to different temperatures with respect to cell density and community composition was analyzed by nonculture-based methods (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene). Redundancy analysis showed that despite high variability among host individuals temperature accounted for 20% of the variation in the bacterial community composition, whereas cell density did not differ between groups. Across all samples, 4341 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity level were identified. Eight percent of OTUs were significantly correlated with low, medium, and high temperatures. Notably, the family Rhodobacteraceae increased in relative abundance from 20% to 50% with increasing temperature. OTU diversity (evenness and richness) was higher at 15 °C than at the lower and higher temperatures. Considering their known and presumed ecological functions for the host, change in the epibacterial community may entail shifts in the performance of the host alga. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. How surface composition of high milk proteins powders is influenced by spray-drying temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, C; Morand, M; Sanchez, C; Tehrany, E Arab; Jacquot, M; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R; Scher, J

    2010-01-01

    High milk proteins powders are common ingredients in many food products. The surface composition of these powders is expected to play an essential role during their storage, handling and/or final application. Therefore, an eventual control of the surface composition by modifying the spray-drying temperature could be very useful in the improvement of powder quality and the development of new applications. For this purpose, the influence of five spray-drying temperatures upon the surface composition of the powders was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The major milk proteins were studied: native micellar casein and native whey, both more or less enriched in lactose. The results show a surface enrichment in lipids for all the powders and in proteins for many powders. Whatever the drying temperature, lipids and proteins are preferentially located near the surface whereas lactose is found in the core. This surface enrichment is also highly affected by the spray-drying temperature. More lipids, more proteins and less lactose are systematically observed at the surface of powders spray-dried at lower outlet air temperatures. The nature of proteins is also found essential; surface enrichment in lipids being much stronger for whey proteins containing powders than for casein containing powders. Additionally, we found a direct correlation between the lipids surface concentration and the wetting ability for the 25 powders studied.

  17. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  18. Numerical modelling of a HgTlI discharge lamp: transport coefficients and thermodynamic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troudi, L [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ahmed, R Ben [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Aissi, S El [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Charrada, K [IPEIM, Route De Kairouan, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Zissis, G [Centre De Physique Des Plasmas Et De Leurs Applications De Toulouse (CPAT), Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Rte De Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sassi, M [ENIM, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2004-02-21

    A LTE chemical model is developed to determine the plasma composition and transport coefficients of a thallium iodide discharge. Collision integrals, diffusion coefficients, thermal and electrical conductivity as well as conductance have been computed as functions of temperature at different atomic ratios using the Chapman Enskog theory. This chemical model is then coupled with a one-dimensional time-dependent fluid model to describe the temperature variation and electrical behaviour of the lamp.

  19. Low-temperature behavior of graphite-tin composite anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, F.; Mancini, M.; Dsoke, S.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R. [Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie, Sezione Chimica, Universita di Camerino, Via S. Agostino, 1, I-62032 Camerino (MC) (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The challenge of increasing low-temperature performances of anodes for Li-ion batteries is faced by preparing graphite-tin composite electrodes. The anodes are prepared by mixing partially oxidized graphite with nanometric Sn powder or by coating the oxidized graphite electrode with a thin Sn layer. Long-term cycling stability and intercalation/deintercalation performances of the composite anodes in the temperature range 20 C to -30 C are evaluated. Kinetics is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in the attempt to explain the role of Sn in reducing the overall electrode polarization at low temperature. Two possible mechanisms of action for bulk metal powder and surface metal layer are proposed. (author)

  20. Mechanical behavior of a triaxially braided textile composite at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mourid, Amine

    The work presented in this thesis aimed at understanding the influence of viscoelasticity, temperature and aging on the mechanical behaviour of a textile composite using experimental, analytical and numerical tools. The studied material was a triaxially braided composite with fibres in the 0°/+/-60° directions. The yarns were made of carbon fibres, embedded in an MVK10 temperature resistant polyimide matrix. The first step consisted in developing analytical and numerical frameworks to predict viscoelastic behaviour in textile composites. Simulations were performed for both braided and woven textile architectures, at different stiffness contrasts and yarns volume fractions. The analytical framework accuracy was verified with the help of the numerical simulations. An important finding of this study was that the analytical framework, combined with the Mori-Tanaka model, leads to relatively accurate predictions for both the permanent and transient parts. Therefore, the authors believe that the Mori-Tanaka model with an adjusted aspect ratio to take into account yarn curvature is reliable for predicting viscoelastic behaviour in textile composites. The textile composite that was studied in this project did not display viscoelastic behaviour, due to the high yarn volume fraction. However, the framework remains relevant for higher temperature applications or lower yarn volume fractions. The second step was to investigate the temperature effect on the tensile behavior of the carbon/MVK10 triaxially braided composite material studied in this project. To achieve this goal, a series of room and high temperature tensile tests on both matrix and composite samples were performed. The tests on composite samples were performed along two different material directions at the maximum service temperature allowed by the Federal Aviation Administration for aircraft components, and a dedicated replication technique was developed in order to track crack densities as a function of

  1. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  2. Low Working-Temperature Acetone Vapor Sensor Based on Zinc Nitride and Oxide Hybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fengdong; Yuan, Yao; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; Yang, Minghui

    2016-06-01

    Transition-metal nitride and oxide composites are a significant class of emerging materials that have attracted great interest for their potential in combining the advantages of nitrides and oxides. Here, a novel class of gas sensing materials based on hybrid Zn3 N2 and ZnO composites is presented. The Zn3 N2 /ZnO (ZnNO) composites-based sensor exhibits selectivity and high sensitivity toward acetone vapor, and the sensitivity is dependent on the nitrogen content of the composites. The ZnNO-11.7 described herein possesses a low working temperature of 200 °C. The detection limit (0.07 ppm) is below the diabetes diagnosis threshold (1.8 ppm). In addition, the sensor shows high reproducibility and long-term stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Measurement of the time-temperature dependent dynamic mechanical properties of boron/aluminum composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicarlo, J. A.; Maisel, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple flexural vibration test is developed for accurate measurement of the low-strain dynamic modulus and damping capacity of B/Al composite bar specimens from -200 C to over 500 C. The specimens are prepared from 8-ply unidirectional panels containing 50 volume percent fibers composed of 203-micron commercial boron-on-tungsten fibers. The basic test technique consists of the forced flexural vibration of the composite bar specimens at their two lowest free-free symmetrical resonant modes in a high-vacuum cryostat furnace. Specimen damping is determined from oscilloscope photographs of the free decay obtained after simultaneously removing the resonant drive signal and grounding the vibration-drive electrode. The availability of time-temperature dynamic data coupled with the predictive accuracy of composite theory suggests a future potential for using such data in examining environmental effects on composite macrostructure and microstructure.

  4. Fiber creep rate and high-temperature properties of SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Jones, R.H.; Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Results of studies aimed at relating the fiber creep rate to the subcritical crack growth rate and fracture properties of SiC/SiC composites have demonstrated that the crack growth rate in a bulk composite is controlled by the fiber creep rate. This result was demonstrated for Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon fiber reinforced material where a 50--75 c shift in the creep strength of the fiber resulted in a similar shift in the crack growth rate of the composite. Irradiation enhanced creep of SiC fibers and matrix must also be considered in the performance assessment of SiC/SiC composites. The shape of the displacement versus time curve for composites containing Hi-Nicalon fibers were similar to those of the previously tested materials, containing Ceramic-grade fibers, that exhibited subcritical crack growth controlled by time-dependent relaxation of the fiber-bridging stresses due to fiber creep. The crack velocity in the CG-C composites at 1100 C in argon was very close to that of the Hi-C materials at 1150--1175 C, this roughly corresponds to the temperature differential shown by DiCarlo et al. to obtain the same relaxation in 1 hour bend stress relaxation (BSR) tests in the two fibers. This supports the hypothesis that subcritical crack growth in SiC/SiC composites is controlled by fiber creep.

  5. Temperature-Compensated Force/Pressure Sensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Trong Dinh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a multi-walled carbon nanotube epoxy composite sensor for force and pressure sensing in the range of 50 N–2 kN. A manufacturing procedure, including material preparation and deposition techniques, is proposed. The electrode dimensions and the layer thickness were optimized by the finite element method. Temperature compensation is realized by four nanocomposites elements, where only two elements are exposed to the measurand. In order to investigate the influence of the filler contents, samples with different compositions were prepared and investigated. Additionally, the specimens are characterized by cyclical and stepped force/pressure loads or at defined temperatures. The results show that the choice of the filler content should meet a compromise between sensitivity, temperature influence and noise behavior. At constant temperature, a force of at least 50N can be resolved. The measurement error due to the temperature influence is 150N in a temperature range of –20°C–50°C.

  6. Doped ceria-chloride composite electrolyte for intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Q.X.; Zhang, W.; Peng, R.R.; Peng, D.K.; Meng, G.Y.; Zhu, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)

    2002-03-01

    A kind of oxide-salt composite electrolyte, gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC)-LiCl-SrCl{sub 2}, prepared with hot-press technique, shows superior ionic conductivity, which is 2-10 times higher than that of GDC itself at the temperature range of 400-600C. More interestingly, not like the GDC electrolyte, which has some extent of electronic conduction under reducing atmosphere, the composite electrolyte is almost a pure ionic conductor, evidenced by the fuel cell's (FC) open circuit voltage (OCV) close to the theoretical one. The fuel cells based on this composite electrolyte show excellent power density output even at temperature as low as 500C (240 mW cm{sup -2} ) in spite of the relatively thick electrolyte (0.4 mm). Such high performance, in combination with its low cost in both raw materials and fabrication process, make this kind of composite electrolyte a good candidate electrolyte material for future ultra-low-cost intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells (IT-CMFCs)

  7. Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and hipped PM212: High temperature self-lubricating composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Bogdanski, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications.

  8. Self lubricating composites for medium temperatures in space based on polyimide SINTIMID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merstallinger, A.; Bieringer, H.; Kubinger, E.; Gaillard, L.; Brenner, J.; Mozdzen, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper is surveying the results of an ESA-project on a polyimide composite named "SINTIMID". The main target was to find a self lubricating composite (SLC) which is suitable for missions to the inner solar system, where operating temperatures up to 300°C in vacuum are expected. The paper comprises a short introduction into the requirements derived from ECSS for SLC material intended for use in journal bearings working in space. It covers a brief description of new equipments for medium temperatures "vacuum tribometer" and "Journal Bearing Test rig". The presented results will cover mainly the friction and wear behaviour and component test performance. The influences of parameters like load, speed, atmosphere and temperature are discussed and compared to other already known materials, e.g. Vespel SP3. The verification procedure included three phases: a screening on several compositions with different fillers and combinations, a detailed friction test campaign on two best compositions (15M and 30M) and a final bush testing on only the best (15M=15w% MoS2). All material properties in relation to ECSS E30 were verified. No objections to the requirements were identified. Finally, a recommendation for design of bushes was set up on the results.

  9. Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and HIPped PM212 - High temperature self-lubricating composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Bogdanski, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications.

  10. The Effect of Curing Temperature on the Fracture Toughness of Fiberglass Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas J.

    The curing reaction in a thermoset polymer matrix composite is often accelerated by the addition of heat in an oven or autoclave. The heat added increases the rate of the polymerization reaction and cross-linking in the material. The cure cycle used (temperature, pressure and time) can therefore alter the final material properties. This research focuses on how the curing temperature (250, 275, 300 °F) affects the yield strength and the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, GI, of a unidirectional S-2 glass epoxy composite. The test method that was used for the tension test was ASTM D3039 and the test method for the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, the double cantilever beam (DCB) test, was ASTM D5528. The DCB specimens were fabricated with a non-adhesive insert at the midplane of the composite that serves as the initiatior of the delamination. Opening forces were then applied to the specimen, causing the crack propagation. The results show that increasing the cure temperature by 50 °F increased the tensile strength by 10% (86.54 - 94.73 ksi) and decreased the fracture toughness 20% (506.23 - 381.31 J/m 2). Thus, the curing temperature can cause a trade-off between these two properties, which means that the curing cycle will need to be altered based on the intended use and the required material properties.

  11. Exogenous Nitrogen Addition Reduced the Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Respiration without Altering the Microbial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is changing in both load quantity and chemical composition. The load effects have been studied extensively, whereas the composition effects remain poorly understood. We conducted a microcosm experiment to study how N chemistry affected the soil microbial community composition characterized by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and activity indicated by microbial CO2 release. Surface and subsurface soils collected from an old-growth subtropical forest were supplemented with three N-containing materials (ammonium, nitrate, and urea at the current regional deposition load (50 kg ha-1 yr-1 and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30°C to detect the interactive effects of N deposition and temperature. The results showed that the additions of N, regardless of form, did not alter the microbial PLFAs at any of the three temperatures. However, the addition of urea significantly stimulated soil CO2 release in the early incubation stage. Compared with the control, N addition consistently reduced the temperature dependency of microbial respiration, implying that N deposition could potentially weaken the positive feedback of the warming-stimulated soil CO2 release to the atmosphere. The consistent N effects for the surface and subsurface soils suggest that the effects of N on soil microbial communities may be independent of soil chemical contents and stoichiometry.

  12. Effect of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Firdaus, A. Z. Ahmad; Azduwin, K.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites and its morphology of fractured surfaces are discussed. Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites were fabricated by using vacuum infusion method by arranging Napier fibres in between sheets of woven glass fibres. Napier and glass fibres were laminated with estimated volume ratios were 24 and 6 vol. %, respectively. The epoxy resin was used as matrix estimated to 70 vol. %. Specimens were tested to failure under tension at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (Instron) with a load cell 100 kN at four different temperatures of RT, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The morphology of fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows reduction in tensile strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in the temperature activates the process of diffusion, and generates critical stresses which cause the damage at first-ply or at the centre of the hybrid plate, as a result lower the tensile strength. The observation of FESEM images indicates that the fracture mode is of evolution of localized damage, from fibre/matrix debonding, matric cracking, delamination and fibre breakage.

  13. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  14. Effect of temperature and strain rate on compressive response of extruded magnesium nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behaviour of extruded magnesium-zinc oxide nano composite has been studied using hot compression test. The test was conducted in the temperature range of 250–400 °C and in the strain rate range of 0.01 to 1.5 s−1.The processing map was obtained using the power dissipation efficiency with the functions of temperature and strain rate. The workability and instability domains were observed in the processing map for a nano composite. The optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM images were used to confirm the formation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX, dynamic recovery (DRY and instability regions. The workability region of the composite was identified at a working temperature of 400 °C and the strain rate of 0.01 s−1 from the processing map. The instability regions were observed at higher strain rates (>0.1 s−1 and temperatures (250–400 °C.

  15. Bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin core: influence of temperature on silane coupling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Simamotos Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Rontani, Regina Maria Puppin; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air drying temperature and different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and composite resin core. The post surface was cleaned with alcohol and treated with different silane coupling agents, being three prehydrolyzed silanes [Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE)] and one two-component silane [Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply)]. Two post-silanization air drying temperatures, 23ºC and 60ºC, were applied. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the silanized post and filled with composite resin. Each bonded post provided 7 slices for push-out testing. Each slice was loaded to failure under compression at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott tests (α=0.05). Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean of the control group with that of each experimental group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured slices. For the 23ºC air drying temperature, the use of RelyX Ceramic Primer resulted in significantly lower bond strength than the other silane coupling agents, while the bond strength with Silane Coupling Agent was the highest of all groups. Only with Silane Coupling Agent, the bond strength for the 23ºC air drying temperature was significantly higher than that for 60ºC air drying. In conclusion, the use of warm air drying after silane application produced no increase in the bond strength between the fiber-reinforced composite post and the composite core. The two-component silane produced higher bond strength than all prehydrolyzed silanes when it was used with air drying at room temperature.

  16. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to

  17. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooremalen, J.A.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to

  18. Matrix free fiber reinforced polymeric composites via high-temperature high-pressure sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    2004-11-01

    A novel manufacturing process called high-temperature high-pressure sintering was studied and explored. Solid fiber reinforced composites are produced by consolidating and compacting layers of polymeric fabrics near their melting temperature under high pressure. There is no need to use an additional matrix as a bonding material. Partial melting and recrystallization of the fibers effectively fuse the material together. The product is called a "matrix free" fiber reinforced composite and essentially a one-polymer composite in which the fiber and the matrix have the same chemical composition. Since the matrix is eliminated in the process, it is possible to achieve a high fiber volume fraction and light weight composite. Interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix is very good due to the molecular continuity throughout the system and the material is thermally shapeable. Plain woven Spectra RTM cloth made of SpectraRTM fiber was used to comprehensively study the process. The intrinsic properties of the material demonstrate that matrix free SpectraRTM fiber reinforced composites have the potential to make ballistic shields such as body armor and helmets. The properties and structure of the original fiber and the cloth were carefully examined. Optimization of the processing conditions started with the probing of sintering temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Coupled with the information from structural, morphological and mechanical investigations on the samples sintered at different processing conditions, the optimal processing windows were determined to ensure that the outstanding original properties of the fibers translate into high ballistic performance of the composites. Matrix free SpectraRTM composites exhibit excellent ballistic resistance in the V50 tests conducted by the US Army. In the research, process-structure-property relationship is established and correlations between various properties and structures are understood. Thorough knowledge is

  19. Determination of Charge Component Composition in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. T.; Lebedeva, O. A.; Torbunov, S. S.

    2005-05-01

    A method for determining the component composition of the charge for the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of intermetallic compounds from the maximum value of the emitted heat in the combustion of thermit, which is required for melting the alloying components, is suggested. The mass composition of the alloying components is determined by solving a closed system of algebraic equations represented by regression equations derived from the results of physical experiment for obtaining specific properties of the intermetallic compound. Theoretical computations are partially confirmed by experimental results.

  20. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    %. For all samples a linear relation between Young's modulus and porosity was found. The temperature dependency of the mechanical properties of both as-sintered and reduced composites was investigated by IET up to 1200 degrees C. In the as-sintered state, first an increase and peak of stiffness coinciding...... increased above ca. 600 degrees C and was found to be very dependent on microstructure. Damage caused by redox cycling degraded the elastic properties of the composites. Degradation started linearly from 0.5 to 0.6% redox strain leading to macroscopic sample failures at about 2.5% dL/L-o. A simple continuum...

  1. Electrical resistance of CNT-PEEK composites under compression at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electrically conductive polymers reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs have generated a great deal of scientific and industrial interest in the last few years. Advanced thermoplastic composites made of three different weight percentages (8%, 9%, and 10% of multiwalled CNTs and polyether ether ketone (PEEK were prepared by shear mixing process. The temperature- and pressure-dependent electrical resistance of these CNT-PEEK composites have been studied and presented in this paper. It has been found that electrical resistance decreases significantly with the application of heat and pressure.

  2. Evaluation of High Temperature Composites Thermal Properties under Different Heat Flux Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Bahramian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal protection of structures in vehicles, at instantaneous high thermal shocks, would be more effective and economically feasible among other thermal protection methods using the passive heat shields especially charring the ablative composites. The most important limitations reported are lack of compiled knowledge on designing heat shield with optimal thickness under real conditions and high surface erosion rate and low mechanical strength of char layer of a composite created by ablation process. In this paper SiAlON ceramic composites, reinforced with short carbon fiber, are identified as high performance heat shields for challenging these limitations. Ablation rate and effective thermal diffusivity at different external heat fluxes are determined and calculated using oxyacetylene flame test and modeling of temperature distributions in ablation process for evaluation of thermal protection performance and effective thermal diffusivity of this composite, as a thermal protection system. The results of this work have indicated that the carbon fiber reinforced SiAlON ceramic composite can be considered as a high ablation heat shield. Under the same condition of ablation test, SiAlON ceramic composites reinforced by carbon fiber show higher ablation performance relative to other commercial carbon fiber reinforced composite heat shields. At 8500 and 5000 kWm-2 external heat flux the ablation rates of this composite are 0.075 and 0.026 mms-1, respectively. Also, at 2500 kWm-2 external heat flux and test duration time of less than 25 s, this composite displays an adequate thermal shock protection with maximum flexural strength loss of about 23.4 %.

  3. Fermentation temperature and wort composition influence on diacetyl and 2, 3-pentanedione contents in beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are important constituents of beer sensory properties. A new GC/MS method for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione content determination was developed. This method was applied for the determination of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione contents during beer fermentation (primary fermentation and maturation. Primary fermentations were carried out at different temperatures (8°C and 14°C. Primary fermentation temperature had a great influence on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione formation and reduction. Formation and reduction rates increased with the primary fermentation temperature increasment. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione contents also increased with the corn grits increasment. Fermentations were carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae pure culture, specially prepared for each fermentation. This GC/MS method for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione determination was valuable for analysing the influence of wort composition or fermentation conditions such as primary fermentation temperature on their formation and reduction.

  4. Effects of Variable Aspect-Ratio Inclusions on the Electrical Impedance of an Alumina Zirconia Composite at Intermediate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia composites containing either a high aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) hexagonal platelet alumina or an alumina low aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) spherical particulate was used to determine the effect of the aspect ratio on the temperature-dependent impedance of the composite material. The highest impedance across the temperature range of 373 to 1073 K is attributed to the grain boundary of the hexagonal platelet second phase in this alumina zirconia composite.

  5. Thermochemical Characterizations of Novel Vermiculite-LiCl Composite Sorbents for Low-Temperature Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To store low-temperature heat below 100 °C, novel composite sorbents were developed by impregnating LiCl into expanded vermiculite (EVM in this study. Five kinds of composite sorbents were prepared using different salt concentrations, and the optimal sorbent for application was selected by comparing both the sorption characteristics and energy storage density. Textural properties of composite sorbents were obtained by extreme-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM and an automatic mercury porosimeter. After excluding two composite sorbents which would possibly exhibit solution leakage in practical thermal energy storage (TES system, thermochemical characterizations were implemented through simulative sorption experiments at 30 °C and 60% RH. Analyses of thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC curves indicate that water uptake of EVM/LiCl composite sorbents is divided into three parts: physical adsorption of EVM, chemical adsorption of LiCl crystal, and liquid–gas absorption of LiCl solution. Energy storage potential was evaluated by theoretical calculation based on TGA/DSC curves. Overall, EVMLiCl20 was selected as the optimal composite sorbent with water uptake of 1.41 g/g, mass energy storage density of 1.21 kWh/kg, and volume energy storage density of 171.61 kWh/m3.

  6. The Effect of Temperature on Faceplate/Core Delamination in Composite/Titanium Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Kenneth M.; Marton, Balazs

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the delamination behavior of sandwich beams made of titanium core bonded to face-plates that consisted of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite. Nominally mode I behavior was considered at 23C and 180C, by making use of a specially reinforced double cantilever (DCB) specimens. The toughness of the bond between the faceplate and the core was determined on the basis of a beam on elastic foundation analysis. The specimen compliance, and toughness were all independent of temperature in these relatively short-term experiments. The fracture mechanism showed temperature dependence, due to the hygrothermal sensitivity of the adhesive.

  7. Adsorption of Molecular Gases on Silver/Carbon Nanotube Composites at Low Temperatures and Low Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barberio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study adsorption of molecular gases (N2, H2, O2, CH4, C2H4, and C2H6 on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and MWCNT doped with Ag at low temperatures (35 K and pressures (10−6 Torr using the temperature programmed desorption technique. Our results show that the desorption kinetics is of the first order; furthermore comparative measurements indicate that Ag/MWCNTs have an adsorption capacity higher than that of a pure sample suggesting that these composites are good candidates as gas cryosorbers for applications in cryopumps or sensor of latest generation.

  8. Dissipation of mechanical work and temperature rise in AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, I.; Sun, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The dissipated mechanical work per cycle of sinusoidal stress in the thermoplastic composite material AS4/PEEK was measured as a function of stress amplitude for fixed frequency and fiber orientation. The experimental result shows that the dissipated work per cycle is proportional to the square of the stress amplitude. Using the concept of the equivalent isotropic material, it is shown that the relaxation modulus satisfies a proportionality condition. Also, the rate of temperature rise due to sinusoidal stresses has been measured as a function of stress amplitude. The result shows that the rate of temperature rise is not proportional to the square of the stress amplitude.

  9. Lipid compositional changes during low-temperature pre-conditioning against SO sub 2 in coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, H.A.; Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Short periods of temperature preconditioning at 13{degrees}C. were found to provide protection against SO{sub 2} injury in coleus. The present study was conducted to determine whether changes in lipid metabolism and membrane fluidity might contribute to this phytoprotection. After 5 days of hardening at 13{degrees}C, there were significant differences in polar lipid composition and free fatty acid (FA) levels between SO{sub 2}-sensitive cultivar Buckley Supreme and SO{sub 2}-insensitive Marty. Molecular species of chloroplast lipids in Marty contained increased levels of linolenic acid. Differences were also found in total FA pools. At 20{degrees}C, palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major components. After temperature hardening at 13{degrees}C, total FA levels decreased in Marty but increased in Buckley Supreme. These modifications in lipid composition suggest a possible mechanism for cultivar differences in response in SO{sub 2}.

  10. Effect of post cure time and temperature on the properties of two phenolic-fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.; Price, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Some effects of post-cure time and temperature on the physicomechanical properties of a phenolic-asbestos and a phenolic-glass composite are studied. The molding and post-curing procedures are discussed along with physical and mechanical test results. It is found that the specific gravity of the panels tested decreased slightly but the hardness always increased with post cure, and that the mechanical properties had different patterns of response to increasing post-cure time and temperature. For tensile properties, strength decreased, modulus increased, and elongation at break exhibited little change. In general, the phenolic-asbestos showed more positive response to post cure than did the phenolic-glass. Mold venting is found to impart better properties to the composites concerned.

  11. Evaluation of the three-phase equilibrium method for measuring temperature dependence of internally consistent partition coefficients (K(OW), K(OA), and K(AW)) for volatile methylsiloxanes and trimethylsilanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Kropscott, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Partitioning equilibria and their temperature dependence of chemicals between different environmental media are important in determining the fate, transport, and distribution of contaminants. Unfortunately, internally consistent air/water (K(AW)), 1-octanol/air (K(OA)), and 1-octanol/water (K(OW)) partition coefficients, as well as information on their temperature dependence, are scarce for organosilicon compounds because of the reactivity of these compounds in water and octanol and their extreme partition coefficients. A newly published 3-phase equilibrium method was evaluated for simultaneous determination of the temperature dependence of (K(OW), K(OA), and K(AW)) of 5 volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) and trimethylsilanol (TMS) in a temperature range from 4 °C to 35 °C. The measured partition coefficients at the different temperatures for any given compound, and the enthalpy and entropy changes for the corresponding partition processes, were all internally consistent, suggesting that the 3-phase equilibrium method is suitable for this type of measurement. Compared with common environmental contaminants reported in the literature, VMS have enthalpy and entropy relationships similar to those of alkanes for air/water partitioning and similar to those of polyfluorinated compounds for octanol/air partitioning, but more like those for benzoates and phenolic compounds for octanol/water partitioning. The temperature dependence of the partition coefficients of TMS is different from those of VMS and is more like that of alcohols, phenols, and sulfonamides. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. High-temperature-resistant chemical composition Bragg gratings in Er3+-doped optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkovski, S.; Kitcher, D. J.; Baxter, G. W.; Collins, S. F.; Wade, S. A.

    2005-03-01

    Chemical composition gratings (CCGs), unlike standard fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), do not suffer a significant decrease in reflectance or an irreversible wavelength shift when they are exposed to elevated temperatures. To date, the growth of CCGs has been related to the fluorine content of the fibers in which they are written. It is shown that FBGs with high thermal stability, resembling CCGs, can be fabricated in Er3+-doped optical fibers that do not contain any fluorine.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of carbon based materials reinforced ultra high temperature ceramic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    This Ph.D. research is based on the development of novel sol-gel techniques for synthesis of nanostructured ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) for densifying the UHTC composites. The liquid nature of the sol-gel process offers advantages such as high purity and ability for mixing and infiltration, and thus it can overcome some shortcomings of the conventional power processing of ceramics. SPS delivers microstructures with good density and fine ...

  14. Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Unitized Composite Airframe Structures at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2014 – September 2016 TITLE ... MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF UNITIZED COMPOSITE AIRFRAME STRUCTURES AT ELEVATED...TEMPERATURE THESIS Mohamed Noomen, Lieutenant, TNAF AFIT-ENY-MS-16-S-66 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE

  15. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  16. Bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets viscoelasticity and temperature dependency in the draping process

    CERN Document Server

    Ropers, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Within the scope of this work, Steffen Ropers evaluates the viscoelastic and temperature-dependent nature of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets in order to further enhance the predictability of the draping simulation. This simulation is a useful tool for the development of robust large scale processes for continuously fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). The bending behavior thereby largely influences the size and position of wrinkles, which are one of the most common processing defects for continuously fiber-reinforced parts. Thus, a better understanding of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets as well as an appropriate testing method along with corresponding material models contribute to a wide-spread application of CFRPs in large scale production. Contents Thermoplastic Prepregs Draping Simulation of Thermoplastic Prepregs Bending Characterization of Textile Composites Modeling of Bending Behavior Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of polymer, lightweight,...

  17. Influence of notch orientation and temperature on the impact behavior of a dual hardness steel composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.P. [Seção de Engenharia Mecânica e de Materiais/Instituto Militar de Engenharia/ Praça General Tibúrcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chawla, K.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering/The University of Alabama at Birmingham/Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Miguez Suarez, J.C., E-mail: jmiguez@ime.eb.br [Seção de Engenharia Mecânica e de Materiais/Instituto Militar de Engenharia/ Praça General Tibúrcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The need for materials with good characteristics for critical applications, such as in defense and aerospace, has led to the development of new metallic materials. In the present work the impact fracture behavior of a dual hardness steel composite was studied in two geometries, “crack arrester” and “crack divider”. The composite was produced by forging and rolling followed by treatments of quenching and tempering and then annealing. The composite was characterized by optical microscopy as well as hardness, microhardness, tensile and impact tests. The failure mechanisms in impact at different temperatures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the mechanical behavior was significantly affected by the heat treating processes, with higher impact resistance associated with the crack arrester orientation. These results are analyzed in terms of the state of stress at the crack tip.

  18. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  19. Effects of helium and deuterium irradiation on SPS sintered W–Ta composites at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, R., E-mail: rmateus@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, M. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Lopes, J. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, J.; Catarino, N.; Franco, N. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2013-11-15

    Energetic He{sup +} and D{sup +} ions were implanted into different W–Ta composites in order to investigate their stability under helium and deuterium irradiation. The results were compared with morphological and chemical modifications arising from exposure of pure W and Ta. Special attention was given to tantalum hydride (Ta{sub 2}H) formation due to its implications for tritium inventory. Three W–Ta composites with 10 and 20 at.% Ta were prepared from elemental W powder and Ta fibre or powder through low-energy ball milling in argon atmosphere. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used as the consolidation process in the temperature range from 1473 to 1873 K. The results obtained from pure elemental samples and composites are similar. However, Ta{sub 2}H is easily formed in pure Ta by using a pre-implantation stage of He{sup +}, whereas in W–Ta composites the same reaction is clearly reduced, and it can be inhibited by controlling the sintering temperature.

  20. Densification control and analysis of outer shell of new high-temperature vacuum insulated composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Yun; Yu, Shengjie; Xu, Tengzhou; Li, Binbin; Chen, Zhou

    2017-11-01

    A novel high temperature vacuum insulated composite with low thermal conductivity composed of SiC foam core material and sealing outer shell is discussed, which will have a great potential to be used as thermal protection system material. In this composite, the outer shell is the key to maintain its internal vacuum, which is consisted of 2.5D C/C and SiC coating. So the densification processes of outer shell, including 2.5D braiding process, chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) pyrolytic carbon (PyC) process, polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) glassy carbon (GC) process and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC process, are focused in this paper. The measuring result of the gas transmission quantity of outer shell is only 0.14 cm3/m2 · d · Pa after 5 times CVD processes, which is two order of magnitude lower than that sample deposited one time. After 10 times thermal shock cycles, the gas transmission quantity increases to 1.2 cm3/m2 · d · Pa. The effective thermal conductivity of high temperature vacuum insulated composite ranged from 0.19 W m‑1 K‑1 to 0.747 W m‑1 K‑1 within the temperature from 20 °C to 900 °C. Even after 10 thermal shock cycles, the variation of the effective thermal conductivity is still consistent with that without treatments.

  1. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  2. High temperature operation of a composite membrane-based solid polymer electrolyte water electrolyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, V.; Di Blasi, A.; Baglio, V.; Arico, A.S. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Ornelas, R.; Matteucci, F. [Tozzi Apparecchiature Elettriche SpA, Via Zuccherificio, 10-48010 Mezzano (RA) (Italy); Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The high temperature behaviour of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser based on a composite Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane was investigated and compared to that of a commercial Nafion membrane. The SPE water electrolyser performance was studied from 80 to 120{sup o}C with an operating pressure varying between 1 and 3 bar abs. IrO{sub 2} and Pt were used as oxygen and hydrogen evolution catalysts, respectively. The assemblies were manufactured by using a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The performance was significantly better for the composite Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane than commercial Nafion 115. Furthermore, the composite membrane allowed suitable water electrolysis at high temperature under atmospheric pressure. The current densities were 2 and 1.2 A cm{sup -2} at a terminal voltage of 1.9 V for Nafion-SiO{sub 2} and Nafion 115, respectively, at 100{sup o}C and atmospheric pressure. By increasing the temperature up to 120{sup o}C, the performance of Nafion 115 drastically decreased; whereas, the cell based on Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane showed a further increase of performance, especially when the pressure was increased to 3 bar abs (2.1 A cm{sup -2} at 1.9 V). (author)

  3. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  4. Effect of temperature on microbial composition of starter culture for Chinese light aroma style liquor fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Xu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Light aroma style liquor is one of the basic types of Chinese liquor and is produced with a special technique of using a combination of three types of Daqu as starter culture. The succession of incubation temperature, a main operating parameter, and microbial composition in Daqu were investigated during the manufacturing process. The most significant difference in temperature occurred during the middle stage at which the highest and the lowest temperatures were detected in Houhuo (HH) and Qingcha (QC), respectively. It was shown that for the counting data, the population of fungi was identical and that of bacteria was different between three types of Daqu. According to analysis results of microbial community structure using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), lactic acid bacteria were one of the dominant bacterial groups in all of Daqu and fungal diversity in QC was higher than that in HH and Hongxin (HX). The difference in incubation temperature led to the accumulation of different heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive fungi in the completed Daqu. PCA of DGGE profiles revealed that microbial community structure was distinct between three types of Daqu. It was presumed that temperature might play a decisive role in the formation of micro-organism composition in starter cultures. The usage of a combination of three types of Daqu including Qingcha, Hongxin and Houhuo as starter culture is an important characteristic of production technology of Chinese light aroma style liquor. Micro-organisms from the environment naturally inoculated in Daqu are propagated to form the special microbial community under the control of several operating parameters, especially temperature, and finally play various roles in the fermentation process of liquor. An in-depth study of the relationship between incubation temperature and microbiota in Daqu during the manufacturing is fundamental to understand this complicated process and to prepare high-quality starter culture for

  5. Effect of High Temperature on the Tensile Behavior of CFRP and Cementitious Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutanji, Houssam A.

    1999-01-01

    Concrete and other composite manufacturing processes are continuing to evolve and become more and more suited for use in non-Earth settings such as the Moon and Mars. The fact that structures built in lunar environments would experience a range of effects from temperature extremes to bombardment by micrometeorites and that all the materials for concrete production exist on the Moon means that concrete appears to be the most feasible building material. it can provide adequate shelter from the harshness of the lunar environment and at the same time be a cost effective building material. With a return to the Moon planned by NASA to occur after the turn of the century, it will be necessary to include concrete manufacturing as one of the experiments to be conducted in one of the coming missions. Concrete's many possible uses and possibilities for manufacturing make it ideal for lunar construction. The objectives of this research are summarized as follows: i) study the possibility of concrete production on the Moon or other planets, ii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of concrete, and iii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of carbon fiber reinforced with inorganic polymer composites. Literature review indicates that production of concrete on the Moon or other planets is feasible using the indigenous materials. Results of this study has shown that both the tensile strength and static elastic modulus of concrete decreased with a rise in temperature from 200 to 500 C. The addition of silica fume to concrete showed higher resistance to high temperatures. Carbon fiber reinforced inorganic polymer (CFRIP) composites seemed to perform well up to 300 C. However, a significant reduction in strength was observed of about 40% at 400 C and up to 80% when the specimens were exposed to 700 C.

  6. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Shafinaz Zainal Abidin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100 substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100 orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.

  7. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND ENVIRONMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO CHOPPED-FIBER AUTOMOTIVE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.

    2003-10-06

    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on composite materials consisting of polyurethane reinforced with E-glass. Current focus of the project is on composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test date. Basic mechanical property testing and results for two chopped-fiber composite materials, one reinforced with glass- and the other with carbon fiber are provided. Both materials use the same polyurethane matrix. Preforms for both materials were produced using the P4 process. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. Effects of prior short-time loads and of prior thermal cycling are discussed.

  8. HA/Bioglass composite films deposited by pulsed laser with different substrate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Chen, C. Z.; Jin, Q. P.; Li, H. C.; Pan, Y. K.

    2014-03-01

    In this experiment, the HA/Bioglass composite films on Ti-6Al-4V were deposited by a pulsed laser at Ar atmosphere, and the influence of substrate temperature on the morphology, phase constitutions, bonding configurations and adhesive strength of the films was studied. The obtained films were characterized by an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scratch apparatus, and so on. The results show that the amount of the droplets, the crystallinity, and the critical load of the deposited films all increase with the increase of the substrate temperature; however, the substrate temperature has little influence on the functional groups of the films.

  9. Nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Lee, Jongseo; Lee, Wonyoung

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (SSC) nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), showing a cathode area-specific resistance (ASR) value of 0.024 Ωcm2 at 650 °C. The hollow and porous SSC nanofiber layer, fabricated by electrospinning, is sintered at low temperatures to preserve the high specific surface area for facile oxygen surface exchange reactions. The low sintering temperature is enabled by additional SSC powder layer, providing sufficient adhesion between the electrolyte and the nanofiber layer. Our results can provide a design guideline to fully utilize the nanostructured electrodes by engineering the structural properties of the surface and the interface, and hence high-performance IT-SOFCs can be achieved by structural modification with conventional materials.

  10. "A New Class od Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohit Jain; Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Gordon E. Khose; Mrs. Judith Maro, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MIT

    2008-05-01

    Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 oC. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

  11. Effects of Operating Temperatures and Accelerated Environmental Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of a Glass-Vinylester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasztorny, M.; Nycz, D. B.; Romanowski, R. K.; Gotowicki, P.; Kiczko, A.; Rudnik, D.

    2017-07-01

    Experimental identification of the mechanical properties of a selected glass-vinylester structural composite is developed, performed, and analysed taking into account accelerated environmental ageing and three operating temperatures (-20, 20, and 55°C) corresponding to the operating temperature range for composite footbridges in the Central Europe. The main constituents of the composite fabricated using infusion technology are a bidirectional balanced stitched E-glass fabric and a flame retardant, vinylester resin. After homogenization, the composite reinforced with one fabric forms a single lamina and is modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material. Full sets of material constants were identified for the initial and aged composites at the selected operating temperatures. The accelerated environmental ageing of the composite was performed on 4-layer symmetric laminate platelets protected with a 300-mm-thick gelcoat layer, using an ageing chamber and a relevant ageing programme. A comparative analysis was carried out in order to determine the effects of operating temperature and accelerated environmental ageing on the material constants of the GFRP composite. It is found that the composite tested can be modeled as a linear elastic-brittle orthotropic material to the level of 20% of its strength in each strength test. The impact of the accelerated environmental ageing and operating temperature in the range from -20 to 55°C on the elastic/strength/ultimate strain constants of the selected E-glass/vinylester composite can be significant and different for individual constants.

  12. Bacterial Community Composition Associated with Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Varies with Pyrolysis Temperature and Colonization Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Barberán, Albert; Li, Yong; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomycetales, was the dominant taxon in PyOM, regardless of the PyOM pyrolysis temperature and soil type. Bacterial communities associated with PyOM particles from high-C soils were similar to those in non-PyOM-amended soils. PyOM300 had higher total microbial activity and more differential bacterial communities than PyOM700. More bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) preferentially thrived on the low-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM, while some specific OTUs thrived on high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM. In particular, Chloroflexi species tended to be more prevalent in high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM in low-C soils. In conclusion, the differences in colonized bacterial community composition between the different PyOMs were strongly influenced by the pyrolysis temperatures of PyOM, i.e., under conditions of easily mineralizable C or fused aromatic C, and by other properties, e.g., pH, surface area, and nutrient content. IMPORTANCE Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is widely distributed in soil and fluvial ecosystems and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling. Many studies have reported changes in soil microbial communities stimulated by PyOM, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with PyOM. The microbes that colonize PyOMs can participate in the mineralization of PyOM, so changing its structure affects the fate of PyOMs and

  13. Effect of temperature on composition of the methanotrophic community in rice field and forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Santosh R; Bodelier, Paul L E; Conrad, Ralf

    2007-10-01

    Temperature change affects methane consumption in soil. However, there is no information on possible temperature control of methanotrophic bacterial populations. Therefore, we studied CH(4) consumption and populations of methanotrophs in an upland forest soil and a rice field soil incubated at different temperatures between 5 and 45 degrees C for up to 40 days. Potential methane consumption was measured at 4% CH(4). The temporal progress of CH(4) consumption indicated growth of methanotrophs. Both soils showed maximum CH(4) consumption at 25-35 degrees C, but no activity at >40 degrees C. In forest soil CH(4) was also consumed at 5 degrees C, but in rice soil only at 15 degrees C. Methanotroph populations were assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes. Eight T-RFs with relative abundance >1% were retrieved from both forest and rice soil. The individual T-RFs were tentatively assigned to different methanotrophic populations (e.g. Methylococcus/Methylocaldum, Methylomicrobium, Methylobacter, Methylocystis/Methylosinus) according to published sequence data. Two T-RFs were assigned to ammonium monooxygenase (amoA) gene sequences. Statistical tests showed that temperature affected the relative abundance of most T-RFs. Furthermore, the relative abundance of individual T-RFs differed between the two soils, and also exhibited different temperature dependence. We conclude that temperature can be an important factor regulating the community composition of methanotrophs in soil.

  14. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  15. Design of active temperature compensated composite free-free beam MEMS resonators in a standard process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xereas, George; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency references are used in almost every modern electronic device including mobile phones, personal computers, and scientific and medical instrumentation. With modern consumer mobile devices imposing stringent requirements of low cost, low complexity, compact system integration and low power consumption, there has been significant interest to develop batch-manufactured MEMS resonators. An important challenge for MEMS resonators is to match the frequency and temperature stability of quartz resonators. We present 1MHz and 20MHz temperature compensated Free-Free beam MEMS resonators developed using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial multi-user process available from MEMSCAP. We introduce a novel temperature compensation technique that enables high frequency stability over a wide temperature range. We used three strategies: passive compensation by using a structural gold (Au) layer on the resonator, active compensation through using a heater element, and a Free-Free beam design that minimizes the effects of thermal mismatch between the vibrating structure and the substrate. Detailed electro-mechanical simulations were performed to evaluate the frequency response and Quality Factor (Q). Specifically, for the 20MHz device, a Q of 10,000 was obtained for the passive compensated design. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) simulations were used to evaluate the Temperature Coefficient of frequency (TCf) of the resonators between -50°C and 125°C which yielded +0.638 ppm/°C for the active compensated, compared to -1.66 ppm/°C for the passively compensated design and -8.48 ppm/°C for uncompensated design for the 20MHz device. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations showed that the heater element was capable of increasing the temperature of the resonators by approximately 53°C with an applied voltage of 10V and power consumption of 8.42 mW.

  16. Changes of the temperature coefficients of the characteristics which accompany degradation and recovery of a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no hikari (denryu) rekka oyobi kaifuku ni tomonau tokusei ondo keisu no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Koyanagi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takahisa, K.; Kojima, T. [electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Pursuant to the measuring of temperature dependency of the characteristics such as conversion efficiency, during the process of degradation in a-Si solar cells due to light and electric current and the process of recovery by annealing, this paper describes changes in temperature coefficients, correlation between the characteristic parameters and the degradation, and the results of the examination of their characteristics. The conversion efficiency {mu} degraded approximately by 45% of the initial value each by the irradiation under a light intensity with 3 SUN accelerated and by the infusion of current at 20mA/cm{sup 2}; and then, the efficiency recovered to 70-75% of the degradation by subsequent annealing. In addition, in the temperature dependency at 80{degree}C against at 20{degree}C, Isc slightly increased while Vcc greatly decreased. This slight increase in Isc was mainly due to the decrease in the width of the forbidden band, while the decrease in Vcc was due to the increase in the reverse saturation current. The temperature dependency of {mu}N was negative, becoming small in accordance with the degradation. The temperature dependency of FF/FFO was negative initially both in light and current, but it decreased with the degradation and turned to positive. The temperature coefficients of I-V parameters reversibly changed corresponding to the degradation and recovery of these parameters and stayed in a good correlation. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Effect of Drinks and Temperature on the Staining of Resin Composites Coated with Surface Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Surface staining of resin composite by dietary factors may be modified by the placement of a low-viscosity surface sealant aimed at reducing surface voids and defects occurring after light-curing and polishing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the staining effect of various drinks and temperatures on the surface sealant (Fortify Plus™ sealed on a nano-filled resin composite (Supreme XTE™ after artificial aging at different temperatures. Materials and Methods: Surface sealant was applied on one surface of forty resin composite discs (10×2 mm. Five discs each were immersed in test solutions of black cola, commercial dark grape juice, coffee and distilled water (negative control. Discs were either placed at 4°C (20 discs or 37°C (20 discs and the colour difference (ΔE was calculated based on the colour coordinates at 0 (baseline, 7, 14 and 28 days of staining treatment. Two-factor with replication analysis was carried out with ANOVA. Results: The results showed significant discolouration after 28 days immersion in coffee (P<0.001 and grape juice group (P<0.001. Surface sealant significantly affected colour changes in coffee and grape juice group (P=0.002. Higher temperatures in coffee and grape juice also significantly increased the effect of staining (P<0.001. Conclusions: Surface sealant was able to reduce discolouration in the grape juice group only. A lower temperature of 4°C caused less staining in coffee and grape juice groups as compared to the 37°C corresponding test groups. Prolonged immersion time significantly increased discolouration in coffee and grape juice groups.

  18. Composition dependence of glow peak temperature in KCl{sub 1-x}Br{sub x} doped with divalent cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Salas, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); Aceves, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); RodrIguez-Mijangos, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); Riveros, H G [Instituto de FIsica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20/364, Mexico, DF 01000, Mexico (Mexico); Duarte, C [Departamento de GeologIa, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Boulevard Luis E, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico)

    2004-01-28

    Thermoluminescence measurements of {beta}-irradiated Eu{sup 2+} - and Ca{sup 2+} - doped KCl{sub 1-x}KBr{sub x} solid solutions excited at room temperature have been carried out to identify the effect of composition on the glow peaks. A typical glow peak has been distinguished for each composition. A linear dependence of its temperature on the composition x has been found. These results indicate that for divalent impurity-doped alkali halide solid solutions these glow peak temperatures are mostly dependent on the lattice constant of the host than on the size of the anion or impurity cation.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Alkyl Glycerol Ether Lipid Composition of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of non-isoprenoid alkyl glycerol ether lipids in Bacteria and natural environments is increasingly being reported and the specificity and diagenetic stability of these lipids make them powerful biomarkers for biogeochemical and environmental studies. Yet the environmental controls on the biosynthesis of these peculiar membrane lipids remain poorly documented. Here, the lipid content of two mesophilic (Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans and Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans and one thermophilic (Thermodesulfobacterium commune sulfate-reducing bacteria—whose membranes are mostly composed of ether lipids—was investigated as a function of growth temperature (20–40°C and 54–84°C, respectively. For all strains, the cellular lipid content was lower at sub- or supra-optimal growth temperature, but the relative proportions of dialkyl glycerols, monoalkyl glycerols and fatty acids remained remarkably stable whatever the growth temperature. Rather than changing the proportions of the different lipid classes, the three strains responded to temperature changes by modifying the average structural composition of the alkyl and acyl chains constitutive of their membrane lipids. Major adaptive mechanisms concerned modifications of the level of branching and of the proportions of the different methyl branched lipids. Specifically, an increase in temperature induced mesophilic strains to produce less dimethyl branched dialkyl glycerols and 10-methyl branched lipids relative to linear structures, and the thermophilic strain to decrease the proportion of anteiso relative to iso methyl branched compounds. These modifications were in agreement with a regulation of the membrane fluidity. In one mesophilic and the thermophilic strains, a modification of the growth temperature further induced changes in the relative proportions of sn-2 vs sn-1 monoalkyl glycerols, suggesting an unprecedented mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation in Bacteria. Strong

  20. High temperature deformation behavior of a stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef.hamada@suezuniv.edu.eg [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Khosravifard, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, IAU, Box 71993-1, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kisko, A.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Ahmed, E. [Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Porter, D.A. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2016-07-04

    Hot deformation behavior of stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite and the associated microstructural changes have been investigated using compression tests in the temperature range 700–1000 °C and strain rate range 0.001–1 s{sup −1}. The metallographic observations by electron-backscattered diffraction revealed that dynamic recrystallization of stainless steel fibers is the dominant mechanism with inducing ultrafine-grained structures. Deformation bending and cracking through stainless steel fibers and the interfaces were observed to be the hot deformation-induced microstructural features in the concerned composite. The hot deformation behavior was modeled using the dislocation density based Bergstrom's equation which could be applied up to the peak strain. After the peak strain, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could successfully predict the hot flow stresses of the studied composite. At different test conditions (temperatures and strain rates), slight variations in Avrami exponent were observed which could be related to transition from cyclic to single peak recrystallization.

  1. Temperature-controlled transparent-film heater based on silver nanowire-PMMA composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Liu, A.'lei; Hu, Xuyang; Song, Mingxia; Duan, Feng; Lan, Qiuming; Xiao, Jundong; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yeqing; Zeng, Qingguang

    2016-11-01

    We fabricated a high-performance film heater based on a silver nanowire and polymethyl methacrylate (Ag NW-PMMA) composite film, which was synthesized with the assistance of mechanical lamination and an in situ transfer method. The films exhibit excellent conductivity, high figure of merit, and strong adhesion of percolation network to substrate. By controlling NW density, we prepared the films with a transmittance of 44.9-85.0% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 0.13-1.40 Ω sq-1. A stable temperature ranging from 130 °C-40 °C was generated at 3.0 V within 10-30 s, indicating that the resulting film heaters show a rapid thermal response, low driving voltage and stable temperature recoverability. Furthermore, we demonstrated the applications of the film heater in defrosting and a physical therapeutic instrument. A fast defrosting on the composite film with a transmittance of 88% was observed by applying a 9 V driving voltage for 20 s. Meanwhile, we developed a physical therapeutic instrument with two modes of thermotherapy and electronic-pulse massage by using the composite films as two electrodes, greatly decreasing the weight and power consumption compared to a traditional instrument. Therefore, Ag NW-PMMA film can be a promising candidate for diversified heating applications.

  2. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T

    2017-07-02

    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  3. Glassy aerosols with a range of compositions nucleate ice heterogeneously at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA and levoglucosan and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (<200 K. Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, ns, of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi. We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ~220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in mid-latitudes cirrus.

  4. Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties of Woven Thermoplastic Composites for Secondary Aircraft Structure Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of 8-H satin woven glass fabric/polyethylene sulfide (GF/PPS was investigated in this paper. Static-tensile tests were both conducted on notched and unnotched specimens at typical temperatures (ambient, 95°C and 125°C based on the glass transition temperatures (Tg of the neat resin and composite, their strength and moduli were obtained and compared. The damage patterns of failed specimens of notched and unnotched were examined with the aid of high-definition camera and stereomicroscope. The results of stress-strain relationships showed that the slight nonlinearity of the curves were observed for these two specimens, which was associated with the plastic deformation of localized resin. The damage patterns of notched and unnotched specimens at different temperatures proved that damage and plastic deformation were two simultaneous mechanisms and it was prominent in the notched. It was the overstress accommodation mechanism that led to a relative high strength rentention for the notched and a reduction of the hole sensitivity. The results obtained in this paper indicated that GF/PPS can be used as secondary aircraft structures at elevated temperatures higher than its Tg.

  5. Rate coefficients of the CF3CHFCF3 + H → CF3CFCF3 + H2 reaction at different temperatures calculated by transition state theory with ab initio and DFT reaction paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2013-03-15

    The minimum energy path (MEP) of the reaction, CF(3)CHFCF(3) + H → transition state (TS) → CF(3)CFCF(3) + H(2), has been computed at different ab initio levels and with density functional theory (DFT) using different functionals. The computed B3LYP/6-31++G**, BH&HLYP/cc-pVDZ, BMK/6-31++G**, M05/6-31+G**, M05-2X/6-31+G**, UMP2/6-31++G**, PUMP2/6-31++G**//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ(spd,sp)//UMP2//6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/CBS//M05/6-31+G**, and RCCSD(T)/CBS//UMP2/6-31++G** MEPs, and associated gradients and Hessians, were used in reaction rate coefficient calculations based on the transition state theory (TST). Reaction rate coefficients were computed between 300 and 1500 K at various levels of TST, which include conventional TST, canonical variational TST (CVT) and improved CVT (ICVT), and with different tunneling corrections, namely, Wigner, zero-curvature, and small-curvature (SCT). The computed rate coefficients obtained at different ab initio, DFT and TST levels are compared with experimental values available in the 1000-1200 K temperature range. Based on the rate coefficients computed at the ICVT/SCT level, the highest TST level used in this study, the BH&HLYP functional performs best among all the functionals used, while the RCCSD(T)/CBS//MP2/6-31++G** level is the best among all the ab initio levels used. Comparing computed reaction rate coefficients obtained at different levels of theory shows that, the computed barrier height has the strongest effect on the computed reaction rate coefficients as expected. Variational effects on the computed rate coefficients are found to be negligibly small. Although tunneling effects are relatively small at high temperatures (~1500 K), SCT corrections are significant at low temperatures (~300 K), and both barrier heights and the magnitudes of the imaginary frequencies affect SCT corrections. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preparation of silicon carbide/carbon fiber composites through high-temperature spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the potentials of spark plasma sintering (SPS integrated with high temperature process that can enable sintering of SiC/Cf composites without any sintering aids. The random distribution of carbon fibers was obtained through mixing composite components in ethanol by using a shaker mill for 10 min. The corresponding sintering process was carried out at 1900 and 2200 °C with 50 MPa pressure applied at maximum temperature. The results showed that 89 ± 0.9 and 97 ± 0.8% of the theoretical density can be obtained for sintering temperatures of 1900 and 2200 °C, respectively. The densification curves were plotted to monitor sintering behavior with punch displacement changes. The appropriate bonding between SiC particles and carbon fibers was detected using FE-SEM for sample which was sintered at 2200 °C. The clear maximum in hardness (2992 ± 33 Vickers, bending strength (427 ± 26 MPa and fracture toughness (4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m1/2 were identified for sample sintered at 2200 °C. XRD investigations supposed that SiC and carbon were the only crystalline phases in both sintered samples.

  7. Comments on "Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based convective coefficients" by Ben Shabat, Shitzer and Fiala (2013) and "Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments" by Ben Shabat and Shitzer (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osczevski, Randall J.

    2014-08-01

    Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) present revised charts for wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCET) and facial skin temperatures (FST) that differ significantly from currently accepted charts. They credit these differences to their more sophisticated calculation model and to the human-based equation that it used for finding the convective heat transfer coefficient (Ben Shabat and Shitzer, Int J Biometeorol 56:639-651, 2012). Because a version of the simple model that was used to create the current charts accurately reproduces their results when it uses the human-based equation, the differences that they found must be entirely due to this equation. In deriving it, Ben Shabat and Shitzer assumed that all of the heat transfer from the surface of their cylindrical model was due to forced convection alone. Because several modes of heat transfer were occurring in the human experiments they were attempting to simulate, notably radiation, their coefficients are actually total external heat transfer coefficients, not purely convective ones, as the calculation models assume. Data from the one human experiment that used heat flux sensors supports this conclusion and exposes the hazard of using a numerical model with several adjustable parameters that cannot be measured. Because the human-based equation is faulty, the values in the proposed charts are not correct. The equation that Ben Shabat et al. (Int J Biometeorol 56(4):639-51, 2013) propose to calculate WCET should not be used.

  8. MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, Raghu; Rajaputra, Suresh; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polymer composite-based hybrid sensors were fabricated and integrated into a resistive sensor design for gas sensing applications. Thin films of MWCNTs were grown onto Si/SiO2 substrates via xylene pyrolysis using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Polymers like PEDOT:PSS and polyaniline (PANI) mixed with various solvents like DMSO, DMF, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol were used to synthesize the composite films. These sensors exhibited excellent response and selectivity at room temperature when exposed to low concentrations (100 ppm) of analyte gases like NH3 and NO2. The effect of various solvents on the sensor response imparting selectivity to CNT-polymer nanocomposites was investigated extensively. Sensitivities as high as 28% were observed for an MWCNT-PEDOT:PSS composite sensor when exposed to 100 ppm of NH3 and - 29.8% sensitivity for an MWCNT-PANI composite sensor to 100 ppm of NO2 when DMSO was used as a solvent. Additionally, the sensors exhibited good reversibility.

  9. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  10. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  11. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  12. Multi-scale mechanism based life prediction of polymer matrix composites for high temperature airframe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Priyank

    A multi-scale mechanism-based life prediction model is developed for high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMC) for high temperature airframe applications. In the first part of this dissertation the effect of Cloisite 20A (C20A) nano-clay compounding on the thermo-oxidative weight loss and the residual stresses due to thermal oxidation for a thermoset polymer bismaleimide (BMI) are investigated. A three-dimensional (3-D) micro-mechanics based finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to investigate the residual stresses due to thermal oxidation using an in-house FEA code (NOVA-3D). In the second part of this dissertation, a novel numerical-experimental methodology is outlined to determine cohesive stress and damage evolution parameters for pristine as well as isothermally aged (in air) polymer matrix composites. A rate-dependent viscoelastic cohesive layer model was implemented in an in-house FEA code to simulate the delamination initiation and propagation in unidirectional polymer composites before and after aging. Double cantilever beam (DCB) experiments were conducted (at UT-Dallas) on both pristine and isothermally aged IM-7/BMI composite specimens to determine the model parameters. The J-Integral based approach was adapted to extract cohesive stresses near the crack tip. Once the damage parameters had been characterized, the test-bed FEA code employed a micromechanics based viscoelastic cohesive layer model to numerically simulate the DCB experiment. FEA simulation accurately captures the macro-scale behavior (load-displacement history) simultaneously with the micro-scale behavior (crack-growth history).

  13. An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Composites under Impact Loading at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method was applied to investigate the effects of strain rate and low temperature on the energy absorption of composite specimens. The performance of analytical model was found to be adequate for modeling composites before failure initiation. Results indicated that impact performance of composites is affected over the range of temperature considered. Failure mechanism was changed from matrix cracking at room temperature to delamination and fiber breakage at low temperatures. Also it was showed that about 70 percent of total energy absorbed by specimen was used to destruction the composite under different types of failure mechanisms.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5560

  14. Monthly Composite Raster Images for Sea Surface Temperature in the Gulf of Maine for Stellwagen Bank NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are monthly composites, and were...

  15. Seasonal Composite Raster Images for Sea Surface Temperature in the Gulf of Maine for Stellwagen Bank NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were...

  16. Elevated Temperature, Notched Compression Performance of Out of Autoclave Processed Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Smeltzer, Satn S.

    2013-01-01

    Curved honeycomb sandwich panels composed of carbon fiber reinforced toughened-epoxy polymer facesheets are being evaluated for potential use as payload fairing components on the NASA heavy-lift space launch system (HL-SLS). These proposed composite sandwich panels provide the most efficient aerospace launch structures, and offer mass and thermal advantages when compared with existing metallic payload fairing structures. NASA and industry are investigating recently developed carbon fiber epoxy prepreg systems which can be fabricated using out-of autoclave (OOA) processes. Specifically, OOA processes using vacuum pressure in an oven and thereby significantly reducing the cost associated with manufacturing large (up to 10 m diameter) composite structures when compared with autoclave. One of these OOA composite material systems, CYCOM(R) 5320-1, was selected for manufacture of a 1/16th scale barrel portion of the payload fairing; such that, the system could be compared with the well-characterized prepreg system, CYCOM(R) 977-3, typically processed in an autoclave. Notched compression coupons for each material were obtained from the minimum-gauge flat laminate [60/-60/0]S witness panels produced in this manufacturing study. The coupons were also conditioned to an effective moisture equilibrium point and tested according to ASTM D6484M-09 at temperatures ranging from 25 C up to 177 C. The results of this elevated temperature mechanical characterization study demonstrate that, for thin coupons, the OHC strength of the OOA laminate was equivalent to the flight certified autoclave processed composite laminates; the limitations on the elevated temperature range are hot-wet conditions up to 163 C and are only within the margins of testing error. At 25 C, both the wet and dry OOA material coupons demonstrated greater OHC failure strengths than the autoclave processed material laminates. These results indicate a substantial improvement in OOA material development and

  17. In-situ Formation of Reinforcement Phases in Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M (Inventor); Gasch, Matthew J (Inventor); Olson, Michael W (Inventor); Hamby, Ian W. (Inventor); Johnson, Sylvia M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A tough ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composite comprises grains of UHTC matrix material, such as HfB.sub.2, ZrB.sub.2 or other metal boride, carbide, nitride, etc., surrounded by a uniform distribution of acicular high aspect ratio reinforcement ceramic rods or whiskers, such as of SiC, is formed from uniformly mixing a powder of the UHTC material and a pre-ceramic polymer selected to form the desired reinforcement species, then thermally consolidating the mixture by hot pressing. The acicular reinforcement rods may make up from 5 to 30 vol % of the resulting microstructure.

  18. Doubling the annual coefficient of performance of air-conditioning units by taking advantage of small temperature lifts; Verdoppelung der Jahresarbeitszahl von Klimakaelteanlagen durch Ausnuetzung eines kleinen Temperaturhubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellig, B.; Kegel, B.; Meier, M.

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal performance factor (SPF) of chilled water systems (CWS) is closely related to the temperature lift, i.e. the difference between the temperature of the heat source and the heat sink. In many applications in building services engineering, a temperature lift of 10-20 K is in principle sufficient. However, the potential for highly efficient refrigerating systems is not fully exploited as standard chillers are designed for lifts of 30-60 K. The exergy analysis of typical CWS shows that the external exergy losses are greater than the exergy losses of the chiller. The second-law (or exergetic) efficiency is usually far below 10%. It is therefore important to avoid unnecessarily high temperature lifts. Measurements on refrigeration systems in two office buildings have shown that even in state-of-the-art CWS, considerable energy savings (up to 50%) can be achieved by persistent use of small temperature lifts. However, SPF-values around 5-6 can hardly be exceeded in systems with electric driven chillers. SPFs higher than 10 or even above 20 can only be reached with optimized free cooling processes. Basic decisions, which ultimately lead to CWS with unnecessarily high temperature lifts, are taken in the early project stages. Therefore, this study presents guidelines for the design and operation of CWS with small temperature lifts. The implementation of these simple measures will lead to a considerable reduction of energy consumption and operating costs. (author)

  19. High-Temperature Polymer Composites Tested for Hypersonic Rocket Combustor Backup Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Shin, E. Eugene; Thesken, John C.; Fink, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant component weight reductions are required to achieve the aggressive thrust-toweight goals for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) third-generation, reusable liquid propellant rocket engine, which is one possible engine for a future single-stage-toorbit vehicle. A collaboration between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Rocketdyne was formed under the Higher Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) program and, currently, the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project to develop carbon-fiber-reinforced high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs). This program focused primarily on the combustor backup structure to replace all metallic support components with a much lighter polymer-matrixcomposite- (PMC-) titanium honeycomb sandwich structure.

  20. General method and thermodynamic tables for computation of equilibrium composition and temperature of chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Vearl N; Gordon, Sanford; Morrell, Virginia E

    1951-01-01

    A rapidly convergent successive approximation process is described that simultaneously determines both composition and temperature resulting from a chemical reaction. This method is suitable for use with any set of reactants over the complete range of mixture ratios as long as the products of reaction are ideal gases. An approximate treatment of limited amounts of liquids and solids is also included. This method is particularly suited to problems having a large number of products of reaction and to problems that require determination of such properties as specific heat or velocity of sound of a dissociating mixture. The method presented is applicable to a wide variety of problems that include (1) combustion at constant pressure or volume; and (2) isentropic expansion to an assigned pressure, temperature, or Mach number. Tables of thermodynamic functions needed with this method are included for 42 substances for convenience in numerical computations.

  1. Evaluation of elevated temperature influence on mechanical properties of a commercial unrefined bagasse fiber-polypropylene composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Dastoorian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 80oC, on mechanical characteristics of a commercial bagasse fiber/polypropylene composite. The test results were used to determine the temperature dependencies of the mechanical properties of the studied composite material at temperatures up to 80°C in order to develop temperature adjustment factors for the use in structural applications. The results have shown that as temperature increases, the material become more ductile due to increased plastic deformation gets lower stiffness and fails at higher strains. The resulted adjustment factors were different for each loading mode and the results also have indicated that the influence of elevated temperatures on values of modulus was higher than that on strengths.

  2. Temperature and humidity dependent performance of FBG-strain sensors embedded in carbon/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frövel, Malte; Carrión, Gabriel; Gutiérrez, César; Moravec, Carolina; Pintado, José María

    2009-03-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors, FBGSs, are very promising for Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, of aerospace vehicles due to their capacity to measure strain and temperature, their lightweight harnesses, their multiplexing capacities and their immunity to electromagnetic interferences, within others. They can be embedded in composite materials that are increasingly forming an important part of aerospace structures. The use of embedded FBGSs for SHM purposes is advantageous, but their response under all operative environmental conditions of an aerospace structure must be well understood for the necessary flight certification of these sensors. This paper describes the first steps ahead for a possible in future flight certification of FBGSs embedded in carbon fiber reinforced plastics, CFRP. The investigation work was focused on the validation of the dependence of the FBGS's strain sensitivity in tensile and compression load, in dry and humid condition and in a temperature range from -150°C to 120°C. The test conditions try to simulate the in service temperature and humidity range and static load condition of military aircraft. FBGSs with acrylic and with polyimide coating have been tested. The FBGSs are embedded in both, unidirectional and quasi isotropic carbon/epoxy composite material namely M21/T800 and also MTM-45-1/IM7. Conventional extensometers and strain gages have been used as reference strain sensors. The performed tests show an influence of the testing temperatures, the dry or wet specimen condition, the load direction and the coating material on the sensor strain sensitivity that should be taken into account when using these sensors.

  3. Lead-free BNT-based composite materials: enhanced depolarization temperature and electromechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wangfeng; Zheng, Peng; Wen, Fei; Zhang, Jingji; Chen, Daqin; Zhai, Jiwei; Ji, Zhenguo

    2017-11-14

    The development of (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based solid solutions with both high depolarization temperature Td and excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties for practical application is intractable because improved thermal stability is usually accompanied by a deterioration in piezoelectric and electromechanical performance. Herein, we report a 0-3 type 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 : 30 mol%ZnO composite (BNT-7BT : 0.3ZnO), in which the ZnO nanoparticles exist in two forms, to resolve the abovementioned long-standing obstacle. In this composite, Zn ions fill the boundaries of BNT-7BT grains, and residual Zn ions diffuse into the BNT-7BT lattice, as confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and microstructure analysis. The BNT-7BT composite ceramics with a 0-3 type connectivity exhibited enhanced frequency-dependent electromechanical properties, fatigue characteristics, and thermal stabilities. More importantly, low poling field-driven large piezoelectric properties were observed for the composite ceramics as compared to the case of the pure BNT-7BT solid solution. A mechanism related to the ZnO-driven phase transition from the rhombohedral to tetragonal phase and built-in electric field to partially compensate the depolarization field was proposed to explain the achieved outstanding piezoelectric performance. This is the first time that the thermal stability, electromechanical behavior, and low poling field-driven high piezoelectric performance of BNT-based ceramics have been simultaneously optimized. Thus, our study provides a referential methodology to achieve novel piezoceramics with excellent piezoelectricity by composite engineering and opens up a new development window for the utilization of conventional BNT-based and other lead-free ceramics in practical applications.

  4. Body surface temperature distribution in relation to body composition in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna; Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    Adipose tissue levels and human obesity are known to be associated with increased heat production. At the same time, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. The energy implications of obesity and body thermoregulatory mechanisms remain relatively poorly understood. This study attempted to examine the potential relationship between body composition (subcutaneous and visceral fat) determined by bioimpedance as well as BMI (body mass index), and skin surface temperature distribution recorded at rest. One specific aim of this study was to draw a thermal map of body areas in obese women and compare this with women of normal body mass, and thus to identify body regions within which heat transfer is particularly impeded. As high fat content is a good insulator, it could reduce the body's ability to respond effectively to changes in environmental temperature, which would be problematic for thermal homeostasis. Our results showed that core temperature did not differ between obese and normal body mass participants, while skin temperature of most body surfaces was lower in obese subjects. The results of regression analysis showed that the mean body surface temperature (Tmean) decreased with increasing percentage of body fat (PBF) of the abdominal area. The opposite relationship was observed for the front area of the hand (simultaneous increase in Tmean and PBF). We also found a negative correlation between BMI and Tmean of the thigh areas, both the front and the back. From this it could be concluded that the mean body surface temperature is dependent on body fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyckt, V. M. M.; Raaymakers, B. W.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2006-10-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  6. Composite Nafion membranes based on PWA-Zirconia for PEFCs operating at medium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, A.; Sacca, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy); Casciola, M.; Cavalaglio, S.; Costantino, U. [University of Perugia, Chemistry Department, Perugia (Italy); Ornelas, R.; Fodale, I. [Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe Srl, Milano (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    Nafion membranes based on phosphotungstic acid (PWA) were immobilized as Zr(IV) phospho-tungstate, and the solid obtained was used as a filler to recast Nafion. Composite membranes, containing different filler percentages were prepared and characterized for their ion exchange capacity, water uptake and proton conductivity. Results showed that the hydrophilic characteristics of the composite membranes was higher than that of pure Nafion membranes, allowing an increase in fuel cell efficiency above 80 degrees C. This ability to work at temperatures higher than classical proton exchange membranes made it possible to reduce the carbon monoxide poisoning and to feed the cell with processed hydrogen, in effect to extend the operating temperature range of the fuel cell to 120 degrees C. As a general rule, Nafion-based membranes give the best performance at 100 degrees C, yielding a very high power density when compared with results at 120 degrees C. When the synthetic fuel, containing 10 parts per million of carbon monoxide was fed at the platinum-based anode, a power density of 350 mW/sq cm was recorded, which is 70 mW/sq cm lower than pure hydrogen. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Evaluation of calcination temperature and phase composition ratio for new hyroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M. N. Ahmad; Chin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    The demand of production of hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasing for the purpose of medical and dental application. HA possesses the excellent properties leads to the priority choice for ceramic bone replacement. Synthesis route by wet chemical precipitation is commonly practised in industrial scale. Calcium hydroxide and Orthophosphoric acid are the precursors for production scale. The synthesis of HA is conducted by varying the synthetic condition: stirring rate, calcium-phosphate and calcination temperature. This paper is focused on the properties of HA produced by regulating the synthetic condition so that the qualities of HA can be well performed. Characterization studies were also carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for functional group identification, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase composition and crystallinity respectively. Narrow particle size distribution contributed to better quality of hydroxyapatite for bone replacement. Both calcium-phosphate ratio and calcination temperature would affect the phase composition of calcium phosphate.

  8. Room-Temperature Plastic Deformation of Strontium Titanate Crystals Grown from Different Chemical Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsutomo Nakamura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxide materials have the potential to exhibit superior mechanical properties in terms of high yield point, high melting point, and high chemical stability. Despite this, they are not widely used as a structural material due to their brittle nature. However, this study shows enhanced room-temperature plasticity of strontium titanate (SrTiO3 crystals through the control of the chemical composition. It is shown that the deformation behavior of SrTiO3 crystals at room temperature depends on the Sr/Ti ratio. It was found that flow stresses in deforming SrTiO3 crystals grown from a powder with the particular ratio of Sr/Ti = 1.04 are almost independent of the strain rate because of the high mobility of dislocations in such crystals. As a result, the SrTiO3 crystals can deform by dislocation slip up to a strain of more than 10%, even at a very high strain rate of 10% per second. It is thus demonstrated that SrTiO3 crystals can exhibit excellent plasticity when chemical composition in the crystal is properly controlled.

  9. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, D; Clavier, N; Szenknect, S; Dacheux, N; Dubois, V

    2012-03-19

    The dissolution of Ce(1-x)Ln(x)O(2-x/2) solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R(L,0)) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R(L,0) values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E(A) ≈ 60-85 kJ·mol(-1)) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H(3)O(+)) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO(2) matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Development and Evaluation of Novel Metal Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Teymoor

    For high temperature applications two novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) materials are manufactured, by embedding molybdenum (Mo) and Hastelloy X (HX) wire meshes in 7YSZ ceramic. The mechanical properties and oxidizing behaviour at 1050°C were investigated. The designs, fabrication, assessment of the mechanical strength, cyclic and isothermal oxidation of the CMCs are described in this thesis. After manufacturing meshes, NiCrA1Y bond coats and 7YSZ were applied via plasma spraying. Bonding strength in some CMC samples are improved by vacuum heat treating, then as-sprayed and heat treated CMCs are subjected to three-point bend and impact tests. Mo and HX wire mesh incorporation in 7YSZ increase the strength and the elongation to failure. In particular, Mo wire increases yield load of 7YSZ by at least 3 times and HX wire increases yield by 9 times. Mo/7YSZ CMC degrades and oxidizes after 330 hours at 1050°C tests, but HX/7YSZ shows higher oxidation resistance. The metallographic analysis shows NiCrA1Y bond coat cracks and delaminates from the wires during isothermal tests. Cyclic test, creating larger thermal stresses, worsens the damage. To increase the oxidation and mechanical properties of these composites, a more effective ceramic coating method is recommended. Overall, the advantages of HX/7YSZ composite suggest further testing and investigation.

  11. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity, conductivity, water uptake and dimensional stability, thermal stability and morphology were characterized. The inclusion of functionalized nanoparticles proved advantageous, mainly due to a physical crosslinking effect and better water retention, with functionalized nanoparticles performing better than the pristine silica particles. For the same filler loading, better nanoparticle dispersion was achieved for solvent-cast membranes, resulting in higher proton conductivity. Filler agglomeration, however,was more severe for solvent-castmembranes at loadings beyond 5wt.%. The composite membranes showed excellent thermal stability, allowing for operation in medium temperature PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell performance of the compositemembranesdecreaseswithdecreasing relativehumidity, but goodperformance values are still obtained at 34% RHand 90 °C,with the best results obtained for solvent castmembranes loaded with 10 wt.% ODF-functionalized silica. Hydrogen crossover of the composite membranes is higher than that forpureNafion membranes,possiblydue toporosityresulting fromsuboptimalparticle- matrixcompatibility. © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving force for indentation cracking in glass: composition, pressure and temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of damage at the surface of glass parts caused by sharp contact loading is a major issue for glass makers, suppliers and end-users. Yet, it is still a poorly understood problem from the viewpoints both of glass science and solid mechanics. Different microcracking patterns are observed at indentation sites depending on the glass composition and indentation cracks may form during both the loading and the unloading stages. Besides, we do not know much about the fracture toughness of glass and its composition dependence, so that setting a criterion for crack initiation and predicting the extent of the damage yet remain out of reach. In this study, by comparison of the behaviour of glasses from very different chemical systems and by identifying experimentally the individual contributions of the different rheological processes leading to the formation of the imprint—namely elasticity, densification and shear flow—we obtain a fairly straightforward prediction of the type and extent of the microcracks which will most likely form, depending on the physical properties of the glass. Finally, some guidelines to reduce the driving force for microcracking are proposed in the light of the effects of composition, temperature and pressure, and the areas for further research are briefly discussed. PMID:25713446

  13. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  14. Development of film- and- fabric composite materials durability assessing methodology under time-dependent influences of temperature and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumov, R. A.; Muhamedova, I. Z.; Suleymanov, A. M.; Tazyukov, B. F.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the design of stress-strain state calculation and film-and- fabric composite materials durability under stresses and solar radiation. We have constructed a two-dimensional finite-state-element computer model of the deforming process of the low- level cell of film-and-fabric-based composite material for the evaluation of its durability which takes into account non-linear viscoelasticity, temperature variations, ageing of the material, the process of upbuilding of microdamage and photodegradation. Qualitative research of operational factors influence (UV, temperature) on film-and-fabric composite materials durability was conducted.

  15. Trace element partitioning between plagioclase and silicate melt: The importance of temperature and plagioclase composition, with implications for terrestrial and lunar magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenguang; Graff, Michelle; Liang, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Trace element partition coefficients between anorthitic plagioclase and basaltic melts (D) have been determined experimentally at 0.6 GPa and 1350-1400 °C in a lunar high-Ti picritic glass and a mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Plagioclases with 98 mol% and 86 mol% anorthite were produced in the lunar picritic melt and MORB melt, respectively. Based on the new experimental partitioning data and those selected from the literature, we developed parameterized lattice strain models for the partitioning of monovalent (Na, K, Li), divalent (Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Ra) and trivalent (REE and Y) cations between plagioclase and silicate melt. Through the new models we showed that the partitioning of these trace elements in plagioclase depends on temperature, pressure, and the abundances of Ca and Na in plagioclase. Particularly, Na content in plagioclase primarily controls divalent element partitioning, while temperature and Ca content in plagioclase are the dominant factors for REE partitioning in plagioclase. From these models, we also derived a new expression for DRa/DBa that can be used for Ra-Th dating on volcanic plagioclase phenocrysts, and a new model for plagioclase-melt noble gas partitioning. Applications of these partitioning models to fractional crystallization of MORB and lunar magma ocean (LMO) indicate that (1) the competing effect of temperature and plagioclase composition leads to small variations of plagioclase-melt DREE during MORB differentiation, but (2) the temperature effect is especially significant and can vary anorthite-melt DREE by over one order of magnitude during LMO solidification. Temperature and plagioclase composition have to be considered when modeling the chemical differentiation of mafic to felsic magmas involving plagioclase.

  16. DIGESTION IN AN ECTOTHERMIC HERBIVORE, THE GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA-IGUANA) - EFFECT OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND BODY-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV

    1992-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the effect of food composition and body temperature on digestive efficiency was investigated in the lizard Iguana iguana on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). In a series of experiments the animals were kept in cages with a temperature gradient and different foods were

  17. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  18. Analysis of remineralisation, lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of organic matter from the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Richardson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    fitted to the data via a non-linear fitting procedure. Thereafter, a continuous OC-model was fitted to the data through an inverse method and information about lability, temperature sensitivity and structural composition of the OC-pool was analysed together with the results from the two-pool solutions. Median values of remineralisation rates from all experiments on material characterising sinking POC were found to be 0.6 and 0.05 days-1 for the two decomposable pools corresponding to turnover times of 2 and 21 days, respectively. Accordingly, solutions from the continuous model resulted in median turnover times between 6 and 11 days. Similar analyses were carried out for the OC-pool characterising DOC. A significant bio-available OC-pool was found to be present in the surface layer with a median value from all experiments of 30 μM TOC. The median values of all remineralisation rates from the two bio-available OC-pools were found to be 0.2 and 0.02 days-1, corresponding to turnover times of 5 and 56 days, respectively, in good agreement with previous studies. The corresponding temperature sensitivities, characterised by a Q10-value, were found to be about 1.9 for the POC-fraction whereas the DOC fraction was characterised with values above 2.8 for the continuous OC-models. The analysis of the structural composition indicated that the TOC distribution in the surface layer was characterised by more heterogeneous material in terms of lability compared with the POC material sampled from the upper 350 m. Finally, we analyse the potential impact of the calculated temperature sensitivity on the general OC-cycling in the upper ocean and show that the implied reduction in OC-flux in a warmer ocean may have significant impact on nutrient cycling in general and also tends to reduce future ocean carbon uptake significantly.

  19. Influence of temperature on the molecular composition of ions and charged clusters during pure biogenic nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frege

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown by the CERN CLOUD experiment that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs form particles under atmospheric conditions in the absence of sulfuric acid, where ions enhance the nucleation rate by 1–2 orders of magnitude. The biogenic HOMs were produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene at 5 °C. Here we extend this study to compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters measured with atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers (APi-TOFs, at three different temperatures (25, 5 and −25 °C. Most negative HOM clusters include a nitrate (NO3− ion, and the spectra are similar to those seen in the nighttime boreal forest. On the other hand, most positive HOM clusters include an ammonium (NH4+ ion, and the spectra are characterized by mass bands that differ in their molecular weight by ∼ 20 C atoms, corresponding to HOM dimers. At lower temperatures the average oxygen to carbon (O : C ratio of the HOM clusters decreases for both polarities, reflecting an overall reduction of HOM formation with decreasing temperature. This indicates a decrease in the rate of autoxidation with temperature due to a rather high activation energy as has previously been determined by quantum chemical calculations. Furthermore, at the lowest temperature (−25 °C, the presence of C30 clusters shows that HOM monomers start to contribute to the nucleation of positive clusters. These experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the binding energies of representative neutral and charged clusters.

  20. Thermomechanical response of metal-ceramic graded composites for high-temperature aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierling, Phillip Eugene

    Airframes operating in the hypersonic regime are subjected to complex structural and thermal loads. Structural loads are a result of aggressive high G maneuvers, rapid vehicle acceleration and deceleration, and dynamic pressure, while thermal loads are a result of aerodynamic heating. For such airframes, structural members are typically constructed from steel, titanium and nickel alloys. However, with most materials, rapid elevations in temperature lead to undesirable changes in material properties. In particular, reductions in strength and stiffness are observed, along with an increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion. Thus, hypersonic airframes are typically designed with external insulation, active cooling or a thermal protection system (TPS) added to the structure to protect the underling material from the effects of temperature. Such thermal protection may consist of adhesively bonded, pinned, and bolted thermal protection layers over exterior panels. These types of attachments create abrupt changes in thermal expansion and stiffness that make the structure susceptible to cracking and debonding as well as adding mass to the airframe. One of the promising materials concepts for extreme environments that was introduced in the past is the so-called Spatially Tailored Advanced Thermal Structures (STATS). The concept of STATS is rooted in functionally graded materials (FGMs), in which a directional variation of material properties exists. These materials are essentially composites and consist of two or more phases of distinct materials in which the volume fractions of each phase continuously change in space. Here, the graded material will serve a dual-purpose role as both the structural/skin member and thermal management with the goal of reducing the weight of the structure while maintaining structural soundness. This is achieved through the ability to tailor material properties to create a desired or enhanced thermomechanical response