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Sample records for temperate western australia

  1. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

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    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  2. Marine Biodiversity in Temperate Western Australia: Multi-Taxon Surveys of Minden and Roe Reefs

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    Zoe Richards

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that temperate marine ecosystems are being tropicalised due to the poleward extension of tropical species. Such climate mediated changes in species distribution patterns have the potential to profoundly alter temperate communities, as this advance can serve to push temperate taxa, many of which are southern Australian endemics, southward. These changes can lead to cascading effects for the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems, including contraction of ranges/habitats of sensitive cool water species. Hence there is growing concern for the future of Australia’s temperate marine biodiversity. Here we examine the diversity and abundance of marine flora and fauna at two reefs near Perth’s metropolitan area—Minden Reef and Roe Reef. We report the presence of 427 species of marine flora and fauna from eight taxon groups occurring in the Perth metropolitan area; at least three species of which appear to be new to science. Our data also extends the known range of 15 species, and in numerous instances, thousands of kilometres south from the Kimberley or Pilbara and verifies that tropicalisation of reef communities in the Perth metropolitan area is occurring. We report the presence of 24 species endemic to south-west Australia that may be at risk of range contractions with continued ocean warming. The results of these surveys add to our knowledge of local nearshore marine environments in the Perth metropolitan area and support the growing body of evidence that indicates a diverse and regionally significant marine fauna occurs in temperate Western Australia. Regular, repeated survey work across seasons is important in order to thoroughly document the status of marine biodiversity in this significant transition zone.

  3. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  4. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

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    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  5. Talipes equinovarus in Western Australia.

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    Carey, Mary; Bower, Caroline; Mylvaganam, Arul; Rouse, Ian

    2003-04-01

    In Western Australia (WA), talipes equinovarus is a notifiable birth defect and, since 1980, has been ascertained by the population-based Birth Defects Registry (BDR). Talipes equinovarus deformities were classified as two distinct and distinguishable types, viz. isolated talipes equinovarus (no other birth defects present) and associated talipes equinovarus (other birth defects present). The birth prevalence of associated talipes in WA between 1980 and 1994 was 0.90 per 1000 births, and of isolated talipes was 1.25 per 1000 births. The rate of the isolated deformity was higher in Aboriginal infants (3.49 per 1000 births) than in Caucasian infants (1.11 per 1000 births) and non-Aboriginal non-Caucasian infants (0.73 per 1000 births). The sex differential in the rate of the isolated deformity was greatest among Aboriginal infants, with the rate in males being almost four times that in females. The birth prevalence of both types of the deformity remained stable over the 15-year study period. The rate of caesarean and breech deliveries and the proportion of bilaterally affected feet was greater among infants with associated talipes equinovarus deformity. An accurate and complete identification of cases of isolated talipes equinovarus in the 1980-94 WA birth cohort provides a basis for furthering the understanding of the epidemiology and hence the aetiology of the deformity.

  6. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

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    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  7. Eye injury after jellyfish sting in temperate Australia.

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    Winkel, Kenneth D; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Ashby, Karen; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Although jellyfish stings are an uncommon medical problem in temperate Australia, significant morbidity can occur, particularly in association with infestations of large numbers of jellyfish in public swimming areas. We report a case of a jellyfish sting-related eye injury, probably caused by the "hair" jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) from southeast Australia. The patient, a 54-year-old man, was stung while swimming without goggles in a jellyfish-infested bay. He experienced severe pain in his right eye, requiring narcotic analgesia, and had decreased visual acuity associated with right-sided facial swelling. Although usually brief and self-limiting, eye injuries after jellyfish stings should be assessed and treated as early as possible to reduce the risk of longer term sequelae. Water safety campaigns should incorporate information on the prevention and early treatment of such stings.

  8. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  9. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  10. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

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    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  11. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

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    Yohei Nakamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable

  12. Traumatic facet joint dislocation in Western Australia.

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    Eranki, Vivek; Koul, Kongposh; Mendz, George; Dillon, David

    2016-04-01

    Facet joint dislocation is a traumatic injury, which frequently results in devastating clinical outcomes. In Western Australia (WA), Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) provides a statewide Spinal Trauma Service and accepts all referrals from the entirety of the state. The economies of distance in WA mean that there is often a considerable delay between initial presentation at the peripheral hospital and enlocation of the dislocation in Perth. This study aims to identify any prejudicial clinical outcomes as a consequence of this delay. This study retrospectively examines all facet joint dislocations that presented to RPH between in a 46-month period. Data were collected on the demographics of patients, mechanism of injury, neurological assessment at presentation of injury based on the American spinal injury association (ASIA), initial presentation to RPH, post-surgical reduction and post rehabilitation. Over this time there were 23 urban patients and 28 rural patients. In the urban group, 18 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E while 5 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C. In the rural group, 17 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C while 11 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E. This study confirms the challenges of management of these injuries in a large geographical area, with a centralised spinal trauma service. Generally, facet joint dislocations that had delayed reductions had a poorer outcome. We hope that the proposed protocol would deliver better management of these injuries.

  13. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

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    Kartika Sari K.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  14. A Molecular Survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in Temperate Australia Reveals Enhanced Levels of Cosmopolitanism.

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    Kirkendale, Lisa; Saunders, Gary W; Winberg, Pia

    2013-02-01

    The green algal genus Ulva includes a speciose group of marine macroalgae inhabiting shallow seas worldwide. Although algal blooms in Asia highlight the opportunistic nature of several "nuisance" species, recent research clearly reveals important positive benefits of Ulva. Applied research requires accurate, reliable, and rapid identification, however, identification of Ulva spp. has met with con-siderable difficulty. Consequently, many have turned to molecular markers to aid in taxonomy. Previous studies of plants and algae have relied heavily on ITS and rbcL. Recently, tufA has been presented as a suitable barcoding gene to facilitate species-level identification of green macroalgae and it is used here to explore the diversity of Ulva spp. in temperate Australia. Ninety Ulva specimens collected from 38 sites across five states were sequenced for this gene region with exemplars from each genetic group also sequenced for rbcL to test for congruence. Collections of Australian Ulva spp. were compared to samples from Asia and North America and exhibited trends consistent with recent studies in terms of species relationships. Results support an overwhelmingly cosmopolitan flora in temperate Australia that contrasts with other Australasian surveys of Ulva that report a greater number of endemics and new species. Four new records, as well as numerous range extensions for taxa already known from the country, are documented. Evidence for three nonindigenous Ulva species in temperate Australia is discussed. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  15. Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Tropical to Temperate Australia

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    Raymond L. Specht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the short period of annual foliage growth in evergreen plant communities, aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and leaf attributes in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on each vertical foliage shoot depends on available soil water and nutrients during this growth period. The area of all leaves exposed to solar radiation determines net photosynthetic fixation of the plant community throughout the year. In turn, the species richness (number of species per hectare of both plants and resident vertebrates is determined. The species richness of unicellular algae and small multicellular isopods in permanent freshwater lagoons in Northern Australia may possibly have been increased by radiation released from nearby uranium deposits. Evolution of new angiosperms probably occurred in refugia during periods of extreme drought. When favourable climates were restored, the vegetation expanded to result in high Gamma Biodiversity (number of plant species per region but with each major plant community having essentially the same species richness (number of plant species per hectare. The probable effects of pollution and Global Warming on biodiversity in Australian ecosystems, that experience seasonal drought, are discussed.

  16. Solar-powered railway signals in Western Australia

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    Anon.

    1997-03-01

    Few places in the world record more days of sunlight than the Pilbara Region of Western Australia, where temperatures range from 15{sup o}C to more than 40{sup o}C nearly all year with only intermittent interruption from winter rains and summer hurricanes. Now one of Australia`s largest companies has replaced diesel generation with solar power in a railway signalling and communications system on a 426km railway in the region. The single-track railway in the iron ore rich Pilbara belongs to BHP Iron Ore. (Author)

  17. Capacity Building in Rural Mental Health in Western Australia.

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    Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn

    2002-01-01

    A distance education program in mental health was delivered to 31 rural health professionals in Western Australia who dealt with mentally ill patients at the primary level. Evaluation on completion and 4 months postprogram indicated that participants learned mental health management regimes, developed mental health assessment skills, improved…

  18. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

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    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  19. Mortality of fire fighters in Western Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliopulos, E; Armstrong, B K; Spickett, J T; Heyworth, F

    1984-01-01

    All except 17 (1.7%) of 990 fire fighters employed by the Western Australian Fire Brigade between 1 October 1939 and 31 December 1978 were successfully followed up to 31 December 1978. Mortality from all causes was less than expected (SMR 0.80 with 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.96). There was evidence of the healthy worker effect but none that mortality increased with increasing duration of employment. A small proportional excess of deaths from road traffic accidents ( SPMR 1.66) appeared...

  20. Tropical Fishes Dominate Temperate Reef Fish Communities within Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yohei Nakamura; Feary, David A.; Masaru Kanda; Kosaku Yamaoka

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring t...

  1. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.

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    Potter, Abbey S; Banazis, Michael J; Yang, Rongchang; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.6) of samples. Our results suggest that kangaroos are reservoirs for C. burnetii in Western Australia and may contribute to transmission of the organism to domestic livestock and humans.

  2. Mortality of fire fighters in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopulos, E; Armstrong, B K; Spickett, J T; Heyworth, F

    1984-05-01

    All except 17 (1.7%) of 990 fire fighters employed by the Western Australian Fire Brigade between 1 October 1939 and 31 December 1978 were successfully followed up to 31 December 1978. Mortality from all causes was less than expected (SMR 0.80 with 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.96). There was evidence of the healthy worker effect but none that mortality increased with increasing duration of employment. A small proportional excess of deaths from road traffic accidents ( SPMR 1.66) appeared to be unrelated to fire service. Deaths from other accidents, poisonings, and violence were significantly less than expected (SMR 0.35 with 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.90) and may indicate an effect of training and experience on accident proneness. There was no evidence of increased mortality from cardiovascular or respiratory disease, or from any other cause.

  3. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

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    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  4. Zika vector transmission risk in temperate Australia: a vector competence study.

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    Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Mee, Peter T; Lynch, Stacey E; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Trinidad, Lee; Paradkar, Prasad

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. It has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the Americas and in the Pacific region. This study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in Australia and included Aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species. Mosquitoes were orally challenged by membrane feeding with Zika virus strain of Cambodia 2010 origin, belonging to the Asian clade. Virus infection and dissemination were assessed by quantitative PCR on midgut and carcass after dissection. Transmission was assessed by determination of cytopathogenic effect of saliva (CPE) on Vero cells, followed by determination of 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) for CPE positive samples. Additionally, the presence of Wolbachia endosymbiont infection was assessed by qPCR and standard PCR. Culex mosquitoes were found unable to present Zika virus in saliva, as demonstrated by molecular as well as virological methods. Aedes aegypti, was used as a positive control for Zika infection and showed a high level of virus infection, dissemination and transmission. Local Aedes species, Ae. notoscriptus and, to a lesser degree, Ae. camptorhynchus were found to expel virus in their saliva and contained viral nucleic acid within the midgut. Molecular assessment identified low or no dissemination for these species, possibly due to low virus loads. Ae. albopictus from Torres Strait islands origin was shown as an efficient vector. Cx quinquefasciatus was shown to harbour Wolbachia endosymbionts at high prevalence, whilst no Wolbachia was found in Cx annulirostris. The Australian Ae. albopictus population was shown to harbour Wolbachia at high frequency. The risk of local Aedes species triggering large Zika epidemics in the southern parts of Australia is low. The potentially invasive Ae. albopictus showed high prevalence of virus in the saliva and constitutes a potential threat if this mosquito species becomes established in mainland

  5. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

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    John R. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  6. Reaching out: caring for women prisoners in Western Australia.

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    Geraghty, Sadie

    2015-01-01

    Incarcerated women are a vulnerable group with complex needs in pregnancy, birth and early parenting; and this is further complicated with a drug and/or alcohol addiction. Prior to the establishment of an antenatal outreach clinic in a Western Australian prison for women, pregnant inmates received fragmented antenatal care. Some of the women did not disclose drug and alcohol issues for fear of involvement of child protection services, and some refused to be transported for care to maternity hospitals for antenatal appointments. This is the first antenatal care clinic for pregnant women to be established within a prison population in Western Australia.

  7. Algal stromatolites: deepwater forms in the devonian of Western australia.

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    Playford, P E; Cockbain, A E

    1969-09-05

    A diverse assemblage of algal stromatolites occurs in Devonian reef complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Some forms grew on fore-reef depositional slopes down to at least 45 meters below sea level and are believed to be products of deepwater nonskeletal algae. It is concluded that algal stromatolites in the stratigraphic record are not to be regarded as diagnostic evidence for deposition in very shallow water.

  8. First case of Francisella bacteraemia in Western Australia

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    Max Aravena-Román

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella species are Gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, facultative intracellular fastidious bacteria. We report the isolation of a Francisella-like species from a blood culture collected from a 44-year-old bacteraemic patient in Perth, Western Australia. The organism was identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and by fatty acid methyl esters analysis. The strain genotypically resembled Francisella hispaniensis, a species previously isolated from human blood in Spain.

  9. Online eye care in prisons in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesan, K; Henderson, C; Barry, C J; Constable, I J

    2001-01-01

    In prisons, prison medical officers provide general medical care. However, if specialist care is needed then the prisoner is transported to a specialist medical centre. This is a costly procedure and prison escapes occur during transportation. We have tested our Internet-based eye care system in prisons in Western Australia. Medical and ophthalmic history, visual acuity and intraocular pressure were stored in a browser-based multimedia database. Digital images of the retina and the external eye were recorded and transmitted to a central server. Based on the medical data and the digital images, the specialist ophthalmologist could provide a diagnosis within 24 h. Eleven patients (mean age 48, range 30-82 years) were reviewed during two separate visits to a maximum-security prison in Western Australia. Our main aim was to train prison medical officers and nurses to operate the portable ophthalmic imaging instruments and to use the Internet-based eye care system. The outcome of the pilot study indicated that considerable savings could be made in transport costs and the security risk could be reduced. The Ministry of Justice in Western Australia has decided to implement telemedicine services to provide regular ophthalmic consultation to its prisons.

  10. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  11. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fitzsimons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy changes at the national and state (i.e., Western Australia level require that offsets follow a set of general principles: (1 Environmental offsets may not be appropriate for all projects and will only be considered after avoidance and mitigation options have been pursued; (2 Environmental offsets will be based on sound environmental information and knowledge; (3 Establishing goals for offsets requires an estimate of expected direct and indirect impacts; (4 Environmental offsets will be focused on longer term strategic outcomes; (5 Environmental offsets will be cost-effective, as well as relevant and proportionate to the significance of the environmental value being impacted. Here we focus on the challenges of determining and implementing offsets using a real world example from a voluntary offset process undertaken for Barrick Gold’s Kanowna Belle mine site in Western Australia to highlight those challenges and potential solutions.

  12. Cadmium content in soil at Heirisson Island, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosie, D.J.; Bogoiais, A.; De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the cadmium level of soil samples from Heirisson Island, western Australia. Cadmium is a particularly toxic element considered harmful to humans and vegetation. Experimental methods and materials are described. Results indicate that cadmium concentrations decrease markedly with distance from road edges, where the cadmium is thought to originate from automobile tires. Other results are detailed. Despite the fact that the amount of cadmium fallout from vehicular traffic is considerably smaller in Australia than was expected on the basis of overseas studies, it is still apparent that the accession rate in soil adjoining busy highways is sufficiently large to demand that care is taken to avoid growing vegetation for human consumption too close to such roadside locations. (3 graphs, 8 references)

  13. Calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aral, H. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Hackl, R., E-mail: ralph.hackl@csiro.au [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Pownceby, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    CSIRO is undertaking advanced mineralogical and elemental characterisation studies of lowgrade and refractory Australian uranium deposits. Of particular interest are the calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia. These deposits are found in playa lake sediments and channels which drain a uranium-rich source. The primary uranium mineral is carnotite. The ore is highly friable and is usually found in association with clayey and calcareous minerals, such as gypsum, dolomite and halite. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the characteristics and formation of these calcrete-type uranium deposits to assist in the development of new and improved processing routes. (author)

  14. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  15. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rights afforded to Indigenous Australians under the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA are very limited and allow for undue coercion by corporate interests, contrary to the claims of many prominent authors in this field. Unlike the Commonwealth’s first land rights law, Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory Act 1976 (ALRA , the NTA does not offer a right of veto to Aboriginal parties; instead, they have a right to negotiate with developers, which has in practice meant very little leverage in negotiations for native title parties. And unlike ALRA, developers can deal with any Indigenous corporation, rather than land councils. These two factors have encouraged opportunistic conduct by some developers and led to vexatious litigation designed to break the resistance of native title parties, as demonstrated by the experience of Aboriginal corporations in the iron ore-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia.

  16. Learning French in Western Australia: A Hedonistic Journey

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    Celine DOUCET

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When learning a language, motivation and emotions are central to the learning process and have considerable importance in learning. In Australia, despite the growing economic impact of its Asian neighbours and the great physical distance to France, French remains one of the most taught languages in various educational settings at different levels, and it appeals to many Australians. This review focuses on the motivations of West Australian adult learners of French. The aim of this paper is to explore students’ motivation and emotions towards their learning of French in Western Australia, teachers’ perceptions of these feelings, and how they are reflected in their teaching practice. Applying a qualitative approach, fifty students and six teachers from two universities in Perth as well as the Alliance Française de Perth, completed questionnaires and participated in semi-structured interviews. This study shows that French is mostly learned for enjoyment, personal gratification and cultural appreciation, rather than for necessity or professional reasons. The analysis of the survey results clearly portrayed the intrinsic value most students perceived in learning French. Teachers are well aware of these positive emotions, and need to establish how best to harness this passion in their teaching practices in order to maximize learning outcomes.

  17. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  18. appeals among male university students in Western Australia

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    Shahriar Khandaker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Smoking causes ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer killing 15,000 Australians every year. Despite extensive publicity of the harmful health effects of smoking, one in six Australian aged 15 years and over smoked daily representing 2.7 million active smokers. Objectives. The research aimed to comprehend how active university student smokers respond to different appeals employed in public service antismoking campaigns in Western Australia. Material and methods. The study examined the Quit Victoria 2006–2008 antismoking campaign using qualitative research method involving four in-depth focus group discussions with a total of twenty-four (N = 24 active male university student smokers in Western Australia between the age group of 18 to 24 years. Results . Male university students became active smokers because of the perceived image of ‘coolness,’ ‘macho,’ media influence and experimentation. Impact on sports performances predominantly encouraged respondents in attempting to quit smoking. Sixteen students (67% felt that graphic warning messages on cigarette packs had no effect on them due to desensitizing effects of repeated messages. Twenty-one participants (87.5% felt that health shock appeal was ineffective in making them quit. Emotional appeals like humor, fear, and health shock were most persuasive in advertising messages which would assist in smoking cessation. Therefore, antismoking campaigns with shock health appeals were ineffective in helping smokers to abdicate smoking. Results suggested employing emotional or combination of rational and emotional appeals in maximizing the effectiveness of antismoking advertisements. Conclusions . The study broadens the scope of devising effective antismoking campaigns and provide insightful implications for public health promoters as well as individualized care providers.

  19. Uptake of inorganic phosphorus by temperate seagrass beds of Posidonia and Amphibolis in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, S

    2015-08-01

    Seagrasses occupy a narrow band of sandy seabed close to the coast and are therefore vulnerable to anthropogenic influences, particularly meadows near large population centres. Over 5000 ha of seagrasses have been lost from Adelaide coastal waters (South Australia) over the past 70 years and much of this loss has been attributed to nutrient inputs from wastewater, industrial and stormwater discharges. This led to the Adelaide Coastal Waters Study to understand processes along the Adelaide metropolitan coast that led to seagrass loss. This study, a subset of the larger ACWS study, used in situ nutrient spike approach to obtain ecologically relevant estimates of seasonal variability in phosphorus uptake in two species of temperate seagrass common to this coast (Amphibolis antarctica and Posidonia angustifolia). Total uptake of phosphorus by biological components in the seagrass beds, viz., seagrass, epiphytes and phytoplankton, was negligible, never exceeding 0.5% of the total resource. Phosphorus uptake rate varied seasonally with higher rates in winter (1.49 μmol P.g(-1) DW.h(-1)) and lower rates in spring (0.70 μmol P.g(-1) DW.h(-1)) for Amphibolis and highest in winter (2.09 μmol P.g(-1) DW.h(-1)) and least in spring (0.14 μmol P.g(-1) DW.h(-1)) for Posidonia. Low biological uptake rates of inorganic phosphorus could be attributed to carbonate sediments and particulates in the water column binding inorganic phosphorus, limiting its availability for biological uptake. From an environmental perspective, seagrass beds in the Adelaide coastal waters account for the assimilation of only 5.4% (19.53 t yr(-1)) of the total anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus.

  20. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia.

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    Ingrid Stirnemann

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes] within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types. Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest.

  1. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest.

  2. Accounting for Biomass Carbon Stock Change Due to Wildfire in Temperate Forest Landscapes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B.; Mackey, Brendan G.; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha−1, which represented 6–7% and 9–14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha−1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities

  3. Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to wildfire in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1, which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise

  4. Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in kangaroos from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stanley; Potter, Abbey; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-06-30

    A total of 763 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. Samples that were positive at the 18S locus were also amplified at the actin locus. The overall prevalence was 9.3% (71/763). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 28 of the 71 positives. Sequence analysis identified four species; Cryptosporidium fayeri in seven isolates, Cryptosporidium marcopodum in four isolates, Cryptosporidium xiaoi in six isolates and a novel genotype (kangaroo genotype I) in eleven isolates. Analysis at the actin locus confirmed the genetic distinctness of the novel genotype. The results of the present study indicate that in addition to C. fayeri and C. marcopodum, kangaroos may be capable of being infected with a wider range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes including livestock species such as C. xiaoi. The novel genotype identified in the kangaroos most likely represents a cryptic species that requires further analyses to confirm its species status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eight new species of Macvicaria Gibson and Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand

  6. Benthic assemblage composition on subtidal reefs along a latitudinal gradient in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, D. A.; Kendrick, G. A.; Waddington, K. I.; Van Niel, K. P.; Meeuwig, J. J.; Harvey, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    At regional scales, the distribution of species and the structure of assemblages vary with latitude within many marine and terrestrial systems. The oligotrophic coastal waters of Western Australia (WA) support highly speciose and endemic assemblages, yet spatial patterns in benthic structure are currently poorly known. We examined benthic assemblage composition along a latitudinal gradient of 28.5-33.5°S and a depth gradient of 14-62 m, on subtidal reefs in warm-temperate WA. We surveyed benthos using a remotely triggered digital stills camera. In total, we sampled macroalgae and sessile invertebrates at 201 sites spread across four locations. Percent cover of coarse taxonomic groups and dominant species was estimated from over 2000 photoquadrat samples. We recorded significant differences in benthic assemblage composition between locations, and along depth gradients within each location. However, the magnitude of change with depth was not consistent between locations, and shifts in assemblage composition along the depth gradients were not as pronounced as expected. The percent cover of all dominant benthic groupings differed between locations, and several key taxa, such as the kelp Scytothalia dorycarpa, brown foliose macroalgae, hard corals and sponges, changed predictably along the latitudinal gradient. Our study adopted a coarse taxonomic, but assemblage-wide, approach to describing macrobenthic assemblages, and clear differences between locations and depths were detected. The surveys have provided baseline data on broad scale ecosystem structure against which to detect future ecological change.

  7. Shifts in the synoptic systems influencing southwest Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Pandora K.; Drosdowsky, Wasyl; Nicholls, Neville [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    A self-organising map is used to classify the winter circulation affecting southwest Western Australia (SWWA) into 20 different synoptic types. The changes in the frequency of these types and their links to observed rainfall are analysed to further understand the significant, prolonged, rainfall drop observed in this region since 1975. The temporal variability of the different synoptic types link well with the observed rainfall changes. The frequency of the troughs associated with wet conditions across SWWA has declined markedly since 1975 while the frequency of the synoptic types with high pressure over the continent, associated with dry conditions, has increased. Combining the frequency of the synoptic systems with the amount of observed rainfall allows a quantitative analysis of the rainfall decline. The decreased frequency of the troughs associated with very wet conditions accounts for half of the decline. Reductions in the amount of rainfall precipitating from each system also contribute to the decline. Large-scale circulation changes, including increases in the mean sea-level pressure and a decrease in the general baroclinicity of the region have been associated with the rainfall decline. These changes are suggested to be linked to increasing levels of greenhouse gases. Due to the strong link between the number of trough types and the rainfall over SWWA, the shifts in the frequency of these synoptic types could be used as a tool to assess simulated rainfall changes, particularly into the future. (orig.)

  8. Deaths from non-melanoma skin cancer in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girschik, J; Fritschi, Lin; Threlfall, T; Slevin, T

    2008-10-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is common, slow growing, and rarely metastasizes. However, there are still nearly 400 deaths from NMSC in Australia annually. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of NMSC death coding and to describe the characteristics of these deaths and the potential for prevention. Histology reports for all deaths coded as NMSC (ICD-10 C44.0-C44.9) by the Western Australian Cancer Registry for the years 1996-2005 were reviewed for type of cancer, body site (primary tumor and metastases), and level of available documentation. Of 368 deaths recorded as being due to NMSC only 3 were found to be miscoded. An additional 53 deaths contained inadequate information to confirm NMSC as the cause of death. Of the confirmed cases, 219 were due to squamous cell carcinoma, 53 to Merkel cell carcinomas, and 40 to other skin cancers. Cases were mainly males and were elderly. Most of the primary squamous and Merkel cell carcinomas were in areas of maximum sun exposure (face, ears, and hands, and scalp in males). Misclassification of NMSC deaths in WA was minimal. The majority of NMSC deaths were due to squamous cell carcinomas; had primary sites associated with significant sun exposure; and occurred in older men.

  9. Major faults and the development of dryland salinity in the western wheatbelt of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Clarke

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dryland salinity poses a major threat to agricultural production in the wheatbelt of Western Australia and much time and effort is expended on understanding the mechanisms which cause it and on developing techniques to halt or reverse its development. Whilst the location of much dryland salinity can be explained by its topographic position, a significant proportion of it cannot. This study investigated the hypothesis that major faults in the Yilgarn Craton represented in aeromagnetic data by intense curvilinear lows explained the location of areas of dryland salinity not explained by topography. Moreover, the causal mechanisms that might underpin a spatial relationship between major faults and dryland salinity were sought. In one fourth order catchment, nearly 85% of the salinity that was not explained topographically was within 2km of the centre line of a major fault, the remaining 15% being in the other 12km of the catchment. Three groups of similar third order catchments in the western wheatbelt of Western Australia were also investigated; in each case the catchment that was underlain by a major fault had dryland salinity an order of magnitude more than the unfaulted catchment(s. This evidence demonstrates a strong spatial association between major faults and the development of dryland salinity. Other evidence suggests that the underlying mechanism is hydraulic conductivity 5.2 to 2.9 times higher inside the fault zone compared to outside it and shows that geomorphology, salt store, regolith thickness, and degree of clearing are not the underlying mechanisms. In one of the groups of catchments, it has been calculated that an amount of recharge, significant in relation to recharge from rainfall, was entering from an adjacent catchment along a major fault. The paper concludes that geological features such as major faults affect the development of dryland salinity in the wheatbelt of Western Australia because of permeability differences in the

  10. Recovery of Bird Populations after Clearfelling of Tall Open Eucalypt Forest in Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. R. Williams; I. Abbott; G. L. Liddelow; C. Vellios; I. B. Wheeler; A. E. Mellican

    2001-01-01

    ... disturbance on biodiversity. 2. We conducted an experimental study of the impact of clearfelling on birds of the karri Eucalyptus diversicolor forest in south-west Western Australia over a 17-year period, and a retrospective study...

  11. Study of lone working magnetic resonance technologists in Western Australia

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    Tracy Anne Dewland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is recommended that magnetic resonance (MR technologists should not work alone due to potential occupational health risks although lone working is legally acceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of lone working MR technologists in Western Australia (WA and any issue against the regulations. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire regarding the issues of occupational health of lone working MR technologists was developed based on relevant literature and distributed to WA MR technologists. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact, Chi2 and t tests, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the responses of the yes/no, multiple choice and 5 pt scale questions from the returned questionnaires. Results: The questionnaire response rate was 65.6% (59/90. It was found that about half of the MR technologists (45.8%, 27/59 experienced lone working. The private magnetic resonance imaging (MRI centers were more likely to arrange technologists to work alone (p < 0.05. The respondents expressed positive views on issues of adequacy of training and arrangement, confidence and comfort towards lone working except immediate assistance for emergency (mean: 3. Factors of existence of MRI safety officer (p < 0.05 and nature of lone working (p < 0.001-0.05 affected MR technologists' concerns. Conclusions: Lone working of MR technologists is common in WA especially in private centers. The training and arrangement provided seem to be adequate for meeting the legal requirements. However, several areas should be improved by the workplaces including enhancement on immediate emergency assistance and concern relief.

  12. Bioclimatic Extremes Drive Forest Mortality in Southwest, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme and persistent reductions in annual precipitation and an increase in the mean diurnal temperature range have resulted in patch scale forest mortality following the summer of 2010–2011 within the Forest study area near Perth, Western Australia. The impacts of 20 bioclimatic indicators derived from temperature, precipitation and of actual and potential evapotranspiration are quantified. We found that spatially aggregated seasonal climatologies across the study area show 2011 with an annual mean of 17.7 °C (± 5.3 °C was 1.1 °C warmer than the mean over recent decades (1981–2011,- 16.6 °C ± 4.6 °C and the mean has been increasing over the last decade. Compared to the same period, 2010–2011 summer maximum temperatures were 1.4 °C (31.6 °C ± 2.0 °C higher and the annual mean diurnal temperature range (Tmax−Tmin was 1.6 °C higher (14.7 °C ± 0.5 °C. In 2009, the year before the forest mortality began, annual precipitation across the study area was 69% less (301 mm ± 38 mm than the mean of 1981–2010 (907 mm ± 69 mm. Using Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre mission 5 (SPOT-5 satellite imagery captured after the summer of 2010–2011 we map a broad scale forest mortality event across the Forested study area. This satellite-climatology based methodology provides a means of monitoring and mapping similar forest mortality events- a critical contribution to our understanding the dynamical bioclimatic drivers of forest mortality events.

  13. Impacts of Recent Climate change on wheat production systems in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Milroy, S.P.; Asseng, S.

    2009-01-01

    The wheatbelt of Western Australia shows a distinct Mediterranean climate with most of the rainfall occurring in the winter months. The main factor limiting plant production in this region is rainfall. Due to clearing of native vegetation, dryland salinity is a major problem in south-west Australia.

  14. Economic analysis of prescribed burning for wildfire management in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Florec, Veronique; Pannell, David J.; Burton, Michael P.; Kelso, Joel; Mellor, Drew; Milne, George

    2012-01-01

    Wildfires can cause significant damage to ecosystems, life and property, and wildfire events that do not involve people and property are becoming rare. With the expansion of the rural–urban interface in Western Australia and elsewhere, objectives of life and property protection become more difficult to achieve. We applied the cost plus net value change (C+NVC) model to a synthetic landscape, representative of the northern jarrah forest of the south west of Western Australia. The most economic...

  15. Projected future changes in synoptic systems influencing southwest Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Pandora K. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    Rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia (SWWA) is sensitive to shifts in the hemispheric scale circulation due to its location at the northward extent of the influence of mid-latitude fronts. A step-drop in the 1970s to a new winter rainfall regime has caused great concern for water users in the region. The synoptic systems at the height of winter in the latter half of the 20th century over this region have been described in Hope et al. (Clim Dyn, 2006) using a self-organising map, and in this study the projected future shifts in those systems has been examined. Bounds are placed on the possible responses by examining a number of different models and, into the future, two scenarios at the upper (SRES A2) and lower (SRES B1) limits of plausible human induced emissions. Rainfall taken directly from the models captures the rainfall decline in the 1970s, and, although it is not as large as observed in any one model, all the models express a decline, which is a very strong result. Into the future the rainfall decline is dramatic. The scenario at the upper bound of emissions, where atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to rise strongly, shows a rainfall decline right through to the end of the century. The shift in synoptic systems for most models is to far fewer troughs and more high pressure systems across the region. One model exhibits a different signature, with a shift to more systems with a zonal structure. The fact that there is a rainfall decline shown by all models, yet the synoptic changes are different, highlights how sensitive SWWA rainfall is to the different responses of climate models to increasing greenhouse gases. In the B1 scenario, the concentrations rise only slowly in the second half of the century and the shift is still to drier conditions, but it is not as striking. These results show that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases lead to increasingly dry conditions in SWWA, and as the atmospheric concentrations rise

  16. Major Seagrass Carbon Sinks Worldwide, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masque, P.; Lavery, P.; Duarte, C. M.; Kendrick, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are marine foundation species that provide valuable ecosystem services including the stabilization of sediment, carbon dioxide sequestration, and habitat for diverse fauna and flora. Shark Bay, Western Australia, registered as a World Heritage Property, has the largest reported assemblage of seagrass meadows worldwide, thus has an important role in producing, sequestering and storing organic carbon (Corg). We surveyed 30 seagrass meadows in Shark Bay accounting for species composition, seagrass contribution to the sedimentary Corg pool, and habitat variability. The sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and Corg accumulation over short and long terms were determined by means of 210Pb and 14C dating. Sediment grain size was used to characterize sedimentary environments and δ13C analyses to determine the sources of sedimentary Corg stocks in each meadow. Corg stocks accumulated in the last century varied from 0.4 to 4.5 kg Corg m-2, with an average burial rate of 24 ± 11 g Corg m-2 y-1 (10 - 20 cm-thick deposits). Stocks in the top meter ranged from 4 to 30 kg Corg m-2, which is equivalent to a long-term carbon burial rate averaging 8 ± 5 g Corg m-2 y-1 (over the last millennia). With an area of 4,000 km2, seagrass meadows in Shark Bay store the vast amount of 45 ± 23 Tg Corg in the top meter, which would represent about 1% of the Corg stored in seagrass meadows worldwide. Spatial and temporal variability in Corg storage results from various factors, including biological (e.g. net primary production), chemical (e.g. recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and geological (e.g. hydrodynamic energy and sediment accumulation rates). Higher SAR and smaller sediment size appeared to contribute to a higher accumulation and preservation of Corg. Moreover, sediments with highest Corg stocks were characterized by high δ13C, suggesting that the plant itself plays a key role in Corg storage. These findings combined with sediment chronologies help us to understand the formation

  17. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  18. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  19. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  20. Unprecedented mass bleaching and loss of coral across 12° of latitude in Western Australia in 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James A Y; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial R; Evans, Richard D; Evans, Scott N; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Holmes, Thomas H; Middlebrook, Rachael; Radford, Ben T; Ridgway, Tyrone; Shedrawi, George; Taylor, Heather; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010-11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA). Extreme La-Niña conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5) in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5) in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%-83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. The anomalous thermal stress of 2010-11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under forecast warming regimes may in part be mitigated by southern thermal refugia.

  1. Unprecedented Mass Bleaching and Loss of Coral across 12° of Latitude in Western Australia in 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James A. Y.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial R.; Evans, Richard D.; Evans, Scott N.; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Holmes, Thomas H.; Middlebrook, Rachael; Radford, Ben T.; Ridgway, Tyrone; Shedrawi, George; Taylor, Heather; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010–11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA). Methodology/Principal Findings Extreme La-Niña conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5) in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5) in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%–83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. Conclusions/Significance The anomalous thermal stress of 2010–11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under forecast

  2. Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Stephanie N J; Sarovich, Derek S; Holden, Matthew T G; Peacock, Sharon J; Buller, Nicky; Golledge, Clayton; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P

    2016-07-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the highly recombinogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a disease with high mortality. Tracing the origin of melioidosis outbreaks and understanding how the bacterium spreads and persists in the environment are essential to protecting public and veterinary health and reducing mortality associated with outbreaks. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare isolates from a historical quarter-century outbreak that occurred between 1966 and 1991 in the Avon Valley, Western Australia, a region far outside the known range of B. pseudomallei endemicity. All Avon Valley outbreak isolates shared the same multilocus sequence type (ST-284), which has not been identified outside this region. We found substantial genetic diversity among isolates based on a comparison of genome-wide variants, with no clear correlation between genotypes and temporal, geographical or source data. We observed little evidence of recombination in the outbreak strains, indicating that genetic diversity among these isolates has primarily accrued by mutation. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the isolates confidently grouped within the Australian B. pseudomallei clade, thereby ruling out introduction from a melioidosis-endemic region outside Australia. Collectively, our results point to B. pseudomallei ST-284 being present in the Avon Valley for longer than previously recognized, with its persistence and genomic diversity suggesting long-term, low-prevalence endemicity in this temperate region. Our findings provide a concerning demonstration of the potential for environmental persistence of B. pseudomallei far outside the conventional endemic regions. An expected increase in extreme weather events may reactivate latent B. pseudomallei populations in this region.

  3. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  4. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  5. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  6. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to…

  7. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  8. The tectonics and mineral systems of Proterozoic Western Australia: Relationships with supercontinents and global secular change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.A. Aitken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cratonisation of Western Australia during the Proterozoic overlapped with several key events in the evolution of Earth. These include global oxidation events and glaciations, as well as the assembly, accretionary growth, and breakup of the supercontinents Columbia and Rodinia, culminating in the assembly of Gondwana. Globally, Proterozoic mineral systems evolved in response to the coupled evolution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. Consequently, mineral deposits form preferentially in certain times, but they also require a favourable tectonic setting. For Western Australia a distinct plate-margin mineralisation trend is associated with Columbia, whereas an intraplate mineralisation trend is associated with Rodinia and Gondwana, each with associated deposit types. We compare the current Proterozoic record of ore deposits in Western Australia to the estimated likelihood of ore-deposit formation. Overall likelihood is estimated with a simple matrix-based approach that considers two components: The “global secular likelihood” and the “tectonic setting likelihood”. This comparative study shows that at least for the studied ore-deposit types, deposits within Western Australia developed at times, and in tectonic settings compatible with global databases. Nevertheless, several deposit types are either absent or poorly-represented relative to the overall likelihood models. Insufficient exploration may partly explain this, but a genuine lack of deposits is also suggested for some deposit types. This may relate either to systemic inadequacies that inhibited ore-deposit formation, or to poor preservation. The systematic understanding on the record of Western Australia helps to understand mineralisation processes within Western Australia and its past connections in Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana and aids to identify regions of high exploration potential.

  9. Too little, too late: mental health nursing education in Western Australia, 1958-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anthony R; Martyr, Philippa

    2013-06-01

    Mental health nursing education in Australia has undergone a significant transition in the last 50 years, influenced by national inquiries, national decisions, and international trends in nursing education. But mental health nursing education had also accumulated decades of history in each state, including sometimes unequal relations with general nursing. Complex inter- and intra-professional relationships at state level influenced this educational transition in each state, and Western Australia provides an example of this influence. Using a range of published and unpublished sources, including oral histories, this paper describes the revision of the mental health nursing curriculum in Western Australia from 1958, responses to the call for transition to the tertiary sector between 1976 and 1984, and the final transition of mental health nursing education to university level in Western Australia in 1994. Mental health nursing's educational standards improved only gradually in Western Australia from 1958 onwards, compared with professional advances in general nursing in the same period. Factors which may have held back these improvements include mental health nursing's professional conservatism, which was outpaced by general nursing's growing radicalization at the national level. A lack of professional confidence and cohesion left mental health nursing unable to respond effectively to rapid external changes in the 1960s and 1970s, and vulnerable to absorption and dominance by general nursing education programs. © 2012 North Metropolitan Area Health Service, Mental Health. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    James Fitzsimons; Michael Heiner; Bruce McKenney; Kei Sochi; Joseph Kiesecker

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy cha...

  11. Short-term contributions of cover crop surface residue return to soil carbon and nitrogen contents in temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wu, Hanwen; Li, Guangdi; Chen, Chengrong

    2016-11-01

    Cover crop species are usually grown to control weeds. After cover crop harvest, crop residue is applied on the ground to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little information is available about quantifying the contributions of cover crop application to soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents in temperate Australia. Here, we selected eight cover crop treatments, including two legume crops (vetch and field pea), four non-legume crops (rye, wheat, Saia oat, and Indian mustard), a mixture of rye and vetch, and a nil-crop control in temperate Australia to calculate the contributions of cover crops (crop growth + residue decomposition) to soil C and N contents. Cover crops were sown in May 2009 (autumn). After harvest, the crop residue was placed on the soil surface in October 2009. Soil and crop samples were collected in October 2009 after harvest and in May 2010 after 8 months of residue decomposition. We examined cover crop residue biomass, soil and crop total C and N contents, and soil microbial biomass C and N contents. The results showed that cover crop application increased the mean soil total C by 187-253 kg ha-1 and the mean soil total N by 16.3-19.1 kg ha-1 relative to the nil-crop treatment, except for the mixture treatment, which had similar total C and N contents to the nil-crop control. Cover crop application increased the mean soil microbial biomass C by 15.5-20.9 kg ha-1 and the mean soil microbial biomass N by 4.5-10.2 kg ha-1. We calculated the apparent percentage of soil total C derived from cover crop residue C losses and found that legume crops accounted for 10.6-13.9 %, whereas non-legume crops accounted for 16.4-18.4 % except for the mixture treatment (0.2 %). Overall, short-term cover crop application increased soil total C and N contents and microbial biomass C and N contents, which might help reduce N fertilizer use and improve sustainable agricultural development.

  12. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Stephens

    2012-01-01

    In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being rei...

  13. Lung cancer patterns of care in south western Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod, S; Delaney, G; Bauman, A; Barton, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in New South Wales (NSW). There is a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer in the South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) than the NSW average. The aim of this study was to document patterns of lung cancer care for SWSAHS residents.

  14. Geography in Western Australia--A Time of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    The Western Australian schooling system is in the final phase of the move towards Outcomes Based Education with the Post Compulsory Geography Course of Study commencing in 2007. This move has been somewhat controversial amongst politicians, teachers and parent groups, partly because of the negative press Outcomes Based Education has received in…

  15. The seroprevalence and factors associated with Ross river virus infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Abbey; Johansen, Cheryl A; Fenwick, Stan; Reid, Simon A; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2014-10-01

    A serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia (WA) to investigate the seroprevalence of Ross River virus (RRV) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). The estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% CI 42.0, 45.8). Location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (pkangaroos was significantly higher than in subadult kangaroos (pkangaroos (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that kangaroos in WA are regularly infected with RRV and may be involved in the maintenance and transmission of RRV.

  16. A Snapshot of the Use of ICT in Primary Mathematics Classrooms in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Lorraine Day reports on some of the findings of the Teaching Teachers for the Future Project. The Australian Curriculum constantly makes reference to digital technologies so we believe our readers will be interested to see how teachers are making use of technology in classrooms across Western Australia. The results may be used to…

  17. The Development of Telematics in a Rural District in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.

    A case study investigated the use of telematics technology in the delivery of learning programs from a rural high school in Western Australia to four receiver schools. Telematics is an audiographic computer system that simultaneously links a teacher to classrooms in one to five other schools. The program was introduced in 1991 to widen curriculum…

  18. Thalassemia in Western Australia: 11 novel deletions characterized by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phylipsen, M.; Prior, J.F.; Lim, E.; Lingam, N.; Vogelaar, I.P.; Giordano, P.C.; Finlayson, J.; Harteveld, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of immigrants in Western Australia from many different areas where hemoglobinopathies are endemic has increased dramatically since the 1970s. Therefore, many different thalassemia mutations have been introduced in the country, which add a technological diagnostic problem to the serious

  19. A brief history of forensic mental health services in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr, Philippa

    2017-06-01

    To scope the history of forensic mental health services in Western Australia since colonisation. A range of primary sources, including archives, reports, and oral histories was consulted. Forensic mental health services were identified as historically poorly managed, under-resourced, and inconsistently delivered. Current problems with forensic mental health services may be linked to historical factors.

  20. Evaluation of the Mandatory Construction Induction Training Program in Western Australia: Unanticipated Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The…

  1. Closing the Digital Divide: Education Telecommunications Systems and Possibilities in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper considers the current telecommunications network for the three education systems of state, independent and catholic schools in Western Australia as well as drawing on the personal experiences of teachers in these systems as the government attempts to close the digital divide with its Networking the Nation…

  2. Economic analysis of prescribed burning for wildfire management in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronique Florec; David Pannell; Michael Burton; Joel Kelso; Drew Mellor; George Milne

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires can cause significant damage to ecosystems, life and property, and wildfire events that do not involve people and property are becoming rare. With the expansion of the rural– urban interface in Western Australia and elsewhere, objectives of life and property protection become more difficult to achieve. We applied the cost plus net value change (C+NVC) model...

  3. The Resources Boom : Cash Cow or Crisis for Preservice Teacher Education in Western Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This is a research paper describing the impact of globalisation on the provision of preservice teacher education in Western Australia. The author utilises a range of research methodologies to gather and analyse current data, finally a range of possible futuristic scenarios are presented. The paper has significance for those concerned with future…

  4. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  5. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  6. Western Australia facing critical losses in its midwifery workforce: a survey of midwives' intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E; Martin, Tracy L; Rai, Tapan

    2013-05-01

    the ongoing attrition of the midwifery workforce frustrates future workforce planning and the provision of maternity services in Western Australia. This project determined factors contributing to the intention of the midwives to move jobs and/or leave the profession. a cross-sectional survey approach was taken for this descriptive research utilising a self-administered questionnaire developed by the Nursing and Midwifery Office, Department of Health, Western Australia. public and private health sectors in Western Australia, April-May 2010. 1,600 midwives employed in the public and private health sectors throughout Western Australia were invited to participate: 712 responded (44.5%), one-fifth of the state's registered midwives. most midwives worked part-time in a clinical role in public hospitals. Almost half intended moving jobs within 5 years and/or leaving midwifery. Excluding midwives of retirement age, the most common reasons for intending to move jobs were family commitments, working conditions and role dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave midwifery cited work-life balance, career change and family commitments. Midwives thought addressing the following issues would improve midwifery retention: flexible work arrangements, remuneration, staffing and caseload, workplace culture, professional development and models of care. retaining the midwifery workforce requires attention to workforce practices particularly flexible work arrangements and workloads; models of care to strengthen midwives' relationships with clients and colleagues; and accessible professional development. a review of workplace practices at unit and institution levels is urgently required in Western Australia so that midwives can achieve work-life balance and practice to the full extent of their professional role. These changes are necessary to forestall premature retirement of skilled and experienced midwives from the profession and workforce churn. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  7. Barriers to accessing health care services for West African refugee women living in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Brocx, Katie; Wright, Bernadette

    2011-03-01

    Help-seeking pathways and barriers to accessing health care services were surveyed in 51 West African refugee women who had settled recently in Perth, Western Australia, and in 100 Australian women. Shame or fear of what family and friends might think, fear of being judged by the treatment provider, fear of hospitalization, and logistical difficulties were significant impediments to accessing health care services for the refugee women. Surprisingly, barriers often were greater for the more-educated refugee women and strengthened with years of residence in Australia. Strategies to help at-risk women overcome these barriers need to be implemented to ensure appropriate access to health care services.

  8. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  9. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  10. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  11. Restoration Concepts for Temperate and Boreal Forests of North America and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; P. Madsen

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the boreal and temperate zones, forest restoration efforts attempt to counteract negative effects of conversion to other land use (afforestation and remediation) and disturbance and stress on existing forests (rehabilitation). Appropriate silvicultural practices can be designed for any forest restoration objective. Most common objectives include timber,...

  12. Our New Cathedrals: Spirituality and Old-Growth Forests in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    David Worth

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 30 years in Western Australia (WA), there has been heated debate about the future use of the remaining karri and jarrah forests in the south-west of the State. This debate revolves around policy proposals from two social movements: one wants to preserve as much of the remaining old-growth forests as possible, and an opposing movement supports a continued

  13. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis phage from the 'lumpy wool' of sheep in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, K M; Kurtböke, D I; Lindsay, D R

    1995-04-01

    A lytic phage with species-specific activity was isolated from wool samples infected with the actinomycete Dermatophilus congolensis, the agent of 'lumpy wool', collected from properties in Western Australia. The physiochemical properties, plaque morphology, host range and particle morphology of the phage isolated were characterized. The isolated phage reduced the cell numbers of Dermatophilus congolensis on infected wool samples in vitro. It may therefore have potential as a biocontrol agent of dermatophilosis.

  14. Valuing Urban Wetlands of the Gnangara Mound: A Hedonic Property Price Approach in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tapsuwan, Sorada; Ingram, Gordon; Brennan, Donna C.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 60% of potable water supplied to Perth in Western Australia is extracted from the Gnangara mound. Many of the urban wetlands above the Mound are groundwater-dependent. Excessive groundwater extraction and climate change have resulted in a decline in water levels in the wetlands. This study estimates the value of urban wetlands in three local government districts in the Perth metropolitan region using the hedonic property price approach. Preliminary results found that proximity to wetlan...

  15. Our New Cathedrals: Spirituality and Old-Growth Forests in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Worth

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years in Western Australia (WA, there has been heated debate about the future use of the remaining karri and jarrah forests in the south-west of the State. This debate revolves around policy proposals from two social movements: one wants to preserve as much of the remaining old-growth forests as possible, and an opposing movement supports a continued

  16. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  17. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Aveni; Cooper, Matthew N; Bower, Carol; Jones, Timothy W; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, using complete population data sources available in Western Australia. A prospective cohort study was undertaken with cases defined as children born in Western Australia between 1998 and 2008 who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at 99% of all births in Western Australia. Cox regression was used to analyse the data and adjust for recognised risk factors such as birthweight, gestational age, maternal age and socioeconomic status. The unadjusted HR for babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy being diagnosed with childhood type 1 diabetes was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.97). After adjustment, the confidence interval widened but the point estimate remained relatively unchanged at 0.76 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.08). Analyses of data from this population-based study indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with a reduced risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. Further investigation in larger populations with more detailed smoking data could lead to novel hypotheses regarding mechanisms that influence the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in early life.

  18. Urban Growth Dynamics in Perth, Western Australia: Using Applied Remote Sensing for Sustainable Future Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacLachlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (unsustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction. Thus, Perth, the state capital of Western Australia, has encountered significant population and urban growth in response to the booming state economy. However, the recent economic slowdown resulted in the largest decrease in natural resource values that Western Australia has ever experienced. Here, we present multi-temporal urban expansion statistics from 1990 to 2015 for Perth, derived from Landsat imagery. Current urban estimates used for future development plans and progress monitoring of infill and density targets are based upon aggregated census data and metrics unrepresentative of actual land cover change, underestimating overall urban area. Earth observation provides a temporally consistent methodology, identifying areal urban area at higher spatial and temporal resolution than current estimates. Our results indicate that the spatial extent of the Perth Metropolitan Region has increased 45% between 1990 and 2015, over 320 km2. We highlight the applicability of earth observation data in accurately quantifying urban area for sustainable targeted planning practices.

  19. Investigating articulated heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia using a spatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudes, Ori; Varhol, Richard; Sun, Qian Chayn; Meuleners, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach. Spatial modelling and spatio-temporal analytical methods such as Emerging Hotspots were used to identify emerging hotspots on specific roads in Western Australia using the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS). The results suggest that the majority of articulated heavy vehicles crashes occurred in the vicinity or within the Perth metropolitan area. Based on spatial-temporal trend analyses, our findings highlight some regions that are emerging as areas of interest. This study was one of the first attempts to adopt a spatial analysis approach in studying heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia. Applying spatial methodologies to road safety data has the potential of obtaining previously undiscovered insights, which can be extended further, and provide future avenues to research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wetter and cooler: pronounced temperate climate conditions in western Anatolia during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuncay H.; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Köse, Nesibe; Denk, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    During the course of an ongoing palaeobotanical investigation of the lignite mines of the Yataǧan Basin, Muǧla province, Turkey, the fossil leaves of the Eskihisar lignite mine were analysed using the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). The investigated fossil leaves derive from the marls and clayey limestones (Sekköy Member) overlying the exploited lignite seam (uppermost Turgut Member). The age of the studied sedimentary rocks is well constrained by vertebrate fossils occuring in the main lignite seam (MN6 → Gomphoterium angustidens Cuvier, 1817; Percrocuta miocenica Pavlov & Thenius, 1965) and at the Yenieskihisar Mammal locality (MN7/8, uppermost Sekköy Member). 719 specimens were measured and assigned to 65 leaf morphotypes. Using this data, CLAMP reconstructed the following climate parameters: mean annual temperature (MAT) 12.58 (+/-1.5)°C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) 23.72 (+/-2.5)°C, cold month mean temperature (WMMT) 2.29 (+/-2)°C, length of growing season (LGS) 7.52 (+/-0.75) month, mean growing season precipitation (GSP) 130.1 (+/-40) cm, precipitation during the three wettest months (3-WET) 67 (+/-25) cm, precipitation during the three driest months (3-DRY) 20.4 (+/-7.5) cm. The reconstructed parameters are too cool for tropical climates (the 18˚ C winter isotherm being a threshold for tropical climates) and indicate temperate conditions; climates fitting these parameters (Cfb according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification) can be found today in regions known as "Tertiary relict areas" (e.g. Black sea coast of Northeast Turkey, eastern China, Japan). Based on a substantial amount of rainfall during the three driest months, it is further possible to exclude markedly seasonal climates such as a summer-dry and winter-wet Mediterranean climate and a summer-wet and winter-dry monsoon climate as commonly found along the southern foothills of the Himalayas and in southwestern China. Instead, a fully humid Cf climate is

  1. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, R; McFarlane, D; Varma, S; Dawes, W; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

      This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall...

  2. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  3. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  4. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust samples from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinska, Ania; Reid, Alison; Hinwood, Andrea; Stevenson, Gavin; Callan, Anna; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Heyworth, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one of the most common types of brominated flame retardants applied to foams, plastics and textiles to prevent fires. These flame retardants are now regulated and are either banned or being voluntarily phased. However, as these chemicals are persistent humans continue to be exposed. Dust has been identified as an important source of exposure and hence residential concentrations are of interest. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in samples of residential dust from the homes of pregnant women in Western Australia. Thirty residential dust samples were analysed for concentrations of 32 PBDE congeners. Samples were collected from urban and rural areas. PBDEs were detected in all residential dust samples with the sum of the most common PBDEs (Σ(7) of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) ranging from 60.4 to 82400 ng g(-1) (median 571 ng g(-1)). DecaBDE makes up the highest proportion of PBDEs in residential dust, on average 66% of Σ(32)PBDEs. We did not find a relationship between housing characteristics nor the presence of appliances and PBDE concentrations. Dust from urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of BDE-209 and Σ(32)PBDEs than dust from rural areas of Western Australia (p values 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). PBDEs were present in residential dust in Western Australia at concentrations higher than reported previously in Australia. Further investigation of sources with a larger sample size is required to determine associations between PBDE concentrations and potential exposure sources and geographical regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attributes for effective nurse management within the health services of Western Australia, Singapore and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldy, Duncan; Della, Phillip; Michael, Rene; Jones, Mark; Gower, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptions of nurse managers in Western Australia, Singapore and Tanzania regarding desirable attributes for effective management of their health services, and to identify and discuss the implications for health-management education provided by Australian universities. Nurse managers completed a questionnaire covering four key dimensions: personality characteristics, knowledge and learning, skills, and beliefs and values. Each of 75 items were rated as to their effect on management effectiveness, according to a 5-point Likert scale. Skills were considered the most important for management effectiveness by each group. Tanzanian respondents rated knowledge and learning almost as highly, and significantly higher than Western Australian respondents. They also rated personality characteristics and beliefs and values significantly higher than Western Australian respondents. No significant differences were found between Singapore and Western Australia. Participants desired a different relative mix of attributes in their nurse managers, with Western Australian respondents most likely to indicate that transformational leadership contributed most to managerial effectiveness. Tanzanian nurse managers were most likely to advocate transactional leadership, whereas Singaporean nurse managers' views were located somewhere between. Given that these perceptions are valid, the content and curricula of management-development courses need to be cognisant of the cultural backgrounds of participants. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Views differ as to the extent to which the criteria for management effectiveness are broadly universal or contingent on culture. This applies to the area of nurse management as it does to healthcare management in general. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? It is demonstrated that each of the three quite different countries or states considered identified a distinctive combination of attributes as desirable, with the nurse managers of Western Australia

  6. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  7. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena from Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miglio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.

  8. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  9. Evapotranspiration from agricultural plant communities in the high rainfall zone of the southwest of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P. R.; Sudmeyer, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The clearing of native vegetation and its replacement with shallow rooted, annual crops and pastures has resulted in rising groundwater levels and concentration of salts in the surface soils of resulting groundwater discharge areas in the southwest of Western Australia. The potential to manipulate the recharge rates to groundwaters by using agronomic techniques to change catchment evapotranspiration ( Et), has been the subject of much discussion. From 1986 to 1989, annual Et was estimated from daytime measurements of Et from annual pasture (existing pasture, subterranean clover, Medicago murex), crops (lupins, oats, rape, barley and wheat) and two perennial pastures (lucerne and phalaris) at a site near Collie in the southwest of Western Australia. The ventilated chamber technique was used to measure Et rates, together with ancillary measurements of above ground biomass and rooting depth. Seasonal values of Et are presented and combined to allow a boundary analysis of annual Et for each species. Et was found to be influenced by the amount and timing of biomass production, and by the rooting depth. The median annual evapotranspiration of annual pasture was shown to be the least (339 mm), and lupins the most (471 mm). The site environment combined high rainfall and low evaporative demand in winter, and low moisture-holding capacity of duplex soils with preferred pathways through subsoil clays. In this context, the potential of deeper rooted, perennial species to use more water, was apparent. It is argued that the smaller the difference in annual evapotranspiration between alternative and current agricultural practice (annual pasture), the larger the proportion of a catchment likely to be required for treatment to affect groundwater levels. Recharge manipulation alone, using the species tested, may not be sufficient for catchment salinity control. A wide range of other strategies exist; a combination of these, to suit the practical and economic constraints of the

  10. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  11. Using peer education to increase sexual health knowledge among West African refugees in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Brocx, Katie; Wright, Bernadette

    2011-03-01

    Ten bilingual West African peer educators conducted a 3-hour workshop on sexual health for small groups of West African refugees (N = 58) who recently had settled in Perth, Western Australia. There were significant increases in the participants' knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, how these infections are spread, and how to protect against infection. In addition, attitudes toward condom use became more positive. We conclude that the peer-education approach was successful in assisting a new and emerging community to work effectively on sexual health topics generally considered "taboo" or too sensitive to discuss.

  12. No official identity: a data linkage study of birth registration of Aboriginal children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Alison J; Simpson, Judy M; Eades, Sandra J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence of identity, particularly a birth certificate, is essential to access many rights. However, the births of many Aboriginal Australians are not registered when they are infants. We examined factors related to birth registration among Western Australian children born to Aboriginal mothers. All births to Aboriginal mothers in the Midwives Notification System in Western Australia (WA) from 1980 to 2010 were linked to birth registrations. Associations between registration and maternal and child characteristics were examined for children aged under 16 years in 2012. Among 49,694 births between 1980 and 2010, 18% of those aged under 16 years had unregistered births, compared to 3% of those aged 16-32 years. Unregistered births were most strongly associated with young maternal age at first birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.22; 95%CI 3.07-8.86; for 16 years or younger vs 30 years or older, among non-smokers), remoteness (AOR 2.17; 95%CI 1.87-2.52; very remote vs major cities), mothers whose own birth was unregistered (AOR 3.00; 95%CI 1.78-5.07) and no private hospital insurance (AOR 0.19; 95%CI 0.11-0.31; insured vs uninsured). Unregistered births are common among WA Aboriginal children, particularly in disadvantaged families. Assistance before discharge from hospital may increase birth registrations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Integrated catchment management in Western Australia: Transition from concept to implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce; Hollick, Malcolm

    1993-11-01

    Integrated catchment management (ICM) was introduced as state policy in 1988 to overcome land and water degradation in Western Australia (WA). Key elements of ICM are cooperation among state and local governments and landholders; involvement of landholders and local communities in identification of issues and solutions; and, agreement on common objectives. This study identifies the issues that led to the adoption of integrated catchment management in Western Australia, outlines its main characteristics, and reviews the progress and problems encountered during its initial implementation. ICM has generally been accepted and endorsed in WA. However, differences of opinion have emerged regarding exactly what it means and how it should be applied. Designing ideal organizational structures for ICM is not sufficient for it to be effective. Ultimately, people have to make ICM function, and therefore it is essential that priority be given to cultivating the good will and trust necessary for ICM to work well. ICM also requires a long-term perspective and appreciation that it requires many people and agencies to move out of current “comfort zones.” As a result, initial implementation of ICM usually will encounter turbulence and debate.

  14. An aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander oral health curriculum framework: development experiences in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazen, J; Paul, D; Tennant, M

    2007-06-01

    Indigenous oral health is widely acknowledged as paralleling the significant issues faced in general health. It is recognized that as part of the process of addressing these issues, practitioners need to be aware of the complex nature of working in an Indigenous social and cultural context, including issues beyond direct health care services. It is against this backdrop that collaborators from The University of Western Australia's (UWA) Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health (CRROH) and Centre for Aboriginal Medical and Dental Health (CAMDH) developed a comprehensive, integrated Indigenous Oral Health Curriculum Framework for the Bachelor of Dental Science (BDSc) course. This development was based on the existing framework developed by the Committee of Deans of Australian Medical Schools (CDAMS) for medical education but was tailored to the specific issues and needs of oral health. Additional consultation with the Oral Health Centre of Western Australia (OHCWA), the School of Indigenous Studies (SIS) as well as Indigenous Australian groups occurred to ensure the development process was inclusive. The inclusion of an Indigenous Oral Health Curriculum Framework in the BDSc will enable UWA dental graduates to practise dentistry in a culturally appropriate manner. The framework provides the structure for students to develop and demonstrate an understanding of Indigenous histories, cultures and social experiences and how these impact on Indigenous peoples' health. It is anticipated that this will foster more positive and culturally secure patient-practitioner interactions between UWA dental graduates and Indigenous Australians, thereby making it more likely for Indigenous Australians to present for treatment. The increased awareness of Indigenous oral health issues will hopefully encourage more graduates to become involved in the treatment of Indigenous peoples. The combination of these factors could lead to an improvement in oral health outcomes for Australia

  15. The Scientific Attitude (The Scientific Temper in Eastern and Western societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SN Arseculeratne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scientific Attitude, different from the attitude to science, is discussed in relation to Eastern and Western modes of thinking; it is also differentiated from Scientism. The literature from western as well as Indian authors, and the comments of Joseph Needham on China, are included. The topics considered are the history of science, the importance of science, its methodologies, determinants of the growth of modern science, internal and external factors in the growth of science, education in science, documentation of science and technology, and determinants of the modes of thinking about science and its practice: these determinants include religion, tradition, utilitarianism, and administration in science. The major point of contrast between the attitudes of East versus West is argued to be religious versus secular. A relevant bibliography is provided.

  16. Patterns of plant diversity in seven temperate forest types of Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ahmad Dar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity patterns were analyzed in seven temperate forest types [Populus deltoides (PD, Juglans regia, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, mixed coniferous, Abies pindrow (AP and Betula utilis (BU] of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 177 plant species (158 genera, 66 families were recorded. Most of the species are herbs (82.5%, while shrubs account for 9.6% and trees represent 7.9%. Species richness ranged from 24 (PD to 96 (AP. Shannon, Simpson, and Fisher α indices varied: 0.17–1.06, 0.46–1.22, and 2.01–2.82 for trees; 0.36–0.94, 0.43–0.75, and 0.08–0.35 for shrubs; and 0.35–1.41, 0.27–0.95, and 5.61–39.98 for herbs, respectively. A total of five species were endemic. The total stems and basal area of trees were 35,794 stems (stand mean 330 stems/ha and 481.1 m2 (stand mean 40.2 m2/ha, respectively. The mean density and basal area ranged from 103 stems/ha (BU to 1,201 stems/ha (PD, and from 19.4 m2/ha (BU to 51.9 m2/ha (AP, respectively. Tree density decreased with increase in diameter class. A positive relationship was obtained between elevation and species richness and between elevation and evenness (R2 = 0.37 and 0.19, respectively. Tree and shrub communities were homogenous in nature across the seven forest types, while herbs showed heterogeneous distribution pattern.

  17. Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate

  18. Enteric Fever in Children in Western Sydney, Australia, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Khan, Fouzia; Macartney, Kristine K

    2017-12-01

    Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015. Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using International Classification of Disease-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and S. enterica serovar paratyphi. Prospective cases from January 2014 to April 2015 were additionally captured through records maintained by the infectious diseases team. Seventy-one cases of enteric fever were identified in 12.3 years with an average of 4 cases per year between 2003 and 2008 and 7 cases per year between 2009 and 2014. Two were visitors to Australia, 8 were recent migrants, and 59 were Australian residents returning from overseas travel. Two children had no history of overseas travel. Countries of travel predominantly included the Indian subcontinent (60/69) and Southeast Asia (7/69). Of 30 children with information available on pretravel medical consultation, 1 was offered and received typhoid vaccine. Ninety-four percent of children (67) required admission for 1-28 days (median: 5 days). Three children required readmission, with 1 case of presumed relapse. Ninety percent (64) were diagnosed by blood or stool culture with S. enterica serovar typhi the predominant organism (54/64). In Australia, hospitalizations for pediatric enteric fever appear to be increasing; predominantly occurring in Australian-resident children. Greater awareness and education are required for parents and clinicians regarding travel health risks and prevention strategies.

  19. Lifestyle and health habits of fourth year medical students at the University of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamien, M; Power, R

    1996-01-01

    To examine the lifestyle and health habits of two classes of fourth year medical students at the University of Western Australia. Anonymous completion of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment Inventory (FLAI) by 173 medical students in 1987 and 1992. Seventy-seven per cent of students had good health habits, but 23% did not. The most common areas of negative health habits were; lack of exercise, frequent consumption of junk food and skipping breakfast. Twenty per cent of students were almost always impatient, 13% always anxious, and 30% reported more than three stressful events in the first year. Medical students are taught and examined about healthy lifestyle and health promotion. Those who personally ignore what they know may also be predisposed to ignore health promotion opportunities with their patients. The FLAI can be a useful instrument in raising students' consciousness about these two issues.

  20. Effect of the Building Act 2011 on compliance costs in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bazen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The Building Act 2011 commenced in Western Australia on 2 April 2012. It introduced private certification for design and construction compliance, and reduced fees and timeframes for local governments to issue permits. This research project assessed the effect of the Act on the time and cost of building approvals in WA, using an internet-based, self-completion survey to obtain feedback from people on their experience of the new building approvals process.   This research compared the cost of approval for 16 building projects under the new and old approvals processes. The research concluded that the new approvals process appears to be cost-neutral for the building industry as a whole. However, the cost of approval for the 11 building projects studied valued up to $1 million, particularly alterations to existing buildings, is an average of 4.0 times greater under the new approvals process.

  1. Trace element content of seagrasses in the Leschenault Estuary, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilminster, Kieryn

    2013-08-15

    Estuarine environments are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. In this study, trace elements in Ruppia megacarpa, Halophila ovalis, sediment and porewater were analysed to assess the potential contamination of the Leschenault Estuary, Western Australia, from a primarily agricultural drain. Sediment concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni and were highest nearest the drain while Al, As, Cr, Fe and Zn and were highest further from the drain. H. ovalis showed greater accumulation of Fe, Al, and As than R. megacarpa. Concentrations of Fe, Al, As, and Ni were generally higher in below-ground plant parts than above, suggesting uptake of these trace elements via the sediment-route pathway. This study suggested that the drain was a source of Cu and Mn, with these elements entering the estuary through water inflows. As and Fe, were highest furthest from the drain suggesting input of trace elements from sources other than the drain under study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations…

  3. Evaluation of an alternative transport initiative in Perth, Western Australia, 2000-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Alexandra; Smith, Jenny; McManus, Jennifer; MacDonald, Emma; Williams, Megan

    2005-12-01

    Perth, Western Australia, has the highest proportion of per capita car ownership in Australia. Despite the various health, environmental and traffic-related benefits, the uptake of alternative forms of transportation such as walking, cycling and public transport are low. In response to a growing reliance on motorised transport, the Department for Planning and Infrastructure's (DPI's) Cycling Unit conducts an annual Bike to Work Breakfast to promote cycling as a viable form of transport to work. During this event a short, cross-sectional survey is distributed to assess the usual cycling behaviours of attendees. Topical issues relating to cycling are also investigated. Results from the 2004 survey indicated that the majority of respondents cycled at least 2-3 times per week (85%) to improve fitness (88%), for enjoyment (70%) and because it was a cost-effective means of transport (45%). Most of the respondents (92%) supported the need for more cycle-friendly infrastructure such as advanced stop lines at intersections and safety measures such as wearing cycle helmets (85%). These findings were consistent with results from similar surveys conducted between 2000 and 2003. The DPI's Bike to Work Breakfast is a popular event within the cycling calendar that provides the opportunity to gain a snapshot of cycling behaviours and attitudes of cyclists. Prior consultation with the evaluators in the development of the survey instrument has the potential to investigate barriers and enablers to cycling on a regular basis. Age and gender differences could also be explored.

  4. Fine-temporal forecasting of outbreak probability and severity: Ross River virus in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhof, I S; Bettiol, S; Carver, S

    2017-10-01

    Health warnings of mosquito-borne disease risk require forecasts that are accurate at fine-temporal resolutions (weekly scales); however, most forecasting is coarse (monthly). We use environmental and Ross River virus (RRV) surveillance to predict weekly outbreak probabilities and incidence spanning tropical, semi-arid, and Mediterranean regions of Western Australia (1991-2014). Hurdle and linear models were used to predict outbreak probabilities and incidence respectively, using time-lagged environmental variables. Forecast accuracy was assessed by model fit and cross-validation. Residual RRV notification data were also examined against mitigation expenditure for one site, Mandurah 2007-2014. Models were predictive of RRV activity, except at one site (Capel). Minimum temperature was an important predictor of RRV outbreaks and incidence at all predicted sites. Precipitation was more likely to cause outbreaks and greater incidence among tropical and semi-arid sites. While variable, mitigation expenditure coincided positively with increased RRV incidence (r 2 = 0·21). Our research demonstrates capacity to accurately predict mosquito-borne disease outbreaks and incidence at fine-temporal resolutions. We apply our findings, developing a user-friendly tool enabling managers to easily adopt this research to forecast region-specific RRV outbreaks and incidence. Approaches here may be of value to fine-scale forecasting of RRV in other areas of Australia, and other mosquito-borne diseases.

  5. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High prevalence of Clostridium difficile on retail root vegetables, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S C; Foster, N F; Elliott, B; Riley, T V

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Australia has increased since mid-2011. With reports of clinically important C. difficile strains being isolated from retail foods in Europe and North America, a foodborne source of C. difficile in cases of CA-CDI is a possibility. This study represents the first to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of C. difficile in Australian retail vegetables. A total of 300 root vegetables grown in Western Australia (WA) were collected from retail stores and farmers' markets. Three vegetables of the same kind bought from the same store/market were treated as one sample. Selective enrichment culture, toxin profiling and PCR ribotyping were performed. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 30% (30/100) of pooled vegetable samples, 55·6% of organic potatoes, 50% of nonorganic potatoes, 22·2% of organic beetroots, 5·6% of organic onions and 5·3% of organic carrots. Over half (51·2%, 22/43) the isolates were toxigenic. Many of the ribotypes of C. difficile isolated were common among human and Australian animals. Clostridium difficile could be found commonly on retail root vegetables of WA. This may be potential sources for CA-CDI. This study enhances knowledge of possible sources of C. difficile in the Australian community, outside the hospital setting. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Stimulant prescribing for the treatment of ADHD in Western Australia: socioeconomic and remoteness differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Janine; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Sanfilippo, Frank

    2007-02-05

    To identify whether the rate and average daily dose of stimulant prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Western Australia differed according to the geographical remoteness and socioeconomic status of the patient. Secondary analysis of population-based administrative pharmacy data from 2004, stratified by the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+) categories and the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) quintiles for WA (2001 Census). Rate ratios of stimulant prescription and mean average daily dose (in dex-equivalents) stratified by age (2-17, 18+ years), sex, ARIA+ category and IRSD quintile. The rate of stimulant prescription was 2.3 to 5.3 times greater in major cities in WA compared with remote and very remote parts of the state. The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and the rate of stimulant prescription was highly variable. Adults with the least socioeconomic disadvantage were significantly more likely to receive stimulants compared with their most disadvantaged counterparts; however, the reverse association was seen with children. The average daily dose of stimulant prescribed did not vary greatly across remoteness or socioeconomic categories. Remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage are significantly associated with rate of stimulant prescription for ADHD in WA, but not associated with average daily dose of stimulant prescribed. Further research is needed to understand why considerable variation exists in the use of prescribed stimulants for ADHD.

  8. Perceptions of the ankle brachial index amongst podiatrists registered in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pamela Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle brachial index (ABI is an objective diagnostic tool that is widely used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. Despite its usefulness, it is evident within the literature that many practitioners forgo using this screening tool due to limiting factors such as time. There is also no recommended technique for ABI measurement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of the use of ABI clinically among Western Australian podiatrists. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey which evaluated the perceptions of the ABI amongst registered podiatrists in Western Australia. The study sample was obtained from the register of podiatrists listed with the Podiatrists Registration Board of Western Australia. Podiatrists were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire. Chi-square tests were performed to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between use of the ABI and podiatrists’ profile which included: sector of employment; geographical location; and length of time in practice. Results There is a statistically significant relationship (p=0.004 between podiatrists’ profile and the use of ABI, with higher usage in the tertiary hospital setting than in private practice. Length of time spent in practice had no significant impact on ABI usage (p=0.098. Time constraints and lack of equipment were key limiting factors to performing the ABI, and no preferred technique was indicated. Conclusion Western Australian podiatrists agree that the ABI is a useful tool for lower limb vascular assessment, however, various factors influence uptake in the clinical setting. This study suggests that a podiatrists’ profile has a significant influence on the use of the ABI, which may be attributed to different patient types across the various settings. The influence of time spent in practice on ABI usage may be attributed to differences in clinical

  9. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  10. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural Western Australia: a General Practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Marthe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The speed of diagnosis impacts on prognosis and survival in all types of cancer. In most cases survival and prognosis are significantly worse in rural and remote Australian populations who have less access to diagnostic and therapeutic services than metropolitan communities in this country. Research suggests that in general delays in diagnosis were a factor of misdiagnosis, the confounding effect of existing conditions and delayed or misleading investigation of symptoms. The aim of this study is to further explore the factors that impact on the speed of diagnosis in rural Western Australia with direct reference to General Practitioners (GPs working in this setting. Methods The methodology consisted of a structured discussion of specific cases. GPs based in two rural locations in Western Australia were asked to identify up to eight clinical cases for discussion. A diversity of cases was requested encompassing those with timely and delayed diagnosis of cancer. Focus groups were held with the practitioners to identify which factors under six headings delayed or facilitated the diagnosis in each case. A structured summary of the discussion was relayed to a wider group of GPs to seek additional views or comments on specific factors that impact on the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural and remote locations in Australia. Results A number of factors affecting the speed of diagnosis were identified: the demographic shift towards a frailer and older population, presenting with multiple and complex diseases, increases the challenge to identify early cancer symptoms; seasonal and demanding work patterns leading to procrastination in presenting for medical care; unhelpful scheduling of specialist appointments; and the varying impact of informal networks and social relationships. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study we have generated a number of hypotheses that require formal evaluation: (1 GPs working within informal

  13. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  14. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawes, W; Ali, R; Varma, S; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G; McFarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    .... There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia...

  15. Enabling Voice: Aboriginal Parents, Experiences and Perceptions of Sending a Child to Boarding School in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…

  16. Organisational Communication and Its Relationships with Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment of Primary School Staff in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobile, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between aspects of organisational communication and dimensions of job satisfaction and general organisational commitment. Participants were 358 staff members from 35 government primary schools in the state of Western Australia, who completed a survey comprising the Organisational…

  17. Three new genera and nine new species of the subfamily Candoninae (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Podocopida) from the Pilbara region (Western Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Marmonier, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Three new ostracod genera: Humphreyscandona n. gen., Pilbaracandona n. gen., and Notacandona n. gen., and nine new species are described from subterranean waters of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. They belong to the subfamily Candoninae of the order Podocopida, and are characterized by a

  18. Connecting for Innovation: Four Universities Collaboratively Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach in Rural and Remote Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Sue; Sharplin, Elaine; Ledger, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a group of teacher educators from four universities, experienced in rural and remote education, formed the Tertiary Educators Rural, Regional and Remote Network (TERRR Network). The collaborative goal was to improve the quality of graduates taking appointments beyond the metropolitan areas of Western Australia. The TERRR Network developed…

  19. High resolution mapping of reticulated water fluoride in Western Australia: opportunities to improve oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bloushi, N S; Trolio, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water with an optimum fluoride concentration is a recognized effective method to reduce dental decay. In this study normal suppliers of drinking water in Western Australia provided map data regarding the distribution of their supplies and the locations of their test points. These data were collated into a single unified map of Western Australian water supplies and fluoride levels. It is clear that the effect of prevention in regionally isolated communities is significant as the cost of providing service is anywhere between 2 and 4 times higher than that in high density regions. The current study found that although a very significant proportion of the population has access to water with fluoride concentrations that would be caries protective, most of these are large urban centre based. Those with high burdens of dental disease are mostly residential in rural and remote areas where water is either not fluoridated, nor regulated, or low in fluoride. However, it is acknowledged that water fluoridation, for many reasons, is not always feasible in rural and remote communities, and preventive efforts through alternative sources of fluoride (e.g. toothpaste) should be considered, even if less effective at community level. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Low temperature Phanerozoic history of the Northern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U. D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Nelson, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    The Phanerozoic cooling history of the Western Australian Shield has been investigated using apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology. AFT ages from the northern part of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, primarily range between 200 and 280 Ma, with mean confined horizontal track lengths varying between 11.5 and 14.3 μm. Time-temperature modelling of the AFT data together with geological information suggest the onset of a regional cooling episode in the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian, which continued into Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous time. Present-day heat flow measurements on the Western Australian Shield fall in the range of 40-50 mW m -2. If the present day geothermal gradient of ˜ 18 ± 2 °C km -1 is representative of average Phanerozoic gradients, then this implies a minimum of ˜ 50 °C of Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic cooling. Assuming that cooling resulted from denudation, the data suggest the removal of at least 3 km of rock section from the northern Yilgarn Craton over this interval. The Perth Basin, located west of the Yilgarn Craton, contains up to 15 km of mostly Permian to Lower Cretaceous clastic sediment. However, published U-Pb data of detrital zircons from Permian and Lower Triassic basin strata show relatively few or no grains of Archaean age. This suggests that the recorded cooling can probably be attributed to the removal of a sedimentary cover rather than by denudation of material from the underlying craton itself. The onset of cooling is linked to tectonism related to either the waning stages of the Alice Springs Orogeny or to the early stages of Gondwana breakup.

  1. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Burn injury, gender and cancer risk: population-based cohort study using data from Scotland and Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Bauer, Jacqui; Fear, Mark W; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James

    2014-01-17

    To investigate the risk of cancer and potential gender effects in persons hospitalised with burn injury. Population-based retrospective cohort study using record-linkage systems in Scotland and Western Australia. Records of 37 890 and 23 450 persons admitted with a burn injury in Scotland and Western Australia, respectively, from 1983 to 2008. Deidentified extraction of all linked hospital morbidity records, mortality and cancer records were provided by the Information Service Division Scotland and the Western Australian Data Linkage Service. Total and gender-specific number of observed and expected cases of total ('all sites') and site-specific cancers and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). From 1983 to 2008, for female burn survivors, there was a greater number of observed versus expected notifications of total cancer with 1011 (SIR, 95% CI 1.3, 1.2 to 1.4) and 244 (SIR, 95% CI 1.12, 1.05 to 1.30), respectively, for Scotland and Western Australia. No statistically significant difference in total cancer risk was found for males. Significant excesses in observed cancers among burn survivors (combined gender) in Scotland and Western Australian were found for buccal cavity, liver, larynx and respiratory tract and for cancers of the female genital tract. Results from the Scotland data confirmed the increased risk of total ('all sites') cancer previously observed among female burn survivors in Western Australia. The gender dimorphism observed in this study may be related to the role of gender in the immune response to burn injury. More research is required to understand the underlying mechanism(s) that may link burn injury with an increased risk of some cancers.

  3. A Bayesian Belief Network for Murray Valley encephalitis virus risk assessment in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Soon Hoe; Speldewinde, Peter; Cook, Angus

    2016-01-28

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a clinically important virus in Australia responsible for a number of epidemics over the past century. Since there is no vaccine for MVEV, other preventive health measures to curtail its spread must be considered, including the development of predictive risk models and maps to help direct public health interventions. This article aims to support these approaches by presenting a model for assessing MVEV risk in Western Australia (WA). A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for assessing MVEV risk was developed and used to quantify and map disease risks in WA. The model combined various abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic factors that might affect the risk of MVEV into a predictive framework, based on the ecology of the major mosquito vector and waterbird hosts of MVEV. It was further refined and tested using retrospective climate data from 4 years (2000, 2003, 2009, and 2011). Implementing the model across WA demonstrated that it could predict locations of human MVEV infection and sentinel animal seroconversion in the 4 years tested with some degree of accuracy. In general, risks are highest in the State's north and lower in the south. The model predicted that short-term climate change, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's A1B emissions scenario, would decrease MVEV risks in summer and autumn, largely due to higher temperatures decreasing vector survival. To our knowledge, this is the first model to use a BBN to quantify MVEV risks in WA. The models and maps developed here may assist public health agencies in preparing for and managing Murray Valley encephalitis in the future. In its current form, the model is knowledge-driven and based on the analysis of potential risk factors that affect the dynamics of MVEV using retrospective data. Further work and additional testing should be carried out to test its validity in future years.

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in the mental health of Indigenous children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Carrington CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of mental health problems among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is a major public health problem in Australia. While socioeconomic factors are implicated as important determinants of mental health problems in mainstream populations, their bearing on the mental health of Indigenous Australians remains largely uncharted across all age groups. Methods We examined the relationship between the risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioural difficulties (CSEBD and a range of socioeconomic measures for 3993 Indigenous children aged 4–17 years in Western Australia, using a representative survey conducted in 2000–02. Analysis was conducted using multivariate logistic regression within a multilevel framework. Results Almost one quarter (24% of Indigenous children were classified as being at high risk of CSEBD. Our findings generally indicate that higher socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced risk of mental health problems in Indigenous children. Housing quality and tenure and neighbourhood-level disadvantage all have a strong direct effect on child mental health. Further, the circumstances of families with Indigenous children (parenting quality, stress, family composition, overcrowding, household mobility, racism and family functioning emerged as an important explanatory mechanism underpinning the relationship between child mental health and measures of material wellbeing such as carer employment status and family financial circumstances. Conclusions Our results provide incremental evidence of a social gradient in the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Improving the social, economic and psychological conditions of families with Indigenous children has considerable potential to reduce the mental health inequalities within Indigenous populations and, in turn, to close the substantial racial gap in mental health. Interventions that target housing quality, home

  5. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  6. Classification scheme for acid rock drainage detection - the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura

    2017-04-01

    In arid environment where precipitation and surface water are very limited, groundwater is the most important freshwater resource. For this reasons it is intensively exploited and needs to be managed wisely and protected from pollutants. Acid rock drainage often constitutes a serious risk to groundwater quality, particularly in catchments that are subject to mining, large scale groundwater injection or abstraction. However, assessment of the potential acid rock drainage risk can be challenging, especially in carbonate rich environment, where the decreasing pH that usually accompanies pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate minerals. In this study, we analysed 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Although the majority of samples had a neutral pH, there was a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Waters with high dissolved sulphate concentration were found in areas with a high percentage of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite) located within the aquifer matrix and were characterised by low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6) consistent with signatures of aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (+1.9‰ to +4.4). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. Based on the results from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of waters impacted by acid rock drainage that also encompasses numerous concomitant geochemical processes that often occur in aqueous systems. The classification uses five proxies: SO4, SO4/Cl, SI of calcite, δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 to improve assessment of the contribution that oxidation of sulphide minerals has to overall sulphate ion concentrations, regardless of acidity

  7. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  8. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) “call types”. The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population. PMID:26352429

  9. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  10. Benefits, barriers and enablers of breastfeeding: factor analysis of population perceptions in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina Mary; Phillips, Michael; Binns, Colin William

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and community perceptions of breastfeeding in Western Australia using a factor analysis approach. Data were pooled from five Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series which included information on breastfeeding from 4,802 Western Australian adults aged 18-64 years. Tetrachoric factor analysis was conducted for data reduction and significant associations identified using logistic, ordinal and poisson regression analyses. Four factors were derived for benefits (it's natural, good nutrition, good for the baby, and convenience), barriers (breastfeeding problems, poor community acceptability, having to go back to work, and inconvenience) and for enablers (breastfeeding education, community support, family support and not having to work). As assessed by standardized odds ratios the most important covariates across benefit factors were: importance of breastfeeding (ORs range from 1.22-1.44), female gender (ORs range from 0.80 to 1.46), being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.96 to 1.27) and education (less than high school to university completion) (ORs range from 0.95 to 1.23); the most important covariate across barrier factors was being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.89 to 1.93); and the most important covariates across all enabling factors were education (ORs range from 1.14 to 1.32) and being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 1.17 to 1.42). Being female, rating breastfeeding as important, believing that babies should be breastfed for a period of time and education accounted for most of the statistically significant associations. The differences between male and female perceptions require investigation particularly in relation to returning to work.

  11. Benefits, barriers and enablers of breastfeeding: factor analysis of population perceptions in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Daly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and community perceptions of breastfeeding in Western Australia using a factor analysis approach. METHODS: Data were pooled from five Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series which included information on breastfeeding from 4,802 Western Australian adults aged 18-64 years. Tetrachoric factor analysis was conducted for data reduction and significant associations identified using logistic, ordinal and poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Four factors were derived for benefits (it's natural, good nutrition, good for the baby, and convenience, barriers (breastfeeding problems, poor community acceptability, having to go back to work, and inconvenience and for enablers (breastfeeding education, community support, family support and not having to work. As assessed by standardized odds ratios the most important covariates across benefit factors were: importance of breastfeeding (ORs range from 1.22-1.44, female gender (ORs range from 0.80 to 1.46, being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.96 to 1.27 and education (less than high school to university completion (ORs range from 0.95 to 1.23; the most important covariate across barrier factors was being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.89 to 1.93; and the most important covariates across all enabling factors were education (ORs range from 1.14 to 1.32 and being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 1.17 to 1.42. CONCLUSIONS: Being female, rating breastfeeding as important, believing that babies should be breastfed for a period of time and education accounted for most of the statistically significant associations. The differences between male and female perceptions require investigation particularly in relation to returning to work.

  12. Characteristics of non-diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Zaine, Norafizah; Hitos, Kerry; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John P; Begg, Lindy; Burns, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies investigating the characteristics, risk factors and socioeconomic status of patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of non-diabetic foot ulcers in a large tertiary referral outpatient hospital setting in Western Sydney, Australia. From 2011 to 2013, data from 202 patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers during their initial visit were retrospectively extracted for analysis from Westmead Hospital's Foot Wound Clinic Registry. Data including demographics, socioeconomic status and foot ulcer characteristics were recorded on a standardised data collection form. Demographics and physical characteristics were: 54 % male, median age 78 years [interquartile range (IQR): 64-87], median body mass index (BMI) of 23.8 kg/m(2) (IQR: 20-26.9), 35 % had loss of protective sensation and the median postcode score for socioeconomic status was 996 (IQR: 935-1034). Foot ulcer characteristics were: median cross-sectional area of 1.2 cm(2) (IQR: 0.3-5.0), 30.5 % plantar and 27 % dorsal, 22.1 % University of Texas (UT) Wound Classification for Diabetic Foot Ulcers Grade of 1C-3C (with ischaemia). Unlike diabetic foot ulcers, non-diabetic foot ulcers largely affected older males and females. In accordance with diabetic foot ulcer characteristics, socioeconomic status was not related to non-diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney. Based on the findings of this study the epidemiological pattern of non-diabetic foot ulceration and its pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  13. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  14. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wellard

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  15. The Influence of Climate Science on Water Management in Western Australia: Lessons for Climate Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Scott; Sadler, Brian; Nicholls, Neville

    2005-06-01

    Water flow into dams that supply Perth in Western Australia (WA) has fallen by 50% since the mid-1970s, and this has severely tested water managers. Climate change scenarios available since the 1980s have suggested that global warming will reduce rainfall over southern Australia, including Perth. Water managers recognize the uncertainties associated with the projections, including the significant differences that exist between the timing and magnitude of the observed changes and modeled projections. The information has, nevertheless, influenced their decision making.To understand why, we need to consider the broader environment in which the water managers operate. One key factor is that the imposition of severe water restrictions can lead to significant economic loss and increased unemployment. Prolonged restrictions can therefore create strong debate in the wider community. In recognition of this, state government policy requires that water managers ensure that the chance of having severe restrictions is kept low. Severe restrictions have not been imposed since 1979, but moderate restrictions are more common, and were imposed as recently as 2002. Scrutiny of water management can become intense even after moderate restrictions are imposed, and at these times it is unacceptable to many people if a known risk—even if very uncertain—is perceived to have been ignored in earlier planning. Climate science has established regional drying driven by global warming as a risk, and so global warming has to be addressed in planning. Water managers also need climate science to reassure the public that the restrictions imposed were necessary because of unprecedented changes in rainfall, not because of poor management.In recent years much of the influence that climate science has had on water managers can be attributed to the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI). IOCI is a research partnership between the Western Australia Water Corporation, other state government agencies

  16. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  17. A retrospective audit of bacterial culture results of donated human milk in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawif, Yahya; Hartmann, Benjamin; Lloyd, Megan; Erber, Wendy; Geddes, Donna

    2017-02-01

    The bacterial content of donated human milk is either endogenous or introduced via contamination. Defining milk bank bacterial content will allow researchers to devise appropriate tests for significant and commonly encountered organisms. A retrospective audit was conducted on data recorded from the Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Western Australia. This aimed to describe the incidence of bacterial species detected in donated human milk and to identify potentially pathogenic bacteria. The data comprised of 2890 batches donated by 448 women between 2007 and 2011. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) represented the highest prevalence of bacteria in donated milk, isolated from 85.5% of batches (range: 20 to 650,000CFU/mL) followed by Acinetobacter species in 8.1% of batches (range: 100 to 180,000CFU/mL). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent potentially pathogenic bacteria in 5% of batches (range: 40 to 100,000CFU/mL). Further investigation is warranted to better define the risks posed by the presence of toxin-producing S. aureus in raw and pasteurized human milk which may allow minimization of risk to the preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  19. Composition and structure of microbial communities from stromatolites of Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, Dominic; Walker, Jeffrey J; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Pace, Norman R

    2005-08-01

    Stromatolites, organosedimentary structures formed by microbial activity, are found throughout the geological record and are important markers of biological history. More conspicuous in the past, stromatolites occur today in a few shallow marine environments, including Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Hamelin Pool stromatolites often have been considered contemporary analogs to ancient stromatolites, yet little is known about the microbial communities that build them. We used DNA-based molecular phylogenetic methods that do not require cultivation to study the microbial diversity of an irregular stromatolite and of the surface and interior of a domal stromatolite. To identify the constituents of the stromatolite communities, small subunit rRNA genes were amplified by PCR from community genomic DNA with universal primers, cloned, sequenced, and compared to known rRNA genes. The communities were highly diverse and novel. The average sequence identity of Hamelin Pool sequences compared to the >200,000 known rRNA sequences was only approximately 92%. Clone libraries were approximately 90% bacterial and approximately 10% archaeal, and eucaryotic rRNA genes were not detected in the libraries. The most abundant sequences were representative of novel proteobacteria (approximately 28%), planctomycetes ( approximately 17%), and actinobacteria (approximately 14%). Sequences representative of cyanobacteria, long considered to dominate these communities, comprised stromatolites, their ecology, and their relevance to stromatolites preserved in the geological record.

  20. Diversity of cyanobacterial biomarker genes from the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Walter, Malcolm R; Larkum, Anthony W D; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-05-01

    Families of closely related chemical compounds, which are relatively resistant to degradation, are often used as biomarkers to help trace the evolutionary history of early groups of organisms and the environments in which they lived. Biomarkers derived from hopanoid variations are particularly useful in determining bacterial community compositions. 2-Methylhopananoids have been thought to be diagnostic for cyanobacteria, and 2-methylhopanes in the geological record are taken as evidence for the presence of cyanobacteria-containing communities at the time of sediment deposition. Recently, however, doubt has been cast on the validity of 2-methylhopanes as cyanobacterial biomarkers, since non-cyanobacterial species have been shown to produce significant amounts of 2-methylhopanoids. This study examines the diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid biosynthesis gene coding for the enzyme that methylates hopanoids at the C2 position. Genomic DNA isolated from stromatolite-associated pustular and smooth microbial mat samples from Shark Bay, Western Australia, was analysed for bacterial diversity, and used to construct an hpnP clone library. A total of 117 partial hpnP clones were sequenced, representing 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of these OTUs, representing 115 sequences, cluster within the cyanobacterial clade. We conclude that the dominant types of microorganisms with the detected capability of producing 2-methylhopanoids within pustular and smooth microbial mats in Shark Bay are cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A methodology to estimate the future extent of dryland salinity in the southwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccetta, Peter; Dunne, Robert; George, Richard; McFarlane, Don

    2010-01-01

    In the southwestern agricultural region of Western Australia, the clearing of the original perennial vegetation for annual vegetation-based dryland agriculture has lead to rising saline groundwater levels. This has had effects such as reduced productivity of agricultural land, death of native vegetation, reduced stream water quality and infrastructure damage. These effects have been observed at many locations within the 18 million ha of cleared land. This has lead to efforts to quantify, in a spatially explicit way, the historical and likely future extent of the area affected, with the view to informing management decisions. This study was conducted to determine whether the likely future extent of the area affected by dryland salinity could be estimated by means of developing spatially explicit maps for use in management and planning. We derived catchment-related variables from digital elevation models and perennial vegetation presence/absence maps. We then used these variables to predict the salinity hazard extent by applying a combination of decision tree classification and morphological image processing algorithms. Sufficient objective data such as groundwater depth, its rate of rise, and its concentration of dissolved salts were generally not available, so we used regional expert opinion (derived from the limited existing studies on salinity hazard extent) as training and validation data. We obtained an 87% agreement in the salinity hazard extent estimated by this method compared with the validation data, and conclude that the maps are sufficient for planning. We estimate that the salinity hazard extent is 29.7% of the agricultural land.

  2. Recent landscape history in arid western New South Wales, Australia: a model for regional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.

    1999-09-01

    Accelerated erosion by wind and water has taken place in arid western New South Wales, Australia, since the introduction of domestic and feral herbivores by Europeans in the nineteenth century. This action led to widespread soil loss by sheetwash, rilling, gullying, and aeolian deflation. Upland creek systems, formerly comprising shallow sinuous channels, are now entrenched into alluvial fills on the valley floor. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from Aboriginal cooking pits, exposed by this erosion, indicates that the current phase of incision of the valley floor has occurred since grazing of domestic animals began about 140 years ago. Stratigraphic evidence is presented which suggests that this type of incision (gullying or arroyo cutting in the valley floor) may not have occurred before within the 20,000 year sedimentary history of the valley fills studied. Channel enlargement and knickpoint retreat, initiated by these changes, is ongoing, and the implications of this for land and heritage management in the region are discussed. A conceptual model is presented which summarises the hydrogeomorphic changes which have occurred in upland catchments in the region as a result of changes in landcover.

  3. Underwater recordings of the whistles of bottlenose dolphins in Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Sarah A.; Erbe, Christine; Kent, Chandra P. Salgado

    2017-09-01

    Dolphins use frequency-modulated whistles for a variety of social functions. Whistles vary in their characteristics according to context, such as activity state, group size, group composition, geographic location, and ambient noise levels. Therefore, comparison of whistle characteristics can be used to address numerous research questions regarding dolphin populations and behaviour. However, logistical and economic constraints on dolphin research have resulted in data collection biases, inconsistent analytical approaches, and knowledge gaps. This Data Descriptor presents an acoustic dataset of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) whistles recorded in the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia. Data were collected using an autonomous recorder and analysed using a range of acoustic measurements. Acoustic data review identified 336 whistles, which were subsequently measured for six key characteristics using Raven Pro software. Of these, 164 'high-quality' whistles were manually measured to provide an additional five acoustic characteristics. Digital files of individual whistles and corresponding measurements make this dataset available to researchers to address future questions regarding variations within and between dolphin communities.

  4. Education, safe drinking practices and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Payne, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    There are alarming rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia despite numerous international studies demonstrating the links between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FASD. The aim of this research was to help determine factors that may be associated with correct knowledge about safe drinking practices during pregnancy, with these factors used to help inform future interventions. Ninety-nine residents (40 males, 59 females, 39% of which self-identified as Indigenous) from the Kimberley region (Broome and smaller remote communities) completed a survey examining knowledge of currently recommended safe drinking practices during pregnancy and knowledge of the outcomes for children with FASD over a period of approximately 2 months. The results revealed that education level (i.e. not completing high school through to completing university) is the biggest predictor (β = 0.44, P education regarding the consequences of alcohol consumption for women of childbearing age should be paramount in this or similar communities. Suggestions for targeted interventions are discussed in light of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Hot ash burns in the children of Western Australia: how and why they happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L; Rea, S; McWilliams, T; Wood, F

    2014-08-01

    Burns from hot ash are common in the paediatric population in Western Australia. Fifty children were admitted to the paediatric burn centre with hot ash contact burns to the feet in 2011 and 2012. It is important to examine the extent of the problem, seasonal variations, and identify those at risk to determine strategies for prevention campaigns. Retrospective review of medical notes for all admissions to the paediatric burns unit was undertaken for 2011 and 2012. Data were collected for patient demographics, time, circumstance of injury, burn severity and treatment. Hot ash burns accounted for 8.6% of admissions but 16.1% of burns sustained in non-metro areas. Median age was just under 3 years, male or female. Median burn TBSA was 2%, and 44% of children required surgery. The burns were less common in summer, more common on non-school days and in children who were on camping trips away from home. Previous work has shown the value of targeted campaigns. The group for targeted prevention campaigns are the carers of very young children who go camping. Information distributed at camping shows and stores about the principles of campfire safety would reach the people at risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Delineating The Subsurface Structures Using Electrical Resistivity Sounding In Some Part Of Willeton Perth Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Evans Onojasun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geophysical survey using electrical resistivity methods has been carried out within the industrial area of Willeton Perth Western Australia with the view to delineate the geoelectric characteristics of the basement complex and evaluate the groundwater potential in the area. Vertical electrical sounding with ABEM SAS 3000 Terrameter and Schlumberger electrode configuration were employed for data acquisition. Apparent resistivity values obtained from the field measurements were plotted against half current electrodes spacing on a log-log graph while a model was suggested to fit the resistivity distribution presented in the sounding. The results from the modelling were finally iterated to the lowest Root Mean Square RMS percentage error using computer software A 7 point filter derived by Guptasarma to calculate a forward model. Analysis of the results showed that the study area has fairly homogenous subsurface stratification with four distinct subsurface layers above the depth of 37m. The four subsurface layers comprises top soil mainly of unconsolidated and sand containing organic matter unsaturated sand layer with consolidated and highly resistive water saturated sand layer with highly water saturated soil and the sub-stratum layer consisting of clay material. The aquifer performance is best at about 32m hence it is suggested that boreholes for sustainable water supply in this area should be drilled to about 32 m to hit prolific aquifer.

  7. Economic Assessment of Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs an optimal configuration assessment, in terms of the financial returns, of the Overtopping BReakwater for wave Energy Conversion (OBREC. This technology represents a hybrid wave energy harvester, totally embedded in traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Nine case studies along the southern coast of Western Australia have been analysed. The technique provides tips on how to estimate the quality of the investments, for benchmarking with different turbine strategy layouts and overlapping with the costs of traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Analyses of the offshore and nearshore wave climate have been studied by a high resolution coastal propagation model, forced with wave data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Inshore wave conditions have been used to quantify the exploitable resources. It has been demonstrated that the optimal investment strategy is nonlinearly dependent on potential electricity production due to outer technical constraints. The work emphasizes the importance of integrating energy production predictions in an economic decision framework for prioritizing adaptation investments.

  8. The use of garden boreholes in Cape Town, South Africa: lessons learnt from Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saayman, I. C.; Adams, S.

    The similarities in climate and geology offer water resource managers in Cape Town and Perth an opportunity to learn from each other's experiences. While Cape Town relies mostly on surface water for supply, Perth uses 50% groundwater for its domestic and industrial use. It is proposed that certain aspects of Perth's water supply infrastructure could successfully be transposed for the exploitation of Cape Towns' groundwater resources. In Perth private boreholes is used to tap a shallow phreatic aquifer for garden irrigation. The Government of Western Australia encourages this practice. Cape Town has an opportunity to use water from the Cape Flats Aquifer in a similar manner. In this paper the use of the Cape Flats Aquifer for private garden irrigation is evaluated. By encouraging private landowners to develop private wells, large savings could be made in the amount of treated bulk water supply required by Cape Town. The Cape Flats Aquifer has the potential to meet a large part of the city's garden irrigation requirements. Though the impact of pollution on water quality remains uncertain and a concern, the general quality of water in the aquifer is adequate for irrigation requirements. If the use of private garden boreholes is to be successful, education of the public will be vital. It is envisaged that the City of Cape Town and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in partnership with private, education and research institutions take the lead in such education and the development of appropriate legislation and guidelines.

  9. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; MacIntyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  10. Impact of Sauropod Dinosaurs on Lagoonal Substrates in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulborn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the tracks left by sauropod dinosaurs (loosely ‘brontosaurs’) is essentially two-dimensional, derived mainly from footprints exposed on bedding planes, but examples in the Broome Sandstone (Early Cretaceous) of Western Australia provide a complementary three-dimensional picture showing the extent to which walking sauropods could deform the ground beneath their feet. The patterns of deformation created by sauropods traversing thinly-stratified lagoonal deposits of the Broome Sandstone are unprecedented in their extent and structural complexity. The stacks of transmitted reliefs (underprints or ghost prints) beneath individual footfalls are nested into a hierarchy of deeper and more inclusive basins and troughs which eventually attain the size of minor tectonic features. Ultimately the sauropod track-makers deformed the substrate to such an extent that they remodelled the topography of the landscape they inhabited. Such patterns of substrate deformation are revealed by investigating fragmentary and eroded footprints, not by the conventional search for pristine footprints on intact bedding planes. For that reason it is not known whether similar patterns of substrate deformation might occur at sauropod track-sites elsewhere in the world. PMID:22662116

  11. Magnetotelluric Study of the Southern Margin of the Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Varas, P.; Dentith, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the current status and the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric (MT) study that is being performed in the Capricorn Orogen, in northern Western Australia. This project is a component of large multi-disciplinary geoscience project on the 'Distal Footprints of Giant Ore Systems'. The Capricorn Orogen, a largely Proterozoic orogenic belt, is being used as a natural laboratory to develop methods for exploring for mineral deposits 'under cover'. The MT dataset consists of a total of 240 broadband magnetotelluric stations (BBMT) and 84 long period stations (LMT). Analysis of the dataset reveals the area to have complex 3-D variations in electrical conductivity, making 3-D interpretation methods essential. The first 3-D inversion model encompasses south-eastern part of the Capricorn Orogen (Padbury-Bryah Basins) and the adjoining Yilgarn Craton, and involves the inversion of 58 BBMT sites. The results shown a prominent resistive feature that is tentatively correlated with the northern boundary of the Yilgarn Craton. Apart from this, the other main geoelectrical feature is a high conductivity body located within the Yilgarn Craton. This structure could be related to tectonic features associated with the accretion of the different terranes composing this part of the craton. Forward models were used to validate these and other structures. Major faults occurring at cratonic margins are known to be important indicators of increased prospectivity and our preliminary results suggest MT surveys are a useful tool for regional scale exploration in the study area.

  12. Effect of low winter temperatures on milk production of dairy cows grazed on farms in a warm temperate climate (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovich, D.

    1980-06-01

    Two-day milk production figures for dairymen at Armidale (31° S Lat.) and Goulburn (35° S Lat.), Australia, were compared with minimum daily temperatures. Comparisons were made between production levels on days with temperatures above and below 0°C, and between days with varying intensities of cold: differences in production were minor. The infrequent, more prolonged periods of cold weather (“cold” being days on which the minimum temperature was below 0°C) were also associated with only very slight reductions in milk output; and the most pronounced decline in production was not attributable to low temperatures. Although short-term fluctuations in output were not related to low temperature events or low temperatures in combination with rain, thermal stress on plant growth during winter contributed to a seasonal downturn in production and below-average annual milk yields in areas with low winter temperatures.

  13. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  14. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  15. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp. in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wellard

    Full Text Available Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp. on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  16. Capitalized amenity value of urban wetlands: a hedonic property price approach to urban wetlands in Perth, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tapsuwan, Sorada; Ingram, Gordon; Burton, Michael P.; Brennan, Donna C.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 60 per cent of potable water supplied to Perth, Western Australia, is extracted from the groundwater system that lies below the northern part of the metropolitan area. Many of the urban wetlands are groundwater-dependent and excessive groundwater extraction and climate change have resulted in a decline in water levels in the wetlands. In order to inform decisions on conserving existing urban wetlands, it is beneficial to be able to estimate the economic value of the urban wetlands. Appl...

  17. Geoarchaeological studies of the Yalibirri Mindi rock shelter, Weld Range, Wajarri Yamaji Country, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Matthias; Brown, Viviene; Carson, Anneliese; D'Ovidio, Belinda; Yusiharni, Emielda; Winton, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of past environmental conditions can be used to answer archaeologically based questions. Geoarchives such as soils and sediments inside rockshelters store information about chemical and physical processes from their time of formation thus allowing the reconstruction of the past. This study seeks to understand the sediment and soil formation factors at the 'Yalibirri Mindi' rock shelter, located in the Weld Range in the country of the Wajarri Yamaji Aboriginal people of Mid West Western Australia. The project is part of the 'federally funded Weld Range Web of Knowledge Project' . The aim of the work is to evaluate the origin of dated carbon material and associated sediments. Rockshelter sediments as well as two soil profiles outside the shelter were characterized using a series of different laboratory techniques such as pH and EC, nested particle sieving, ICP-OES, XRD, XRF, CN and radiocarbon analysis as well as magnetic susceptibility. An additional heating experiment was performed to simulate the influence of frequent fire on the magnetic properties of the sediments to evaluate potential anthropogenic origin of fire remains (charcoal). Pleistocene age estimates were obtained for some of the charcoal found in association with Aboriginal flaked stone artefacts. The lowest layer containing Aboriginal artefacts was dated to 29,089 ± 132 years uncal. BP providing the first evidence for Pre-Last Glacial Maximum occupation of the inland Mid West in Australia. Sediment analyses indicate that the rockshelter sediments are the result of in-situ weathering with contemporaneous human occupation rather than transport from outside. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), which is not part of the natural environment in the surrounding area was identified in the rockshelter sediments and might be indicative of heating and evaporation during wood fire burning. Human induced fires had also altered the magnetic susceptibility of the sediments. Sedimentological analyses strongly support

  18. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea from western Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W.A. Kellner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003, here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.Répteis voadores da Austrália são muito raros e, na maioria dos casos, representados por ossos isolados procedentes da Formação Toolebuc (Cretáceo, Albiano, da região leste de Queensland. Entre os primeiros espécimes de pterossauros coletados nestes depósitos encontra-se uma sínfise mandibular que alguns autores acreditaram possuir afinidades com formas encontradas no Cambridge Greensand (Cenomaniano da Inglaterra. O exemplar acabou sendo classificado como representando uma espécie pertencente ou proximamente relacionada aos gêneros Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes ou Anhanguera. Neste trabalho nós redescrevemos este espécime e demonstramos que o mesmo não pode ser referido aos gêneros mencionados, mas representa uma nova espécie de Pteranodontóide (sensu Kellner 2003, aqui denominada de Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. Este exemplar constitui a segunda espécie de pterossauro da Austrália a ser denominada e confirma a que os depósitos de Toolebuc são até o momento os mais importantes para a pesquisa de pterossauros desse

  19. Sustaining oral health services in remote and indigenous communities: a review of 10 years experience in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Jacobs, Alissa; Tennant, Marc

    2010-04-01

    In line with findings throughout Australia, rural, remote and Indigenous Western Australians suffer from a higher burden of oral disease and have less access to dental practitioners and care than their urban and non-Indigenous counterparts. With workforce projections indicating an increase in the shortage of dental practitioners, especially in rural and remote areas, the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health (CRROH) in Western Australia set out to establish a sustainable programme to service such increasingly disadvantaged populations. Via the vertical integration of education, service and research CRROH pioneered a sustainable model to deliver much needed oral health services to some of Western Australia's most remote areas, while primarily focused on addressing the oral health needs of Indigenous Australians. One of the key lessons from the programme has been the development of a strong clinical governance framework and a support network to sustain services in remote locations. This study offers one way to provide and sustain dental care for those most in need, yet largely left out.

  20. Habitat associations of juvenile fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: the importance of coral and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Tinkler, Paul

    2010-12-07

    Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs

  1. Women's experiences of using a Snoezelen room during labour in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne; Rivers, Catherine; Doherty, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    to explore women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during their labour. a qualitative exploratory design was conducted to provide insight into the phenomenon of using a Snoezelen room for labouring women and to identify factors that could facilitate or inhibit use of this environment. The constant comparison method modified from the grounded theory methodology was used to analyse data from in-depth interviews. Osborne Park Hospital, the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia, was the study setting. sixteen women, recruited from July 2005 to June 2006, agreed to participate in an in-depth interview and share their experience of using the Snoezelen room during a recent labour. six themes were extracted from the data providing insight into what a Snoezelen environment can offer a labouring woman: distraction; relaxation; comfort; environmental control; choice of complementary therapies; and safety in a home-like atmosphere. Additional categories revealed factors that facilitated and/or detracted use of the room such as familiarity with features, being offered information and choice, timing in labour, the support person's response and working order of the room's features. when sharing their experience, women focused upon the process of their labour and how they managed this process rather than specific outcomes such as analgesic used or type of birth. Although outcomes such as type of birth may not have been their preferred choice, these women were able to achieve satisfaction with how they managed their labour while in the Snoezelen room. This midwifery-led initiative contributed to these women's labour experiences, by offering a combination of complementary therapies within the safety of a hospital environment.

  2. Impact of water allocation strategies to manage groundwater resources in Western Australia: Equity and efficiency considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Fogarty, James

    2017-05-01

    In many parts of the world groundwater is being depleting at an alarming rate. Where groundwater extraction is licenced, regulators often respond to resource depletion by reducing all individual licences by a fixed proportion. This approach can be effective in achieving a reduction in the volume of water extracted, but the approach is not efficient. In water resource management the issue of the equity-efficiency trade-off has been explored in a number of contexts, but not in the context of allocation from a groundwater system. To contribute to this knowledge gap we conduct an empirical case study for Western Australia's most important groundwater system: the Gnangara Groundwater System (GGS). Resource depletion is a serious issue for the GGS, and substantial reductions in groundwater extraction are required to stabilise the system. Using an individual-based farm optimization model we study both the overall impact and the distributional impact of a fixed percentage water allocation cut to horticulture sector licence holders. The model is parameterised using water licence specific data on farm area and water allocation. The modelling shows that much of the impact of water allocation reductions can be mitigated through changing the cropping mix and the irrigation technology used. The modelling also shows that the scope for gains through the aggregation of holdings into larger farms is much greater than the potential losses due to water allocation reductions. The impact of water allocation cuts is also shown to impact large farms more than small farms. For example, the expected loss in net revenue per ha for a 10-ha farm is around three times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm; and the expected loss per ha for a 25-ha farm is around five times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm.

  3. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

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    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  4. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  5. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

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    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  6. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia

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    Cheryl Lohr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km2. Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure, and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features. We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  7. Time to delivery: Transfers for threatened preterm labour and prelabour rupture of membranes in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Jade; Pietsch, Rachel; Epee-Bekima, Mathias; Nathan, Elizabeth

    2017-11-23

    To describe the outcomes of patients transferred to King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) with signs of labour at preterm gestations. A retrospective observational study of the 69 cases transferred to KEMH during 2015. Patient transfers from all locations across Western Australia (WA) to the sole tertiary perinatal centre in Perth. Pregnant women within WA with threatened or actual preterm labour (PTL) or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) between 23 and 32 weeks gestation. The occurrence of delivery during the admission and time-to-delivery as well as length of admission and association between clinical factors and time-to-delivery. The percentage of the study population delivered during the admission following transfer was 72.5%. Eighty-six per cent of those who delivered did so within 72 hours of transfer. The median time from transfer to delivery was 1 day. Sixty-three per cent of those who did not deliver during the admission progressed to 36 weeks gestation. Patients transferred with PPROM were less likely to deliver during the admission compared to those with uterine activity (50% versus 19.6%, P = 0.007) and nulliparas were more likely to deliver (93.5% versus 55.3%, P delivery during the same admission with the highest risk of delivery being the first 72 hours following transfer. If the pregnancy is ongoing at 72 hours, there is a reasonable chance of progression to late preterm gestation supporting the return of woman to their place of origin for antenatal care following discharge. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S

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    Claire L. Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y−1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

  9. Habitat associations of juvenile fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: the importance of coral and algae.

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    Shaun K Wilson

    Full Text Available Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and

  10. Progress towards advanced practice roles in Australia, New Zealand and the Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle (Australia); Fiji School of Medicine, Suva (Fiji)], E-mail: tony.smith@hnehealth.nsw.gov.au; Yielder, Jill [School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand); Ajibulu, Olusegun [Fiji School of Medicine, Suva (Fiji); Caruana, Edward [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    This paper describes the evolution and current status of advanced practice in medical imaging and radiation therapy in the Oceania region. To date development has been slow, largely ad hoc and based on local needs. Most advanced practice is informal or is regarded as part of the core skills of some individual practitioners. However, recently, there have been signs of change taking place, with a more coordinated and collaborative approach to role development becoming evident. In Australia, although a number of reports and papers have discussed extended clinical roles, especially for diagnostic Radiographers, no concrete action has yet taken place in either discipline. Stakeholders apparently agree that existing extended roles should be formalised, however, and that continuing education must underpin future role extension initiatives. A three-level professional structure, including an advanced practitioner level, has been accepted by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT), with the support of the District Health Boards of New Zealand (DHBNZ). Implementation is expected to begin before the end of 2008. Meanwhile, recognition of the serious lack of Radiologists in Western Pacific Island Nations led to the training of some Radiographers in radiological interpretation of images between 2004 and 2006. The aim was to up-skill the Radiographers so that they could more reliably flag abnormalities to doctors, a model that may be applicable elsewhere. It is argued that future practice models must include advanced practice roles in order to safely meet the growing demand for medical radiation services. Local factors, such as the structure of the health care system and the depth of engagement of the key stakeholders in planning and implementation, however, are expected to influence the evolution of new clinical practice models in the region.

  11. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  12. Nutrient Discharge Beneath Urban Lawns To A Sandy Coastal Aquifer, Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. L.; Herne, D. E.; Byrne, J. D.; Kin, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    Excess nitrogen and phosphorus leaching beneath urban lawns on sandy soils in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, may pose a serious threat not only to the quality of the underlying groundwater but also to many surface-water bodies. In this study, suction-driven lysimeters were developed and used to quantify water and nutrient fluxes below the root zone at four urban lawn sites in Perth. The four sites received similar fertiliser treatment but differed in irrigation regimes. Over a period of 12 months, up to 51 percent of incident water passed below the root zone. Annual flow-weighted concentrations of NO3-N in the leachate ranged from 0.8-5.4 mg/L, whereas PO4-P concentrations ranged from 0.003-0.034 mg/L. At most sites, NO3-N concentrations periodically equalled or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water limit of 10 mg/L; high concentration were maintained for longer periods at two sites with coarser sands and high irrigation regimes. Evidence exists that concentrations of N and P in urban groundwater are reduced through dilution and possibly through chemical transformation and adsorption. It is unlikely that NO3-N concentrations in groundwater will exceed the WHO drinking limit except for relatively short periods of time. However, nutrients (especially N) from fertilised lawns are a threat to wetlands and waterways into which nutrient-rich groundwater is discharged. Modified management practices for urban lawns, or alternative-style home gardens may need to be developed in order to minimise nutrient enrichment of groundwater and water bodies. Some suggestions for these are presented.

  13. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  14. Predicting Cereal Root Disease in Western Australia Using Soil DNA and Environmental Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Grant J; Harries, Martin; Hüberli, D; Miyan, S; MacLeod, W J; Lawes, Roger; McKay, A

    2015-08-01

    Root diseases have long been prevalent in Australian grain-growing regions, and most management decisions to reduce the risk of yield loss need to be implemented before the crop is sown. The levels of pathogens that cause the major root diseases can be measured using DNA-based services such as PreDicta B. Although these pathogens are often studied individually, in the field they often occur as mixed populations and their combined effect on crop production is likely to vary across diverse cropping environments. A 3-year survey was conducted covering most cropping regions in Western Australia, utilizing PreDicta B to determine soilborne pathogen levels and visual assessments to score root health and incidence of individual crop root diseases caused by the major root pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group [AG]-8), Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (take-all), Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Pratylenchus spp. (root-lesion nematodes) on wheat roots for 115, 50, and 94 fields during 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. A predictive model was developed for root health utilizing autumn and summer rainfall and soil temperature parameters. The model showed that pathogen DNA explained 16, 5, and 2% of the variation in root health whereas environmental parameters explained 22, 11, and 1% of the variation in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Results showed that R. solani AG-8 soil pathogen DNA, environmental soil temperature, and rainfall parameters explained most of the variation in the root health. This research shows that interactions between environment and pathogen levels before seeding can be utilized in predictive models to improve assessment of risk from root diseases to assist growers to plan more profitable cropping programs.

  15. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  16. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  17. A leadership program in an undergraduate nursing course in Western Australia: building leaders in our midst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joyce M; Cope, Vicki C; Harris, Maureen

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses a leadership program implemented in the School of Nursing at Edith Cowan University to develop leadership in fourth semester nursing students enrolled in a three year undergraduate nursing degree to prepare them for the dynamic 'changing world' environment of healthcare. Students were invited to apply to undertake the program in extracurricular time. Nineteen students applied to the program and ten were chosen to participate in the program. The numbers were limited to ten to equal selected industry leader mentors. The leadership program is based on the belief that leadership is a function of knowing oneself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize one's own potential. It is asserted that within the complexity of health care it is vital that nurses enter the clinical setting with leadership capabilities because graduate nurses must take the lead to act autonomously, make decisions at the point of service, and develop a professional vision that fits with organizational and professional goals Thus, the more practice students have with leadership skills, the more prepared they will be to enter the workforce. The program consists of three components: leadership knowledge, leadership skills and leadership-in-action. The leadership program focuses on the student-participant's ability to be self reflective on personal leadership qualities, critically appraise, and work within a team as well as to take responsibility for ensuring the achievement of team goals as leader. The program is practical and is reliant on the involvement of leader mentors who hold positions of leadership with the health industry in Western Australia. Students completed a pre and post program questionnaire related to abilities and skills in leadership. This paper discusses pre and post evaluation data against program outcomes. The findings demonstrate that participants of the program increased their ability

  18. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  19. 3.2 Ga sulfur isotopic heterogeneity of barite and pyrite microcrystals in Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Takahata, N.; Ishida, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Sano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfur isotopic ratio (δ34S) of past sulfate minerals is a good proxy for redox state and microbial sulfate reducing systems in the Precambrian. However, reports of δ34S of Archean sulfate are scarce because of the limited occurrences of sulfate deposits. Therefore, we focused on newly discovered sedimentary barite (BaSO4) layers from the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, which is considered to have been deposited in a relatively deep open sea environment (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). The Dixon Island Formation is located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia and shows low metamorphic grade (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Based on the DXCL drilling result, there are several pyrite layers of a few mm thick within black chert layers. The bulk δ34S values of these layers are -10.1 to +26.8‰ (Sakamoto, MS2010) and micro-meter scale heterogeneity of δ34S can be seen in minute spherical shell pyrite which was formed at an early stage of diagenesis (Miki, MS2015). On the other hand, relict barite layers, which are now mostly silicified beds, are preserved within black chert layers in the Black Chert Member which overlies hydrothermal vent system. Detail observation indicate these beds contain small relict crystals of barite (less than 200 μm in diameter). These preserved barite are regarded to be remnants of original barite. Surrounding black chert of the barite pseudomorph contain minute pyrite grains. We separated 29 barite grains and 19 pyrite grains in total from three samples from different horizons. We performed micro-meter scale δ34S analyses using a NanoSIMS. As a result, we obtained scattered barite δ34S values of -7.1±1.0 to +18.7±0.9‰ (Avg.=+0.4±1.3‰). Pyrite δ34S showed also scattered but heavier values of +2.1±2.0 to +22.3±5.9 (Avg.=+11.4±2.8‰). We found that δ34S of pyrite was higher than that of barite by ca. 10 ‰ and that pyrite and barite which formed at an early stage showed strongly heterogeneous isotopic composition. Spherical

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  1. Malignant pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in former miners and millers of crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, G; de Klerk, N H; Reid, A.; Ambrosini, G; Fritschi, L.; Olsen, N; Merler, E; Musk, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A group of 6493 men and 415 women who had worked at the former Wittenoom crocidolite mine and mill at some time between 1943 and 1966 have been followed up throughout Australia and Italy to the end of 2000.

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of an uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba spp. in captured Rangeland goats in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habsi, Khalid; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una; Jacobson, Caroline; Miller, David W

    2017-02-15

    Uninucleated Entamoeba cysts measuring 7.3×7.7μm were detected in faecal samples collected from wild Rangeland goats (Capra hircus) after arrival at a commercial goat depot near Geraldton, Western Australia at a prevalence of 6.4% (8/125). Sequences were obtained at the 18S rRNA (n=8) and actin (n=5) loci following PCR amplification. At the 18S locus, phylogenetic analysis grouped the isolates closest with an E. bovis isolate (FN666250) from a sheep from Sweden with 99% similarity. At the actin locus, no E. bovis sequences were available, and the isolates shared 94.0% genetic similarity with E. suis from a pig in Western Japan. This is the first report to describe the morphology and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba from Rangeland goats in Western Australia and the first study to produce actin sequences from E. bovis-like Entamoeba sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  4. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  5. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, R.; Mcfarlane, D; Varma, S.; W. Dawes; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates b...

  6. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-08-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and clayey surface soils restricts possible

  7. Speciation in fractured rock landforms: towards understanding the diversity of subterranean cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Nocticolidae: Nocticola) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew J; McRAE, Jane M; Main, Dean C; Finston, Terrie L

    2017-04-04

    Three new species of subterranean cockroach of the genus Nocticola from the Pilbara region of Western Australia are described on morphological characters of males. Nocticola quartermainei n. sp., Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. occur in fractured rock landforms and have varying degrees of troglomorphies. Sequence divergence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) clearly demonstrated populations are reproductively isolated over very short distances for the highly troglomorphic Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. and conversely, there is less isolation within the same landforms for the less troglomorphic Nocticola quartermainei n. sp.

  8. La cooperación al servicio de la recuperación de la diversidad: Experiencias en Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Austr...

  9. When morphology and molecular markers conflict: a case history of subterranean amphipods from the Pilbara, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finston, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of groundwater amphipods in the genus Chydaekata have been described from the Pilbara, Western Australia, each restricted to a single bore. Dewatering at a local mine site was halted while a second survey was undertaken. Newly collected samples were identified using the existing key, and allozyme analysis was used to test species boundaries. Allozymic diversity was not associated with single bores, and only two distinctgenetic groups (one of which was very rare, were identified. Based on these results, and the finding that species were found to be more widespread, the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority recommended that dewatering continue with caution at the site. This study provides an example of the problems associated with incongruent data sets, and the difficulties inherent in working with rare species, namely, interpreting the results of studies based on small samples or incomplete collections.

  10. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la

  11. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  12. Crowdsourcing modern and historical data identifies sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus habitat offshore of south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and use of pelagic habitat by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus is poorly understood in the south-eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. However, a variety of data are available via online portals where records of historical expeditions, commercial whaling operations, and modern scientific research voyages can now be accessed. Crowdsourcing these online data allows collation of presence-only information of animals and provides a valuable tool to help augment areas of low research effort. Four data sources were examined, the primary one being the Voyage of the Odyssey expedition, a five-year global study of sperm whales and ocean pollution. From December 2001-May 2002, acoustic surveys were conducted along 5,200 nautical miles of transects off Western Australia including the Perth Canyon and historical whaling grounds off Albany; 60 tissue biopsy samples were also collected. To augment areas not surveyed by the RV Odyssey, historical Yankee whaling data (1712-1920, commercial whaling data (1904-1999, and citizen science reports of sperm whale sightings (1990-2003 were used. Using Maxent, a species distribution modeling tool, we found that the submarine canyons off Albany and Perth provide important habitat for sperm whales. Current technology, along with current understanding of sperm whale bioacoustics and habitat preferences, provides strong motivation for undertaking long-term passive acoustic studies that can monitor the sperm whale population within Australia’s EEZ waters (Perth and Albany canyons as a way of informing future marine management and policy decisions.

  13. Accounting for the increase of children in care in western Australia: What can a client information system tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Andy; Cant, Rosemary L; Harries, Maria; Thorpe, David H

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses a fourteen-year period of Western Australian data from the client information system of the Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Western Australia saw a large increase in the number of children in state care similar to trends across Australia as a whole. The study shows the following trends: changes in response to 'referrals' with particular increases in the number of findings of neglect and increasing proportions of these followed swiftly by entry to care; changes in patterns of entry to care with more children under one-year-old entering; increased length of stay of children in care; and, the high incidence of Aboriginal children entering and remaining in care. The data demonstrate unequivocally that increased 'referrals' are not associated with increased substantiations of harm or 'acts of commission with dangerous intent', but that neglect assessed early in the lives of children was the major precipitant for entry to care and particularly so for Aboriginal infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. An assessment of burn injury hospitalisations of adolescents and young adults in Western Australia, 1983-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J; Wood, F; Semmens, J; Edgar, D W; Spilsbury, K; Rea, S

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a 26-year epidemiological assessment of burn injury hospitalisations for people 15-29 years of age in Western Australia. Linked hospital morbidity and death data for all persons hospitalised with an index burn injury in Western Australia for the period 1983-2008 were analyzed. Annual age-specific incidence rates were estimated. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate temporal trends in hospital admissions. There were 6404 burn hospital admissions of which 76% were male. Males had hospitalisation rates 3.0 times that of females (95%CI: 2.8-3.2) and Aboriginal people had rates 2.3 times (95%CI: 2.1-2.5) that of non-Aboriginal persons. Hospitalisations for burn injury declined by 42% (95%CI: 35-47) for males and 21% (95%CI: 6-33) for females. Hospitalisations declined by 53% (95%CI: 35-63) for Aboriginal people, and by 35% (95%CI: 29-41) for non-Aboriginal people. Significant reductions were observed for flame and electrical burn hospitalisations. The major causes of burns in males were exposure to controlled fires and ignition of inflammable materials, with scalds the predominant cause of burn in females. Downward trends in burn injury hospitalisations for both males and females 15-29 years of age were observed; however, males and Aboriginal persons have significantly elevated hospitalisation rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how

  17. Spatially-explicit modelling model for assessing wild dog control strategies in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large predators can significantly impact livestock industries. In Australia, wild dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus dingo, and hybrids) cause economic losses of more than AUD $40M annually. Landscape-scale exclusion fencing coupled with lethal techniques is a widely pract...

  18. Submerged oceanic shoals of north Western Australia are a major reservoir of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cordelia; Cappo, Mike; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a first assessment of fish communities associated with the submerged oceanic banks and shoals in north-west Australia. Until recently, little was known about these deeper and more inaccessible reefs. The mesophotic coral-reef habitats (20-80 m) were a major reservoir of marine biodiversity, with unique and exceptionally high fish diversity and abundance. Species richness in the study region was 1.4 times, and abundance almost twice, that recorded for similar mesophotic habitats on the Great Barrier Reef in north-east Australia. A review of the published literature revealed that Australia's NW oceanic shoals support the highest fish species richness reported for mesophotic reefs to date. We made regional comparisons of fish community structure (species composition, richness and abundance) and assessed the influence of depth, substrate and location. The presence of consolidated calcareous reef, depth and aspect (a surrogate for exposure) had the greatest influence on species richness. In contrast, aspect and the presence of benthic biota had the greatest influence on fish abundance. Sites most exposed to the prevailing currents (facing north-east) had lowest fish abundance, while highest abundances were recorded on moderately exposed sites (along the north-west and south-east edges). The most abundant species were small ( Pomacentrus coelestis) and large ( Naso hexacanthus) planktivorous fish. Currently, 29.3% of NE Australia mesophotic reefs are within no-take management zones of the Great Barrier Reef. In contrast, just 1.3% of the NW oceanic shoals are designated as no-take areas. The location and extent of mesophotic reefs remain poorly quantified globally. Because these habitats support significant biodiversity and have the potential to act as important refugia, understanding their extent is critical to maintaining coral-reef biodiversity and resilience and supporting sustainable management.

  19. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Longiflagrum amphibium, a new estuarine apseudomorph tanaid (Crustacea, Peracarida from north-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stępień

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Australian tanaidacean material collected during spring 1993 and 1994 and autumn 1994 and 1995 in vicinity of Port Hedland and Oyster Island (NW Australia included over 800 of specimens of a new species of apseudomorph, Longiflagrum amphibium sp. n. The species is the fifth to be described in this genus, and it was found in the intertidal zone, as the other species have been. The new species is distinguished from the other members of the genus bythe shortest flagella in the antennule and by its oval pleopod basis.

  1. Biogeography of the stygobitic isopod Pygolabis (Malacostraca: Tainisopidae) in the Pilbara, Western Australia: evidence for multiple colonisations of the groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finston, Terrie L; Francis, Cara J; Johnson, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    COI sequence variation in groundwater amphipods of Western Australia showed multiple highly divergent lineages associated with tributaries. Estimates of the timing of this diversification are consistent with the hypothesis that aridification of the region during the Tertiary forced freshwater fauna into subterranean refugia. The groundwater isopod Pygolabis provides an opportunity to compare phylogenetic signals in co-distributed taxa that might share similar histories. A 549 bp fragment of COI was sequenced for 135 individuals of Pygolabis from 12 sites. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 12 highly divergent lineages associated with tributary boundaries. Lineages were separated by 11.8-27.8% sequence divergence. This level of divergence is consistent with diversification in the Pliocene, supporting the aridification hypothesis. While lineages were associated with distinct tributaries in both amphipods and Pygolabis, the two groups showed different phylogenetic patterns, suggesting that the mode of colonisation of the groundwater differed between the amphipods and Pygolabis.

  2. Do they stay or do they go? Acoustic monitoring of whale sharks at Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, B M; Whitty, J M; Beatty, S J; Reynolds, S D; Morgan, D L

    2017-12-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus were monitored via acoustic transmitters at the northern end of Western Australia's Ningaloo Marine Park to establish the extent to which the species inhabits the region beyond the whale-shark ecotourism industry season, which usually extends from March to August in each year. Despite the vast majority (c. 98%) of photographic submissions of R. typus from Ningaloo Reef being between March and August, acoustic detections from the tagged R. typus at Ningaloo were recorded in all months of the year, but do not preclude the occurrence of extended absences. It is concluded that as a species, R. typus occurs year round at Ningaloo, where it generally remains in close proximity to the reef edge, but that some individuals move outside of the detection range of the array for extended periods. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia: Exceptional Early Vertebrate Preservation and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John A.; Trinajstic, Kate

    2010-05-01

    The Gogo Formation of Western Australia preserves a unique Late Devonian (Frasnian) reef fauna. The exceptional three-dimensional preservation of macrofossils combined with unprecedented soft-tissue preservation (including muscle bundles, nerve cells, and umbilical structures) has yielded a particularly rich assemblage with almost 50 species of fishes described. The most significant discoveries have contributed to resolving placoderm phylogeny and elucidating their reproductive physiology. Specifically, these discoveries have produced data on the oldest known vertebrate embryos; the anatomy of the primitive actinopterygian neurocranium and phylogeny of the earliest actinopterygians; the histology, radiation, and plasticity of dipnoan (lungfish) dental and cranial structures; the anatomy and functional morphology of the extinct onychodonts; and the anatomy of the primitive tetrapodomorph head and pectoral fin.

  4. Recovery of marine Conus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) from imposex at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, over a quarter of a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Fred E; Keesing, John K; Brearley, Anne

    2017-10-15

    Imposex is a reproductive abnormality in which female snails begin to transform to males, but do not become functional. It was caused by tributyltin (TBT) used as an antifoulant in boat paints. Imposex was first recorded marine snails (Conus) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in January 1991, where 88% of individuals at the west end were affected. Most were at moderate Stages 3 and 4 on a scale of 0 (no affect) to 6 (death). TBT was banned on boats imposex had declined to 69% of females with Stages 3 and 4 still the most common. By 2007 only 35% of females exhibited imposex; Stage 3 was the highest level recorded. TBT was below detection limits. TBT was banned on vessels >25m in September 2013. In February 2017 only 4% of Conus had imposex, at Stage 1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Ethics of Traditional Chinese and Western Herbal Medicine Research: Views of Researchers and Human Ethics Committees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western herbal medicine (WHM research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management.

  7. On the Bennelongia nimala and B. triangulata lineages (Crustacea, Ostracoda in Western Australia, with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Martens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ostracod genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 occurs in Australia and New Zealand. We redescribe B. nimala from the Northern Territory and describe six new species from Western Australia belonging to the B. nimala (five species and B. triangulata sp. nov. (one species lineages: B. tirigie sp. nov., B. koendersae sp. nov., B. pinderi sp. nov., B. muggon sp. nov., B. shieli sp. nov. and B. triangulata sp. nov. For six of these seven species, we could construct molecular phylogenies and parsimonious networks based on COI sequences. We tested for specific status and for potential cryptic diversity of clades with Birky’s 4 theta rule. The analyses support the existence of these six species and the absence of cryptic species in these lineages. Bennelongia triangulata sp. nov. is a common species in the turbid claypans of the Murchison/ Gascoyne region. Bennelongia nimala itself is thus far known only from the Northern Territory. Bennelongia tirigie sp. nov., B. pinderi sp. nov. and B. muggon sp. nov. occur in the Murchison/ Gascoyne region, whereas B. koendersae sp. nov. and B. shieli sp. nov. are described from the Pilbara. With the six new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 31 nominal species.

  8. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

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    R. Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates by between 33 and 49 percent relative to that under the historical period climate. Relative to the historical climate, reductions of up to 50 percent in groundwater discharge to the ocean and drainage systems are also expected. Sea-water intrusion is likely in the Peel-Harvey Area under the dry future climate and net leakage to confined systems is projected to decrease by up to 35 percent which will cause reduction in pressures in confined systems under current abstraction. The percentage of net annual recharge consumed by groundwater storage, and ocean and drainage discharges is expected to decrease and percentage of net annual recharge consumed by pumping and net leakage to confined systems to increase under median and dry future climates. Climate change is likely to significantly impact various water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems of south-western Australia. We assess the quantitative climate change impact on the different components (the amounts using the most widely used GCMs in combination with dynamically linked recharge and physically distributed groundwater models.

  9. Application of the Re-Os isotopic system to the study of Precambrian magmatic sulfide deposits of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.D.; Frick, L.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). VIEPS Department of Earth Sciences; Foster, J.G. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). VIEPS Department of Earth Sciences]|[Western Mining Corporation Limited, Kambalda, WA (Australia); Hoatson, D.M. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Purvis, A.C. [I.R. Pontifex and Associates, Norwood, SA (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks that host magmatic Fe-Ni-Cu-platinum-group element (PGE) sulfide deposits are an important feature of the Archaean Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons of Western Australia. In order to constrain better the genesis of these magmatic ore systems the Re-Os isotopic geochronometer and tracer was applied to four komatiite-hosted Ni sulfide deposits, one Merensky Reef-style Cu-Ni-PGE disseminated sulfide accumulation in a mafic layered intrusion, and a Cu-Ni sulfide-rich siliceous high-MgO basalt dyke swarm . Significant post-crystallisation Re and/or Os mobility is observed in some of the isotopic data. This open-system behaviour and disturbance of the Re-Os system is attributed to hydrothermal alteration, sulfide recrystallization during deformation and metamorphism, and/or metasomatism associated with mesothermal lode-gold mineralisation. However, less tectonised and metamorphosed ores and a host komatiite lava from Kambalda as well as olivine-sulfide cumulates from Perseverance and Mt Keith yield a magmatic Re-Os isochron age of 2706 + 36 Ma, in good agreement with U-Pb zircon ages of 2709-2702 Ma for metasediments from Kambalda, demonstrating that the Re-Os isotopic systematics in these samples have remained closed for 2.7 Ga. This isochron can also be used as a tracer of the magmatic processes that brought the host komatiites to sulfide saturation. These Os isotopic data in combination with trace element and Nd isotopic data demonstrate that the major ore-forming komatiites in Western Australia were derived from chemically depleted mantle without significant contamination (< 3%) by crust either prior to eruption or during turbulent flow at the surface. Details of sample preparation and analytical methods are given in the appendix 120 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Western environment/lifestyle is associated with increased genome methylation and decreased gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Wang, Kui; Schultz, Ennee; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Annamalay, Alicia; Laing, Ingrid A; Hales, Belinda J; Goldblatt, Jack; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Several human diseases and conditions are disproportionally distributed in the world with a significant "Western-developed" vs. "Eastern-developing" gradient. We compared genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 25 newly arrived Chinese immigrants living in a Western environment for less than 6 months ("Newly arrived") with 23 Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for more than two years ("Long-term") with a mean of 8.7 years, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a sub-group of both subject groups (n = 12 each) we also investigated genome-wide gene expression using a Human HT-12 v4 expression beadChip. There were 62.5% probes among the total number of 382,250 valid CpG sites with greater mean Beta (β) in "Long-term" than in "Newly arrived". In the regions of CpG islands and gene promoters, compared with the CpG sites in all other regions, lower percentages of CpG sites with mean methylation levels in "Long-term" greater than "Newly arrived" were observed, but still >50%. The increase of methylation was associated with a general decrease of gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for a longer period of time. After adjusting for age, gender and other confounding factors the findings remained. Chinese immigrants living in Australia for a longer period of time have increased overall genome methylation and decreased overall gene expression compared with newly arrived immigrants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

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    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  12. The Politics of Gaming in Schools: A Sociocultural Perspective from Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses gaming in a Western Australian school for boys. The overriding ethos of the school is supportive of the potential of ICT to better engage students and deliver enhanced educational outcomes. The school sees game-based design as at the vanguard of innovation, but also accepts its important duty of care responsibilities. Tensions…

  13. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass and Carbon Stocks in the Temperate Forests of North-Western Mexico

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    Benedicto Vargas-Larreta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new equations for estimating above-ground biomass (AGB and biomass components of seventeen forest species in the temperate forests of northwestern Mexico. A data set corresponding to 1336 destructively sampled oak and pine trees was used to fit the models. The generalized method of moments was used to simultaneously fit systems of equations for biomass components and AGB, to ensure additivity. In addition, the carbon content of each tree component was calculated by the dry combustion method, in a TOC analyser. The results of cross-validation indicated that the fitted equations accounted for on average 91%, 82%, 83% and 76% of the observed variance in stem wood and stem bark, branch and foliage biomass, respectively, whereas the total AGB equations explained on average 93% of the total observed variance in AGB. The inclusion of total height (h or diameter at breast height2 × total height (d2h as a predictor in the d-only based equations systems slightly improved estimates for stem wood, stem bark and total above-ground biomass, and greatly improved the estimates produced by the branch and foliage biomass equations. The predictive power of the proposed equations is higher than that of existing models for the study area. The fitted equations were used to estimate stand level AGB stocks from data on growing stock in 429 permanent sampling plots. Three machine-learning techniques were used to model the estimated stand level AGB and carbon contents; the selected models were used to map the AGB and carbon distributions in the study area, for which mean values of respectively 129.84 Mg ha−1 and 63.80 Mg ha−1 were obtained.

  14. Metamorphic grade and gradient from white K-mica bearing sedimentary rocks in the Mosquito Creek Basin, east Pilbara Craton, western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kisch, H.J.; Nijman, W.

    2010-01-01

    Shales and phyllites from the turbidite sequences of the 2.9 Ga Mosquito Creek Formation of the East Pilbara, Western Australia contain varying amounts of paragonite and mixed Na–K micas (MNKMs), the 0 0 l X-ray diffraction reflections of which are unresolved from the 10-Å reflections, and only

  15. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  16. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  17. What We Know, What We Do and What We Could Do: Creating an Understanding of the Delivery of Health Education in Lower Secondary Government Schools in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Donna M.; Cunningham, Christine; Penney, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the delivery of health education (HE) as a subject in lower secondary government schools in Western Australia (WA). It explores timetabling and staffing associated with HE and the issues arising from resourcing arrangements. This paper stems from of a study that investigated the prioritising of HE, which at that time, was…

  18. Invasive potential of a South-American fish species, Geophagus brasiliensis, in the Swan River, Western Australia: based tolerance to instantaneous and gradual changes in salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Coutts, T.

    2010-01-01

    The south-west of Western Australia is a biodiversity hotspot and has a high proportion of endemic freshwater fishes. None of the native fish species are primary piscivores and with the exception of the freshwater cobbler (Tandanus bostocki) all species are small (

  19. Gender, color, and the domestic sphere in Western Australia 1890-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Priya

    2002-06-01

    When Australia was first colonized by immigrants from Britain in May 1829 they brought with them the social and cultural conditioning that was their heritage in the Northern Hemisphere. This included entrenched attitudes about what was deemed to be appropriate behavior, which depended on age, class, wealth, martial status and gender. In post Industrial Revolution England there was an inherent conflict between the capitalist industrialized world of manufacture, and the domestic realm, which was perceived to be a moral and spiritual refuge from work. A solution to this dichotomy was to separate the two, with the industrialized world seen as the male domain and the domestic sphere seen as the female realm. Within the walls of the home, though, spaces were also allocated a gender depending on their function, and this was reinforced through the use of applied color to the domestic interior.

  20. A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owles, E N

    1975-07-26

    Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended.

  1. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  2. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Chandra; Heidi Lord; Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey; Kate Alexander; Nilva Egana; Stephen Conaty

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Ad...

  3. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

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    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  4. Knowledge that Acts: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Knowledge Brokering Intervention in Western Australia's Ningaloo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kelly; Boschetti, Fabio; Fulton, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Pierre; Jones, Tod; Scherrer, Pascal; Syme, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge exchange involves a suite of strategies used to bridge the divides between research, policy and practice. The literature is increasingly focused on the notion that knowledge generated by research is more useful when there is significant interaction and knowledge sharing between researchers and research recipients (i.e., stakeholders). This is exemplified by increasing calls for the use of knowledge brokers to facilitate interaction and flow of information between scientists and stakeholder groups, and the integration of scientific and local knowledge. However, most of the environmental management literature focuses on explicit forms of knowledge, leaving unmeasured the tacit relational and reflective forms of knowledge that lead people to change their behaviour. In addition, despite the high transaction costs of knowledge brokering and related stakeholder engagement, there is little research on its effectiveness. We apply Park's Manag Learn 30(2), 141-157 (1999); Knowledge and Participatory Research, London: SAGE Publications (2006) tri-partite knowledge typology as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of knowledge brokering in the context of a large multi-agency research programme in Australia's Ningaloo coastal region, and for testing the assumption that higher levels of interaction between scientists and stakeholders lead to improved knowledge exchange. While the knowledge brokering intervention substantively increased relational networks between scientists and stakeholders, it did not generate anticipated increases in stakeholder knowledge or research application, indicating that more prolonged stakeholder engagement was required, and/or that there was a flaw in the assumptions underpinning our conceptual framework.

  5. On the Bennelongia barangaroo lineage (Crustacea, Ostracoda in Western Australia, with the description of seven new species

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    Koen Martens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ostracod genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 is endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Extensive sampling in Western Australia (WA revealed a high specific and largely undescribed diversity. Here, we describe seven new species belonging to the B. barangaroo lineage: B. timmsi sp. nov., B. gnamma sp. nov., B. hirsuta sp. nov., B. ivanae sp. nov., B. mcraeae sp. nov., B. scanloni sp. nov. and B. calei sp. nov., and confirm the presence of an additional species, B. dedeckkeri, in WA. For five of these eight species, we could construct molecular phylogenies and parsimonious networks based on COI sequences. We also tested for cryptic diversity and specific status of clusters with a statistical method based on the evolutionary genetic species concept, namely Birky’s 4 theta rule. The analyses support the existence of these five species and a further three cryptic species in the WA B. barangaroo lineage. The molecular evidence was particularly relevant because most species described herein have very similar morphologies and can be distinguished from each other only by the shape, size and position of the antero-ventral lapel on the right valve, and, in sexual populations, by the small differences in shape of the hemipenes and the prehensile palps in males. Four species of the WA B. barangaroo lineage occur in small temporary rock pools (gnammas on rocky outcrops. The other four species are mainly found in soft bottomed seasonal water bodies. One of the latter species, B. scanloni sp. nov., occurs in both claypans and deeper rock pools (pit gnammas. All species, except for B. dedeckkeri, originally described from Queensland, have quite clearly delimited distributions in WA. With the seven new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 25 nominal species but several more await formal description.

  6. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

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    N.F. Foster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has changed over time and between countries. It is therefore essential to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk of infection and the circulating strains to recognize local and global trends, and improve patient management. From December 2011 to May 2012 we conducted a prospective, observational epidemiological study of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI at two tertiary teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia to determine CDI incidence and risk factors in an Australian setting. The incidence of CDI varied from 5.2 to 8.1 cases/10 000 occupied bed days (OBDs at one hospital and from 3.9 to 16.3/10 000 OBDs at the second hospital. In total, 80 patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI met eligibility criteria and consented to be in the study. More than half (53.8% had hospital-onset disease, 28.8% had community-onset and healthcare facility-associated disease and 7.5% were community-associated infections according to the definitions used. Severe CDI was observed in 40.0% of these cases but the 30-day mortality rate for all cases was only 2.5%. Besides a shorter length of stay among cases of community-onset CDI, no characteristics were identified that were significantly associated with community-onset or severe CDI. From 70 isolates, 34 different ribotypes were identified. The predominant ribotypes were 014 (24.3%, 020 (5.7%, 056 (5.7% and 070 (5.7%. Whereas this study suggests that the characteristics of CDI cases in Australia are not markedly different from those in other developed countries, the increase in CDI rate observed emphasizes the importance of surveillance.

  7. Stakeholder perceptions of a comprehensive school food policy in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated stakeholder perceptions of the Healthy Food and Drink Policy that was recently implemented in Western Australian public schools. A two-phase approach involving more than 1800 study participants assessed stakeholders' perceptions of the effects of the policy. Participating stakeholders included parents, principals, teachers, canteen managers, and Parents & Citizens Committee presidents. Despite numerous complaints being lodged when the policy was first introduced, the results suggest strong support across all stakeholder groups. A substantial majority of all stakeholder groups agreed that the policy has improved the healthiness of foods provided in schools and that the policy constitutes an important opportunity to educate children about healthy eating. The study outcomes indicate that policy makers should rely on representative data to assess stakeholder reactions to and support for new school food policies rather than giving undue credence to 'squeaky wheels'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

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    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  9. Childhood hospitalisation for otitis media in Western Australia: A 10-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hospitalisation for otitis media across the different risk indicators for Western Australian children (less than 15 years old over a 10-year period. Method This retrospective population-based study used the deidentified detailed data of children under the age of 15 years, hospitalised for otitis media (OM, as determined by principal diagnosis (ICD-10AM and obtained from the Western Australian (WA Hospital Morbidity Dataset for 10 financial years from 1999–2000 to 2008–2009. Various risk indicators, including age, gender, Indigenous status, insurance status, hospital area, hospital type, and length of stay were also analysed. Results Out of 26,294 cases of in-hospital care, Indigenous children comprised 4.7 per cent (n=1,226, while the non-Indigenous children comprised 95.3 per cent (n=25,068. The majority of the children, nearly 98.8 per cent, were admitted for chronic OM. The children were grouped into three age groups, namely, 0–4 years, 5–9 years, and 10–14 years. Nearly two-thirds of all cases were in the 0–4-year age group. Significantly more non-Indigenous (51 per cent than Indigenous children (2 per cent had private health insurance. The hospitalisation rates were directly proportional between the number of Indigenous children living in the area and the increasing remoteness of the area along with greater socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 24 per cent more cases from very remote areas compared to highly accessible areas, and there were 60 per cent more cases from the most disadvantaged socioeconomic category, compared with the least disadvantaged category, for Indigenous children. Conclusion These data depict the variations in prevalence of otitis media hospitalisations within the community, as affected by various risk indicators.

  10. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  11. Soil water repellency as a vegetation-driven strategy for soil moisture sequestration in Banksia woodlands (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Water repellency is a property of some soils that inhibits or delays the rainwater infiltration. When a surface or subsurface soil horizon is water repellent, water is retained for periods of time that vary according to the severity of hydrophobicity, soil moisture and other parameters. Water repellency is caused by hydrophobic organic substances released by plant residues, roots or soil microorganisms. Certain abiotic agents, like fire, can increase the severity of soil water repellency in certain cases. Under water-repellent conditions, water can infiltrate only when the pressure of the water column is high enough or when macropores allow it. These macropores may be formed by galleries excavated by animals, dead roots or gaps between aggregate or rock fragments. Banksia plants have a dimorphic root morphology. Proteoid roots are formed by clusters of densely compacted short lateral rootlets that radiate from the parent root. These clusters spread just some centimeters below the soil surface constituting a thick dense sheet of roots and are known to secrete large amounts of organic acids and phenolics to increase the uptake of P and other minerals. In contrast, the parent root penetrates soil deeply, reaching the water table. Sandy soils below banksia woodlands from Western Australia coastal dunes show a characteristic vertical distribution of water repellency. We observed that the first soil layer (just some millimeters of depth) was formed by a wettable sand particles transported by wind, covering a wettable or subcritically water-repellent subsurface layer (0-20 cm). A second soil layer (20-40 cm) was formed by a severely water-repellent layer with aggregates bulked by dominant banksia proteoid roots. Below this layer, soil water repellency decreased with depth until soil material rendered wettable at depths between 40 and 80 cm under field conditions. It is hypothesized that banksia roots are capable of inducing soil water repellency, causing the occurrence of

  12. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  13. Seasonal and Interannual Variations of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia from TOPEX/Poseidon Satellite Altimetry

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    Xiaoli Deng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leeuwin Current (LC is an eastern boundary current flowing strongly southwards along the Western Australian coastline. The current varies seasonally, with weaker southwards flow occurring during the austral summer (November to March, when southerly winds are strongest. Nearly 9.5 years of TOPEX/Poseidon-derived sea-surface heights, in conjunction with the AUSGeoid98 gravimetric geoid model, have been used to investigate the temporal characteristics of the LC over the area bounded by 20 to 45°S and 108 to 130°E. The ocean dynamic height associated with the LC is used to compute the geostrophic parameters of volume transport, axis velocity, height jump, width, and axis locations of the current. These parameter estimates are then used to analyse the seasonal and interannual variability of the LC, as well as effects related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Our results show that the LC is highly variable in terms of seasonal volume transport and is closely linked to ENSO events at interannual time-scales. Seasonally, when assuming an averaged isobath of 80 m, the LC has maximum volume transport of up to -7.2 Sv (106 m3 s-1, a negative sign means southwards transport in April - June and -8.4 Sv in May - August in regions west and south of Western Australia, respectively. Inter-annually, the LC has higher volume transports than the average transport during 1993 - 2003 in most La Niña years, and the opposite in most El Niño years, which is linked to inter-basin exchange between the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

  14. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  15. The Effect of the Leeuwin Current on Offshore Surface Gravity Waves in Southwest Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandres, Moritz; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Cosoli, Simone; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of regional wave regimes is critical for coastal zone planning, protection, and management. In this study, the influence of the offshore current regime on surface gravity waves on the southwest Western Australian (SWWA) continental shelf was examined. This was achieved by coupling the three dimensional, free surface, terrain-following hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) and the third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-WaveSediment Transport (COAWST) model. Different representative states of the Leeuwin Current (LC), a strong pole-ward flowing boundary current with a persistent eddy field along the SWWA shelf edge were simulated and used to investigate their influence on different large wave events. The coupled wave-current simulations were compared to wave only simulations, which represented scenarios in the absence of a background current field. Results showed that the LC and the eddy field significantly impact SWWA waves. Significant wave heights increased (decreased) when currents were opposing (aligning with) the incoming wave directions. During a fully developed LC system significant wave heights were altered by up to ±25% and wave directions by up to ±20°. The change in wave direction indicates that the LC may modify nearshore wave dynamics and consequently alter sediment patterns. Operational regional wave forecasts and hindcasts may give flawed predictions if wave-current interaction is not properly accounted for.

  16. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3–16–9-11–523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak. PMID:28736650

  17. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meena; Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  18. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results: A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14 consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion: An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  19. The eco-epidemiology of Triatoma infestans in the temperate Monte Desert ecoregion of mid-western Argentina

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    Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The eco-epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the Monte Desert ecoregion of western Argentina is largely unknown. We investigated the environmental and socio-demographic determinants of house infestation with Triatoma infestans, bug abundance, vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and host-feeding sources in a well-defined rural area of Lavalle Department in the Mendoza province. METHODS Technical personnel inspected 198 houses for evidence of infestation with T. infestans, and the 76 houses included in the current study were re-inspected. In parallel with the vector survey, an environmental and socio-demographic survey was also conducted. Univariate risk factor analysis for domiciliary infestation was carried out using Firth penalised logistic regression. We fitted generalised linear models for house infestation and bug abundance. Blood meals were tested with a direct ELISA assay, and T. cruzi infection was determined using a hot-start polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the kinetoplast minicircle (kDNA-PCR. FINDINGS The households studied included an aged population living in precarious houses whose main economic activities included goat husbandry. T. infestans was found in 21.2% of 198 houses and in 55.3% of the 76 re-inspected houses. Peridomestic habitats exhibited higher infestation rates and bug abundances than did domiciles, and goat corrals showed high levels of infestation. The main host-feeding sources were goats. Vector infection was present in 10.2% of domiciles and 3.2% of peridomiciles. Generalised linear models showed that peridomestic infestation was positively and significantly associated with the presence of mud walls and the abundance of chickens and goats, and bug abundance increased with the number of all hosts except rabbits. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We highlight the relative importance of specific peridomestic structures (i.e., goat corrals and chicken coops associated with construction materials and host

  20. The eco-epidemiology of Triatoma infestans in the temperate Monte Desert ecoregion of mid-western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Provecho, Yael Mariana; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Cardinal, Marta Victoria; Lencina, Patricia; Spillmann, Cynthia; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2017-10-01

    The eco-epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the Monte Desert ecoregion of western Argentina is largely unknown. We investigated the environmental and socio-demographic determinants of house infestation with Triatoma infestans, bug abundance, vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and host-feeding sources in a well-defined rural area of Lavalle Department in the Mendoza province. Technical personnel inspected 198 houses for evidence of infestation with T. infestans, and the 76 houses included in the current study were re-inspected. In parallel with the vector survey, an environmental and socio-demographic survey was also conducted. Univariate risk factor analysis for domiciliary infestation was carried out using Firth penalised logistic regression. We fitted generalised linear models for house infestation and bug abundance. Blood meals were tested with a direct ELISA assay, and T. cruzi infection was determined using a hot-start polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the kinetoplast minicircle (kDNA-PCR). The households studied included an aged population living in precarious houses whose main economic activities included goat husbandry. T. infestans was found in 21.2% of 198 houses and in 55.3% of the 76 re-inspected houses. Peridomestic habitats exhibited higher infestation rates and bug abundances than did domiciles, and goat corrals showed high levels of infestation. The main host-feeding sources were goats. Vector infection was present in 10.2% of domiciles and 3.2% of peridomiciles. Generalised linear models showed that peridomestic infestation was positively and significantly associated with the presence of mud walls and the abundance of chickens and goats, and bug abundance increased with the number of all hosts except rabbits. We highlight the relative importance of specific peridomestic structures (i.e., goat corrals and chicken coops) associated with construction materials and host abundance as sources of persistent bug infestation driving

  1. Advanced life support (ALS) instructors experience of ALS education in Western Australia: a qualitative exploratory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, John; McConigley, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    When cardiac arrest occurs, timely competent advanced life support (ALS) interventions by nursing staff can influence patient outcomes. Ongoing ALS education influences maintenance of competency and avoids skill decay. To explore the methods of ALS education delivery for nurses in the workplace; describe the issues relating to maintaining ALS competency; explore ALS competency decay for nurses and develop recommendations for the provision of continuing ALS education. A qualitative exploratory design was used to study ALS education provision in the workplace. Data were collected from ALS nurse experts in Western Australia by face-to-face and phone interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and organised around a set of predetermined questions. Two major themes were identified; the first theme Demand and Supply describes the increasing demand for ALS education for nurses and the challenges with providing timely cost effective traditional face-to-face ALS education. The second theme, Choosing The Best Education Options describes new ways to provide ALS education using emerging technologies. The study suggested that using e-learning methods would assist with educating the maximum amount of nurses in a timely manner and e-learning and teleconferencing offer opportunities to reach nurses in distant locations. Delivering ALS education more frequently than annually would increase skills maintenance and lessen skill decay. Further research is required to explore which blended e-learning model is best suited to ALS education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.; Gessner, K.; Spaggiari, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    Group and phase velocity maps in the period range 2-20 s for the Proterozoic east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, are extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded with the 70-station ALFREX array. This 2 yr temporary installation provided detailed coverage across the orogen and the edge of the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton, a region where no passive seismic studies of this scale have occurred to date. The surface wave velocities are rather high overall (>3 km s-1 nearly everywhere), as expected for exposed Proterozoic basement rocks. No clear signature of the transition between Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen is observed, but several strong anomalies corresponding to more local geological features were obtained. A prominent, NE-elongated high-velocity anomaly in the northern part of the array is coincident with a Bouguer gravity high caused by the upper crustal metamorphic rocks of the Fraser Zone. This feature disappears towards longer periods, which hints at an exclusively upper crustal origin for this anomaly. Further east, the limestones of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin are clearly imaged as a pronounced low-velocity zone at short periods, but the prevalence of low velocities to periods of ≥5 s implies that the uppermost basement in this area is likewise slow. At longer periods, slightly above-average surface wave velocities are imaged below the Eucla Basin.

  3. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this study emphasizes how diverse the microbial community in Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal environment was. We propose the diversity is at least partially due to the availability of various energy sources in this depositional environment including reducing chemicals and sunlight. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  5. Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

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    R L Sanzogni

    Full Text Available In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.

  6. Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzogni, R L; Meekan, M G; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.

  7. An exploration of nursing research perceptions of registered nurses engaging in research activities at a metropolitan hospital in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gemma; Duggan, Ravani; Boldy, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    To explore perceptions about nursing research of registered nurses (RNs) who were engaged in research activities at a metropolitan hospital in Western Australia. In order to improve RNs' research engagement and promote evidence-based practice, Nurse Research Consultants (NRCs) were appointed jointly by the study hospital and a local university. This joint appointment commenced in 2004 in the hospital's emergency department. Early findings indicated that the NRC role was effective in assisting registered nurses with research activities and hence the NRC role was expanded to all areas of the hospital. However, no formal investigation had been carried out to explore the effect of the NRC role on RNs' engagement with nursing research across the hospital. A qualitative interview process. Ten RN participants from the adult and paediatric wards were interviewed. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Four main themes were identified, namely: perceptions of nursing research, perceived enablers, perceived barriers and improving research engagement. There was some overlap with some sub-themes being linked with more than one theme. This appeared to be due to differing levels of research education and research engagement. 6pc some of the RNs that participated in this study were experienced in the conduct of research, finding adequate support from NRCs in the workplace, whilst others experienced barriers limiting their involvement in nursing research activities. These barriers could be reduced with additional education, support, improved communication, time and opportunities to undertake research activities.

  8. Physiotherapy students' sources of stress, perceived course difficulty, and paid employment: comparison between Western Australia and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B; Jones, S; Mandy, A; Gupta, R

    2006-12-01

    Physiotherapy education is changing, and educators are increasingly concerned about the levels of stress observed in students. Considerable research has investigated stressors in medical and nursing students; however, studies of physiotherapy students were conducted more than a decade ago. This study examined the sources of stress, perceived course difficulty, and hours of paid employment in undergraduate physiotherapy students in Western Australia (WA) and the United Kingdom (UK). The Undergraduate Sources of Stress questionnaire was administered to students in all years of Bachelor of Science (Physiotherapy) programs (n = 249 WA; n = 161 UK) and a Master of Physiotherapy (graduate entry) program (n = 24 WA) with an overall response rate of 70%. Academic concerns were rated highest for all students, particularly the amount to learn, time demands of the course, and conflict with other activities. The course was perceived to be more difficult than expected by 71% of students. Although the mean (SD) hours per week worked in paid employment by WA and UK students is 12.52 (13.90) and 7.16 (4.02), respectively, there was no correlation between any stress subscale and number of hours worked. Reducing the amount of content and revision of the outcomes of physiotherapy curricula could potentially reduce academic stress.

  9. Assessment of Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations in Lactating Women in Western Australia

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    Anita Jorgensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast-fed infants may depend solely on an adequate supply of iodine in breast milk for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are essential for optimal growth and cognitive development. This is the first study to measure breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC among lactating women in Western Australian (n = 55. Breast milk samples were collected between 2014 and 2015 at a mean (±SD of 38.5 (±5.5 days post-partum. The samples were analysed to determine median BMIC and the percentage of samples with a BMIC < 100 µg/L, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants. The influence of (a iodine-containing supplements and iodised salt use and (b consumption of key iodine-containing foods on BMIC was also examined. The median (p25, p75 BMIC was 167 (99, 248 µg/L and 26% of samples had a BMIC < 100 µg/L. Overall, BMIC tended to be higher with iodine-containing supplement usage (ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI (1.04, 1.70, p = 0.030, cow’s milk consumption (ratio 1.66, 95% CI (1.23, 2.23, p = 0.002 and lower for Caucasians (ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.45, 0.83, p = 0.002, and those with secondary school only education (ratio 0.66, 95% CI (0.46, 0.96, p = 0.030. For most women, BMIC was adequate to meet the iodine requirements of their breast-fed infants. However, some women may require the use of iodine-containing supplements or iodised salt to increase BMIC to adequate levels for optimal infant nutrition.

  10. Expansion of corals on temperate reefs: direct and indirect effects of marine heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, C. A.; de Bettignies, T.; Fromont, J.; Wernberg, T.

    2017-09-01

    Globally, many temperate marine communities have experienced significant temperature increases over recent decades in the form of gradual warming and heatwaves. As a result, these communities are shifting towards increasingly subtropical and tropical species compositions. Expanding coral populations have been reported from several temperate reef ecosystems along warming coastlines; these changes have been attributed to direct effects of gradual warming over decades. In contrast, increases in coral populations following shorter-term extreme warming events have rarely been documented. In this study, we compared coral populations on 17 temperate reefs in Western Australia before (2005/06) and after (2013) multiple marine heatwaves (2010-2012) affected the entire coastline. We hypothesised that coral communities would expand and change as a consequence of increasing local populations and recruitment of warm-affinity species. We found differences in coral community structure over time, driven primarily by a fourfold increase of one local species, Plesiastrea versipora, rather than recruitment of warm-affinity species. Coral populations became strongly dominated by small size classes, indicative of recent increased recruitment or recruit survival. These changes were likely facilitated by competitive release of corals from dominant temperate seaweeds, which perished during the heatwaves, rather than driven by direct temperature effects. Overall, as corals are inherently warm-water taxa not commonly associated with seaweed-dominated temperate reefs, these findings are consistent with a net tropicalisation. Our study draws attention to processes other than gradual warming that also influence the trajectory of temperate reefs in a changing ocean.

  11. Collection of population-based cancer staging information in Western Australia – a feasibility study

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    Katris Paul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine data from cancer registries often lack information on stage of cancer, limiting their use. This study aimed to determine whether or not it is feasible to add cancer staging data to the routine data collections of a population-based Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR. Methods For each of the five most common cancer types (prostate, colorectal, melanoma, breast and lung cancers, 60 cases were selected for staging. For the 15 next most common cancer types, 20 cases were selected. Four sources for collecting staging data were used in the following order: the WACR, the hospital based cancer registries (HBCRs, hospital medical records, and letters to treating doctors. If the case was unable to be fully staged, due to lack of information on regional lymph node invasion or distant metastases, we made the following assumptions. Cases which had data available for tumour (T and regional lymph nodes (N, but no assessment of distant metastasis (MX were assumed to have no distant metastases (M0. Cases which had data for T and M, but no assessment of regional nodal involvement (NX were assumed to have no regional nodal involvement (N0. Results The main focus of this project was the process of collecting staging data, and not the outcomes. For ovary, cervix and uterus cancers the existence of a HBCR increased the stageable proportion of cases so that staging data for these cancers could be incorporated into the WACR immediately. Breast and colorectal cancer could also be staged with adequate completeness if it were assumed that MX = M0. Similarly, melanoma and prostate cancer could be staged adequately if it were assumed that NX = N0 and MX = M0. Some cases of stomach, lung, pancreas, thyroid, testis and kidney cancers could be staged, but additional clinical input – on pathology request forms, for example – would be required to achieve useable levels of completeness. For the remaining cancer types either staging is widely

  12. Description of Cloacina atthis sp. nov. from the stomach of the euro (Macropus robustus) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Western Australia based on morphological and molecular criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Ian; Nguyen, Hanh; Nyein, Simon; Cheng, Chung; Koehler, Anson; Shuttleworth, Mary E; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-09-01

    A new species of strongyloid nematode from the genus Cloacina (Chabertiidae: Cloacininae) is described from the stomach of the hill kangaroo or euro (Macropus robustus) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Western Australia. Cloacina atthis sp. nov. was found only in euros from the Pilbara region in the northwest of Western Australia, in spite of extensive collecting of the same host species from around the Australian continent. C. atthis is most closely related to Cloacina clymene, a species found in the same host species but only in the eastern half of the continent; the two species differ in minor morphological features (the shape of the wall of the buccal capsule, spicule lengths, the degree of sclerotisation of the gubernaculum and the shape of the vagina) as well as in differences in the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA. This study highlights the importance of using molecular methods when investigating the apparently disjunct distributions of strongyloid nematodes.

  13. Temporal changes in Quaternary paleoenvironment and ostracode fauna in the eastern Indian Sea off Western Australia (IODP, Exp. 356, site U1461)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Angue Minto'O, C. M.; Bassetti, M. A.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 356 drilled on seven sites off Western Australia to reveal the history of the Indonesian throughflow, the effects of the Australian monsoon, and the subsidence of the northwest shelf of Australia. To achieve these objectives, we investigated paleoenvironmental evolutions in this region during the Quaternary period using high-resolution statistical analyses of the fossil Ostracoda (Crustacea) as an effective environmental indicator. For the investigation, we used a sediment core obtained from an area off Western Australia in the eastern Indian Sea (site: U1461; water depth: 128 m; latitude: 20°, 12.85' S; longitude: 115°, 03.94' E). The upper part of the core mainly comprises alternating beds of darker-colored packstone/wackestone and light-colored wackestone/mudstone. The light-colored wackestone/mudstone beds often contain fecal pellets and well-preserved molluscan fossils. We investigated fossil ostracode faunal composition and species diversity changes during the deposition of the study site. Many well-preserved ostracodes were recorded in the studied cores. Many of collected species are extant taxa that inhabit the upper sublittoral regions as reported from around the recent Indian Ocean off northwestern Australia. Ostracode assemblages, abundance, and diversity drastically changed during the deposition, and they are concordant with sedimentary facies. Here we will discuss the relationships between these paleo-communities changes and paleoenvironmental conditions.

  14. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  15. Molecular and morphological assessment of Delma australis Kluge (Squamata: Pygopodidae), with a description of a new species from the biodiversity 'hotspot' of southwestern Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryan, Brad; Brennan, Ian G; Adams, Mark; Aplin, Ken P

    2015-04-10

    The Australian pygopodid lizard genus Delma is characterised by morphologically conservative but genetically divergent lineages and species. An initial assessment of molecular and morphological variation in Delma australis Kluge, 1974 throughout its main distribution in Western and South Australia reveals at least two undescribed species that are presently included under this epithet. Here we describe the most distinctive and easily diagnosed taxon of these, D. hebesa sp. nov., from the proteaceous scrub and mallee heath on the south coast sandplains of southwestern Western Australia. We also foreshadow the need for an expanded genetic framework to assist in unequivocally diagnosing additional candidate species in D. australis, which is redescribed herein and shown to be monophyletic for those specimens sampled, albeit displaying geographic variation in a range of molecular and morphological characters. Delma hebesa sp. nov. differs from all other described Delma species, including regional populations of D. australis, by a combination of molecular genetic markers, colouration and scalation. Based on phylogenetic affinities and shared morphologies, a D. australis species-group is proposed to accommodate D. australis, D. torquata and the new species described herein. The addition of another new vertebrate species from southwestern Western Australia, recognised globally as a biodiversity 'hotspot', underlines our lack of understanding of genetic diversity and evolutionary histories in this biodiverse region.

  16. Australian Assassins, Part II: A review of the new assassin spider genus Zephyrarchaea (Araneae, Archaeidae) from southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae from southern Australia are revised, with a new genus (Zephyrarchaeagen. n.) and nine new species described from temperate, mesic habitats in southern Victoria, South Australia and south-western Western Australia: Zephyrarchaea austinisp. n., Zephyrarchaea barrettaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea grayisp. n., Zephyrarchaea janineaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea maraesp. n., Zephyrarchaea markisp. n., Zephyrarchaea melindaesp. n., Zephyrarchaea porchisp. n. and Zephyrarchaea vichickmanisp. n. Specimens of the type species, Zephyrarchaea mainae (Platnick, 1991), comb. n., are redescribed from the Albany region of Western Australia, along with the holotype female of Zephyrarchaea robinsi (Harvey, 2002) comb. n. from the Stirling Range National Park. The previously described species Archaea hickmani Butler, 1929 from Victoria is here recognised as a nomen dubium. A key to species and multi-locus molecular phylogeny complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of nature-based tourism interactions with whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Douglas J.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Norman, Brad M.; Bejder, Lars; Tyne, Julian A.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-07-01

    As with other nature-based tourism ventures, whale shark tourism is expanding rapidly worldwide, which highlights the need to understand more about the nature of these activities. Records of interactions between tour operators and whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (22.5°S, 113.5°E) were obtained from the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated to determine the scale of the tourism operations and the spatial and temporal distribution of interactions. The number of whale shark tours at Ningaloo increased by approx. 70% (520-886 tours per year) and the number of interactions with whale sharks by 370% between 2006 (694) and 2010 (3254). The locations of whale shark interactions recorded in logbooks (2006-2009) and electronic monitoring systems (2009 and 2010) were used to plot the smoothed densities of tour operator interactions with whale sharks. Generalised linear models were used to investigate how the presence/absence and number of whale shark interactions at North and South Ningaloo were influenced by the distance to the reef crest, the distance to passages and their interaction terms for the aggregated five-year data set. Over the five years, distance to the reef crest was the best predictor of the presence/absence of whale shark interactions at both North (interactions concentrated within 3 km of the reef crest) and South Ningaloo (interactions within 6 km of the reef crest) followed by distance to passages. The reef passages are very significant areas for tourism interactions with whale sharks at Ningaloo. The distribution of interactions at North and South Ningaloo varied from year to year, particularly in the strong La Niña year of 2010, when average sea surface temperatures remained above 24 °C and whale sharks were observed much later in the year than previously (late August). This study demonstrates the value of the data collected by the tour operators at Ningaloo Reef and managed by a

  18. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Sunrise Dam, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y.-H.; Brugger, J.; Ciobanu, C. L.; Pring, A.; Skinner, W.; Nugus, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Sunrise Dam gold mine (11.1 Moz Au) is the largest deposit in the Archaean Laverton Greenstone Belt (Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). The deposit is characterized by multiple events of fluid flow leading to repeated alteration and mineralization next to a major crustal-scale structure. The Au content of arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from four mineralizing stages (D1, D3, D4a, and D4b) and from different structural and lithostratigraphic environments was measured using in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pyrite contains up to 3,067 ppm Au ( n = 224), whereas arsenopyrite contains up to 5,767 ppm ( n = 19). Gold in arsenopyrite (D4a stage) was coprecipitated and remained as “invisible gold” (nanoparticles and/or lattice-bound) during subsequent deformation events. In contrast, gold in pyrite is present not only as “invisible gold” but also as micrometer-size inclusions of native gold, electrum, and Au(Ag)-tellurides. Pristine D1 and D3 arsenian pyrite contains relatively low Au concentrations (≤26 ppm). The highest Au concentrations occur in D4a arsenian-rich pyrite that has recrystallized from D3 pyrite. Textures show that this recrystallization proceeded via a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, and this process may have contributed to upgrading Au grades during D4a. In contrast, Au in D4b pyrite shows grain-scale redistribution of “invisible” gold resulting in the formation of micrometer-scale inclusions of Au minerals. The speciation of Au at Sunrise Dam and the exceptional size of the deposit at province scale result from multiple fluid flow and multiple Au-precipitating mechanisms within a single plumbing system.

  20. Clues of Early Life: Dixon Island–Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Kitajima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pilbara Craton in NW Australia (Fig. 1 exposes one of the well-preserved and least -metamorphosed greenstone belts in the Archean. Greenstone belts are normally composed of a complex amalgam of meta-basaltic and meta-sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks of the greenstone belts are good targets to search for clues of early Earth's environment and life. In recent years, several scientific drilling programs (e.g.: Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP, Ohmoto et al., 2006; Deep Time Drilling Project (DTDP, Anbar et al., 2007, Kaufman et al., 2007; PDP: Pilbara Drilling Project, Philippot et al., 2007 were successfully completed in the western Pilbara area, where 3.5, 2.9, 2.7, and 2.5 Ga sedimentary units were drilled. However, there is a huge time gap in the samples drilled by ABDP and DTDP that represents middle Archean time , between 3.5 Ga and 2.9 Ga (i.e., ~600 Ma, equivalent to the duration of the entire Phanerozoic. The Cleaverville-Dixon Island area of the coastal Pilbara terrain (Fig. 1 is suited to filling in the missing record. It contains well-preserved volcanosedimentary sequences (Cleaverville Group dated at 3.2 Ga where hydrothermal vein systems, organic-rich siliceoussedimentary rocks, and iron-rich sedimentary rocks are developed (Kiyokawa et al., 2006. Such geological materials may be used to reconstruct past submarine hydrothermal activity and its influence on biological activity. Indeed, some attempts have been made to answer the key questions. However, the surface outcrops in this area are generally weathered to variable degrees; thus they are apparently notsuitable for geo-biological and geochemical studies which require unaltered original chemical/isotopic compositions from the time of their formation in the middle Archean. Consequently, we carried out the “Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP”, to obtain “fresh” samples from the sedimentary sequences in the Cleaverville—Dixon Island area.

  1. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  2. Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov., a haloarchaeon isolated from sea salt in Baja California, Mexico, Western Australia and Naxos, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Landheim, Ragnhild; Sanchez-Porro, Cristina; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio; Radax, Christian; Ihara, Kunio; White, Melisa R.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Three halophilic isolates, strains Halo-G*T, AUS-1 and Naxos II, were compared. Halo-G* was isolated from an evaporitic salt crystal from Baja California, Mexico, whereas AUS-1 and Naxos II were isolated from salt pools in Western Australia and the Greek island of Naxos, respectively. Halo-G*T had been exposed previously to conditions of outer space and survived 2 weeks on the Biopan facility. Chemotaxonomic and molecular comparisons suggested high similarity between the three strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains clustered with Halorubrum species, showing sequence similarities of 99.2–97.1 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain Halo-G*T and strains AUS-1 and Naxos II are 73 and 75 %, respectively, indicating that they constitute a single species. The DNA relatedness between strain Halo-G*T and the type strains of 13 closely related species of the genus Halorubrum ranged from 39 to 2 %, suggesting that the three isolates constitute a different genospecies. The G+C content of the DNA of the three strains was 65.5–66.5 mol%. All three strains contained C20C20 derivatives of diethers of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglyceromethylphosphate and phosphatidylglycerolsulfate, together with a sulfated glycolipid. On the basis of these results, a novel species that includes the three strains is proposed, with the name Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov. The type strain is strain Halo-G*T (=DSM 19316T =NCIMB 14426T =ATCC BAA-1602T). PMID:19567575

  3. Barriers and enablers to retention of Aboriginal Diploma of Nursing students in Western Australia: An exploratory descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Susan; Cramer, Jennifer; Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Nursing education appropriate to the learning needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students is essential to prepare them for registration as nurses. Despite incentives to encourage the recruitment and retention of such students, a disproportionate number commence but do not finish their nursing studies. To describe the barriers and enablers to the retention of Aboriginal students in a Diploma of Nursing course (Enrolled/Division 2) in Western Australia. An exploratory descriptive design was used. One metropolitan educational facility catering for Aboriginal people offering an 18-month course in a block release format. A convenience sample of 16 students aged 18+years. Newly enrolled students (n=10) participated in an investigator-developed survey to explore their motivation for entering the course. Nine of these students and a further seven students who were nearing the end of their course participated in focus groups to explore their experiences of nursing education. Survey respondents had a mean age of 32.7years; most were female, had nominated family as influential in the decision to enroll, and commenced with a friend. Regarding recruitment and retention, the qualitative data highlighted the importance of students': perceptions of the training organisation, characteristics, experiences of nursing education, and sources of support. Strategies that develop individual's resilience and engage supportive networks can assist Aboriginal students to negotiate tertiary nursing study. Academic skills assessments supplemented with tailored educational support at entry can resource students to navigate increasingly complex course content. Flexibility throughout the course enables students to negotiate study in a context of ongoing family and financial obligations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting Trend and Seasonal Changes in Bathymetry Derived from HICO Imagery: A Case Study of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) aboard the International Space Station has offered for the first time a dedicated space-borne hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for remote sensing of the coastal environment. However, several processing steps are required to convert calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiances to the desired geophysical parameter(s). These steps add various amounts of uncertainty that can cumulatively render the geophysical parameter imprecise and potentially unusable if the objective is to analyze trends and/or seasonal variability. This research presented here has focused on: (1) atmospheric correction of HICO imagery; (2) retrieval of bathymetry using an improved implementation of a shallow water inversion algorithm; (3) propagation of uncertainty due to environmental noise through the bathymetry retrieval process; (4) issues relating to consistent geo-location of HICO imagery necessary for time series analysis, and; (5) tide height corrections of the retrieved bathymetric dataset. The underlying question of whether a temporal change in depth is detectable above uncertainty is also addressed. To this end, nine HICO images spanning November 2011 to August 2012, over the Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, were examined. The results presented indicate that precision of the bathymetric retrievals is dependent on the shallow water inversion algorithm used. Within this study, an average of 70% of pixels for the entire HICO-derived bathymetry dataset achieved a relative uncertainty of less than +/-20%. A per-pixel t-test analysis between derived bathymetry images at successive timestamps revealed observable changes in depth to as low as 0.4 m. However, the present geolocation accuracy of HICO is relatively poor and needs further improvements before extensive time series analysis can be performed.

  5. A dynamic hydrological Monte Carlo simulation model to inform decision-making at Lake Toolibin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stuart; Lacey, Peter; Walshe, Terry

    2009-04-01

    Lake Toolibin, an ephemeral lake in the agricultural zone of Western Australia, is under threat from secondary salinity due to land clearance throughout the catchment. The lake is extensively covered with native vegetation and is a Ramsar listed wetland, being one of the few remaining significant migratory bird habitats in the region. Currently, inflow with salinity greater than 1000 mg/L TDS is diverted from the lake in an effort to protect sensitive lakebed vegetation. However, this conservative threshold compromises the frequency and extent of lake inundation, which is essential for bird breeding. It is speculated that relaxing the threshold to 5000 mg/L may pose negligible additional risk to the condition of lakebed vegetation. To characterise the magnitude of improvement in the provision of bird breeding habitat that might be generated by relaxing the threshold, a dynamic water and salt balance model of the lake was developed and implemented using Monte Carlo simulation. Results from best estimate model inputs indicate that relaxation of the threshold increases the likelihood of satisfying habitat requirements by a factor of 9.7. A second-order Monte Carlo analysis incorporating incertitude generated plausible bounds of [2.6, 37.5] around the best estimate for the relative likelihood of satisfying habitat requirements. Parameter-specific sensitivity analyses suggest the availability of habitat is most sensitive to pan evaporation, lower than expected inflow volume, and higher than expected inflow salt concentration. The characterisation of uncertainty associated with environmental variation and incertitude allows managers to make informed risk-weighted decisions.

  6. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Satpura Mountain Belt of India: A comparison with the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia and implication for evolution of the supercontinent Columbia

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    S. Mohanty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia shows near neighbour positions of the South Indian Cratons and Western Australian Cratons. These cratonic areas are characterized by extensive Paleoproterozoic tectonism. Detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal data of the Satpura Mountains of India indicates presence of at least three episodes of Proterozoic orogeny at ∼2100–1900 Ma, ∼1850 Ma and ∼1650 Ma, and associated basin development and closing. A subdued imprint of the Grenville orogeny (∼950 Ma is also found in rock records of this Mountain Belt. The Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia also shows three episodes of orogeny: Opthalmian–Glenburgh Orogeny (2100–1950 Ma, Capricorn Orogeny (∼1800 Ma and Mangaroon Orogeny (∼1650 Ma, and basin opening and closing related to these tectonic movements. These broad similarities suggest their joint evolution possibly in a near neighbour position during Paleoproterozoic Era. In view of juxtaposition of the Western Australia along the east coast of India, at the position of the Eastern Ghats, during Archean, it is suggested that the breaking of this Archean megacraton at ∼2400 Ma led to northward movement of the broken components and formation of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen (at ∼2100 and ∼1800 Ma due to the collision of cratonic blocks with the pre-existing northern cratonic nuclei of India and Western Australia. This is also the time of formation of the supercontinent Columbia. A phase of basin opening followed the ∼1800 Ma event, followed by another phase of collisional event at ∼1600 Ma at the site of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen. Subsequent evolutions of the Satpura and the Capricorn Orogens differ slightly, indicating separate evolutional history.

  7. Nine new species of Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 (Crustacea, Ostracoda from Western Australia, with the description of a new subfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Martens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 is most likely endemic to Australia and New Zealand and, up to now, only two described species in this genus had been reported from Western Australia. Extensive sampling in Western Australia revealed a much higher specific diversity. Here, we describe nine new species in three lineages, within the genus Bennelongia: B. cygnus sp. nov. and B. frumenta sp. nov. in the B. cygnus lineage, B. gwelupensis sp. nov., B. coondinerensis sp. nov., B. cuensis sp. nov., B. lata sp. nov. and B. bidgelangensis sp. nov. in the B. australis lineage, and B. strellyensis sp. nov. and B. kimberleyensis sp. nov. (from the Pilbara and Kimberley regions respectively in the B. pinpi-lineage. For six of the nine species, we were also able to construct molecular phylogenies and to test for cryptic diversity with two different methods based on the evolutionary genetic species concept, namely Birky’s 4 x rule and the GYMC model. These analyses support the specific nature of at least four of the five new species in the B. australis lineage and of the two new species in the B. pinpi lineage. We also describe Bennelongiinae n.subfam. to accommodate the genus. With the nine new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 15 species, but several more await formal description.

  8. Moving south: effects of water temperatures on the larval development of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in cool-temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The distributional limits of many ectothermic species are set by thermal tolerances of early-developmental stages in the life history; embryos and larvae often are less able to buffer environmental variation than are conspecific adults. In pond-breeding amphibians, for example, cold water may constrain viability of eggs and larvae, even if adults can find suitable thermal conditions in terrestrial niches. Invasive species provide robust model systems for exploring these questions, because we can quantify thermal challenges at the expanding range edge (from field surveys) and larval responses to thermal conditions (in the laboratory). Our studies on invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) at the southern (cool-climate) edge of their expanding range in Australia show that available ponds often average around 20°C during the breeding period, 10°C lower than in many areas of the toads' native range, or in the Australian tropics. Our laboratory experiments showed that cane toad eggs and larvae cannot develop successfully at 16°C, but hatching success and larval survival rates were higher at 20°C than in warmer conditions. Lower temperatures slowed growth rates, increasing the duration of tadpole life, but also increased metamorph body mass. Water temperature also influenced metamorph body shape (high temperatures reduced relative limb length, head width, and body mass) and locomotor performance (increased speed from intermediate temperatures, longer hops from high temperatures). In combination with previous studies, our data suggest that lower water temperatures may enhance rather than reduce recruitment of cane toads, at least in areas where pond temperatures reach or exceed 20°C. That condition is fulfilled over a wide area of southern Australia, suggesting that the continuing expansion of this invasive species is unlikely to be curtailed by the impacts of relatively low water temperatures on the viability of early life-history stages.

  9. Impact of population ageing on growing demand for emergency transportation to emergency departments in Western Australia, 2005-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye-Sarfo, Patrick; Mai, Qun; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is to quantify the impact of population ageing on demand for emergency transportation (ET) to EDs in Western Australia (WA). A population-based longitudinal study using the statewide ED presentation data from 2005-2014 was used to predict ET demand in 2020, stratified by age group and sex. From 2005 to 2014, 14.9% of all ED presentations arrived by ET. The number rose from 94 369 (13.9%) in 2005 to 153 374 (15.5%) in 2014, a compound annual growth of 5.5%. Of those presentations, 55.2% resulted in hospital admission. The proportion was higher in older age groups (64.5% in 65-74 years, 67.1% in 75-84 years and 68.4% in ≥85 years). Of ED presentations arriving by ET in age group ≥65 years, 70.9% were Australasian Triage Scale category 1, 2 or 3. The rate of ET per 1000 population increased in all age groups and sex. The highest growth was in the older age groups: from 86.6, 187.0 and 512.1 in ages 65-74 years, 75-84 years and ≥85 years, respectively, in 2005 to 102.5, 226.7 and 613.6 in 2014, and are expected to increase to 115.1, 264.3 and 707.7 by 2020. The ET demands in these age groups were projected to increase annually by 5.0%, 3.6% and 4.9%, respectively, in the next 6 years, comparing to less than 4.5% in the younger age groups. There has been a continuous rise in ET demand in WA, particularly in older people who have a higher urgency and requirement for admission. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Evolution of foredune barriers at Admiral Bay, Western Australia - Implications for Holocene relative sea levels and extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Squire, Peter; Pint, Anna; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Only few geomorphological studies on the Canning Coast of Western Australia exist to date, most probably reflecting its remoteness and low population density. However, WA's annual gross state product (GSP) growth of ~5 % during the past decade and the highest GSP per capita nationwide resulting from a mining boom increase public attention as well as the demand for precise information on landscape inventory and evolution. In this paper, new data from a sequence of vegetated foredune barriers, gradually being eroded by a migrating estuary inside the macrotidal Admiral Bay (also known as McKelson Creek, Whistle Creek or Panganunganyjal), 110 km southwest of Broome, are presented. Based on sediment cores, DGPS-based elevation transects, and stratigraphical analyses on outcrops of the relict foredunes, we aim at (i) reconstructing lateral coastal changes during the Holocene, (ii) drawing inferences on relative sea-level (RSL) change, and (iii) identifying and dating imprints of extreme-wave events. Sedimentary analyses comprise documentation of bedding structures, foraminiferal content and macrofaunal remains (including shell taphonomy), grain size, and organic matter. Chronological contexts are established using 26 14C-AMS datings. Marine flooding of the pre-Holocene base landward of the 2.5 km-wide foredunes can be pinpointed to 7400-7200 cal BP. A mangrove ecosystem established and was quickly replaced by intertidal coarse sands after only 200-400 years. The high-energy intertidal environment prevailed until c. 4000 cal BP before turning into the present supralittoral mudflat environment. At that time, coastal regression led to beach progradation and isochronic formation of foredune barriers. Drivers of progradation were a stable RSL or gradual RSL fall after the mid-Holocene highstand and a positive sand budget provided by high sublittoral productivity of calcareous shells in combination with erosion at the adjacent sandstone capes and longshore drift. The foredunes

  11. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura; Skrzypek, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    Sulphur (S) is a commonly occurring element in most aquifers, primarily in oxidised (sulphates) and reduced (sulphides) forms. Sulphides often constitute a risk to groundwater quality due to acid rock drainage, especially in catchments that are subject to mining excavations or groundwater injection. However, in semi-arid regions detection of the acid rock drainage risk can be challenging and traditional methods based on observations of increasing SO4 concentrations or SO4/Cl ratios in surface and groundwater, are not necessarily applicable. In addition, decreasing pH, usually accompanying pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals. Analysis of 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia found that most of the samples are characterised by neutral pH but there was also a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate (SO4) concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Not surprisingly, groundwater in aquifers that contained pyrite had high sulphate concentrations (>1000 mg/L). This was associated with low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6‰) and was consistent with the values obtained from aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (-1.9‰ to +4.4‰). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. The groundwater in aquifers containing both pyrite and carbonate minerals had a neutral pH and was also saturated with respect to gypsum and had high magnesium concentrations of up to 2200 mg/L suggesting de-dolomitisation as the process buffering the acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Based on the findings from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of the acid rock drainage contribution to groundwater that encompasses a myriad of

  12. Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in

  13. Long-term carbon storage and its recent loss in an estuarine Posidonia australis meadow (Albany, Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaimi, Mohammad; Lavery, Paul S.; Serrano, Oscar; Kyrwood, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    Oyster Harbour, on the south coast of Western Australia, supports 3.6-3.9 km2 of seagrass meadows, following the loss of approximately 2.8-3.1 km2 in the 1980s. This small area of prevailing meadows hold significant carbon stores accumulated over the past 3000 years. In this study, we sampled three sediment cores from a Posidonia australis meadow and analysed organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) contents in bulk sediments, and δ13C signatures of OM. The OM and OC contents (mean ± SE) in the cores were 9.07 ± 0.36% and 2.24 ± 0.05%, respectively. The mean IC content was 3.16 ± 0.17%. δ13C signatures of the sedimentary OM ranged from -10.01‰ to -13.28‰. Using a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, it is estimated that 57-67% of the OM in the seagrass sediments was derived from P. australis detrital matter. The total carbon (TC) stores in 150 cm-thick seagrass sediments averaged 27.92 kg TC m-2 (10.79 kg OC m-2 and 17.13 kg IC m-2). Based on radiocarbon dating, the mean sediment accumulation rate was 0.0494 cm yr-1, which led to a long-term TC accumulation rate of 8.92 g TC m-2 yr-1 (3.45 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 5.47 g IC m-2 yr-1). Based on historical seagrass cover (3.6-6.7 km2 during the 1960s to 1980s), the estimated TC stores in 150 cm-thick seagrass sediments at Oyster Harbour would have been 101-187 Gg TC. The eutrophication-driven loss of seagrasses during the 1980s resulted in the absence of OC accumulation capacity amounting to 280-310 Mg OC (over 29 years). The loss of seagrass area could also have resulted in the release of 37-41 Gg CO2, assuming that all of the OC in shallow sediment is remineralised after meadow disturbance. These results exemplify the importance of seagrasses meadows as important carbon sinks and the potential for losses of carbon stores due to ecosystem degradation.

  14. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  15. Fire history of the Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia based on remote sensing, dendrochronology, and anecdotal evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Benjamin J.

    Remote sensing data, dendrochronology, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and anecdotal information were used to describe the fire regime of the 180,000 ha Peron Peninsula of Western Australia. Fire scars present in 1944 aerial photos were still visible in 2009, both in imagery and on the ground. Tree-ring dates from specimens sampled within these burned areas indicated the occurrence of at least three separate fires before 1944. The oldest fire occurred ca. 1911 and burned at least 5,880 ha. Subsequent fires ca. 1922 and 1936 burned across 8,240 ha and 9,400 ha respectively. The fire dates determined from tree-ring counts were consistent with precipitation data which showed conditions particularly favorable for fire before or during the estimated year of each fire. Plant communities most often burned before 1944 were the Acacia ramulosa var. linophylla Scrub and the Acacia - Lamarchea hakefolia Thicket with, respectively, 73% and 75% of these plant community types at the study area found to have been burned at some time. Remote sensing imagery from 1944-2009 identified only 300 additional hectares burned, a 25 ha fire in 1991 in the combined Acacia ramulosa var. linophylla Scrub and A.ligulata and A. rostellifora Thicket, ten prescribed burns in 1995 totaling 274 ha in various habitats, and two late 1990's scars from prescribed burns designed to create fire buffers, one 4.6 km and the other 7.4 km long. Combined data for all years assessed showed 59,000 ha (66%) of the total study area to have been burned or reburned since ca. 1911, most prior to 1944, with a total of nearly 24,000 ha (27%) of the study area unburned for more than 110 years. Birridas, which cannot burn, accounted for the remaining 6,000 ha (7%) of the study area. These results show fire occurred more frequently 100 years ago (fires every 10-15 years) than at present (> 65 years between fires) suggesting that more frequent prescribed burning than occurs at present on the Peron Peninsula would

  16. Burkholderia dipogonis sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Dipogon lignosus in New Zealand and Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chen, Ming-Hui; Liu, Wendy Y Y; Andrews, Mitchell; James, Euan K; Ardley, Julie K; De Meyer, Sofie E; James, Trevor K; Howieson, John G; Coutinho, Bruna G; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Seven strains, ICMP 19430T, ICMP 19429, ICMP 19431, WSM4637, WSM4638, WSM4639 and WSM4640, were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of the invasive South African legume Dipogon lignosus (subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Phaseoleae) in New Zealand and Western Australia, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. All seven strains grew at 10-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth in the absence of NaCl). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains showed 99.0-99.5 % sequence similarity to the closest type strain, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJNT, and 98.4-99.7 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia caledonica LMG 19076T. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c (21.0 % of the total fatty acids in strain ICMP 19430T), C16 : 0 (19.1 %), C17 : 0 cyclo (18.9 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 10.7 %) and C19 : 0 cyclov ω8c (7.5 %). The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content of strain ICMP 19430T was 63.2 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness of the novel strains with respect to the closest neighbouring members of the genus Burkholderia was 55 % or less. On the basis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarities and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data,these strains represent a novel symbiotic species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia dipogonis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain ICMP 19430T (=LMG28415T=HAMBI 3637T).

  17. Towards seismic waveform inversion of long-offset Ocean-Bottom Seismic data for deep crustal imaging offshore Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, S.; Lumley, D. E.; Kamei, R.; Goncharov, A.; Shragge, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean Bottom Seismic datasets have become increasingly used in recent years to develop high-resolution, wavelength-scale P-wave velocity models of the lithosphere from waveform inversion, due to their recording of long-offset transmitted phases. New OBS surveys evolve towards novel acquisition geometries involving longer offsets (several hundreds of km), broader frequency content (1-100 Hz), while receiver sampling often remains sparse (several km). Therefore, it is critical to assess the effects of such geometries on the eventual success and resolution of waveform inversion velocity models. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of waveform inversion on the Bart 2D OBS profile acquired offshore Western Australia, to investigate regional crustal and Moho structures. The dataset features 14 broadband seismometers (0.01-100 Hz) from AuScope's national OBS fleet, offsets in excess of 280 km, and a sparse receiver sampling (18 km). We perform our analysis in four stages: (1) field data analysis, (2) 2D P-wave velocity model building, synthetic data (3) modelling, and (4) waveform inversion. Data exploration shows high-quality active-source signal down to 2Hz, and usable first arrivals to offsets greater than 100 km. The background velocity model is constructed by combining crustal and Moho information in continental reference models (e.g., AuSREM, AusMoho). These low-resolution studies suggest a crustal thickness of 20-25 km along our seismic line and constitute a starting point for synthetic modelling and inversion. We perform synthetic 2D time-domain modelling to: (1) evaluate the misfit between synthetic and field data within the usable frequency band (2-10 Hz); (2) validate our velocity model; and (3) observe the effects of sparse OBS interval on data quality. Finally, we apply 2D acoustic frequency-domain waveform inversion to the synthetic data to generate velocity model updates. The inverted model is compared to the reference model to investigate the

  18. Evidence of magmatic degassing in Archean komatiites: Insights from the Wannaway nickel-sulfide deposit, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Stefano; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Moroni, Marilena; Martin, Laure A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic degassing from komatiite lava flows potentially influenced the geochemical evolution of the Archean atmosphere and hydrosphere. We argue that the escape of SO2-rich volatiles from komatiites impacted on the mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic composition of associated nickel-sulfide mineralization leaving behind detectable and measurable footprints that can be best observed where the polarity of the magmatic sequence is clearly recognizable. Here we focus on the ore-bearing sequence of the Archean komatiite-hosted N01 nickel-sulfide orebody at Wannaway, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. This deposit displays a volcanic sequence with a well-defined succession of stratigraphically-correlated facies comprising a massive sulfide horizon at the base of the channelized komatiite flow, overlain by matrix and disseminated sulfide mineralization. Pyrrhotite is the dominant sulfide phase in the lower part of the ore profile. The amount of troilite gradually increases from the base of the matrix ore over several meters up-sequence, eventually becoming dominant at the expense of pyrrhotite. In the upper portion of the mineralized sequence troilite is associated with accessory Mn sulfide alabandite (MnS), which is usually reported in reduced terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. Such mineralogical and volcanological features are consistent with upwards decreasing in fS2 and fO2 away from the basal contact of the komatiite flow. After evaluating the possible role of metamorphism, the pyrrhotite-troilite-alabandite assemblage and the progressive up-sequence decrease of the pyrrhotite/troilite ratio across the upper part of the mineralized sequence are interpreted as magmatic and indicative of progressive loss of sulfur with concomitant establishment of reducing conditions within the sulfide melt ponding at the base of the komatiite lava. In this context, the investigation of spatially constrained sulfur isotopic signatures allows to isolate the multiple

  19. Magnetostratigraphy of late Devonian carbonates of Western Australia: Integrating reversal history with biostratigraphic and 13C records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohver, E.; Playton, T.; Hillbun, K.; Yan, M.; Pisarevsky, S.; Hansma, J.; Roelofs, B.; Trinajstic, K.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Haines, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Polarity Timescale presents a useful basis for chronostratigraphic correlations, but pre-Jurassic records depend on records from sedimentary basins preserved on the continents. At present, the record for the late Devonian is poorly established. Here we present an integrated magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and C-isotope study of the Canning Basin of Western Australia, located on the northern margin of eastern Gondwana. The study region is part of the classic "Devonian Great Barrier Reef", and preserves an outstanding marine record of a prominent mass extinction event (i.e., the Frasnian-Fammenian event, the fifth of the "Big Five" mass extinctions). We present magnetostratigraphic profiles from six different sections (2200 m total) from four separate localities that record different paleowater depths, i.e., lowermost slope to reef/platform deposits of the basin. Correlations between localities are based on conodont assemblages that can be correlated to global records. Paleomagnetic sampling was carried out at the meter-scale for magnetostratigraphic analysis, with duplicate specimens used for carbon isotope stratigraphy. Most samples record a magnetic overprint parallel to the modern geomagnetic direction, but this remanence was removed by laboratory heating to ca. 180°C. Approximately forty percent of samples retain a high temperature characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), typically carried by magnetite or hematite. Before using these ChRMs to assign a magnetic polarity, we filtered paleomagnetic directions to eliminate directions >45 degrees from the Fisherian mean direction, avoiding spurious directions and low latitude virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from transitional field directions. The resulting magnetostratigraphic profiles were used to correlate different sections on the basis of matching reversal records, yielding a composite record of the Middle to Late Devonian geomagnetic reversal record. We recognized seventeen major

  20. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  1. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05–0.09; Pgenetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin. PMID:24988113

  2. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; Pdolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  3. Temper Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

  4. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar

  5. Invasive species can't cover their tracks: using microsatellites to assist management of starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Lee Ann; Woolnough, Andrew P; Wilton, Alan N; Sinclair, Ron; Sherwin, William B

    2009-04-01

    Invasive species are known to cause environmental and economic damage, requiring management by control agencies worldwide. These species often become well established in new environments long before their detection, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding their history and dynamics. When new invasions are discovered, information regarding the source and pathway of the invasion, and the degree of connectivity with other populations can greatly benefit management strategies. Here we use invasive common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations from Australia to demonstrate that genetic techniques can provide this information to aid management, even when applied to highly vagile species over continental scales. Analysis of data from 11 microsatellites in 662 individuals sampled at 17 localities across their introduced range in Australia revealed four populations. One population consisted of all sampling sites from the expansion front in Western Australia, where control efforts are focused. Despite evidence of genetic exchange over both contemporary and historical timescales, gene flow is low between this population and all three more easterly populations. This suggests that localized control of starlings on the expansion front may be an achievable goal and the long-standing practice of targeting select proximal eastern source populations may be ineffective on its own. However, even with low levels of gene flow, successful control of starlings on the expansion front will require vigilance, and genetic monitoring of this population can provide essential information to managers. The techniques used here are broadly applicable to invasive populations worldwide.

  6. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  7. Advances in large-scale mudflat surveying: The Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, R.J.; Pearson, G.B.; Piersma, T.

    2015-01-01

    The shores of Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach in northwestern Australia are amongst the richest known intertidal mudflats worldwide. They are both listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, primarily because of the high numbers of shorebirds that migrate to and

  8. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  9. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  10. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  11. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-02-03

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  13. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  14. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  15. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  16. La cooperación al servicio de la recuperación de la diversidad: experiencias en Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, María Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de W...

  17. Mineralogical Composition and Potential Dust Source of Playas in the Western U.S. and Australia as Remotely Identified Through Imaging Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raming, L. W.; Farrand, W. H.; Bowen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Playas are significant dust sources and as a result are potentially hazardous to human health. The composition of the dust is a function of the mineralogical content of the playa and associated brines. Playas are found in arid climates globally, however they are challenging to map geologically as they are often hard to access, have subtle variations in mineralogy, and are topographically featureless. This study uses remote sensing in the form of imaging spectroscopy to map the mineralogical composition of five playas from different geologic settings: Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, USA; Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, USA; White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA; Lake Brown, Western Australia, Australia; and Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, Australia.Multiple spectrometers were used for this study; these include the multispectral sensor ASTER, and the hyperspectral sensors AVIRIS, HICO, and HyMap. All scenes were processed in ENVI and corrected to at surface reflectance using FLAASH, QUAC or Empirical Line methods. Minerals were identified through a standard end-member extraction approach and mapped using multi-range spectral feature fitting and other methods. Additionally, remote data are combined with in-situ field-based spectra and sample-based laboratory spectra.Initial results suggest various and differing mineralogy between playas. The most abundant mineralogy includes clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite and evaporites such as gypsum. Additionally there has been identification of Fe absorption bands in the visible / near infrared at White Sands National Monument, and Lake Brown and Lake Tyrell, suggesting the presence of iron bearing minerals. Further research will provide a more comprehensive list of minerals identified by absorption features as related to specific sensors. Collectively, these analyses will be used characterize overall patterns in playa surface mineralogy and to evaluate the parameters that influence playa dust source composition.

  18. Regional metamorphic controls on alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Eastern Goldfields province, Western Australia: Implications for the timing and origin of Archean lode-gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, W. K.

    1991-10-01

    Alteration assemblages associated with Archean epigenetic gold mineralization in the Menzies-Kambalda area of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, vary systematically with regional metamorphic grade, up to and including upper amphibolite facies rocks. K-metasomatism is recorded by the presence of muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar at progressively higher metamorphic grades. High metamorphic grades are commonly developed in broad thermal aureoles around fate syntectonic granitic intrusions. Metamorphic recrystallization of alteration assemblages is common in the thermal aureoles. These relations suggest broad contemporaneity among granitoid intrusion, regional metamorphism, and mineralization during the final stages of the tectonic evolution of the granite-greenstone terrain. Late syntectonic granitoids acted as centers of heat and fluid flux in large-scale, synmetamorphic hydrothermal systems that deposited gold, possibly from modified mantle-derived fluids.

  19. What has happened to the practice of short term dynamic psychotherapy in Australia's mental health services? A multidisciplinary training programme in Western Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliburn, Joan; Baker, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    Short term psychodynamic psychotherapies have been markedly phased out of Australia's mental health services. This paper aims to describe the successful introduction of a Conversational Model of Short Term Intensive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy into a public health service in an attempt to revive its practice. A brief review of relevant papers in the Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists journals since 1980 gives a background to the decline of dynamic psychotherapy in Australia. The development of a Conversational Model of Short Term Intensive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in the author's private practice over 20 years, and its introduction into a hospital-based training programme are described. A structured programme by scholarship has been offered yearly since 2011 to 10 multidisciplinary mental health clinicians of the Western Sydney Health District. Trainees see two patients from their own service. Over three years, 29 trainees have treated 57 patients with weekly supervision provided. The model has been easily learned. Trainees report a sense of re-invigoration, refinement of existing skills and acquisition of new skills. Resolution of problems in a significant number of patients is noted and improvement and satisfaction reported by others. A valuable service is provided and research is underway. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  20. Erosion rates and weathering history of rock surfaces associated with Aboriginal rock art engravings (petroglyphs) on Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia, from cosmogenic nuclide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Brad; Fifield, L. Keith

    2013-06-01

    The Burrup Peninsula and surrounding Dampier Archipelago, in Western Australia, contain the world's largest known gallery of rock art engravings (petroglyphs), estimated to number up to 1 million images. The peninsula is also the site of major industrial development and there are concerns that industrial emissions may adversely affect the stability and longevity of the rock art. We have studied the natural processes and rates of weathering and erosion, including the effects of fire, that affect the stability of rock surfaces and hence the longevity of the rock art, using cosmogenic nuclides. The concentration of 10Be in quartz yields erosion rates in the range 0.15-0.48 mm/1000 years on horizontal rock surfaces and 0.34-2.30 mm/1000 years on vertical rock faces. The former, largely caused by mm-scale surface flaking, are amongst the lowest erosion rates measured by cosmogenic nuclides anywhere in the world. The latter are inferred to represent a combination of mm-scale flaking and very rare centimetre- to metre-scale block falls, controlled by failure along joint planes. Such low erosion rates result from a combination of resistant rocks, low relief and low rainfall, favouring long-term preservation of the petroglyphs - long enough to encompass the known period of human settlement in Australia.

  1. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Kimberley; McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N; Marley, Julia V; Stanley, Fiona J; Edmond, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356). WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  2. Molybdenum Enrichment in the 3.2 Ga old Black Shales Recovered by Dixon Island-Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP) in Northwestern Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Naraoka, H.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Hosoi, K.

    2010-12-01

    To obtain drillcores of Mesoarchean black shales with negligible modern weathering, we conducted continental drilling at Cleaverville coast in Pilbara, Western Australia. We recovered 3.2Ga sulfidic black shales of the Cleaverville Group from three drillholes (~200m in total), namely DX, CL1, and CL2. Information on the geology of the drilling site has been reported [1, 2]. Here we report the discovery of Mo enrichment in the 3.2Ga DXCL-DP black shales. We analyzed total chemical compositions of forty black shale samples from drillcore DX and fifty-six of those from CL1 and CL2. Molybdenum concentrations for DX samples ranged from 0.3 to 12.9ppm (Avg±1σ= 1.8±1.9ppm), and those for CL1 and CL2 (combined) ranged from 0.8 to 3.3ppm (Avg±1σ= 1.4±0.4ppm). The highest concentration of Mo occurs in Corg-rich sample, and is comparable to that of the contemporaneous Fig Tree Group in South Africa [3, 4]. The highest concentration of Mo in the DXCL-DP samples, ~13ppm, is lower than that found in the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia (maximums are ~17ppm [5], and ~40ppm [6]). However, it is much higher, by thirteen times, than the average Mo concentration in the Phanerozoic shales (1ppm [7]). No significant enrichment of Mo was expected to occur in the before-GOE black shales if pO2 was as low as Bekker et al, 2004, Nature 427: 117-120.

  3. Drivers for change: Western Australia Patient Blood Management Program (WA PBMP), World Health Assembly (WHA) and Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability (ACBSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Shannon L; Towler, Simon C; Leahy, Michael F; Hofmann, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Patient blood management is now high on national and international health-system agendas. Serious supply challenges as a result of changing population dynamics, escalating cost of blood, ongoing safety challenges and questions about transfusion efficacy and outcomes are necessitating change in transfusion practice. Numerous initiatives are underway to bring about change, including the institution of comprehensive patient blood management programmes. In 2008, the Western Australia Department of Health initiated a 5-year project to implement a comprehensive health-system-wide Patient Blood Management Program with the aim of improving patient outcomes while reducing costs. Clinically, the Program was structured on the three pillars of patient blood management, namely (1) optimising the patient's own red cell mass, (2) minimising blood loss and (3) harnessing and optimising the patient-specific anaemia reserve. It employs multiple strategies to bring about a cultural change from a blood-product focus to a patient focus. This Program was undertaken in a State that already had one of the lowest red blood cell issuance rates per 1000 population in the developed world (30.47 red blood cell units per 1000 population). The Program identified reasons and drivers for practice change. From financial years 2008-09 to 2011-12, issuance has progressively decreased in Western Australia to 27.54 units per 1000. During the same years, despite increasing activity, total issuance of red blood cells to the entire State decreased from 70,103 units to 65,742. Nationally and internationally, other initiatives are underway to bring about change and implement patient blood management. The World Health Assembly in May 2010 adopted resolution WHA63.12 endorsing patient blood management and its three-pillar application. The United States Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability met in 2011 to consider the implications of this resolution and its implementation. Copyright © 2012

  4. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  5. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  6. Orff-Schulwerk as a Pedagogical Tool for the Effective Teaching of Italian to Upper Primary Students in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Annamaria; Lummis, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of songs and music in the Languages classroom is common practice. Research literature contains positive statements about music as a cognitive, linguistic and affective enhancer. Music and Languages risk becoming marginalised in the Western Australian curriculum due to curriculum pressures. Reduction of time in these learning areas could…

  7. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  8. This Much Water: a qualitative study using behavioural theory to develop a community service video to prevent child drowning in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Leavy, Justine E; Jancey, Jonine; Nimmo, Lauren; Crawford, Gemma

    2017-07-31

    Drowning in children under the age of 5 is a frequently occurring, yet preventable event. This research used behavioural theory to test the suitability and appropriateness of a drowning prevention message in a community service video. This qualitative study used content analysis of focus groups. Constructs from the Health Belief Model guided the data analysis. Community organisations and playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia. Participants were parents or carers of at least one child under 5 years residing in Western Australia. Seven focus groups (n=57) were conducted with eight participants in each group. Most participants were parents (96%), female (95%), aged between 25 and 34 years (63%) and were born in Australia (68%). Participants indicated the community service video was credible in communicating the message that young children were susceptible to drowning in shallow water and that various water hazards existed in and around the home. However, a range of external factors, such as the child's age, type of water hazard, presence of siblings and other environmental factors, influenced risk perceptions. Child drowning was seen as a serious issue. Controlling access to water and the role of supervision were understood to be important factors in preventing drowning. The lack of published drowning prevention interventions shaped by behavioural theory limits the understanding of best practice. Using constructs from the Health Belief Model, this research confirmed the perceived seriousness, devastating and unforgettable consequence of drowning; however, findings were mixed regarding cues to action. Future development of drowning prevention media messages should test strategies to increase susceptibility and self-efficacy among the target group and explore the impact of different message senders. The findings provide a valuable understanding of possible messages and their execution for use in media campaigns, as one component of an effective public health

  9. D/H of late Miocene meteoric waters in Western Australia: Paleoenvironmental conditions inferred from the δD of (U-Th)/He-dated CID goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, Crayton J.; Shuster, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Nineteen (U-Th)/He ages were determined for eight samples from a core drilled in an ore-grade channel iron deposit (CID) of the Robe Pisolite (Robe Formation) of Mesa J in Western Australia. With one exception, uncorrected ages of the analyzed aliquots range from 6.7(±0.4) Ma to 30.2(±3.1) Ma, while molar ratios of Th/U range from 0.42 to 5.06. The exception is an aliquot with an apparent age of 2.7 Ma and Th/U of 5.70. A three-component mixing model involving one generation of goethite and two generations of hematite suggests that the age of crystallization of the oolitic goethites is ∼7(±1) Ma. If so, the goethites have effectively been closed systems for ∼7 million years and should preserve a stable hydrogen isotope record of late Miocene rainfall in the vicinity of Mesa J. Cenozoic movement of the Australian continent had placed Mesa J and environs in the subtropics at a paleolatitude of about 29 °S during the late Miocene. Al-adjusted δD values of oolitic goethite in the eight CID samples range from -153‰ to -146‰ and imply that the δD of the late Miocene meteoric waters ranged from -61‰ to -53‰, with an average of -56‰. These relatively negative δD values might indicate that near-coastal, late Miocene rain was derived primarily from summer-season tropical cyclones with storm tracks that extended into the subtropics of western Australia. The postulated late Miocene tropical cyclones would have occurred more often and/or exhibited greater intensity at a paleolatitude of 29 °S than is the case for modern sites at approximately 30 °S on the west coast of Australia (e.g., Perth). Higher fluxes of meteoric water in the Miocene summers would have facilitated dissolution and removal of BIF-sourced silica with concomitant enrichment in oxidized Fe. Moreover, wetter late Miocene summers could have promoted multiple cycles of microbially mediated dissolution and recrystallization of Fe(III) oxides in the aerobic systems. The oolitic textures may

  10. "If I Wanted to Have More Opportunities and Go to a Better School, I Just Had to Get Used to It": Aboriginal Students' Perceptions of Going to Boarding School in Western Australia

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    Mander, David J.; Cohen, Lynne; Pooley, Julie Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 32 male Aboriginal students from regional and remote towns and communities while they attended a metropolitan boarding school away from home and family in Perth, Western Australia. Using narrative interviews it specifically investigated how these Aboriginal students construct meaning around the transition…

  11. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadavia, F; de Miranda, V F O; Hoogenstrijd, G; Pinheiro, F; Heubl, G; Fleischmann, A

    2012-07-01

    South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32-36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7-8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern Oceania and northern South America is the most likely

  12. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

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    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  13. Influence of occupancy on building energy performance: a case study from social housing dwellings in Perth, Western Australia

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    Esmaeilimoakher Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the residential sector is a substantial energy consumer mainly due to the requirements of space heating and cooling, lighting and electronic appliances in the building. In Australia, the residential sector accounts for a significant proportion of final energy consumption, with a significant proportion of this energy attributed to space conditioning. Appliances including lighting, refrigeration, water heating, cooking and standby power also factoring into the energy used in Australian households. In response to sharp rises in energy prices in recent years, many households are taking steps to reduce their energy consumption. Many are investing in energy efficient appliances, home upgrades, installing rooftop solar panels, etc. However, low income can become a barrier, preventing many people from investing in energy efficiency as a way of reducing costs. This paper is a part of a broader study aiming to identify the areas of energy inefficiency in social housing dwellings, and improve the overall efficiency through modifying occupants’ energy use culture. The firsthand information on where and how energy is used in the dwellings was collected through conducting walk-through energy audits in the sample dwellings. This information was then combined with the information provided by the households’ representatives on the time of use of their appliances as well as direct observations to calculate energy consumption in these households. Practical guidelines were then proposed, taking into account their energy use behaviour to minimize their energy consumption at a minimum cost.

  14. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics.

  15. Horticultural Loss Generated by Wholesalers: A Case Study of the Canning Vale Fruit and Vegetable Markets in Western Australia

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    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s economic climate, businesses need to efficiently manage their finite resources to maintain long-term sustainable growth, productivity, and profits. However, food loss produces large unacceptable economic losses, environmental degradation, and impacts on humanity globally. Its cost in Australia is estimated to be around AUS$8 billion each year, but knowledge of its extent within the food value chain from farm to fork is very limited. The present study examines food loss by wholesalers. A survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed; 35 wholesalers and processors replied and their responses to 10 targeted questions on produce volumes, amounts handled, reasons for food loss, and innovations applied or being considered to reduce and utilize food loss were analyzed. Reported food loss was estimated to be 180 kg per week per primary wholesaler and 30 kg per secondary wholesaler, or around 286 tonnes per year. Participants ranked “over supply” and “no market demand” as the main causes for food loss. The study found that improving grading guidelines has the potential to significantly reduce food loss levels and improve profit margins.

  16. Nature conservation on agricultural land: a case study of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding at Koobabbie in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia

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    Denis Saunders

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature conservation and agricultural production may be considered as conflicting objectives, but for a wheat and sheep property in Western Australia they have been pivotal management objectives for the last 48 years. Koobabbie, a 7,173 ha property, has retained 41.5% of the original native vegetation, and is a designated Important Bird Area by BirdLife Australia, while still being an economically profitable agricultural enterprise. Since 1987 the owners of Koobabbie have kept detailed records of the avifauna of the property, and encouraged staff from government, non-government and academic organisations to conduct research and monitoring of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding on their property. In addition, they have instituted control programs for two over-abundant cockatoo species which compete with Carnaby’s Cockatoo for nest sites, and for Feral Cats that are predators of nesting female Carnaby’s Cockatoo and their offspring. This paper presents the results of research and monitoring from 2003-2013, during which seven artificial nesting hollows were erected, and former active nest hollows that had become derelict were repaired. By 2008, the number of breeding pairs on the property was at least 27, but two mass deaths of breeding females in 2009 and 2012 reduced the number of breeding pairs by 80%. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring conservation on private property, and raises a number of issues in relation to management of endangered species dependent on large hollow-bearing trees on private property.

  17. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  18. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

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    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  19. Diagnosing cancer in the bush: a mixed-methods study of symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in people with cancer from rural Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.

  20. Serial tempering without exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh

    2010-09-21

    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  1. Is tissue an issue? Current practice and opinion in Western Australia for routine histopathology on products of conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Shui-Jean; Watts, Jared C; Faithfull, Tiffany J; Wong, Sabrina Z; Wylde, Kate L; McGurgan, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine current practices and opinions of senior health professionals working in Western Australian (WA) hospitals performing gynaecological procedures, regarding the routine use of histopathology for products of conception (POC) obtained either from the surgical management of miscarriage or termination of pregnancy. Sixty-one senior health professionals completed the survey. Tissue histopathology on POC was routinely requested for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy (TOP) by 87 and 59% of respondents, respectively. Respondents listed the main reasons for requesting routine histopathology as avoidance of misdiagnosis, medico-legal and quality assurance. There were inconsistent practices among WA health professionals regarding sending POC for histopathology; 63% of gynaecology head of departments recommend the introduction of state or national guidelines for the use of histopathology in the surgical management of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Negative stereotyping of older nurses despite contact and mere exposure: the case of nursing recruiters in Western australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringart, Eyal; Jones, Bronwyn; Helmes, Edward; Jansz, Janis; Monterosso, Leanne; Edwards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ageist attitudes have been identified across different industries. The nursing profession has a high proportion of older workers. As this facilitates regular contact with, as well as exposure to, older nurses, it may be expected to show less ageism. This study investigated 163 Western Australian nursing recruiters' attitudes toward older nurses. Results showed clear evidence of both negative and positive stereotyping of older nurses. Nursing recruiters indicated that they would be more than likely to hire older nurses and that age was less relevant in making hiring decisions. These findings suggest that enhancing the employability of older workers does not necessarily change ageist attitudes. This is relevant to policy formulation, attitude change interventions, and the well-being of older workers.

  3. Crustal growth and episodic reworking over one billion years in the Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: evidence from Lu-Hf and O isotope data

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    Jahn, Inalee; Clark, Chris; Reddy, Steve; Taylor, Rich

    2017-04-01

    constraints for the evolution of the Paleoproterozoic crust within the Capricorn Orogen. [1] Cawood et al. 2013. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125(1-2), 14-32 [2] Sheppard et al. 2010. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, 336 [3] Johnson et al. 2017. Lithos, 268, 76-86

  4. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

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    Bessarab Dawn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of

  5. The collective impact of rare diseases in Western Australia: an estimate using a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caroline E; Mahede, Trinity; Davis, Geoff; Miller, Laura J; Girschik, Jennifer; Brameld, Kate; Sun, Wenxing; Rath, Ana; Aymé, Ségolène; Zubrick, Stephen R; Baynam, Gareth S; Molster, Caron; Dawkins, Hugh J S; Weeramanthri, Tarun S

    2017-05-01

    It has been argued that rare diseases should be recognized as a public health priority. However, there is a shortage of epidemiological data describing the true burden of rare diseases. This study investigated hospital service use to provide a better understanding of the collective health and economic impacts of rare diseases. Novel methodology was developed using a carefully constructed set of diagnostic codes, a selection of rare disease cohorts from hospital administrative data, and advanced data-linkage technologies. Outcomes included health-service use and hospital admission costs. In 2010, cohort members who were alive represented approximately 2.0% of the Western Australian population. The cohort accounted for 4.6% of people discharged from hospital and 9.9% of hospital discharges, and it had a greater average length of stay than the general population. The total cost of hospital discharges for the cohort represented 10.5% of 2010 state inpatient hospital costs. This population-based cohort study provides strong new evidence of a marked disparity between the proportion of the population with rare diseases and their combined health-system costs. The methodology will inform future rare-disease studies, and the evidence will guide government strategies for managing the service needs of people living with rare diseases.Genet Med advance online publication 22 September 2016.

  6. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Stromatolites in the approximately 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia: examining biogenicity from the macro- to the nano-scale.

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    Wacey, David

    2010-05-01

    The 3426-3350 Ma Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is a silicified, dominantly sedimentary unit within the Pilbara Supergroup, Western Australia. It is found widely across the East Pilbara Terrane, and it forms a prominent marker horizon and separates the largely volcanic 3520-3427 Ma Warrawoona and 3350-3315 Ma Kelly groups. It has become one of the key formations for study by astrobiologists, following reports of some of the world's oldest stromatolites. Abundant contextural and morphological evidence has been presented over the last decade in support of a biological role in SPF stromatolite formation. This evidence is reviewed here, and additional data are presented from recent fieldwork carried out across the approximately 25 km of SPF outcrops in the East Strelley greenstone belt of the East Pilbara Terrane. In addition to contextural and morphological evidence, a compelling claim for early life requires geochemical evidence for biological cycling. A potential avenue of approach to obtain such evidence for the SPF stromatolites (and other ancient examples) is discussed in the context of a pilot study in which nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used.

  8. Supporting mothers to breastfeed: the development and process evaluation of a father inclusive perinatal education support program in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohotoa, Jenny; Maycock, Bruce; Hauck, Yvonne; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Binns, Colin

    2011-09-01

    Entry into fatherhood is a challenging period with new responsibilities and changes in family dynamics. Hegemonic imagery of men portray them as capable, confident and able which can disadvantage expectant fathers who often struggle to make sense of the changes occurring around and within their own parenting journey. Although fathers historically have not been included in breastfeeding classes, antenatal education programs can be an opportunity to inform and support them in their new role. Forty-five antenatal sessions for fathers (n = 342) of 1h duration were conducted by five male educators between May 2008 and June 2009 in Perth, Western Australia. A theoretical framework from health promotion literature was used as a guide in the program's development. Fathers in the intervention group gained information about their role, the importance of communication and the benefits of breastfeeding to both mother and baby. An evaluation was obtained from fathers immediately after the session and again at 6 week post-birth, whilst mothers reported on the perception of their partners' support for breastfeeding in the 6 week survey. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and process evaluation of a perinatal education and support program for fathers to assist their partners to breastfeed.

  9. Constraining Rates of Neoarchean Plate Motion through Magnetostratigraphy and Integrated High-Precision Geochronology of the Fortescue Group, Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbohm, J.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Weiss, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonics influences the global climate and carbon cycle. Continental arrangement affects Earth's albedo, and rates of plate motion control heat flux from the interior and rate of volcanic degassing. While rates of Phanerozoic plate movements and magnetic field reversals have been well studied, little is known about these phenomena in Earth's early tectonic history due to a paucity of unaltered Archean rocks retaining primary magnetization. Archean tectonics and an active geodynamo would have played an important role in creating environments suitable for life. A magnetostratigraphic study integrated with high-precision geochronology has the potential to quantify plate velocities and magnetic field reversal rates. The 2.7 Ga Fortescue Group on the Pilbara craton in Western Australia is one of the oldest and best-preserved basalt successions. The Fortescue records two intervals of potentially rapid cratonic motion, but velocity estimates ranging from 4-50 cm/yr suffer from current ages' analytical errors on the order of a few Ma. We measured five stratigraphic sections across these intervals, and collected paleomagnetic and geochronology samples at known stratigraphic heights. With our calculated virtual geomagnetic poles and U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS zircon ages with precision and accuracy of reversal in the Tumbiana Formation, doubling the described magnetic field reversal rate to four reversals over the 60 Ma depositional history of the Fortescue. Our calculated plate velocities will enlighten the debate on the role of tectonics in the cooling of early Earth.

  10. Post-marketing surveillance of adverse events following immunization with inactivated quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccine in health care providers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Gibbs, Robyn

    2015-11-17

    In 2015, inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) was first introduced into the Australian market. A routine vaccine safety surveillance system in Western Australia was used to conduct post-licensure surveillance of adverse events following immunization with inactivated QIV and trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) in a sample of 1685 healthcare providers (HCPs). A similar percentage of HCPs who received QIV reported having any reaction seven days post-vaccination as HCPs who received TIV (13.6 vs. 12.8%, respectively; p=0.66). However, a slightly higher percentage of HCPs who received QIV reported pain or swelling at the injection site as compared to HCPs who received TIV (6.9% vs. 4.2%, respectively; p=0.02). No serious vaccine-associated adverse events were detected during follow-up of either vaccine. Acknowledging the study limitations, the results of this post-marketing surveillance support the safety of QIV, suggesting there is little difference in the reactogenicity of QIV as compared to TIV. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategic information for hospital service planning: a linked data study to inform an urban Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer program in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Miller, Laura J; Somerford, Peter; McEvoy, Suzanne; Bessarab, Dawn

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide descriptive planning data for a hospital-based Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer (AHLO) program, specifically quantifying episodes of care and outcomes within 28 days after discharge. A follow-up study of Aboriginal in-patient hospital episodes was undertaken using person-based linked administrative data from four South Metropolitan hospitals in Perth, Western Australia (2006-11). Outcomes included 28-day deaths, emergency department (ED) presentations and in-patient re-admissions. There were 8041 eligible index admissions among 5113 individuals, with episode volumes increasing by 31% over the study period. Among patients 25 years and older, the highest ranking comorbidities included injury (47%), drug and alcohol disorders (41%), heart disease (40%), infection (40%), mental illness (31%) and diabetes (31%). Most events (96%) ended in a regular discharge. Within 28 days, 24% of events resulted in ED presentations and 20% resulted in hospital readmissions. Emergency readmissions (13%) were twice as likely as booked re-admissions (7%). Stratified analyses showed poorer outcomes for older people, and for emergency and tertiary hospital admissions. Future planning must address the greater service volumes anticipated. The high prevalence of comorbidities requires intensive case management to address case complexity. These data will inform the refinement of the AHLO program to improve in-patient experiences and outcomes.

  12. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

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    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  13. Investigation of the First Case of Dengue Virus Infection Acquired in Western Australia in Seven Decades: Evidence of Importation of Infected Mosquitoes?

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    Michael D A Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, a locally-acquired case of dengue virus (DENV infection was reported in Western Australia (WA where local dengue transmission has not occurred for over 70 years. Laboratory testing confirmed recent DENV infection and the case demonstrated a clinically compatible illness. The infection was most likely acquired in the Pilbara region in the northwest of WA. Follow up investigations did not detect any other locally-acquired dengue cases or any known dengue vector species in the local region, despite intensive adult and larval mosquito surveillance, both immediately after the case was notified in October 2013 and after the start of the wet season in January 2014. The mechanism of infection with DENV in this case cannot be confirmed. However, it most likely followed a bite from a single infected mosquito vector that was transiently introduced into the Pilbara region but failed to establish a local breeding population. This case highlights the public health importance of maintaining surveillance efforts to ensure that any incursions of dengue vectors into WA are promptly identified and do not become established, particularly given the large numbers of viraemic dengue fever cases imported into WA by travellers returning from dengue-endemic regions.

  14. Sharks and Rays of Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    38 descrtbed members of the family Rajidae (skates) f>till await spe- cific names. The seas off Australia extend from a tropical J(ts to cold temper- ate waters (lYer 40'S, providing a wide diversity of habitats. The authors stress the extreme richness of the Australian !-.hark and ray fauna. By comparison III southern Africa there ...

  15. A depressive endophenotype of poorer cognition among cognitively healthy community-dwelling adults: results from the Western Australia memory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh A; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Hall, James R; Kevin, Taddei; Edwards, Melissa; O'Bryant, Sid E; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate in a cognitively normal population the utility of an endophenotype of the depression-cognition link previously shown to be related to cognitive functioning in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The data of 460 cognitively normal adults aged 32-92 years (M = 63.5, standard deviation = 9.24) from the Western Australian Memory Study with the Cross-national comparisons of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised (CAMCOG-R) scores and 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores were analyzed to determine the relationship between the five-item depressive endophenotype (DepE) scale drawn from the GDS and level of performance on a measure of cognitive functioning. For the entire sample, there was a nonsignificant trend toward a negative relationship between DepE and CAMCOG-R scores. When analyzed for those 65 years and older, there was a significant negative relationship between the two measures (p = 0.001) with DepE scores significantly increasing the risk for performing more poorly on the CAMCOG-R (odds ratio = 1.53). Analysis of data for those 70 years and older showed that DepE was the only predictor significantly related to poorer CAMCOG-R performance (p = 0.001). For the 70 years and older group, DepE scores significantly increased the risk of poorer CAMCOG-R scores (odds ratio = 2.23). Analysis of the entire sample on the basis of ApoEε4 carrier status revealed that DepE scores were significantly negatively related only to ApoEε4 noncarrier regardless of age. Elevated DepE scores are associated with poor neuropsychological performance among cognitively normal older adults. Use of the DepE may allow for the identification of a subset of older adults where depression is a primary factor in cognitive decline and who may benefit from antidepressant therapies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

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    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  17. The distribution and origins of extremely acidic saline groundwaters in the south of Western Australia - Groundwater and digital mapping datasets provide new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Adam M.; Biermann, Vera; George, Richard J.; Gray, David J.; Oldham, Carolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    Some of the largest extents of naturally occurring acidic waters are found across southern Australia. The origins of these systems remain poorly understood with many hypotheses for their genesis. Australian government agency groundwater datasets and mapping data (vegetation, geology, regolith and soils) for south-western Australia, unavailable to previous researchers, were statistically analysed to better understand the origins of acidic groundwater and guide additional fieldwork to study the origins of acidic saline groundwater. The groundwater data showed a distinct bimodal distribution in pH; the 'acid' population had a median pH of 3.5 and the larger 'non-acid' population had a median pH of 6.6. Acidic groundwater became progressively more common further from the coast towards the drier internally drained regions. Acidic groundwater was mostly confined to the lower slopes and valley floors with localised controls on distribution. Paradoxically, subsoil alkalinity within the internally drained inland regions had the strongest correlation with acidic groundwater (r2 = 0.85). Vegetation was also a strong predictor of acidic groundwater. Acidic groundwater had the highest occurrence under Eucalyptus woodlands and shrublands that grew on alkaline calcareous soils. Pre-clearing soil data in areas with acidic saline groundwater showed that the upper 1 m of the unsaturated zone had a pH around 8 while the pH at depths greater than 5 m decreased to soils occurs in the upper 1 m of the profile, calcium is sourced from the deeper profile where the root biota exchanges calcium for hydrogen ions to maintain charge balance. Iron is mobilised from the upper soil profile and concentrates lower in the profile at depths >1.5 m. There, the iron is reduced around roots and the alkalinity generated by microbial iron reduction is removed by biogenic calcification processes. The iron moves in solution further down the profile following roots where it comes in contact with the

  18. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  19. First shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian Gogo Formation, Western Australia sheds new light on the development of tessellated calcified cartilage.

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    John A Long

    Full Text Available Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods. Most of the early chondrichthyan ('shark' record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group--prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males--being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential.Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380-384 Mya Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel's cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp.The Meckel's cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the 'primitive' ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers of nonprismatic subpolygonal tesserae separated by a cellular matrix

  20. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women intending to use immersion in water for labour and birth in Western Australia (2015-2016): A retrospective audit of clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Hauck, Yvonne L; Butt, Janice; Hornbuckle, Janet

    2018-01-17

    Research supports water immersion for labour if women are healthy, with no obstetric or medical risk factors. To evaluate the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women intending to use immersion in water for labour or birth. Retrospective audit of clinical outcomes for women intending to labour or birth in water conducted between July 2015 and June 2016, at a tertiary maternity hospital in Western Australia. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected from medical records. Multivariable logistic regression was utilised to investigate women who laboured in water stratified by those who birthed in water. A total of 502 women intended to labour or birth in water; 199 (40%) did not and 303 (60%) did. The majority of women using water immersion (179 of 303; 59%) birthed in water. Multiparous women were more likely than primparous to birth in water (73% vs 46%; P < 0.001). Women who birthed in water were at increased odds of: a first stage labour ≤240 min (odds ratio (OR) 2.56, 95% CI 1.34-4.87, P = 0.004); a second stage ≤60 min (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.82-6.84, P < 0.000); a third stage labour of 11-30 min (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.23-3.78, P = 0.008); and having an intact perineum (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.70-5.64, P < 0.000). Not all women who set out to labour and birth in water achieve their aim. There is a need for high-quality collaborative research into this option of labour and birth, so women can make an informed choice around this birth option. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Child oral health-related quality of life (COHQoL), enamel defects of the first permanent molars and caries experience among children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P

    2013-09-01

    Published reports suggest that children with enamel defects, especially where enamel is missing or breaking down, experience considerable discomfort and are generally more fearful of dental treatment. However, children's oral health-related quality of life in relation to enamel defects has not been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between oral health-related quality of life among children (COHQoL) with enamel defects of the first permanent molars and deciduous caries experience. Children attending pre-primary schools in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, were recruited and classified for enamel defects using the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel index. Caries experience of deciduous molars and canines was also recorded. Parents completed a child oral health-related quality of life questionnaire. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman's rank correlation, chi-square, multiple linear regression and ordered logistic regression to test the factors for their influence on the COHQoL. From the 550 children assessed (mean age 7.2 years) 522 COHQoL questionnaires were returned. Mean COHQoL score was 8.9 (sd 8.8). Bivariate tests showed no association of COHQoL with enamel defect status of the first permanent molars. COHQoL was associated with dmft (mean dmft 1.96, sd 2.62). Higher caries experience children had poorer reported oral health-related quality of life. The presence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars did not affect the children's oral health-related quality of life.

  2. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  3. Archaean Au-Ag mineralisation at Racetrack, near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia: a high crustal-level expression of the Archaean composite lode-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Mariam, M.; Groves, D. I.; McNaughton, N. J.; Mikucki, E. J.; Vearncombe, J. R.

    1993-12-01

    The Racetrack Au-Ag deposit, in the Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia, is hosted by a porphyritic basalt in a low greenschist facies setting and is associated with a brittle strike-slip fault system. Three distinct and successive stages of hydrothermal activity and late quartz-carbonate veining resulted in multiple veining and/or brecciation: Stages I and II are Au-bearing, whereas Stage III and late veins are barren. The ore shows features of both classic epithermal and mesothermal deposits. Alteration assemblages, typified by sericitization, carbonization, silicification and chloritization, are similar to those of mesothermal gold deposits, wheras the quartz vein-textures including comb, rosette, plumose and banded, ore mineralogyof arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, freibergite, tetrahedrite, tennantite, fahlore, electrum and gold, and metal associations (Cu, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au and Pb) are more characteristics of epithermal deposits. Fluid inclusions related to Stage II are two phase and aqueous with 1-8 (average 4) wt. % NaCl equiv. and CO2 content of <0.85 molal. Pressure-corrected homogenisation temperatures range from 190°C to 260°C. Mineral assemblages indicate that ore fluid pH ranged between 4.2 and 5.3, fO 2 between 10-38.8 and 10-39.6 bars, and mΣs between 10-3.2 and 10-3.6. Calculated chemical and stable isotope compositions require a component of surface water in the ore fluid depositing the mineralisation, but evidence for deep crustal Pb indicates that deeply sourced fluids were also involved. The deposit is interpreted to have formed in a shallow environment via mixing of deeply sourced fluids, from at least as deep as the base of the greenstone belt, with surface waters. It therefore represents the upper crustal end-member of the crustal depth spectrum of Archaean lode-gold mineralisation.

  4. Engaging consumers living in remote areas of Western Australia in the self-management of back pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater Helen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western Australia (WA, health policy recommends encouraging the use of active self-management strategies as part of the co-care of consumers with persistent low back pain (LBP. As many areas in WA are geographically isolated and health services are limited, implementing this policy into practice is critical if health outcomes for consumers living in geographically-isolated areas are to be improved. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 51 consumers (mean (SD age 62.3 (±15.1 years participated in an evidence-based interdisciplinary pain education program (modified Self Training Educative Pain Sessions: mSTEPS delivered at three geographically isolated WA sites. Self report measures included LBP beliefs and attitudes (Back Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ, use of active and passive self-management strategies, and health literacy, and global perceived impression of usefulness (GPIU recorded immediately pre-intervention (n = 51, same day post-intervention (BBQ; GPIU, n = 49 and 3 months post-intervention (n = 25. Results At baseline, consumers demonstrated adequate health literacy and elements of positive health behaviours, reflected by the use of more active than passive strategies in self-managing their persistent LBP. Immediately post-intervention, there was strong evidence for improvement in consumers’ general beliefs about LBP as demonstrated by an increase in BBQ scores (baseline [mean (SD: 25.8 (7.6] to same day post-intervention [28.8 (7.2; P  Conclusions To sustain improved consumer beliefs regarding LBP and encourage the adoption of more positive health behaviours, additional reinforcement strategies for consumers living in remote areas where service access and skilled workforce are limited are recommended. This study highlights the need for aligning health services and skilled workforce to improve the delivery of co-care for consumers living in

  5. The role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of stroke. A population-based case-control study in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, K; Broadhurst, R J; Anderson, C S; Stewart-Wynne, E G

    1994-01-01

    We sought to examine risk factors for all strokes and for ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage separately. This was a population-based case-control study. Each case subject meeting World Health Organization criteria for stroke (n = 536) from a population-based register of acute cerebrovascular events compiled in Perth, Western Australia, in 1989 to 1990 was matched for age and sex with up to five control subjects drawn from the same geographical area. Objective confirmation of the type of stroke was available from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or necropsy for 86% of the case subjects. Data on medical history and lifestyle factors were collected from case and control subjects by interview of the subject or a proxy informant. Current smoking, consumption of meat more than four times weekly, and a history of hypertension or intermittent claudication were each associated with increased risk in multivariate models for all strokes and for all first-ever strokes. Consumption of 1 to 20 g/d alcohol in the preceding week was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all strokes, all ischemic strokes, and of primary intracerebral hemorrhage, while eating fish more than two times per month appeared to protect against first-ever stroke and against primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a significantly increased risk of ischemic stroke but a decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Risk factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are not exactly the same. Changes in lifestyle relating to tobacco and diet might make important contributions to further reductions in the incidence of stroke.

  6. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  7. A multidisciplinary approach to digital mapping of dinosaurian tracksites in the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Romilio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundant dinosaurian tracksites of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia, form an important part of the West Kimberley National Heritage Place. Previous attempts to document these tracksites using traditional mapping techniques (e.g., surface overlays, transects and gridlines combined with conventional photography have been hindered by the non-trivial challenges associated with working in this area, including, but not limited to: (1 the remoteness of many of the tracksites; (2 the occurrence of the majority of the tracksites in the intertidal zone; (3 the size and complexity of many of the tracksites, with some extending over several square kilometres. Using the historically significant and well-known dinosaurian tracksites at Minyirr (Gantheaume Point, we show how these issues can be overcome through the use of an integrated array of remote sensing tools. A combination of high-resolution aerial photography with both manned and unmanned aircraft, airborne and handheld high-resolution lidar imaging and handheld photography enabled the collection of large amounts of digital data from which 3D models of the tracksites at varying resolutions were constructed. The acquired data encompasses a very broad scale, from the sub-millimetre level that details individual tracks, to the multiple-kilometre level, which encompasses discontinuous tracksite exposures and large swathes of coastline. The former are useful for detailed ichnological work, while the latter are being employed to better understand the stratigraphic and temporal relationship between tracksites in a broader geological and palaeoecological context. These approaches and the data they can generate now provide a means through which digital conservation and temporal monitoring of the Dampier Peninsula’s dinosaurian tracksites can occur. As plans for the on-going management of the tracks in this area progress, analysis of

  8. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI, and WorldView-2 (WV2 at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  9. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

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    Holman C D'Arcy J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.

  10. Educational, developmental and psychological outcomes of resettled refugee children in Western Australia: a review of School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ariel Olivia; Mulheron, Shani; Jones, Caleb; Cherian, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    There are limited data regarding the educational backgrounds and associated psychological and developmental outcomes of refugee children resettling in Western Australia (WA). The WA paediatric Refugee Health Service (RHS) revised its first consult questionnaire (August 2011) to increase educational and psychosocial documentation, concurrent with engagement of a School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health (SSEN: MMH) liaison teacher. This study aims to utilise these data to increase understanding of this cohort's educational, developmental and psychological needs and to describe SSEN: MMH's role within the RHS. Retrospective audit and analyses were performed on all initial standardised questionnaires for school-aged refugee children (4-18 years) and SSEN: MMH referrals between August 2011 and December 2012. Demographic data from 332 refugees are described (mean age 9.58 ± standard deviation 3.43 years). Detailed educational information was available for 205 children. Prior education was limited (median 2 years), 64.9% experienced likely schooling interruption and 55.8% received education in their primary language. Language development concerns were significantly associated with previous education in a second language (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, P education. In contrast, several migration factors, including family separation and mandatory detention, were significantly associated with psychological comorbidities such as post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 5.60, P educational, developmental and psychological concerns. Refugee children have varied migration, trauma and educational backgrounds, impacting on health and psychological outcomes. In-depth multidisciplinary history including prior education and psychosocial issues is recommended. Partnering with education services appears to play an effective, multifaceted role in aiding resettlement; however, longitudinal studies are required. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014

  11. Effects of trial disposal of acid-iron effluent from titanium dioxide production on the seafloor and epibenthic macroflora offshore from Koombana Bay, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Chalmer, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a trial discharge of acid-iron effluent, resulting from titanium dioxide production on the seafloor and epibenthic macroflora offshore from Koombana Bay, Western Australia, were assessed. Approximately 88,000 1 day /sup -1/ of effluent containing 28 gl/sup -1/ of iron and 137 gl/sup -2/ of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ were discharged through a submarine pipeline from February 1976 to December 1977. This amount of effluent, constituting approx. 5% of total production, was intended to provide a guide as to the environmental effects on the seafloor of discharging the total amount of effluent. Preliminary studies suggested that discernible effects of the discharge were likely to be restricted to the immediate vicinity of the outfall. Consequently, surveys of the effects of the discharge were conducted by divers in December 1976 and April and December 1977 within 400 m of the outfall. The parameters measured were iron concentration in the surface sediment, number of macroscopic plant species (algae and seagrass) and leaf characteristics of the seagrass, Posidonia ostenfeldii. Additional observations on iron staining of the sediment and the condition of the macroscopic plants were also recorded by the divers. By December 1976, the outfall was surrounded by a zone, with a diameter of approx. 200 m, which was totally denuded of macroscopic plants. Extending further from the outfall was a zone in which some effects of the effluent (e.g. sediment stained by iron, reduction in macroscopic plants) were discernible. The total area of seafloor discernibly affected by the effluent in December 1977 when this study finished was 16 ha. At that time, the affected area may have still been increasing in size, and thus the figure of 16 ha must be considered only as the minimum area likely to have been affected by the discharge.

  12. Floristic patterns and disturbance history in karri ( Eucalyptus diversicolor: Myrtaceae) forest, south-western Australia: 2. Origin, growth form and fire response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Williams, M. R.; Mellican, A. E.; Annells, A.

    2007-03-01

    We examined the influence of disturbance history on the floristic composition of a single community type in karri forest, south-western Australia. Cover-abundance of 224 plant species and six disturbance and site-based environmental variables were recorded in 91, 20 m × 20 m quadrats. Numerical taxonomic and correlation approaches were used to relate these and 10 plant species-group variables based on origin, growth form and fire response. Ordination revealed no discernable pattern of sites based on floristic composition. However, all 10 species-group variables were significantly correlated with the ordination axes. Species richness within these groups varied with category and with respect to many of the disturbance and site variables. We encountered low diversity of vascular plants at the community level and limited diversity of growth forms. Thus most species were herbs (62.1%) or shrubs (30.3%), and there were no epiphytes and few species of trees or climbers. Although many introduced species were recorded (18.3% of all taxa), virtually all (83%) were herbs that demonstrated little persistence in the community, and there was limited evidence of transformer species. Time-since-fire (and other disturbance) influenced species richness more than the number of recent past fires because of a high proportion of ephemerals associated with the immediate post-fire period. Long-lived shrubs with soil stored seed dominate numerically, and in understorey biomass in comparison with neighboring vegetation types because of their greater flexibility of response following irregular, but intense disturbance events. However, interactions between nutrient status, regeneration mechanisms and community composition may be worthy of further investigation.

  13. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

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    Jan-Peter Duda

    Full Text Available Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰, are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰ that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies

  14. Classification of burn severity using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): A case study in the jarrah-marri forest of southwest Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Maier, Stefan W.; Dech, Stefan W.; Conrad, Christopher; Colditz, René R.

    2007-06-01

    The southwest of Western Australia is a fire-prone landscape. In this Mediterranean region, prescribed fuel reduction burning is applied as a management tool by the state government's Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM). Remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with multiple observations per day are investigated for operational monitoring of prescribed burning activities.The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is sensitive to the amount of biomass, soil exposure and equivalent water content. The differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (ΔNBR) shows the greatest response of landscape change due to fire. The ratios, originally applied to 30-m Landsat 7 ETM+ data, have been transferred to 250-500 m MODIS data. The high temporal resolution and direct broadcast capability of MODIS are considered favorable for monitoring prefire and postfire conditions, in particular in near-real time. This study applies the ΔNBR to classify burn severity using MODIS data with various levels of preprocessing. On the basis of field studies, four burn severity classes are distinguished with best discrimination for high burn severity where the top layer of the vegetation canopy is altered. As expected, the spatial detail of the classifications from MODIS is reduced when compared to results from Landsat 7 ETM+, but the large-scale spatial patterns are similar. NBR time series of daily data showed that classes of burn severity can be separated for each acquisition date. Large temporal variations of the NBR limit class separation with absolute thresholds, in particular for data uncorrected for effects due to varying viewing geometries. However, MODIS top of atmosphere data allow near-real-time assessment of burn severity, important to fire managers for monitoring postfire conditions.

  15. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1μM), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1μM), propranolol (1μM), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1μM). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100μg/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100μg/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07μg/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3μM), ω-conotoxin GVIA (0.1μM) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3μM). TTX (0.1μM), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3μM) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the implementation and active living impacts of a state government planning policy designed to create walkable neighborhoods in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the implementation of a government planning policy (Liveable Neighbourhoods Guidelines) and its impacts on residents' walking behaviors. Cross-sectional study of participants from the RESIDential Environments project (RESIDE). Nineteen "liveable" and 17 "conventionally designed" housing developments across Perth, Western Australia. Five hundred ninety-four participants from RESIDE who resided in 36 housing developments. Developed in geographic information systems to assess the on-ground implementation of 43 policy requirements. Policy compliance was defined as the degree to which construction of the developments adhered to the standards outlined. Walking behaviors were measured using the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire. K-means cluster analyses identified groups of homogeneous developments with respect to policy implementation. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the likelihood of undertaking any and ≥ 60 minutes of transport and recreational walking associated with (1) policy compliance and (2) different clusters of developments. There were few significant differences in on-ground outcomes between the two development types. Despite incomplete implementation, the odds of walking for transport increased with overall levels of policy compliance (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.08) and compliance with the community design (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.13-1.42), movement network (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.38-4.50), and lot layout elements (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50). Consistent with the aims of the policy, residents in walkable (i.e., liveable) neighborhoods may be more physically active.

  17. Study protocol for screening and diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among young people sentenced to detention in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Hayley M; Giglia, Roslyn; Watkins, Rochelle E; Mutch, Raewyn C; Marriott, Rhonda; Pestell, Carmela; Zubrick, Stephen R; Rainsford, Candice; Walker, Noni; Fitzpatrick, James P; Freeman, Jacinta; Kippin, Natalie; Safe, Bernadette; Bower, Carol

    2016-06-22

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause lifelong disability, including physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Among individuals with FASD, engagement with justice services is common. Little is known about the prevalence of FASD among young people engaged with the Australian justice system. This study aims to establish FASD prevalence among sentenced young people in detention in Western Australia (WA), and use the findings to develop a screening tool for use among young people entering detention. Translation of these results will guide the management and support of young people in detention and will have significant implications on the lives of young people with FASD and the future of Australian youth justice services. Any sentenced young person in WA aged 10-17 years 11 months is eligible to participate. Young people are assessed for FASD by a multidisciplinary team. Standardised assessment tools refined for the Australian context are used, acknowledging the language and social complexities involved. Australian diagnostic guidelines for FASD will be applied. Information is obtained from young people, responsible adults, teachers and custodial officers. Individualised results and management plans for each young person are communicated to the young person and responsible adult. Prevalence of FASD will be reported and multivariate methods used to identify variables most predictive of FASD and to optimise the predictive value of screening. Approvals have been granted by the WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee, University of WA Human Research Ethics Committee, Department of Corrective Services, and Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Anonymised findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, presentations and the media. Extensive consultation with stakeholders (including government agencies, detention centre staff, community service providers, the young people and their families

  18. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Passang; Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  19. First shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia sheds new light on the development of tessellated calcified cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John A; Burrow, Carole J; Ginter, Michal; Maisey, John G; Trinajstic, Kate M; Coates, Michael I; Young, Gavin C; Senden, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods). Most of the early chondrichthyan ('shark') record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group--prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males--being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential. Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380-384 Mya) Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel's cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp. The Meckel's cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the 'primitive' ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers of nonprismatic subpolygonal tesserae separated by a cellular matrix, interpreted

  20. Social networking sites (SNS); exploring their uses and associated value for adolescent mothers in Western Australia in terms of social support provision and building social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Towell, Amanda

    2015-09-01

    to explore the use of social networking sites (SNS) by adolescent mothers in Western Australia (WA) in relation to social support and the building of social capital. a constructionist narrative inquiry approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was gained from the university human ethics department. Sampling was purposeful and data were collected using in-depth interviews with seven adolescent mothers in WA. interviews were undertaken within the homes of adolescent mothers across WA. from within three fundamental domains of social support; tangible, emotional and informational support, provided by SNS use, five key themes were identified from the narratives. 'Social connectedness' was identified as a form of tangible support, sometimes termed 'practical' or 'instrumental' support. This theme incorporates connectedness with family, friends, and peers and across new and existing social groups. Three themes were identified that relate to emotional support; 'increased parenting confidence'; 'reduced parental stress' and 'enhanced self-disclosure' afforded by use of SNS. 'Access to information' was identified in terms of informational support, with participants often highlighting SNS use as their primary portal for information and advice. the findings of this study suggest that SNS use affords adolescent mothers in WA access to tangible, informational and emotional support and thus is a valuable source of social capital for these mothers. This study provides a platform for further exploration into this phenomenon, and possible implications include the potential for midwives and health care professionals to promote the benefits of SNS use with, and for, this group of mothers, or to incorporate SNS use into modern health care practices to further develop the potential for improved social capital related outcomes for them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Need for Temperance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Inge Tangen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how temperance as a virtue relates to organizational leadership. The study begins with a short survey of classical Greek and Christian notions of temperance before proceeding to ex-plore temperance in relation to self-leadership, visionary and strategic leadership, and relational lead-ership. The final part of the article offers reflections on how temperance might be cultivated from a theological perspective. Temperance is understood not only as sound thinking but also as embodied self-control and active patience. On the level of self-leadership, it is argued that temperance enables the leader to establish forms of integrity that protect the leader’s self from chaos and destruction. Moreover, temperance may also nurture focused visionary leadership that accepts ethical limits and has an eye to the common good. The study also suggests that organizations should cultivate a culture of strategic discipline that is capable of realizing such visions. On the interpersonal level, temperance is viewed as critical in terms of enabling leaders to treat co-workers with respect and wisdom and han-dle conflict with consideration. Finally, is argued that that the cultivation of temperance is not a one-way street from the inside to the outside or a subordination of feelings to reason but rather a very complex process that includes interpersonal humility, finds vision in an encounter with the good, and yet remains a personal responsibility.

  2. A climate change context for the decline of a foundation tree species in south-western Australia: insights from phylogeography and species distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmaris, Eleftheria; Ramalho, Cristina E.; Poot, Pieter; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Byrne, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A worldwide increase in tree decline and mortality has been linked to climate change and, where these represent foundation species, this can have important implications for ecosystem functions. This study tests a combined approach of phylogeographic analysis and species distribution modelling to provide a climate change context for an observed decline in crown health and an increase in mortality in Eucalyptus wandoo, an endemic tree of south-western Australia. Methods Phylogeographic analyses were undertaken using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chloroplast DNA in 26 populations across the species distribution. Parsimony analysis of haplotype relationships was conducted, a haplotype network was prepared, and haplotype and nucleotide diversity were calculated. Species distribution modelling was undertaken using Maxent models based on extant species occurrences and projected to climate models of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Key Results A structured pattern of diversity was identified, with the presence of two groups that followed a climatic gradient from mesic to semi-arid regions. Most populations were represented by a single haplotype, but many haplotypes were shared among populations, with some having widespread distributions. A putative refugial area with high haplotype diversity was identified at the centre of the species distribution. Species distribution modelling showed high climatic suitability at the LGM and high climatic stability in the central region where higher genetic diversity was found, and low suitability elsewhere, consistent with a pattern of range contraction. Conclusions Combination of phylogeography and paleo-distribution modelling can provide an evolutionary context for climate-driven tree decline, as both can be used to cross-validate evidence for refugia and contraction under harsh climatic conditions. This approach identified a central refugial area in the test species E. wandoo, with more recent

  3. Modern subsurface bacteria in pristine 2.7 Ga-old fossil stromatolite drillcore samples from the Fortescue Group, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Gérard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several abiotic processes leading to the formation of life-like signatures or later contamination with actual biogenic traces can blur the interpretation of the earliest fossil record. In recent years, a large body of evidence showing the occurrence of diverse and active microbial communities in the terrestrial subsurface has accumulated. Considering the time elapsed since Archaean sedimentation, the contribution of subsurface microbial communities postdating the rock formation to the fossil biomarker pool and other biogenic remains in Archaean rocks may be far from negligible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to evaluate the degree of potential contamination of Archean rocks by modern microorganisms, we looked for the presence of living indigenous bacteria in fresh diamond drillcores through 2,724 Myr-old stromatolites (Tumbiana Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia using molecular methods based on the amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNAs. We analyzed drillcore samples from 4.3 m and 66.2 m depth, showing signs of meteoritic alteration, and also from deeper "fresh" samples showing no apparent evidence for late stage alteration (68 m, 78.8 m, and 99.3 m. We also analyzed control samples from drilling and sawing fluids and a series of laboratory controls to establish a list of potential contaminants introduced during sample manipulation and PCR experiments. We identified in this way the presence of indigenous bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria in aseptically-sawed inner parts of drillcores down to at least 78.8 m depth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of modern bacterial communities in subsurface fossil stromatolite layers opens the possibility that a continuous microbial colonization had existed in the past and contributed to the accumulation of biogenic traces over geological timescales. This finding casts shadow on bulk

  4. Lithostratigraphic analysis of a new stromatolite-thrombolite reef from across the rise of atmospheric oxygen in the Paleoproterozoic Turee Creek Group, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, E; Van Kranendonk, M J; Yamaguchi, K E; Ikehara, M; Lepland, A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes a previously undocumented dolomitic stromatolite-thrombolite reef complex deposited within the upper part (Kazput Formation) of the c. 2.4-2.3 Ga Turee Creek Group, Western Australia, across the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Confused by some as representing a faulted slice of the younger c. 1.8 Ga Duck Creek Dolomite, this study describes the setting and lithostratigraphy of the 350-m-thick complex and shows how it differs from its near neighbour. The Kazput reef complex is preserved along 15 km of continuous exposure on the east limb of a faulted, north-west-plunging syncline and consists of 5 recognisable facies associations (A-E), which form two part regressions and one transgression. The oldest facies association (A) is characterised by thinly bedded dololutite-dolarenite, with local domical stromatolites. Association B consists of interbedded columnar and stratiform stromatolites deposited under relatively shallow-water conditions. Association C comprises tightly packed columnar and club-shaped stromatolites deposited under continuously deepening conditions. Clotted (thrombolite-like) microbialite, in units up to 40 m thick, dominates Association D, whereas Association E contains bedded dololutite and dolarenite, and some thinly bedded ironstone, shale and black chert units. Carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy reveals a narrow range in both δ(13) Ccarb values, from -0.22 to 0.97‰ (VPDB: average = 0.68‰), and δ(18) O values, from -14.8 to -10.3‰ (VPDB), within the range of elevated fluid temperatures, likely reflecting some isotopic exchange. The Kazput Formation stromatolite-thrombolite reef complex contains features of younger Paleoproterozoic carbonate reefs, yet is 300-500 Ma older than previously described Proterozoic examples worldwide. Significantly, the microbial fabrics are clearly distinct from Archean stromatolitic marine carbonate reefs by way of containing the first appearance of clotted microbialite and large

  5. Sulfur speciation and isotope analysis of the 2.7 Ga shallow- and deep-facies black shales from Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, H.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.

    2014-12-01

    It has been widely believed that Great Oxidation Event (GOE: Holland, 1994) occurred at ~2.4-2.2 Ga ago. However, some previous studies have found evidence for oxic ocean and atmosphere from earlier rock records (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). In order to explore if such oxic environment was local or global and if there was redox heterogeneity in a sedimentary basin before the inferred GOE, using the 2.7 Ga pyrite-bearing drillcore black shales (deep-facies WRL1 and shallow-facies RHDH2A drillcores) from Pilbara, Western Australia, we separately quantified abundance of S-bearing species (SAVS (acid-volatile sulfide), Spy (pyrite), SSO4 (sulfate), Sorg (organic-S), and S0 (elemental S) and Fe-bearing species (Fecarb, Feox, and Femag) by using sequential extraction methods. These samples were previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi (2002), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). The shallow samples have high S contents and are interpreted to have deposited in relatively anoxic environment, but most of deep samples with elevated Fe contents deposited in relatively oxic environment. The DOP values and δ34Spy values are relatively higher in shallow samples, suggesting active bacterial sulfate reduction in reducing environment created due to near-complete consumption of dissolved O2by decomposition of organic matter produced by photosynthesizers living in the surface ocean. All of these observations consistently suggest that the shallower part was anoxic and deeper part was oxic in the 2.7 Ga ocean. The surface ocean would have been oxygenated due to activity of oxygenic photosynthesis. Such redox stratification of the ocean, i.e., development of mid-depth (shallow) OMZ in an essentially oxic ocean, is typically seen in highly productive regions in the modern ocean. Modern-style oceanic redox structure could have existed as far back as 2.7 Ga ago, much earlier than the inferred GOE at ~2.4-2.2 Ga. Brocks et al. (1999) Science 285, 1033

  6. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  7. Management of root diseases of annual pasture legumes in Mediterranean ecosystems - a case study of subterranean clover root diseases in the south-west of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barbetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum is an important component of Mediterranean dryland pasture ecosystems, such as in the south-west of Western Australia, where it is utilised as a winter annual pasture that provides nitrogen as well as disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic soil-borne fungal pathogens dominate Mediterranean ecosystems because of the ease of survival of these pathogens on infested residues over the dry summer period, and because of low levels of microbial competition in the impoverished and nutrient-defi cient soils characteristic of these regions that predisposes plants to root diseases. In addition to herbage and seed yield losses from soil-borne fungal and nematode pathogens, changes in botanical composition, in the number of regenerating plants, their persistence, and factors affecting feed quality are signifi cantly affected. Further, where the causal organisms of the diseases on subterranean clover are also common on other rotational crops, the impact of these soilborne pathogens appears far wider in Mediterranean ecosystems than previously considered. Under these conditions, soil-borne pathogens pose a serious threat to the productivity of this self-seeding pasture legume, to the extent that reseeding may become necessary. Pathogens such as Phytophthora clandestina, various Pythium species particularly Pythium irregulare, Aphanomyces sp., Rhizoctonia solani, one or more Fusarium species, Phoma medicaginis and Cylindrocarpon didymium are of concern, as are the nematode parasites from the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Pratylenchus, Trichodorus and Radopholus. In this ecosystem, root pathogens operate together as disease complexes and the challenge therefore has been to source host genotypes with resistance to multiple pathogens. In addition to plant nutrition, environmental factors, in particular rainfall (soil moisture and soil temperature, have a marked effect on both the disease severity caused by

  8. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000-2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc] with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000-05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010-14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44-91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and

  9. Scientific evidence for the identification of an Aboriginal massacre at the Sturt Creek sites on the Kimberley frontier of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela A; Raven, Mark D; Walshe, Keryn; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Pate, F Donald

    2017-10-01

    Archival research into episodes of frontier violence in the Kimberley region of Western Australia indicate that the bodies of Aboriginal victims of massacres were frequently incinerated following the event. This paper presents the results of a scientific investigation of a reported massacre at Sturt Creek where burnt bone fragments were identified in two adjacent sites and documents the archaeological signatures associated with the sites. The methodology used to undertake the project brought together three systems of knowledge: the oral testimonies of the descent group originating from a sole adult survivor of the massacre; archival, historical and scientific research. An archaeological survey defined the two distinct sites containing hundreds of fragile bone fragments; a third site was found to be highly disturbed. Scientific investigations included macroscopic and microscopic examination of selected bone fragments by an anatomical pathologist and a zooarchaeologist and X-ray diffraction analysis of sixteen bone fragments. The anatomical pathologist and zooarchaeologist undertook macroscopic and microscopic examinations of selected bone samples to identify morphological evidence for human origin. It was concluded that three bone fragments examined may have been human, and two of the fragments may have been from the vault of a skull. It was concluded that the likelihood of them being human would be strengthened if it was found that the three samples had been subjected to high temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis of 16 bone fragments provided this evidence. All fragments showed sharp hydroxylapatite peaks (crystallite sizes 9882nm and 597nm respectively) and all had been subjected to extreme temperatures of either 600°C for more than 80h, 650°C for more than 20h, 700°C for more than 4h or 800°C for more than 1h. XRD analyses were also done on bone samples collected from three cooking hearths at three different archaeological sites. It was found that two of

  10. Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic (Australia); Blockley, A.; Rayner, K. [Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2001-04-01

    A prognostic air pollution model (TAPM) has been used to predict meteorology and sulphur dioxide concentration in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia for 1997, with a view to verifying TAPM for use in environmental impact assessments and associated air pollution studies. The regulatory plume model, DISPMOD, developed for the Kwinana region has also been run using both an observationally based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-O) and using a TAPM-based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-T). TAPM predictions of the meteorology for 1997 compare well with the observed values at each of the five monitoring sites. Root mean square error and index of agreement values for temperature and winds indicate that TAPM performs well at predicting the meteorology, compared to the performance of similar models from other studies. The yearly average, 99.9 percentile, maximum and mean of the top 10 ground-level sulphur dioxide concentrations for 1997 were predicted well by all of the model runs, although DISPMOD-O and DISPMOD-T tended to overpredict extreme statistics at sites furthest from the sources. Overall, TAPM performed better than DISPMOD-O, which in turn performed better than DISPMOD-T, for all statistics considered, but we consider that all three sets of results are sufficiently accurate for regulatory applications. The mean of the top ten concentrations is generally considered to be a robust performance statistic for air pollution applications, and we show that compared to the site-averaged observed value of 95{mu}gm{sup -3}, TAPM predicted 94{mu}gm{sup -3}, DISPMOD-O predicted 111{mu}gm{sup -3} and DISPMOD-T predicted 125{mu}gm{sup -3}. The results indicate that the prognostic meteorological and air pollution approach to regulatory modelling used by TAPM, gives comparable or better results than the current regulatory approach used in the Kwinana region (DISPMOD), and also indicates that the approach of using a currently accepted regulatory model with a

  11. Increasing Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15–39 Years in Western Australia 1982–2007: Examination of Colonoscopy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhina Troeung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AimsTo examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and colonoscopy history in adolescents and young adults (AYAs aged 15–39 years in Western Australia (WA from 1982 to 2007.DesignDescriptive cohort study using population-based linked hospital and cancer registry data.MethodFive-year age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of CRC were calculated for all AYAs and by sex. Temporal trends in CRC incidence were investigated using Joinpoint regression analysis. The annual percentage change (APC in CRC incidence was calculated to identify significant time trends. Colonoscopy history relative to incident CRC diagnosis was examined and age and tumor grade at diagnosis compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy. CRC-related mortality within 5 and 10 years of incident diagnosis were compared for AYAs with and without pre-diagnosis colonoscopy using mortality rate ratios (MRRs derived from negative binomial regression.ResultsAge-standardized CRC incidence among AYAs significantly increased in WA between 1982 and 2007, APC = 3.0 (95% CI 0.7–5.5. Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy was uncommon among AYAs (6.0%, 33/483 and 71% of AYAs were diagnosed after index (first ever colonoscopy. AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy were older at CRC diagnosis (mean 36.7 ± 0.7 years compared to those with no prior colonoscopy (32.6 ± 0.2 years, p < 0.001. At CRC diagnosis, a significantly greater proportion of AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy had well-differentiated tumors (21.2% compared to those without (5.6%, p = 0.001. CRC-related mortality was significantly lower for AYAs with pre-diagnosis colonoscopy compared to those without, for both 5-year [MRR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27–0.75, p = 0.045] and 10-year morality [MRR = 0.43 (95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.043].ConclusionCRC incidence among AYAs in WA has significantly increased over the 25-year study period. Pre-diagnosis colonoscopy is associated

  12. Australian Assassins, Part II: A review of the new assassin spider genus Zephyrarchaea (Araneae, Archaeidae from southern Australia

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    Michael Rix

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae from southern Australia are revised, with a new genus (Zephyrarchaea gen. n. and nine new species described from temperate, mesic habitats in southern Victoria, South Australia and south-western Western Australia: Z. austini sp. n., Z. barrettae sp. n., Z. grayi sp. n., Z. janineae sp. n., Z. marae sp. n., Z. marki sp. n., Z. melindae sp. n., Z. porchi sp. n. and Z. vichickmani sp. n. Specimens of the type species, Z. mainae (Platnick, 1991 comb. n., are redescribed from the Albany region of Western Australia, along with the holotype female of Z. robinsi (Harvey, 2002 comb. n. from the Stirling Range National Park. The previously described species Archaea hickmani Butler, 1929 from Victoria is here recognised as a nomen dubium. A key to species and multi-locus molecular phylogeny complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species.

  13. Coastal Temperate Rainforest Symposium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the April 2012 science symposium - Coastal Temperate Rainforests: Integrating Communities, Climate Science, and Resource...

  14. Is small beautiful? Student performance and perceptions of their experience at larger and smaller sites in rural and remote longitudinal integrated clerkships in the Rural Clinical School of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Murdoch, J Campbell

    2010-01-01

    The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) provides 25% of Western Australia's medical students in their first full clinical year with a longitudinal integrated clerkship in rural and remote areas. They live and work in 10 different sites in groups of 3 to 10 members. This study aimed to discover if students at the smaller sites were disadvantaged by the reduced number of student colleagues, and also by a smaller population catchment area potentially providing a smaller number of clinical presentations. Data were collected from 2003 until 2007 from a variety of sources including annual comparisons of end of year results, annual mid-year interviews of all students and staff, and the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) Survey. There was no difference in end of year results between smaller sites and larger sites and both had slightly higher marks (and statistically significantly better) than their metropolitan colleagues. Mid-year interviews were shown to correlate significantly with the findings from the DREEM questionnaire in terms of student perceptions. Students at small sites were more satisfied with their educational experience than those at the larger sites. With good infrastructure, clarity about learning objectives and a structured academic approach to the complexities of the first full clinical year's curriculum, students need not be disadvantaged by being sent in small numbers to small and/or remote sites for their clinical education. This was established both academically in terms of end of year marks, and also by their subjective experiences.

  15. COMPOSITION AND OCCURRENCE OF THE GRANDISPORA MACULOSA ZONAL ASSEMBLAGE (MISSISSIPPIAN IN THE SUBSURFACE OF THE CARNARVON BASIN AND THE COOLCALALAYA SUB-BASIN OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA, AND ITS GONDWANAN DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEOFFREY PLAYFORD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grandispora maculosa miospore assemblage – initially described in 1968 from Middle-Late Mississippian strata of New South Wales (eastern Australia – is well represented in samples examined herein from 10 Western Australian subsurface sections located in the northern Perth Basin (Coolcalalaya Sub-basin and, to its immediate north, in several sub-basins of the southern and northern sectors of the Carnarvon Basin. Of particular stratigraphic-correlative importance is the presence of the eponymous G. maculosa together with, inter alia, Reticulatisporites magnidictyus, Verrucosisporites quasigobbettii, V. gregatus, Apiculiretusispora tersa, Raistrickia accinta, R. radiosa, Foveosporites pellucidus, and Cordylosporites asperidictyus. Four species are newly described herein: Apiculatasporites spiculatus, Dibolisporites sejunctus, Raistrickia corymbiata, and Vallatisporites valentulus. Published accounts from elsewhere in Gondwana collectively signify the widespread dissemination of the G. maculosa palynoflora, particularly through northern and western regions of the supercontinent, thus affording an effective means of intra-Gondwanan stratal correlation. Limited absolute dating and stratigraphic-successional considerations across Gondwana indicate that the age of the G. maculosa Assemblage can be bracketed within the middle Visean-early Serpukhovian of the Middle-Late Mississippian. This age is supported by the complete absence of bilaterally symmetrical, non-striate, saccate pollen grains, produced by walchian conifers, which were introduced globally (including in Australia and near-synchronously late in the Serpukhovian. Cryptogamic land plants (ferns, articulates, lycophytes are the inferred source of the palynoflora.

  16. Simulated Solute Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, Robert; Lingenheil, Martin; Tavan, Paul; Mathias, Gerald

    2009-10-13

    For the enhanced conformational sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we present "simulated solute tempering" (SST) which is an easy to implement variant of simulated tempering. SST extends conventional simulated tempering (CST) by key concepts of "replica exchange with solute tempering" (REST, Liu et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 13749). We have applied SST, CST, and REST to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an alanine octapeptide in explicit water. The weight parameters required for CST and SST are determined by two different formulas whose performance is compared. For SST only one of them yields a uniform sampling of the temperature space. Compared to CST and REST, SST provides the highest exchange probabilities between neighboring rungs in the temperature ladder. Concomitantly, SST leads to the fastest diffusion of the simulation system through the temperature space, in particular, if the "even-odd" exchange scheme is employed in SST. As a result, SST exhibits the highest sampling speed of the investigated tempering methods.

  17. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  18. Temperate non-breeding surveys - a key to shorebird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Completion of the United States and Canadian shorebird conservation plans recently identified and prioritized shorebird monitoring, management, and conservation needs in the Western Hemisphere. We present an emerging approach to monitor shorebird use of temperate non-breeding areas under the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM). This...

  19. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  20. Kajian Pembuatan Cokelat Batang dengan Metode Tempering dan Tanpa Tempering

    OpenAIRE

    Eti Indarti; Normalina Arpi; Slamet Budijanto*

    2013-01-01

    This research is aimed to improve stability of milk chocolate bars by tempering process. The making of chocolate bars consisted of two formulations, namely a higher fat bar (40%) and low fat bar (21.5%).The study includes the chocolate bar preparation with and without tempering results. The melting point of milk chocolate bars that use cocoa butter tempering (L1) is higher than the milk chocolate bars that use fat without tempering (L2) for all treatments. Solid fat content (SFC) of F1 has hi...

  1. Was there a Skills Shortage in Australia?

    OpenAIRE

    Junankar, P.N. (Raja)

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the problem of a "skills shortage" in Australia. It begins with an analysis of the operation of a labour market in terms of stocks and flows of labour services and human capital acquisition. It discusses the definition of a skills shortage, why it persists, and then looks at evidence from Australia, in particular, the resource rich states of Queensland and Western Australia over the past decade. It discusses possible employer responses to a skills shortage. Finally, it disc...

  2. The ecology and epidemiology of Ross River and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses in Western Australia: examples of One Health in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, John S; Lindsay, Michael D A; Smith, David W; Imrie, Allison

    2017-06-01

    Arboviruses are maintained and transmitted through an alternating biological cycle in arthropods and vertebrates, with largely incidental disease in humans and animals. As such, they provide excellent examples of One Health, as their health impact is inextricably linked to their vertebrate hosts, their arthropod vectors and the environment. Prevention and control requires a comprehensive understanding of these interactions, and how they may be effectively and safely modified. This review concentrates on human disease due to Ross River and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses, the two major arboviral pathogens in Australia. It describes how their pattern of infection and disease is influenced by natural climatic and weather patterns, and by anthropogenic activities. The latter includes human-mediated environmental manipulations, such as water impoundment infrastructures, human movements and migration, and community and social changes, such as urban spread into mosquito larval habitats. Effective interventions need to be directed at the environmental precursors of risk. This can best be achieved using One Health approaches to improve collaboration and coordination between different disciplines and cross-sectoral jurisdictions in order to develop more holistic mitigation and control procedures, and to address poorly understood ecological issues through multidisciplinary research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. A new geoarchaeology of Aboriginal artefact deposits in western NSW, Australia: establishing spatial and temporal geomorphic controls on the surface archaeological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.; Holdaway, Simon J.; Rhodes, Ed J.

    2008-10-01

    Surface deposits of stone artefacts are the most common feature of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, but they remain difficult for archaeologists to interpret. Among the many reasons is a lack of understanding of geomorphic processes that have exposed the artefacts at the surface. We describe research on the geomorphic environments in arid Australia from which we have developed a new geoarchaeological framework for describing and analysing surface artefact deposits. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating of sediments upon which the artefacts currently rest demonstrates that the landscape, and the archaeological record it preserves, is spatially and temporally discontinuous. Exposure and/or burial of artefacts is controlled by geomorphic processes operating on timescales ranging from a few decades to thousands of years and spatial scales of tens to many thousands of square meters. These same processes, operating on similar scales, also determine whether or not artefact scatters are preserved in the contemporary landscape or in the sedimentary record of past landscapes, and hence whether or not they become part of the archaeological record. Models of settlement behavior in hunter-gatherer peoples that are largely derived from analysis of surface 'sites' must take account of these discontinuities.

  4. Factors influencing the fecal egg and oocyst counts of parasites of wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in Southern Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, R P; Twigg, L E; Elliot, A D; Wheeler, A G

    1999-10-01

    Abundance of intestinal parasites was monitored by fecal egg and oocyst counts for samples of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus with different levels of imposed female sterility from 12 populations in southwestern Australia. Differences in egg counts of Trichostrongylus retortaeformis between seasons and age groups were dependent on the sex of the host. Pregnancy may have been responsible for these differences because egg counts were consistently higher in intact females than in females surgically sterilized by tubal ligation. Egg counts for Passalurus ambiguus were influenced by season and host age but there were no differences between sexes or between intact and sterilized female rabbits. No differences were detected in the oocyst counts of the 8 species of Eimeria between male and female rabbits or between intact and sterilized females. Seasonal differences were detected in oocyst counts of Eimeria flavescens and Eimeria stiedai. The overwhelming determinant of coccidian oocyst counts was host age, with 6 species being much more abundant in rabbits up to 4 mo of age. There was a suggestion that egg counts of T. retortaeformis and oocyst counts of several species of Eimeria were reduced in populations where rabbit numbers had been depressed for at least 2 yr, but there was no evidence that short-term variations in rabbit numbers had a measurable effect on parasite abundance.

  5. The accuracy and consistency of rural, remote and outpost triage nurse decision making in one Western Australia Country Health Service Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Kylie; Morphet, Julia

    2015-11-01

    The Australasian Triage Scale aims to ensure that the triage category allocated, reflects the urgency with which the patient needs medical assistance. This is dependent on triage nurse accuracy in decision making. The Australasian Triage Scale also aims to facilitate triage decision consistency between individuals and organisations. Various studies have explored the accuracy and consistency of triage decisions throughout Australia, yet no studies have specifically focussed on triage decision making in rural health services. Further, no standard has been identified by which accuracy or consistency should be measured. Australian emergency departments are measured against a set of standard performance indicators, including time from triage to patient review, and patient length of stay. There are currently no performance indicators for triage consistency. An online questionnaire was developed to collect demographic data and measure triage accuracy and consistency. The questionnaire utilised previously validated triage scenarios.(1) Triage decision accuracy was measured, and consistency was compared by health site type using Fleiss' kappa. Forty-six triage nurses participated in this study. The accuracy of participants' triage decision-making decreased with each less urgent triage category. Post-graduate qualifications had no bearing on triage accuracy. There was no significant difference in the consistency of decision-making between paediatric and adult scenarios. Overall inter-rater agreement using Fleiss' kappa coefficient, was 0.4. This represents a fair-to-good level of inter-rater agreement. A standard definition of accuracy and consistency in triage nurse decision making is required. Inaccurate triage decisions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. It is recommended that emergency department performance indicator thresholds be utilised as a benchmark for national triage consistency. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Physical properties and processes in the Perth Canyon, Western Australia: Links to water column production and seasonal pygmy blue whale abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, S.; Hanson, C. E.; McCauley, R. D.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Burton, C.; Bannister, J.; Jenner, C.; Jenner, M.-N.

    2009-04-01

    The oceanography of the Perth Canyon, off southwestern Australia, was examined through two major field excursions in austral spring/summer 2003/2004 combined with previous results from field analysis and numerical simulations. Water properties were used to identify water masses and vertical displacement. The field cruises and numerical simulation indicated unique circulation features of the Leeuwin Current and Undercurrent within the canyon associated with the topographic features. The input of nutrients to the euphotic zone occurred sporadically as the Leeuwin Current generally suppressed upwelling, although the Perth Canyon had increased nutrient concentrations within its rims. The distribution of chlorophyll in the surface layers indicated high spatial variability, with a prevalent deep chlorophyll (and phytoplankton biomass) maximum at ~ 80 m. Depth-integrated primary production within the study region ranged from 360 to 760 mg C m - 2 d - 1 , which was on average 2.5 times higher than rates measured in continental shelf and offshore waters north of the canyon. Aggregations of krill and other acoustic backscatter targets were concentrated near the head of the canyon at a range of depths, which may have been promoted by the circulation. The findings here are consistent with seasonal variations in wind and insolation, along with variations in the Leeuwin Current, influencing the seasonal changes and mesoscale features within the region, while the canyon promotes localised upwelling, and enhances both pelagic production and physical aggregation of plankton to attract the whales. Canyon processes must be combined with outside factors to allow upwelled nutrients to reach the photic zone. It is concluded that a combination of factors, rather than one factor alone, contributes favourably to the appearance of feeding blue whales in the Perth Canyon during the summer.

  7. Non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Sydney, Australia: emergence of EMRSA-15, Oceania, Queensland and Western Australian MRSA strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosbell, Iain B; Barbagiannakos, Thelma; Neville, Stephen A; Mercer, Joanne L; Vickery, Alison M; O'Brien, Frances G; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Malkowski, Mary J; Pearson, Julie C

    2006-06-01

    To describe clinical features and molecular epidemiology of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia. Patients with non-multiresistant MRSA isolated from blood at South Western Area Pathology Service from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2001 were enrolled. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, phage typing, and (selected instances) multilocus sequence and staphylococcal cassette chromosome typing was performed. PCR was used to detect Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), and enterotoxin genes. Sixteen patients were detected: eight with UK EMRSA-15 (ST22-MRSA-IV), three with Oceania (South-West Pacific/Western Samoan phage pattern) (ST30-MRSA-IV), two with WA MRSA-5 (ST8-MRSA-IV), and one each with WA MRSA-1 (ST1-MRSA-IV), Queensland strain (ST93-MRSA-IV), and WA MRSA-15 (ST59-MRSA-IV). Prior hospital admissions occurred with six of the eight patients with UK EMRSA-15, none of the three with Oceania, and three of the five with other strains. Thirteen of 16 patients had underlying disease. Three of the three patients with Oceania strain bacteraemia were Polynesians; 11 of 13 of the others were Caucasians. PVL genes were detected in four of 16 isolates (all Oceania and Queensland strains). entC was detected in two EMRSA-15 strains; entA in one Oceania, two WA MRSA-5 and the WA MRSA-1 strain, with entA and entB in the WA MRSA-15 strain. tst was not detected. Multiple epidemic strains cause non-multiresistant MRSA bacteraemia. Most patients had risk factors. Oceania and Queensland strains possess the PVL gene.

  8. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  9. Integrating evidence into policy and sustainable disability services delivery in western New South Wales, Australia: the 'wobbly hub and double spokes' project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Craig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy that supports rural allied health service delivery is important given the shortage of services outside of Australian metropolitan centres. The shortage of allied health professionals means that rural clinicians work long hours and have little peer or service support. Service delivery to rural and remote communities is further complicated because relatively small numbers of clients are dispersed over large geographic areas. The aim of this five-year multi-stage project is to generate evidence to confirm and develop evidence-based policies and to evaluate their implementation in procedures that allow a regional allied health workforce to more expeditiously respond to disability service need in regional New South Wales, Australia. Methods/Design The project consists of four inter-related stages that together constitute a full policy cycle. It uses mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, guided by key policy concerns such as: access, complexity, cost, distribution of benefits, timeliness, effectiveness, equity, policy consistency, and community and political acceptability. Stage 1 adopts a policy analysis approach in which existing relevant policies and related documentation will be collected and reviewed. Policy-makers and senior managers within the region and in central offices will be interviewed about issues that influence policy development and implementation. Stage 2 uses a mixed methods approach to collecting information from allied health professionals, clients, and carers. Focus groups and interviews will explore issues related to providing and receiving allied health services. Discrete Choice Experiments will elicit staff and client/carer preferences. Stage 3 synthesises Stage 1 and 2 findings with reference to the key policy issues to develop and implement policies and procedures to establish several innovative regional workforce and service provision projects. Stage 4 uses mixed methods to monitor and

  10. Impact of Contrasted Diagenetic History on the Pore Type and Acoustic Properties Acquisition of Non-Tropical Carbonates (Cape Range, Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonti, C.; Bourget, J.; Fournier, F.; Riera, R.; Haig, D.; Håkansson, E.; Pellerin, M.; Hong, F.; Reijmer, J.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic response of sedimentary rocks is related to their mineralogy, porosity amount and pore type. In carbonate rocks these properties are controlled by the initial deposition parameters but often even more by the diagenetic history, due to their sensitivity to chemical processes. Diagenesis, by multiple cementation and/or dissolution phases, strongly controls the pore type variations and the pore network acquisition. Besides the non-tropical carbonates often display heterogeneous mineralogy that can raise more complexity. Oligo-Miocene carbonates from the NW-Shelf of Australia present non-tropical facies deposited along a ramp which have underwent highly contrasted diagenetic processes. The uppermost sedimentary unit is characterized by completely different diagenetic processes compared to the lower ones. To decipher the links between the acoustic properties and the complexity of these rocks we performed 50 ultrasonic velocity measurements on plugs sampled from outcrops. Then thin section 2D analyses and 3D CT-scan models made from the same plugs were used to accurately characterize the dominant pore type of each sample. Their diagenetic history was reconstructed from field and cathodoluminescence observations. The acoustic data were analyzed in the light of the EPAR (Equivalent Pore Aspect Ratio) proxy that allowed us to deconvolve combined effects of mineralogy and pore types on ultrasonic velocity (Fournier et al., 2014). First we underline by comparing the computed EPAR values with the actual dominant pore type that (i) microporous samples always exhibit EPAR ≤ 0.2, (ii) intergranular samples show EPAR around 0.3 and (iii) moldic to vuggy samples mainly show EPAR > 0.3. Therefore, even in this complex sedimento diagenetic context, the EPAR proxy seems to be relevant to retrieve the dominant pore type information from acoustic data only. Second, we emphasize the importance of emersion events on the acoustic response acquisition of rocks. Here, a middle

  11. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, p<0.001), fewer reported making spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, p<0.05) and fewer claimed the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, p<0.05; cued recall 22.1% vs 3.8%, p<0.001). Before the ban, spontaneous purchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, p<0.05; cued recall 40.0% vs 17.9%, p<0.01). After the ban, spontaneous purchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, p<0.01) as it did for planned purchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, p<0.05; cued recall 17.9% vs 2.1%, p<0.01). We observed a 30% reduction in smokers making spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  13. Trends in demand for general anaesthetic care for paediatric caries in Western Australia: geographic and socio-economic modelling of service utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Charu; Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the temporal and spatial changes in the demand for general anaesthesia, relative to disease incidence, in 0-19-year-olds. Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Morbidity Data System for the financial years 1999/2000 to 2004/2005, and principal diagnosis was obtained from every patient discharged from a public or private hospital. Hospitalisation data was correlated with socioeconomic status and the geographical location of primary residence. In the public hospital sector, there were greater rates of people residing in Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) with decreasing accessibility to healthcare services utilising the option of treatment of dental caries under general anaesthetic (GA) compared to people living within highly accessible areas. In the private sector, children who resided in SLAs with the greatest access to healthcare facilities had a greater rate of being hospitalised for the treatment of dental caries under GA. The results demonstrated distinct patterns of trends in demand for general anaesthetic care among different SES groups and geographical location of primary residence. There was an overall emerging trend of increasing demand placed on public sector both among dental care users among high and low SES. Moreover, the results demonstrated the potential application of geographic modelling as a service planning tool for estimating the future demand for GA care for dental caries in addition to the timely need for focused attention on preventive services for early identification, prevention and control of dental caries among children.

  14. Digitate and capitate soft corals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Alcyoniidae) from Western Australia with reports on new species and new Australian geographical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Monika; Poliseno, Angelo; Alderslade, Philip; Vargas, Sergio

    2015-05-26

    We report on digitate and capitate Octocorallia within the genera Parasphaerasclera McFadden & Ofwegen, 2013, Eleutherobia Pütter, 1900, Sphaerasclera McFadden & Ofwegen, 2013, and Paraminabea Williams & Alderslade, 1999 from tropical Western Australian waters. Three new species (Parasphaerasclera kimberleyensis, Eleutherobia australiensis, Eleutherobia imaharai) are described, with a discussion of their taxonomic placement in the light of a recent treatment of the genus Eleutherobia and related taxa by McFadden & Ofwegen (2013). In addition, range extensions for three species are reported, Parasphaerasclera grayi (Thomson & Dean, 1931) known from Indonesia and the Pacific Ocean, Eleutherobia somaliensis Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988 from Somalia, and Eleutherobia splendens (Thomson & Dean, 1931) recorded from Indonesia and the Philippines. Additionally, one new Australian geographical record (Sphaerasclera flammicerebra) (Williams, 2003) with a known distribution from Palau to Mauritius, has been included. We complement morphological taxonomy with molecular data (mtMutS, 28S rDNA) to analyse and clarify phylogenetic placement of these species. The mitochondrial mtMutS phylogeny supported Eleutherobia, Paraminabea, Parasphaerasclera and Sphaerasclera as distinct monophyletic genera. Phylogenetic analyses based on 28S rDNA lacked resolution and were largely unresolved. Additionally, the molecular data corroborated our proposed morphological hypothesis of the placement of the new species P. kimberleyensis sp. nov. with no anthocodial armature in the genus Parasphaerasclera, and the assignment of the new species, E. australiensis sp. nov. and E. imaharai sp. nov., with distinct polyps sclerites in the genus Eleutherobia.

  15. Seasonal ozone uptake by a warm-temperate mixed deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forest in western Japan estimated by the Penman-Monteith approach combined with a photosynthesis-dependent stomatal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Yazaki, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Fujii, Saori; Miyama, Takafumi; Kominami, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canopy-level stomatal conductance over a warm-temperate mixed deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forest in Japan was estimated by the Penman-Monteith approach, as compensated by a semi-empirical photosynthesis-dependent stomatal model, where photosynthesis, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration were assumed to regulate stomatal conductance. This approach, using eddy covariance data and routine meteorological observations at a flux tower site, permits the continuous estimation of canopy-level O3 uptake, even when the Penman-Monteith approach is unavailable (i.e. in case of direct evaporation from soil or wet leaves). Distortion was observed between the AOT40 exposure index and O3 uptake through stomata, as AOT40 peaked in April, but with O3 uptake occurring in July. Thus, leaf pre-maturation in the predominant deciduous broadleaf tree species (Quercus serrata) might suppress O3 uptake in springtime, even when the highest O3 concentrations were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  17. Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia are not tightly coupled to interannual variations in rainfall: implications for groundwater decline in a drying climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith R J; Waring, Richard H; Callow, John N; Wilson, Melissa; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing concern that widespread forest decline could occur in regions of the world where droughts are predicted to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. The average annual leaf area index (LAI) is an indicator of canopy cover and the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. In this study, we analyzed satellite-derived estimates of monthly LAI across forested coastal catchments of southwest Western Australia over a 12 year period (2000-2011) that included the driest year on record for the last 60 years. We observed that over the 12 year study period, the spatial pattern of average annual satellite-derived LAI values was linearly related to mean annual rainfall. However, interannual changes to LAI in response to changes in annual rainfall were far less than expected from the long-term LAI-rainfall trend. This buffered response was investigated using a physiological growth model and attributed to availability of deep soil moisture and/or groundwater storage. The maintenance of high LAIs may be linked to a long-term decline in areal average underground water storage and diminished summer flows, with an emerging trend toward more ephemeral flow regimes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An ethnographic action research study to investigate the experiences of Bindjareb women participating in the cooking and nutrition component of an Aboriginal health promotion programme in regional Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Caroline; Kearing-Salmon, Karrie-Anne; Morrison, Paul; Fetherston, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the experiences of women participating in a cooking and nutrition component of a health promotion research initiative in an Australian Aboriginal regional community. Weekly facilitated cooking and nutrition classes were conducted during school terms over 12 months. An ethnographic action research study was conducted for the programme duration with data gathered by participant and direct observation, four yarning groups and six individual yarning sessions. The aim was to determine the ways the cooking and nutrition component facilitated lifestyle change, enabled engagement, encouraged community ownership and influenced community action. Regional Bindjareb community in the Nyungar nation of Western Australia. A sample of seventeen Aboriginal women aged between 18 and 60 years from the two kinships in two towns in one shire took part in the study. The recruitment and consent process was managed by community Elders and leaders. Major themes emerged highlighting the development of participants and their recognition of the need for change: the impact of history on current nutritional health of Indigenous Australians; acknowledging shame; challenges of change around nutrition and healthy eating; the undermining effect of mistrust and limited resources; the importance of community control when developing health promotion programmes; finding life purpose through learning; and the need for planning and partnerships to achieve community determination. Suggested principles for developing cooking and nutrition interventions are: consideration of community needs; understanding the impact of historical factors on health; understanding family and community tensions; and the engagement of long-term partnerships to develop community determination.

  19. Maternal and foetal outcomes among pregnant women hospitalised due to interpersonal violence: A population based study in Western Australia, 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Patti A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpersonal violence is responsible for more ill-health and premature death in women under the age of 45 than other preventable health conditions, but findings concerning the effects of violence during pregnancy on both maternal and foetal health have been inconsistent. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study was undertaken using linked data from the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection and the Western Australian Midwives' Notification System from 2002 to 2008. The aim was to determine the association between exposure to interpersonal violence during pregnancy and adverse maternal and foetal health outcomes at the population level. Results A total of 468 pregnant women were hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during the study period, and 3,744 randomly selected pregnant women were included as the comparison group. The majority of violent events were perpetrated by the pregnant women's partner or spouse. Pregnant Indigenous women were over-represented accounting for 67% of all hospitalisations due to violence and their risk of experiencing adverse maternal outcomes was significantly increased compared to non-Indigenous women (adjusted odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.95, p = 0.01. Pregnant women hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence sustained almost double the risk for adverse maternal complications than the non-exposed group (95% CI 1.34 to 2.18, p Conclusions The risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the baby increases if a pregnant woman is hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during pregnancy.

  20. An overview of the first 'no exit' midwifery group practice in a tertiary maternity hospital in Western Australia: Outcomes, satisfaction and perceptions of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Hauck, Yvonne L; Crichton, Caroline; Pemberton, Alissa; Spence, Megan; Kelly, Georgina

    2016-12-01

    Midwifery group practice (MGP) is a care model offered by a primary midwife in a small team. Evidence confirms MGP is acceptable to women, safe and cost effective. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the first 'no exit' MGP in a Western Australian (WA) tertiary maternity hospital, using a mixed methods approach, involving four phases. Between July 2013 and June 2014: phase one assessed MGP characteristics, obstetric and neonatal outcomes by parity; phase two examined women's satisfaction by mode of delivery; and phase three qualitatively explored perceptions of care. Phase four compared the proportion of MGP women and the 2012 WA birthing population. Phase one included 232 MGP women; 87% achieved a vaginal birth. Phase two included 97% (226 of 232) women, finding 98% would recommend the service. Phase three analysis of 62 interviews revealed an overarching theme 'Continuity with Midwives' encompassing six sub-themes: only a phone call away; home away from home; knowing me; a shared view; there for me; and letting it happen. Phase four compared the MGP cohort to 33,393 WA women. Intrapartum MGP women were more likely than the WA population to have a vaginal birth (87% vs 65%, P≤0.001) and intact perineum (49% vs 36%, P≤0.001) and less likely to use epidural/spinal analgesia (34% vs 59%, P≤0.001), or have a caesarean (13% vs 35%, P≤0.001). Mixed methods enabled systematic examination of this new 'no exit' MGP confirming safety and acceptability. Findings contribute to our knowledge of MGP models. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing for functional convergence of temperate rainforest tree assemblages in Chile and New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusk, C.H.; Jimenez-Castillo, M.; Aragón, R.; Easdale, T.A.; Poorter, L.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Mason, N.W.H.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    An important tenet of biogeography and comparative ecology is that disjunct assemblages in similar physical environments are functionally more similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments. Temperate rainforests in South America, New Zealand and Australia share certain

  2. Effects of wave exposure on circulation in a temperate reef environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Graham; Zhong, Liejun; Mortimer, Nick A.

    2011-09-01

    Observations of waves and currents in a temperate reef environment off southwestern Western Australia over a period of 1 year reveal the relative importance of wind and wave forcing. During periods of low waves, linear regression analysis shows alongshore currents seaward and shoreward of the reef line are reasonably well predicted using 1% and 0.5% of the wind speed, respectively. However, shoreward of the reef line anomalously strong currents were often observed during periods of light or even opposing winds and the mean sea surface was elevated relative to offshore of the reefs. These anomalous currents and elevated sea level occur during periods of high waves and both are correlated with the root-mean-square wave height seaward of the reefs, similar to what has been observed in coral reef environments. The observations were simulated with the numerical model XBeach which includes radiation stress forcing due to the presence of the waves. The model was also used to examine the dynamics of the wave-driven flow in terms of the momentum balance. As on a coral reef, through the surf zone over the reef bottom, friction is balanced by the sum of the radiation stress gradient and pressure gradient. Away from the reefs the radiation stress gradients are small and the momentum balance is between bottom friction and pressure gradient.

  3. Kajian Pembuatan Cokelat Batang dengan Metode Tempering dan Tanpa Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eti Indarti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to improve stability of milk chocolate bars by tempering process. The making of chocolate bars consisted of two formulations, namely a higher fat bar (40% and low fat bar (21.5%.The study includes the chocolate bar preparation with and without tempering results. The melting point of milk chocolate bars that use cocoa butter tempering (L1 is higher than the milk chocolate bars that use fat without tempering (L2 for all treatments. Solid fat content (SFC of F1 has higher solid phase at room temperature (55-60% in all treatments compared with milk chocolate bar F2 (40-43% and chocolate produced by UKM (Malaysia 40-48 % and soccolatte 35-38% at the same temperature (350C. Blooming was not formed on the milk chocolate bars containing cocoa butter L1, while the milk chocolate bars showed blooming with L2 treatment. Keywords: chocolate bar, tempering, moulding, melting point, solid fat content, blooming

  4. National-scale wave energy resource assessment for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael G.; Heap, Andrew D. [Geoscience Australia, Marine and Coastal Environment Group, GPO Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    A nationally consistent wave resource assessment is presented for Australian shelf (<300 m) waters. Wave energy and power were derived from significant wave height and period, and wave direction hindcast using the AusWAM model for the period 1 March 1997 to 29 February 2008 inclusive. The spatial distribution of wave energy and power is available on a 0.1 grid covering 110-156 longitude and 7-46 latitude. Total instantaneous wave energy on the entire Australian shelf is on average 3.47 PJ. Wave power is greatest on the 3000 km-long southern Australian shelf (Tasmania/Victoria, southern Western Australia and South Australia), where it widely attains a time-average value of 25-35 kW m{sup -1} (90th percentile of 60-78 kW m{sup -1}), delivering 800-1100 GJ m{sup -1} of energy in an average year. New South Wales and southern Queensland shelves, with moderate levels of wave power (time-average: 10-20 kW m{sup -1}; 90th percentile: 20-30 kW m{sup -1}), are also potential sites for electricity generation due to them having a similar reliability in resource delivery to the southern margin. Time-average wave power for most of the northern Australian shelf is <10 kW m{sup -1}. Seasonal variations in wave power are consistent with regional weather patterns, which are characterised by winter SE trade winds/summer monsoon in the north and winter temperate storms/summer sea breezes in the south. The nationally consistent wave resource assessment for Australian shelf waters can be used to inform policy development and site-selection decisions by industry. (author)

  5. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  6. Mineral equilibria and zircon, garnet and titanite U-Pb ages constraining the PTt path of granite-related hydrothermal systems at the Big Bell gold deposit, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2018-01-01

    The Big Bell deposit (75 t gold) is located in a narrow spur of the Meekatharra greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Two ore bodies are located in a calcic-potassic contact alteration zone overprinting lineated granodiorite dykes and amphibolite: almandine-cummingtonite-hornblende skarn (1-3 g/t Au, 1700 g/t As, 330 g/t W) and the muscovite-microcline gneiss (3-5 g/t Au, 580 g/t Sb, 620 g/t W) of the Main Lode. Genetic models vary from pre- to post-metamorphic replacement. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs in amphibolite constrain peak metamorphic temperature to 670 ± 50 °C. In contrast, garnet-biotite thermometry provides estimates of 578 ± 50 and 608 ± 50 °C for garnet-cordierite-biotite schist bordering the skarn and enveloping the Main Lode. Garnet-cordierite and garnet-hornblende pairs extend the range of fluid temperature to 540 ± 65 °C, well below peak metamorphic temperature. At 540-600 °C, the alteration assemblage andalusite + sillimanite constrains pressure to 300-400 MPa corresponding to 11-14 km crustal depth. Published U-Pb ages indicate that metamorphism took place in the aureole of the southeast granodiorite-tonalite batholith (2740-2700 Ma), followed by gold mineralization at 2662 ± 5 Ma and by the emplacement of biotite granite and Sn-Ta-Nb granite-pegmatite dykes at 2625-2610 Ma. Amphibolite xenoliths in granite northwest of the deposit record the lowest temperature (628 ± 50 °C), suggesting it lacks a metamorphic aureole. The rare metal dykes are spatially associated with epidote-albite and andradite-diopside skarns (≤1.5 g/t Au), mined where enriched in the weathered zone. We analysed hydrothermal zircon intergrown with andradite. Concordant U-Pb ages of 2612 ± 7 and 2609 ± 10 Ma confirm the presence of a second granite-related system. The zircons display oscillatory zoning and have low Th/U ratios (0.05-0.08). Low-Th titanite from an albite granite dyke has a concordant but reset U-Pb age of 2577 ± 7 Ma.

  7. Are we developing walkable suburbs through urban planning policy? Identifying the mix of design requirements to optimise walking outcomes from the 'Liveable Neighbourhoods' planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Jones, Evan; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-16

    Planning policy makers and practitioners are requesting clearer guidance on the 'essential' ingredients as assessed by public health researchers to ensure suburban neighbourhood environments are designed to promote active living behaviours such as walking. To identify the combination of design requirements from the 'Liveable Neighbourhoods' (LN) planning policy in Perth, Western Australia that were optimally supportive of walking. K-means cluster analysis identified groups of developments with homogeneous LN features from its community design (CD), movement network (MN), lot layout (LL) and public parkland (PP) elements. Walking behaviours measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire were compared between participants resident in the different clusters, adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development. Compared with participants living in the referent cluster of 'poor CD and PP developments' those living in: 'MN and LL developments' had higher odds of doing any (OR = 1.74; 95 % CI = 1.22, 2.48) and ≥60 min walking for recreation (WR) (OR = 2.05; 1.46, 2.88); 'PP developments' had increased odds of doing any WR (OR = 3.53; 2.02, 6.17), ≥60 min WR (OR = 3.37; 1.98, 5.74) and any total walking (TW) (OR = 2.35; 1.36, 4.09); 'CD-MN developments' had increased odds of doing any walking for transport (WT) (OR = 2.64; 1.38, 5.06), ≥60 min WT (OR = 1.98; 1.09, 3.61), any TW (OR = 1.71; 1.44, 2.03), ≥60 min TW (OR = 1.77; 1.14, 2.76) and ≥150 min TW (OR = 1.47; 1.15, 1.86). This study is the first to have empirically identified a mix of specific and distinguishing planning policy neighbourhood design requirements to optimise walking outcomes. These findings will assist in the assessment of urban plans for greenfield suburban developments designed to promote walking and physical activity.

  8. La gestion des émotions dans le cadre du devoir filial Managing Emotions in the Context of Filial Duties. The Case of Salvadorian Migrants Living in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Merla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore la dimension émotionnelle du devoir filial dans un contexte transnational. Cette dimension émotionnelle renvoie ici au travail de gestion des émotions, c’est-à-dire les compétences et les efforts nécessaires pour gérer les émotions personnelles ainsi que celles des autres dans la sphère privée. Le travail de gestion des émotions est une dimension importante des pratiques de soin transnationales dans lesquelles les migrants salvadoriens installés à Perth, en Australie occidentale, s’engagent afin de remplir leurs obligations envers leurs parents âgés, demeurés dans leur pays d’origine. Il vise non seulement à améliorer le bien-être des parents âgés, mais également à gérer des événements présents ou futurs que l’éloignement rend particulièrement pénibles, comme la maladie ou le décès d’un parent. L’enjeu consiste, pour le migrant, à réaffirmer son identité de “bon” fils / “bonne” fille qui tente de remplir au mieux ses devoirs envers ses parents malgré la distance.This article explores the emotional dimension of filial dutyin a trans-national context. The emotional dimension here refers to the task of managing emotions, meaning the competencies and efforts needed in managing one’s own emotions as well as those of others in the private sphere. The task of managing emotions is an important dimension in the trans-national care practices that Salvadorian migrants living in Perth, in Western Australia, commit themselves to in order to fulfil their obligations towards their aged parents, remaining in their country of origin. Their task is aimed not only at improving the well being of aged parents, but also at managing events present or future which their remoteness makes particularly painful, like illness or the death of a relative. For the migrant, what is at stake consists in reaffirming his/her identity as a “good” son / “good” daughter who tries as much as possible

  9. Investigation of Genetic Variants, Birthweight and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function Suggests a Genetic Variant in the SERPINA6 Gene Is Associated with Corticosteroid Binding Globulin in the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laura N.; Briollais, Laurent; Atkinson, Helen C.; Marsh, Julie A.; Xu, Jingxiong; Connor, Kristin L.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates stress responses and HPA dysfunction has been associated with several chronic diseases. Low birthweight may be associated with HPA dysfunction in later life, yet human studies are inconclusive. The primary study aim was to identify genetic variants associated with HPA axis function. A secondary aim was to evaluate if these variants modify the association between birthweight and HPA axis function in adolescents. Methods Morning fasted blood samples were collected from children of the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) at age 17 (n = 1077). Basal HPA axis function was assessed by total cortisol, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The associations between 124 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 16 HPA pathway candidate genes and each hormone were evaluated using multivariate linear regression and penalized linear regression analysis using the HyperLasso method. Results The penalized regression analysis revealed one candidate gene SNP, rs11621961 in the CBG encoding gene (SERPINA6), significantly associated with total cortisol and CBG. No other candidate gene SNPs were significant after applying the penalty or adjusting for multiple comparisons; however, several SNPs approached significance. For example, rs907621 (p = 0.002) and rs3846326 (p = 0.003) in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C2) were associated with ACTH and SERPINA6 SNPs rs941601 (p = 0.004) and rs11622665 (p = 0.008), were associated with CBG. To further investigate our findings for SERPINA6, rare and common SNPs in the gene were imputed from the 1,000 genomes data and 8 SNPs across the gene were significantly associated with CBG levels after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Birthweight was not associated with any HPA outcome, and none of the gene-birthweight interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions

  10. Assessment of Natural Ventilation Potential for Residential Buildings across Different Climate Zones in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Zijing Tan; Xiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the natural ventilation potential of residential buildings was numerically investigated based on a typical single-story house in the three most populous climate zones in Australia. Simulations using the commercial simulation software TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool) were performed for all seasons in three representative cities, i.e., Darwin for the hot humid summer and warm winter zone, Sydney for the mild temperate zone, and Melbourne for the cool temperate zone. A na...

  11. Surveys in Argentina and Uruguay reveal Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations adapted to survive temperate climates in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrtobagous salviniae is widely used in several countries, including the United States, South Africa and Australia, for the biological control of Salvinia molesta. Despite success in tropical and subtropical regions, C. salviniae establishment is inconsistent in temperate regions, and therefore popu...

  12. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  13. Migration, acculturation and culture change in western temperate Eurasia,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Gronenborn

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction of the pottery tradition of La Hoguette and contemporaneous research on Earliest LBK about 10 to 15 years ago, research onthe spread of farming in Central Europe had somewhat stagnated; there were hardly any major advances in factual knowledge, nor could theoretical models be refined. In the last few years, however, an abundance of new data has appeared, partly deriving from botanical and anthropological analyses. Furthermore, newly available results from excavations in European Russia widenour understanding of the manifold and complex changes occurring during the latter 7th and 6th millennium cal BC.

  14. New findings of Neurospora in Europe and comparisons of diversity in temperate climates on continental scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, David J.; Dettman, Jeremy R.; Adams, Rachel I.; Boesl, Cornelia; Sultana, Shahana; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha; Duarte, Margarida; Marques, Isabel; Ushakova, Alexandra; Carneiro, Patrícia; Videira, Arnaldo; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Corrochano, Luis M.; Taylor, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The life cycles of the conidiating species of Neurospora are adapted to respond to fire, which is reflected in their natural history. Neurospora is found commonly on burned vegetation from the tropic and subtropical regions around the world and through the temperate regions of western North America.

  15. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum can cause potato blackleg in temperate climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de E.G.; Dekker-Nooren, T.C.E.M.; Bovenkamp, van den G.W.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the pectinolytic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca) and Dickeya spp. are causal organisms of blackleg in potato. In temperate climates, the role of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) in potato blackleg, however, is unclear. In different western

  16. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie; Andrew D. Loch

    2011-01-01

    Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) is considered one of the most serious threats to exotic Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. This exotic wasp has been established in Australia for more than six decades. The most significant outbreak occurred in the Green Triangle region of southeastern South Australia-western Victoria in the...

  17. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  18. Wave exposure as a predictor of benthic habitat distribution on high energy temperate reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eRattray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The new found ability to measure physical attributes of the marine environment at high resolution across broad spatial scales has driven the rapid evolution of benthic habitat mapping as a field in its own right. Improvement of the resolution and ecological validity of seafloor habitat distribution models has, for the most part, paralleled developments in new generations of acoustic survey tools such as multibeam echosounders. While sonar methods have been well demonstrated to provide useful proxies of the relatively static geophysical patterns that reflect distribution of benthic species and assemblages, the spatially and temporally variable influence of hydrodynamic energy on habitat distribution have been less well studied. Here we investigate the role of wave exposure on patterns of distribution of near-shore benthic habitats. A high resolution spectral wave model was developed for a 624 km2 site along Cape Otway, a major coastal feature of western Victoria, Australia. Comparison of habitat classifications implemented using the Random Forests algorithm established that significantly more accurate estimations of habitat distribution were obtained by including a fine-scale numerical wave model, extended to the seabed using linear wave theory, than by using depth and seafloor morphology information alone. Variable importance measures and map interpretation indicated that the spatial variation in wave induced bottom orbital velocity was most influential in discriminating habitat the classes containing canopy forming kelp Ecklonia radiata, a foundation kelp species that affects biodiversity and ecological functioning on shallow reefs across temperate Australasia. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic models reflecting key environmental drivers on wave exposed coastlines are important in accurately defining distributions of benthic habitats.

  19. Variations in biological characteristics of temperate gonochoristic species of Platycephalidae and their implications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Peter G.; Hall, Norman G.; Potter, Ian C.

    2017-05-01

    This review provides a composite account of the biological characteristics of the temperate gonochoristic species of the Platycephalidae. Initially, data were obtained for the five abundant platycephalid species in south-western Australia, which each came from either over bare substrata or seagrass and from either estuaries, marine coastal waters or marine embayments. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for females and males of each species differed significantly, with females having a greater TL∞ and lower growth coefficient k. From tests using their upper deciles, the total length (TL) attained by the largest females of each species was significantly greater than that of their males, whereas such a trend did not occur with age. The ratio of females to males in each abundant age class, and overall, exceeded parity for four of the five species (typically P Mortality estimates, which were similar for each sex of each species, suggest that Platycephalus speculator has been substantially exploited in a seasonally-closed estuary in which it completes its whole life cycle. The above and other biological data for the five species were collated with those published previously for two of those species and five other platycephalid species in south-eastern Australia and one in Japan and another in the Suez Canal, yielding the following conclusions for gonochoristic species of the Platycephalidae. Females attain a larger size than males, the extent varying markedly among species, whereas the longevities of the two sexes of each platycephalid species are similar. The maximum TLs and ages of the various species range widely, with values for females, for example, extending from 221 mm for Ambiserrula jugosa to 985 mm for Platycephalus fuscus and from four years for A. jugosa to 26 years for Platycephalus conatus. The overall ratio of females to males is positively related to the extent to which both the maximum TLs and TL∞s of the females exceed those of males. The above

  20. A selective integrated tempering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijiang; Qin Gao, Yi

    2009-12-07

    In this paper, based on the integrated tempering sampling we introduce a selective integrated tempering sampling (SITS) method for the efficient conformation sampling and thermodynamics calculations for a subsystem in a large one, such as biomolecules solvated in aqueous solutions. By introducing a potential surface scaled with temperature, the sampling over the configuration space of interest (e.g., the solvated biomolecule) is selectively enhanced but the rest of the system (e.g., the solvent) stays largely unperturbed. The applications of this method to biomolecular systems allow highly efficient sampling over both energy and configuration spaces of interest. Comparing to the popular and powerful replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), the method presented in this paper is significantly more efficient in yielding relevant thermodynamics quantities (such as the potential of mean force for biomolecular conformational changes in aqueous solutions). It is more important that SITS but not REMD yielded results that are consistent with the traditional umbrella sampling free energy calculations when explicit solvent model is used since SITS avoids the sampling of the irrelevant phase space (such as the boiling water at high temperatures).

  1. Temper Fragileness Study for RUL 2 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Rădulea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study about the tenacity variation depending on the tempering temperature of the steel RUL2 grade, within q wide range of temperatures. By this analysis it is possible to study the cooling of the above mentioned heat treatment on the temper fragileness.

  2. Parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Richard [UCLA MATH DEPT; Hyman, Jeffrey [UCLA MATH DEPT; Caflisch, Russel [UCLA MATH DEPT

    2008-01-01

    We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulations are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.

  3. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinko-Najera, Nina; Isaac, Peter; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; McHugh, Ian; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen) forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010-2012) of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of -1234 ± 109 (SE) g C m-2 yr-1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m-2 yr-1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m-2 yr-1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so that soil water content remained relatively high and the forest

  4. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hinko-Najera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010–2012 of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER. The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of −1234 ± 109 (SE g C m−2 yr−1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m−2 yr−1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so

  5. Marine heatwave causes unprecedented regional mass bleaching of thermally resistant corals in northwestern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nohaïc, Morane; Ross, Claire L; Cornwall, Christopher E; Comeau, Steeve; Lowe, Ryan; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Schoepf, Verena

    2017-11-03

    In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA. The heatwave primarily affected the macrotidal Kimberley region in northwest WA (~16°S), where 4.5-9.3 degree heating weeks (DHW) resulted in 56.6-80.6% bleaching, demonstrating that even heat-tolerant corals from naturally extreme, thermally variable reef environments are threatened by heatwaves. Some heat stress (2.4 DHW) and bleaching (coral communities at Ningaloo Reef (23°9'S) and Bremer Bay (34°25'S) were not impacted. The only other major mass bleaching in WA occurred during a strong La Niña event in 2010/11 and primarily affected reefs along the central-to-southern coast. This suggests that WA reefs are now at risk of severe bleaching during both El Niño and La Niña years.

  6. Correlations between leaf toughness and phenolics among species in contrasting environments of Australia and New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer; Sanson, Gordon D.; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Clissold, Fiona J.; Chatain, Alex; Peeters, Paula; Lamont, Byron B.; De Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Jaffré, Tanguy; Kerr, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are likely to invest in multiple defences, given the variety of sources of biotic and abiotic damage to which they are exposed. However, little is known about syndromes of defence across plant species and how these differ in contrasting environments. Here an investigation is made into the association between carbon-based chemical and mechanical defences, predicting that species that invest heavily in mechanical defence of leaves will invest less in chemical defence. Methods A combination of published and unpublished data is used to test whether species with tougher leaves have lower concentrations of phenolics, using 125 species from four regions of Australia and the Pacific island of New Caledonia, in evergreen vegetation ranging from temperate shrubland and woodland to tropical shrubland and rainforest. Foliar toughness was measured as work-to-shear and specific work-to-shear (work-to-shear per unit leaf thickness). Phenolics were measured as ‘total phenolics’ and by protein precipitation (an estimate of tannin activity) per leaf dry mass. Key Results Contrary to prediction, phenolic concentrations were not negatively correlated with either measure of leaf toughness when examined across all species, within regions or within any plant community. Instead, measures of toughness (particularly work-to-shear) and phenolics were often positively correlated in shrubland and rainforest (but not dry forest) in New Caledonia, with a similar trend suggested for shrubland in south-western Australia. The common feature of these sites was low concentrations of soil nutrients, with evidence of P limitation. Conclusions Positive correlations between toughness and phenolics in vegetation on infertile soils suggest that additive investment in carbon-based mechanical and chemical defences is advantageous and cost-effective in these nutrient-deficient environments where carbohydrate may be in surplus. PMID:19098067

  7. Planning Australia’s Defense Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    methods of grazing and agriculture, however, Australia’s agricultural sector consistently produces quantities of meat, wool and cereal grains large enough...over his annexation of the former Dutch colony in Western New Guinea and his threats against formation of the new nation of Malaysia . Many in PNG... Malaysia , Singapore, The Philippines and Brunei. Papua-New Guinea holds non-voting "observer" status in the organization. 100 emphasize that external avents

  8. The Effect of Tempering on Strength Properties and Seed Coat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tempering on seed coat adhesion strength and mechanical strength of sorghum and millet grain kernels was investigated at different tempering durations. Tempering reduced the kernel breaking strength and had significant effect on seed coat adhesion strength. Tempering the grain for 60 minutes at ambient temperature ...

  9. Incidence and initial disease course of inflammatory bowel diseases in 2011 in Europe and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegh, Z; Burisch, J.; Pedersen, N.

    2014-01-01

    participating centers in 2011 and an Australian center to investigate whether there is a difference in the incidence of IBD between Eastern and Western European countries and Australia. METHODS: Fourteen centers from 5 Eastern and 9 Western European countries and one center from Australia participated...... (25%) from Eastern, 461 (65%) from Western Europe and 72 (10%) from Australia; 259 (37%) patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease, 380 (53%) with ulcerative colitis and 72 (10%) with IBD unclassified. The mean annual incidence rate for IBD was 11.3/100,000 in Eastern Europe, 14.......0/100,000 in Western Europe and 30.3/100,000 in Australia. Significantly more patients were diagnosed with complicated disease at diagnosis in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe (43% vs. 27%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Incidence rates, disease phenotype and initial treatment characteristics in the 2011 ECCO...

  10. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  11. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  12. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  13. Comparison of sampling efficiency between simulated tempering and replica exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng

    2008-01-01

    We compared the sampling efficiency of simulated tempering and replica exchange. Our results indicate that simulated tempering is superior to replica exchange if the parameters for temperature transition in simulated tempering are adjusted to be proportional to the partition function. It is shown that, in simulated tempering, the rate of traversing energy space of different temperatures is much higher than that in replica exchange, especially in the case of low tempering frequency and∕or larg...

  14. Comparison of sampling efficiency between simulated tempering and replica exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng

    2008-10-07

    We compared the sampling efficiency of simulated tempering and replica exchange. Our results indicate that simulated tempering is superior to replica exchange if the parameters for temperature transition in simulated tempering are adjusted to be proportional to the partition function. It is shown that, in simulated tempering, the rate of traversing energy space of different temperatures is much higher than that in replica exchange, especially in the case of low tempering frequency and/or larger temperature separations.

  15. ORCID, Australia, and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Laurel, Haak

    2017-01-01

    Slides presented by Laurel Haak, ORCID Executive Director, at the Australia ORCID consortium Governance Group meeting, 5 October 2017, hosted by the Australian Research Council, in Canberra, Australia.

  16. Responses of temperate forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, C. E.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate forcing factors have been documented to directly (e.g. CO2 fertilization) or indirectly (e.g. temperature and vapor pressure deficit) affect net primary productivity (NPP) of forests. Climate variations can also affect the vulnerability of forests to pests and pathogens, causing diffuse or widespread mortality. The introduction of novel pests is causing rapid mortality of targeted species with undetermined effects on forest productivity: NPP could decrease or increase depending on the severity (proportion of basal area impacted) and species diversity. We attempted to document the impact of diffuse mortality caused by insect outbreaks on North American temperate forests through synthesis of literature. Despite the large number of studies (>500) only a few (12) documented NPP in a systematic manner. The magnitude of insect and pathogen disturbance was larger in western than eastern forests due to the redundancy and functional diversity of temperate deciduous and mixed deciduous forests. Recovery from disturbance was more rapid from diffuse short duration defoliation events relative to the long lasting impacts of wood boring insects. Forest resilience may decrease as insect disturbance increases, particularly with generalist invasive pests that target a variety of species. We conclude that these biotic interactions, particularly when caused by invasive pests, impose biological forcing to forest NPP at similar magnitude and time scales than climate forcing.

  17. Women and alcohol--trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, B; Ibrahim, J

    1990-06-18

    Analysis of significant trends in self-reported alcohol consumption by women is presented, using data from surveys carried out by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in three Australian States: Western Australia, South Australia and New South Wales. Three indices of alcohol consumption were used to characterize consumption in 1977 and subsequently in 1983 or 1985. Little change was observed in the proportion of women who consumed alcohol in the previous week, although significant increases were recorded in the average daily consumption of female drinkers in all three States. These overall increases reflect increased levels of consumption by younger women. Women aged 18-24 years in all three States, as well as those aged 25-44 years in South Australia, consumed more alcohol in the later survey than did women of the same ages in 1977. The proportion of younger female drinkers whose average daily consumption reached hazardous levels showed marked increases in all three States. Analysis of beverage choices in Western Australia and South Australia indicated that older women in both States were consuming significantly less beer, and that South Australian women aged 25-64 years were consuming less fortified wine than were women of the same ages in 1977. These decreases were overshadowed by significant increases in wine consumption in both States for all age groups, and by increasing spirits' consumption in the 18-24 year olds. Several sources of underestimation of consumption are cited. Observed trends are discussed in the light of changing social values, alcohol marketing strategies and the employment status of women. Likely short- and long-term consequences of the observed consumption patterns are predicted and the challenge to prevention strategies is highlighted.

  18. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard.

  19. Englacial Hydrology of Temperate Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Creyts, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    The englacial region of temperate glaciers is generally treated as a passive conveyor of water from the surface to the bed. Consequently, few studies have examined this region and relatively little is known. This is an important issue because englacial processes probably exert a first order control on the distribution of water to the subglacial hydraulic system. Controlling the water distribution probably controls the type of subglacial hydraulic features present and therefore sliding behavior. Certainly, englacial conduits play a major, if not primary, role in conveying water in the ablation zone. In regions of over-deepenings, areas highly crevassed, or in the accumulation zone, the importance of englacial conduits is less clear. Field studies have shown that intersecting englacial passageways in these regions are relatively common, implying that large water fluxes can drain efficiently through a network of fractures. Hypothetically, efficient drainage systems composed of englacial conduits develop in response to point input of large surface water fluxes. Where input is small and distributed, common to highly crevassed areas or the accumulation zone, water is probably routed through a network of englacial fractures. Glacier geometry may also play a role. Conduits may not develop in the over-deepened (closed basins) regions of a glacier requiring another flow pathway. That englacial fractures exist and can convey water presents a promising alternative. Measured rates of flow in fractures strongly suggest laminar conditions and a sufficient fracture density exists to accommodate the estimated water flux generated upstream by surface melt. The slow flow rates do not generate sufficient viscous heat to compensate expected rates of closure by freezing, however field observations and seismic evidence point to spontaneous fracture formation at depth that must regenerate the fracture network. It is unfortunate that englacial investigations are ignored in favor of

  20. Multiculturalism In Australia

    OpenAIRE

    BABACAN, Alper; BABACAN, Hürriyet

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the policy of multiculturalism in Australia. In its early phase, Multiculturalism was a tool for Australia’s post-war construction needs as it allowed for governments to manage ethnic diversity. During the 1980s and 1990s, multicultural policies incorporated elements of the economic rationalist agenda and failed to tackle deep seated racism in Australia. Throughout the late 1990s and into the post 2000 period, neo- liberal agendas have dominated the Common...

  1. Autodeformation of Carburized Steel during Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regita BENDIKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the results of autodeformation registered during tempering of carburized steel. Test pieces for the tests were carburized till the different depth in order to examine influence of depth of carburization on the deformation of steel during heat treatment operation. Carburization was performed on the one surface of test pieces seeking to analyze extent of acted normal stresses to autodeformation of steel. Different bending loads were applied for analyzed steel from 5 MPa to 100 MPa. Deflection of test pieces was analyzed. The obtained results proved that size and direction of deflection were affected by depth of carburization. Particular results of stretched and compressed surface examinatio