Sample records for temperate lowland lakes

  1. Surface microlayers on temperate lowland lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Stæhr, Peter Anton


    At the air-water interface material, organisms accumulate and form a thin layer of organic and inorganic material called the surface microlayer (SML). In order to investigate the development, composition, and metabolism of SML on lakes, samples were collected using a screen sampler along with sub......At the air-water interface material, organisms accumulate and form a thin layer of organic and inorganic material called the surface microlayer (SML). In order to investigate the development, composition, and metabolism of SML on lakes, samples were collected using a screen sampler along...... with subsurface water (SSW) in an eutrophic and a mesotrophic lake from April to September 2007. Wind, solar irradiance, and lake temperature were followed continuously. Samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic compounds as well as for photosynthesis and respiration. Most compounds were enriched in the SML......, probably because external sources had a greater effect on SML concentrations in the mesotrophic lake. Enrichment of compounds and metabolic rates in the SML had similar seasonality and dependency of climatic conditions in the two lakes, suggesting common regulating mechanisms of enrichment and production...

  2. Riparian forest as a management tool for moderating future thermal conditions of lowland temperate streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, P.B.; Kristensen, E.A.; Riis, T.; Baisner, A.J.; Larsen, S.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.


    Predictions of the future climate infer that stream water temperatures may increase in temperate lowland areas and that streams without riparian forest will be particularly prone to elevated stream water temperature. Planting of riparian forest is a potential mitigation measure to reduce water

  3. Riparian forest as a management tool for moderating future thermal conditions of lowland temperate streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, P.B.; Kristensen, E.A.; Riis, T.; Alnoee, A.B.; Larsen, S.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.


    Predictions of future climate suggest that stream water temperature will increase in temperate lowland areas. Streams without riparian forest will be particularly prone to elevated temperature. Planting riparian forest is a potential mitigation measure to reduce water temperature for the benefit

  4. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes. (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M


    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating effects of land management on greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon balances in boreo-temperate lowland peatland systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddaway, Neal R; Burden, Annette; Evans, Chris D; Healey, John R; Jones, Davey L; Dalrymple, Sarah E; Pullin, Andrew S


    ...), and CO2 through respiration, all of which are powerful greenhouse gases (GHGs). Lowland peats in boreo-temperate regions may store substantial amounts of C and are subject to disproportionately high land-use pressure...

  6. Lake Tapps tephra: An early Pleistocene stratigraphic marker in the Puget Lowland, Washington (United States)

    Westgate, J.A.; Easterbrook, D.J.; Naeser, N.D.; Carson, R.J.


    The rhyolitic Lake Tapps tephra was deposited about 1.0 myr ago, shortly after culmination of the early phase of the Salmon Springs Glaciation in the Puget Lowland. It is contained within sediments that were deposited in ponds or lakes in front of the reteating glacier. An herb-dominated tundra existed in the southern Puget Lowland at that time. Lake Tapps tephra is most likely the product of an eruption that in part was phreatomagmatic. It forms an early Pleistocene stratigraphic marker across the southern sector of the Puget Lowland and provides a link between Puget lobe sediments of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and sediments deposited by Olympic alpine glaciers. ?? 1987.

  7. Late Glacial and Holocene Paleoliminology of two temperate lakes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stable carbon isotope (13C) and elemental C/N ratios in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) extracted from radiometrically dated cores from two Midwestern USA lakes were determined to investigate the factors that control these values in temperate lakes. The range of 13C values ( -26 to -32%) and C/N ratios (mean value ...

  8. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim


    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  9. Flow Regime Changes: From Impounding a Temperate Lowland River to Small Hydropower Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Punys


    Full Text Available This article discusses the environmental issues facing small hydropower plants (SHPs operating in temperate lowland rivers of Lithuania. The research subjects are two medium head reservoir type hydro schemes considered within a context of the global fleet of SHPs in the country. This research considers general abiotic indicators (flow, level, water retention time in the reservoirs of the stream that may affect the aquatic systems. The main idea was to test whether the hydrologic regime has been altered by small hydropower dams. The analysis of changes in abiotic indicators is a complex process, including both pre- and post-reservoir construction and post commissioning of the SHPs under operation. Downstream hydrograph (flow and stage ramping is also an issue for operating SHPs that can result in temporary rapid changes in flow and consequently negatively impact aquatic resources. This ramping has been quantitatively evaluated. To avoid the risk of excessive flow ramping, the types of turbines available were evaluated and the most suitable types for the natural river flow regime were identified. The results of this study are to allow for new hydro schemes or upgrades to use water resources in a more sustainable way.

  10. Riparian forest as a management tool for moderating future thermal conditions of lowland temperate streams (United States)

    Kristensen, P. B.; Kristensen, E. A.; Riis, T.; Baisner, A. J.; Larsen, S. E.; Verdonschot, P. F. M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.


    Predictions of the future climate infer that stream water temperatures may increase in temperate lowland areas and that streams without riparian forest will be particularly prone to elevated stream water temperature. Planting of riparian forest is a potential mitigation measure to reduce water temperatures for the benefit of stream organisms. However, no studies have yet determined the length of a forested reach required to obtain a significant temperature decrease. To investigate this we measured the temperature in five small Danish lowland streams from June 2010 to July 2011, all showing a sharp transition between an upstream open reach and a downstream forested reach. In all stream reaches we also measured canopy cover and a range of physical variables characterizing the streams reaches. This allowed us to analyse differences in mean daily temperature and amplitude per month among forested and open sections as well as to study annual temperature regimes and the influence of physical conditions on temperature changes. Stream water temperature in the open reaches was affected by heating, and in July we observed an increase in temperature over the entire length of the investigated reaches, reaching temperatures higher than the incipient lethal limit for brown trout. Along the forest reaches a significant decrease in July temperatures was recorded immediately (100 m) when the stream moved into the forested area. In three of our study streams the temperature continued to decrease the longer the stream entered into the forested reach, and the temperature decline did not reach a plateau. The temperature increases along the open reaches were accompanied by stronger daily temperature variation; however, when the streams entered into the forest, the range in daily variation decreased. Multiple regression analysis of the combined effects on stream water temperature of canopy cover, Width/Depth ratio, discharge, current velocity and water temperature revealed that canopy

  11. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wódkiewicz


    Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Białowieża Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

  12. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes (United States)

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.


    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  13. Planktonic ciliate community structure in shallow lakes of lowland Western Europe. (United States)

    Van Wichelen, Jeroen; Johansson, Liselotte S; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Declerck, Steven A J; Lauridsen, Torben L; De Meester, Luc; Jeppesen, Erik; Vyverman, Wim


    Temperate shallow meso- to eutrophic lakes can exist in one of two alternative states with contrasting foodwebs, referred to as the clear-water and the turbid state. We describe the planktonic ciliate communities of such lakes based on a survey of 66 northwestern European lakes. Ciliates were enumerated and identified to species level according to the quantitative protargol staining technique. Ciliate biomass was on average twice as high in the turbid than in the clear-water lakes. The ciliate communities were dominated by oligotrichs and protostomatids, and no differences in functional composition or α-diversity could be detected between turbid and clear-water lakes, although β-diversity tended to be higher in the latter. At the species level, however, community structure strongly differed between turbid and clear-water lakes, and several indicator species could be identified for the different lake categories. Variation partitioning showed that nutrient status did not explain ciliate community structure independent of the alternative states, while lake area was identified as an additional structuring factor for the ciliate communities. These results stress the importance of the ecosystem structure in shaping ciliate communities in temperate shallow lakes and suggest that nutrient status has little direct effect on ciliate community structure in such lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The habitat type and trophic state determine benthic macroinvertebrate communities in lowland shallow lakes of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Hu


    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates play important roles in shallow lake ecosystems. Several studies based on qualitative comparisons of the amount of macrophytes were carried out to relate benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to habitat conditions in shallow lakes. Our main aim was to analyze the effects of habitat type and trophic state on taxonomic composition and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in lowland shallow lakes based on quantitative classification of habitat types. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were investigated in eight shallow lakes of eastern China in four seasons. A total of 33 species was collected from these lakes, including four Oligochaeta, eight Chironomidae, eight Gastropoda, four Bivalvia and nine other miscellaneous species. According to the ratio of the dry weight of macrophytes to the dry weight of phytoplankton, the study lakes were separated into three lake types; macrophyte-dominated, transitional, and algae-dominated regions. The total abundance of macroinvertebrates was significantly higher in the group of algae-dominated regions than in the macrophyte-dominated regions. Scrapers had the highest abundance in the macrophyte-dominated regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses results showed that abundance, biomass and characteristic species of benthic macroinvertebrates were affected by their habitat types. The abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrates showed significant positive correlations with the trophic state index (TSI. TSI and turbidity were significantly correlated with DC1 (Axis 1 of detrended correspondence analysis, while Chlorophyll a and the ratio of the dry weight of macrophytes to the dry weight of phytoplankton were significantly correlated with DC2. The findings indicated that the habitat type and trophic state were the key factors determining the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages in lowland shallow lakes. Our study was one of the few studies that had demonstrated the

  15. Limnological characteristics of lakes in the lowlands of Central Yakutia, Russia

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    Hans-Wolfgang HUBBERTEN


    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics of 47 lakes from two regions in the lowlands of Central Yakutia (Vilyuysk and Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia were analysed. The aims of this study were (i to classify the lakes according to their ionic compositions and their nutrient concentrations, (ii to quantify environmental gradients representing the main directions of variation in the measured variables, and (iii to explore the relationship between the investigated lakes and their spatial positions. Most of the study lakes are shallow, thermokarst lakes that are slightly alkaline to alkaline. The lakes are predominantly oligotrophic, with some mesotrophic and a few eutrophic exceptions in the study region Vilyuysk. There are four hypertrophic lakes in the study region Yakutsk which are strongly affected by anthropogenic inputs and, in one case, additionally by inputs of water birds. Most part of the variance in the data is represented by major ion concentrations and related variables such as electrical conductivity. There were clear differences in these variables between the lakes of both study regions partly due to regional differences in the climate-induced, negative water balance (i.e. evaporation exceeds precipitation. The statistical analysis has shown that a significant part of the variance can be attributed to the type of vegetation in the lake's catchment (11%, to the longitude (7.6% and to local spatial differences in the lake water chemistry (2.8%. Hypothesis testing indicated that there are significant differences in the mean values of many variables according to vegetation type and to the region where the lakes are located. However, the hypothesis of spatial autocorrelation in the data had to be rejected. The results presented here have important implications for ongoing and future limnological and paleoenvironmental studies in Yakutia. The exploratory analysis has shown that the physico-chemical characteristics of Central Yakutian lakes are

  16. Sources, distribution and export coefficient of phosphorus in lowland polders of Lake Taihu Basin, China. (United States)

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Jiang, Yong; Yin, Hongbin; Amiri, Bahman Jabbarian


    Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916.2 t/yr, with a spatially-averaged PEC of 1.8 kg/ha/yr. PEC had peak values (more than 4.0 kg/ha/yr) in the polders near/within the large cities, and was high during the rice-cropping season. Sensitivity analysis based on the coupled P model revealed that the sensitive factors controlling the PEC varied spatially and changed through time. Precipitation and air temperature were the most sensitive factors controlling PEC. Culvert controlling and fertilization were sensitive factors controlling PEC during some periods. This study demonstrated an estimation of PEC from 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, and an identification of sensitive environmental factors affecting PEC. The investigation of polder P export in a watershed scale is helpful for water managers to learn the distribution of P sources, to identify key P sources, and thus to achieve best management practice in controlling P export from lowland areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodiversity of Chironomidae at the North Temperate Lakes LTER Site (United States)

    Berg, M. B.; Olson, S.; Hayford, B.; Gresens, S. E.; Kennedy, J.; Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.


    The National Science Foundation has established a network of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites to enhance research at large spatial scales, extended temporal scales, and to facilitate intersite comparisons of system structure and processes. Present knowledge of Chironomidae community structure at LTER sites is insufficient to accomplish these goals. Our project objectives are to determine species composition of Chironomidae in a wide variety of aquatic habitats at LTERs, describe all undescribed species/life stage associations, determine the temporal seasonality of emergence and develop a data base of species by habitat and emergence times. Our methods include light trapping and sweep netting for adults, dip-netting and hand-picking wood/aquatic vegetation for larvae, collecting surface-floating pupal exuviae, and rearing to associate life stages. Our initial focus on the North Temperate Lakes LTER in Wisconsin and has documented 80 genera (representing > 125 species, including 18 undescribed species and/or unknown life stages) from 11 lakes, 5 streams and 2 bogs. Taxa include species with larvae that are: epiphytic, endophytic, xylophagic, phoretic on mollusks or other aquatic insects, specialized to feed on freshwater sponges, predators of black fly pupae, and those occurring in hyporheic zones, marginal semi-aquatic habitats or terrestrial soils.

  18. Synchronous dynamics of zooplankton competitors prevail in temperate lake ecosystems (United States)

    Vasseur, David A.; Fox, Jeremy W.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Adrian, Rita; Beisner, Beatrix E.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Johnson, Catherine; Kratina, Pavel; Kremer, Colin; de Mazancourt, Claire; Miller, Elizabeth; Nelson, William A.; Paterson, Michael; Rusak, James A.; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Steiner, Christopher F.


    Although competing species are expected to exhibit compensatory dynamics (negative temporal covariation), empirical work has demonstrated that competitive communities often exhibit synchronous dynamics (positive temporal covariation). This has led to the suggestion that environmental forcing dominates species dynamics; however, synchronous and compensatory dynamics may appear at different length scales and/or at different times, making it challenging to identify their relative importance. We compiled 58 long-term datasets of zooplankton abundance in north-temperate and sub-tropical lakes and used wavelet analysis to quantify general patterns in the times and scales at which synchronous/compensatory dynamics dominated zooplankton communities in different regions and across the entire dataset. Synchronous dynamics were far more prevalent at all scales and times and were ubiquitous at the annual scale. Although we found compensatory dynamics in approximately 14% of all combinations of time period/scale/lake, there were no consistent scales or time periods during which compensatory dynamics were apparent across different regions. Our results suggest that the processes driving compensatory dynamics may be local in their extent, while those generating synchronous dynamics operate at much larger scales. This highlights an important gap in our understanding of the interaction between environmental and biotic forces that structure communities. PMID:24966312

  19. Effects of 500 years of eutrophication and flooding control on lowland lake development (United States)

    Kirilova, E.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Heiri, O.; Cremer, H.; Lotter, A. F.


    Nutrient enrichment and the ecology of surface waters have been intensively studied in lowland regions. However, detailed palaeolimnological reconstructions of the trophic and flooding history of floodplain lakes are still rare. In the Netherlands dike-breaches caused by high floods of the river Rhine formed a new type of lake since the Middle Ages. These dike-breach lakes were strongly impacted by the development of channel systems in their catchment, agriculture, and repeated flooding events. Here we present a multiproxy palaeolimnological study of past nutrient loading and ecology of the dike-breach lake De Waay which is located on the Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands). The lake was created in A.D. 1496 as a result of damage done to a dike by floating ice and the subsequent dike-breach due to a flooding event. A sediment core of 11.5 m was recovered from Lake De Waay and diatoms, Cladocera, and geochemistry were analyzed in the sediment. From the beginning of the lake's existence to the end of the 18th century diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were above 300 µg/l, suggesting hypertrophic conditions. Cladoceran assemblages reflect the lake's pioneer stage and suggest a lack of rooted aquatic macrophytes resulting from low water-transparency, possibly caused by frequent floods. Until the late 18th century floods occurred regularly in the area, as shown by the elevated Ti values in the sediments, indicative of high erosion from the floodplain and runoff from the surrounding agricultural catchment. This caused the exceptionally high sedimentation rates and elevated nutrient contents of the lake waters. Since the beginning of the 19th century sewage input and flooding frequency were strongly reduced by the construction of new ditches, canals, and dikes. The improved sewage and dike systems are reflected by decreased TP concentrations of 40-150 µg/l. The increased stability of littoral habitats led to an increased diversity in the Cladocera

  20. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

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    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  1. A macrophyte bioassessment approach linking taxon-specific tolerance and abundance in north temperate lakes. (United States)

    Mikulyuk, Alison; Barton, Martha; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Hein, Catherine; Kujawa, Ellen; Minahan, Kristi; Nault, Michelle E; Oele, Daniel L; Wagner, Kelly I


    Bioassessment methods are critically needed to evaluate and monitor lake ecological condition. Aquatic macrophytes are good candidate indicators, but few lake bioassessment methods developed in North America use them. The few macrophyte bioassessment methods that do exist suffer from problems related to subjectivity and discernibility along disturbance gradients. We developed and tested a bioassessment approach for 462 north temperate lakes. The approach links macrophyte abundance to lake ecological condition via estimates of taxon-specific abundance-weighted tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Using variables related to eutrophication, urban development and agriculture, we calculated abundance-weighted tolerance ranges for 59 macrophyte taxa and clustered them according to their tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. We also created a composite index of anthropogenic disturbance using 20 variables related to population density, land cover and water chemistry. We used a statistical approach to set ecological condition thresholds based on the observed abundance of sensitive, moderately tolerant and tolerant taxa in each lake. The resulting lake condition categories were usually stable across multiple survey events and largely agreed with condition rankings assigned using expert judgment. We suggest using this macrophyte bioassessment method for federal water quality reports, restoration and management on north temperate lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of modern and Pleistocene hydrologic exchange between Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw Lowlands area (United States)

    Hoaglund, J. R.; Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Larson, G.J.


    Two numerical models, one simulating present groundwater flow conditions and one simulating ice-induced hydraulic loading from the Port Huron ice advance, were used to characterize both modern and Pleistocene groundwater exchange between the Michigan Basin and near-surface water systems of Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the surrounding Saginaw Lowlands area. These models were further used to constrain the origin of saline, isotopically light groundwater, and porewater from the study area. Output from the groundwater-flow model indicates that, at present conditions, head in the Marshall aquifer beneath Saginaw Bay exceeds the modern lake elevation by as much as 21 m. Despite this potential for flow, simulated groundwater discharge through the Saginaw Bay floor constitutes only 0.028 m3 s-1 (???1 cfs). Bedrock lithology appears to regulate the rate of groundwater discharge, as the portion of the Saginaw Bay floor underlain by the Michigan confining unit exhibits an order of magnitude lower flux than the portion underlain by the Saginaw aquifer. The calculated shoreline discharge of groundwater to Saginaw Bay is also relatively small (1.13 m3 s-1 or ???40 cfs) because of low gradients across the Saginaw Lowlands area and the low hydraulic conductivities of lodgement tills and glacial-lake clays surrounding the bay. In contrast to the present groundwater flow conditions, the Port Huron ice-induced hydraulic-loading model generates a groundwater-flow reversal that is localized to the region of a Pleistocene ice sheet and proglacial lake. This area of reversed vertical gradient is largely commensurate with the distribution of isotopically light groundwater presently found in the study area. Mixing scenarios, constrained by chloride concentrations and ??18O values in porewater samples, demonstrate that a mixing event involving subglacial recharge could have produced the groundwater chemistry currently observed in the Saginaw Lowlands area. The combination of models and

  3. Linking host prokaryotic physiology to viral lifestyle dynamics in a temperate freshwater lake (Lake Pavin, France). (United States)

    Palesse, S; Colombet, J; Pradeep Ram, A S; Sime-Ngando, T


    In aquatic ecosystems, fluctuations in environmental conditions and prokaryotic host physiological states can strongly affect the dynamics of viral life strategies. The influence of prokaryote physiology and environmental factors on viral replication cycles (lytic and lysogeny) was investigated from April to September 2011 at three different strata (epi, meta, and hypolimnion) in the mixolimnion of deep volcanic temperate freshwater Lake Pavin (France). Overall, the euphotic region (epi and metalimnion) was more dynamic and showed significant variation in microbial standing stocks, prokaryotic physiological state, and viral life strategies compared to the aphotic hypolimnion which was stable within sampled months. The prokaryotic host physiology as inferred from the nucleic acid content of prokaryotic cells (high or low nucleic acid) was strongly regulated by the chlorophyll concentration. The predominance of the high nucleic acid (HNA) prokaryotes (cells) over low nucleic acid (LNA) prokaryotes (cells) in the spring (HNA/LNA = 1.2) and vice versa in the summer period (HNA/LNA = 0.4) suggest that the natural prokaryotic communities underwent major shifts in their physiological states during investigated time period. The increase in the percentage of inducible lysogenic prokaryotes in the summer period was associated with the switch in the dominance of LNA over HNA cells, which coincided with the periods of strong resource (nutrient) limitation. This supports the idea that lysogeny represents a maintenance strategy for viruses in unproductive or harsh nutrient/host conditions. A negative correlation of percentage of lysogenic prokaryotes with HNA cell abundance and chlorophyll suggest that lysogenic cycle is closely related to prokaryotic cells which are stressed or starved due to unavailability of resources for its growth and activity. Our results provide support to previous findings that changes in prokaryote physiology are critical for the promotion and

  4. Acceleration of cyanobacterial dominance in north temperate-subarctic lakes during the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Taranu, Zofia E; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Leavitt, Peter R; Bunting, Lynda; Buchaca, Teresa; Catalan, Jordi; Domaizon, Isabelle; Guilizzoni, Piero; Lami, Andrea; McGowan, Suzanne; Moorhouse, Heather; Morabito, Giuseppe; Pick, Frances R; Stevenson, Mark A; Thompson, Patrick L; Vinebrooke, Rolf D


    Increases in atmospheric temperature and nutrients from land are thought to be promoting the expansion of harmful cyanobacteria in lakes worldwide, yet to date there has been no quantitative synthesis of long-term trends. To test whether cyanobacteria have increased in abundance over the past ~ 200 years and evaluate the relative influence of potential causal mechanisms, we synthesised 108 highly resolved sedimentary time series and 18 decadal-scale monitoring records from north temperate-subarctic lakes. We demonstrate that: (1) cyanobacteria have increased significantly since c. 1800 ce, (2) they have increased disproportionately relative to other phytoplankton, and (3) cyanobacteria increased more rapidly post c. 1945 ce. Variation among lakes in the rates of increase was explained best by nutrient concentration (phosphorus and nitrogen), and temperature was of secondary importance. Although cyanobacterial biomass has declined in some managed lakes with reduced nutrient influx, the larger spatio-temporal scale of sedimentary records show continued increases in cyanobacteria throughout the north temperate-subarctic regions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a lowland area of the temperate zone. (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji


    Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.

  6. Effect of site level environmental variables, spatial autocorrelation and sampling intensity on arthropod communities in an ancient temperate lowland woodland area. (United States)

    Horak, Jakub


    The interaction of arthropods with the environment and the management of their populations is a focus of the ecological agenda. Spatial autocorrelation and under-sampling may generate bias and, when they are ignored, it is hard to determine if results can in any way be trusted. Arthropod communities were studied during two seasons and using two methods: window and panel traps, in an area of ancient temperate lowland woodland of Zebracka (Czech Republic). The composition of arthropod communities was studied focusing on four site level variables (canopy openness, diameter in the breast height and height of tree, and water distance) and finally analysed using two approaches: with and without effects of spatial autocorrelation. I found that the proportion of variance explained by space cannot be ignored (≈20% in both years). Potential bias in analyses of the response of arthropods to site level variables without including spatial co-variables is well illustrated by redundancy analyses. Inclusion of space led to more accurate results, as water distance and tree diameter were significant, showing approximately the same ratio of explained variance and direction in both seasons. Results without spatial co-variables were much more disordered and were difficult to explain. This study showed that neglecting the effects of spatial autocorrelation could lead to wrong conclusions in site level studies and, furthermore, that inclusion of space may lead to more accurate and unambiguous outcomes. Rarefactions showed that lower sampling intensity, when appropriately designed, can produce sufficient results without exploitation of the environment.

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from a small and shallow temperate lake (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Schmiedeskamp, Marcel; Broder, Tanja; Hüttemann, Caroline; Jansen, Laura; Metzelder, Ulrike; Wallis, Ronya; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian


    Small inland waters (lakes. They are further expected to be susceptible to changing climate conditions. So far, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and in-lake dynamics of CH4 production and oxidation in small, epilimnetic lakes in the temperate zone. Of particular interest is the potential occurrence of "hot spots" and "hot moments" that could contribute significantly to total emissions. To address this knowledge gap, we determined CO2 and CH4 emissions and dynamics to identify their controlling environmental factors in a polymictic small (1.4 ha) and shallow (max. depth approx. 1.5 m) crater lake ("Windsborn") in the Eifel uplands in south-west Germany. As Lake Windsborn has a small catchment area (8 ha) and no surficial inflows, it serves well as a model system for the identification of factors and processes controlling emissions. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 we measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes with different techniques across the sediment/water and water/atmosphere interface. Atmospheric exchange was measured using mini-chambers equipped with CO2 sensors and with an infra-red greenhouse gas analyzer for high temporal resolution flux measurements. Ebullition of CH4 was quantified with funnel traps. Sediment properties were examined using pore-water peepers. All measurements were carried out along a transect covering both littoral and central parts of the lake. Moreover, a weather station on a floating platform in the center of the lake recorded meteorological data as well as CO2 concentration in different depths of the water column. So far, Lake Windsborn seems to be a source for both CO2 and CH4 on an annual scale. CO2 emissions generally increased from spring to summer. Even though CO2 uptake could be observed during some periods in spring and fall, CO2 emissions in the summer exceeded the uptake. CO2 and CH4 emissions also appeared to be spatially variable between littoral areas and the inner

  8. Meteorological drivers of hypolimnetic anoxia in a eutrophic, north temperate lake (United States)

    Snortheim, Craig A.; Hanson, Paul C.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Read, Jordan S.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Dugan, Hilary


    Oxygen concentration is both an indicator and driver of water quality in lakes. Decreases in oxygen concentration leads to altered ecosystem function as well as harmful consequences for aquatic biota, such as fishes. The responses of oxygen dynamics in lakes to climate-related drivers, such as temperature and wind speed, are well documented for lake surface waters. However, much less is known about how the oxic environment of bottom waters, especially the timing and magnitude of anoxia in eutrophic lakes, responds to changes in climate drivers. Understanding how important ecosystem states, such as hypolimnetic anoxia, may respond to differing climate scenarios requires a model that couples physical-biological conditions and sufficiently captures the density stratification that leads to strong oxygen gradients. Here, we analyzed the effects of changes in three important meteorological drivers (air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity) on hypolimnetic anoxia in a eutrophic, north temperate lake using the anoxic factor as an index that captures both the temporal and spatial extent of anoxia. Air temperature and relative humidity were found to have a positive correlation with anoxic factor, while wind speed had a negative correlation. Air temperature was found to have the greatest potential impact of the three drivers on the anoxic factor, followed by wind speed and then relative humidity. Across the scenarios of climate variability, variation in the simulated anoxic factor was primarily due to changes in the timing of onset and decay of stratification. Given the potential for future changes in climate, especially increases in air temperature, this study provides important insight into how these changes will alter lake water quality.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Channel Retention in a Lowland Temperate Forest Stream Settled by European Beaver (Castor fiber

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    Mateusz Grygoruk


    Full Text Available Beaver ponds remain a challenge for forest management in those countries where expansion of beaver (Castor fiber is observed. Despite undoubted economic losses generated in forests by beaver, their influence on hydrology of forest streams especially in terms of increasing channel retention (amount of water stored in the river channel, is considered a positive aspect of their activity. In our study, we compared water storage capacities of a lowland forest stream settled by beaver in order to unravel the possible temporal variability of beaver’s influence on channel retention. We compared distribution, total damming height, volumes and areas of beaver ponds in the valley of Krzemianka (Northeast Poland in the years 2006 (when a high construction activity of beaver was observed and in 2013 (when the activity of beaver decreased significantly. The study revealed a significant decrease of channel retention of beaver ponds from over 15,000 m3 in 2006 to 7000 m3 in 2013. The total damming height of the cascade of beaver ponds decreased from 6.6 to 5.6 m. Abandoned beaver ponds that transferred into wetlands, where lost channel retention was replaced by soil and groundwater retention, were more constant over time and less vulnerable to the external disturbance means of water storage than channel retention. We concluded that abandoned beaver ponds played an active role in increasing channel retention of the river analyzed for approximately 5 years. We also concluded that if the construction activity of beaver was used as a tool (ecosystem service in increasing channel retention of the river valley, the permanent presence of beaver in the riparian zone of forest streams should have been assured.

  10. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

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    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)


    species richness in temperate lakes. This approach may prove useful and cost-effective for the management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. - Highlights: • We studied phytoplankton communities in 50 peri-urban lakes. • We assessed the impact of multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton richness. • Local- and catchment-scale predictive models performed similarly. • Seasonal temperature variation and resource availability strongly modulate species richness. • This approach may be used for the management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Contrasted effects of climate change on temperate large lakes oxygen-depletion (Lakes Geneva, Bourget, Annecy) (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud, Fabien; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Alric, Benjamin; Sabatier, Pierre; Perga, Marie-Elodie


    Among manifestations of the entry in a new geological era -The Anthropocene- marked by the fingerprinting of human activities in global ecology, the development of persistent zones of oxygen-depletion particularly threatens aquatic ecosystems. This results in a loss of fisheries, a loss of biodiversity, an alteration of food-webs and even, in extreme cases, mass mortality of fauna1. Whereas hypoxia -defined as dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg/l- has long been considered as a consequence of the sole eutrophication, recent studies showed it also depends on climate change. Despite basic processes of oxygen-depletion are well-known, till now no study evaluated the contrasted effects of climate changes on a long-term perspective. Here we show that climate change paced fluctuation of hypoxia in 3 large lakes (Lake Geneva, Lake Bourget and Lake Annecy) that were previously disturbed by unprecedented nutrient input. Our approach couples century-scale paleo-reconstruction of 1) hypoxia, 2) flood regime and 3) nutrient level, thanks to an exceptional 80 sediment core data collection taken in three large lakes (Geneva, Bourget, Annecy), and monitoring data. Our results show that volume of hypoxia can be annually estimated according to varve records through large lakes. Quantitative additive models were then used to identify and hierarchy environmental forcings on hypoxia. Flood regime and air temperatures hence appeared as significant forcing factors of hypolimnetic hypoxia. Noticeably, their effects are highly contrasted between lakes, depending on specific lake morphology and local hydrological regime. We hence show that greater is the lake specific river discharge the more is the control of winter mixing and the lower is the control of thermal stratification on oxygen depletion. Our study confirms that the perturbation of food web due to nutrient input led to a higher vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to climate change. We further show specific hydrological regime play a crucial

  12. Importance of the Autumn Overturn and Anoxic Conditions in the Hypolimnion for the Annual Methane Emissions from a Temperate Lake


    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar


    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate thatanoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumnoverturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane wasemitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosp...

  13. Fate and Trophic Transfer of Rare Earth Elements in Temperate Lake Food Webs. (United States)

    Amyot, Marc; Clayden, Meredith G; MacMillan, Gwyneth A; Perron, Tania; Arscott-Gauvin, Alexandre


    Many mining projects targeting rare earth elements (REE) are in development in North America, but the background concentrations and trophic transfer of these elements in natural environments have not been well characterized. We sampled abiotic and food web components in 14 Canadian temperate lakes unaffected by mines to assess the natural ecosystem fate of REE. Individual REE and total REE concentrations (sum of individual element concentrations, ΣREE) were strongly related with each other throughout different components of lake food webs. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen in the water column, as well as ΣREE in sediments, were identified as potential drivers of aqueous ΣREE. Log10 of median bioaccumulation factors ranged from 1.3, 3.7, 4.0, and 4.4 L/kg (wet weight) for fish muscle, zooplankton, predatory invertebrates, and nonpredatory invertebrates, respectively. [ΣREE] in fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton declined as a function of their trophic position, as determined by functional feeding groups and isotopic signatures of nitrogen (δ15N), indicating that REE were subject to trophic dilution. Low concentrations of REE in freshwater fish muscle compared to their potential invertebrate prey suggest that fish fillet consumption is unlikely to be a significant source of REE to humans in areas unperturbed by mining activities. However, other fish predators (e.g., piscivorous birds and mammals) may accumulate REE from whole fish as they are more concentrated than muscle. Overall, this study provides key information on the baseline concentrations and trophic patterns for REE in freshwater temperate lakes in Quebec, Canada.

  14. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay (United States)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Graeber, Daniel; Vidal, Nicolas; Mazzeo, Nestor; Ovesen, Niels; Jeppesen, Erik; Thodsen, Hans; Kronvang, Brian


    Climate is changing towards more extreme conditions all over the world. At the same time, land use is becoming more intensive worldwide and particularly in many developing countries, whereas several developed countries are trying to reduce the impacts of intensive agricultural production and lower the excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication symptoms in water bodies. In 2009, we initiated a comparative research project between the subtropical region (Uruguay) and the temperate region (Denmark) to compare the hydrology and nutrient fluxes in paired micro-catchments with extensive production or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity on stream hydrology and nutrient concentrations and fluxes under different climate conditions. We have conducted high frequency measurements in the four lowland streams with underwater probes (turbidity, pH, conductivity and oxygen measured every 15 minutes), fortnight grab sampling of water and automatic sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark, and the importance of differences in climate and land use will be discussed.

  15. Microbial community diversity patterns are related to physical and chemical differences among temperate lakes near Beaver Island, MI. (United States)

    Hengy, Miranda H; Horton, Dean J; Uzarski, Donald G; Learman, Deric R


    Lakes are dynamic and complex ecosystems that can be influenced by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Additionally, individual lakes are often chemically and physically distinct, even within the same geographic region. Here we show that differences in physicochemical conditions among freshwater lakes located on (and around) the same island, as well as within the water column of each lake, are significantly related to aquatic microbial community diversity. Water samples were collected over time from the surface and bottom-water within four freshwater lakes located around Beaver Island, MI within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Three of the sampled lakes experienced seasonal lake mixing events, impacting either O2, pH, temperature, or a combination of the three. Microbial community alpha and beta diversity were assessed and individual microbial taxa were identified via high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results demonstrated that physical and chemical variability (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) were significantly related to divergence in the beta diversity of surface and bottom-water microbial communities. Despite its correlation to microbial community structure in unconstrained analyses, constrained analyses demonstrated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was not strongly related to microbial community structure among or within lakes. Additionally, several taxa were correlated (either positively or negatively) to environmental variables, which could be related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. This study highlights the measurable relationships between environmental conditions and microbial communities within freshwater temperate lakes around the same island.

  16. Habitat selection and abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass in north temperate lakes (United States)

    Brown, Peter James; Bozek, Michael A.


    Habitat use during early life history plays an important role in the ecology of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in north temperate lakes. The highest levels of mortality occur during the first year of life, and the habitat selected probably affects mortality. We used resource selection functions and abundance data from two northern Wisconsin lakes to determine the habitats that influence the survival of smallmouth bass. Coarse substrates were consistently important to both nesting locations and young-of-year smallmouth bass. Young smallmouth bass used woody structure after swimming from their nests but disassociated themselves from habitats with more complex woody structure by August. Nonwoody cobble areas offer protection for young-of-year smallmouth bass without attracting predators, as woody habitats do. The decline in the abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass was best fit to an exponential decay function in woody habitats, but in rock habitats it was linear. Habitat selection by young-of-year smallmouth bass shifts over time, and the shift is linked to predation risk: woody habitats initially offer them an advantage with respect to spawning but eventually provide their predators greater opportunities for ambush. This shift underscores the importance of having a diversity of littoral habitats. This study provides the first quantifiable analyses describing the habitat features selected by young-of-year smallmouth bass and links these descriptions to population dynamics.

  17. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes. (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S


    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  18. Why bacteria are smaller in the epilimnion than in the hypolimnion? A hypothesis comparing temperate and tropical lakes

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    Roberto Bertoni


    Full Text Available Bacterial size and morphology are controlled by several factors including predation, viral lysis, UV radiation, and inorganic nutrients. We observed that bacterial biovolume from the hypolimnion of two oligotrophic lakes is larger than that of bacteria living in the layer from surface to 20 m, roughly corresponding to the euphotic/epilimnetic zone. One lake is located in the temperate region at low altitude (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy and the other in the tropical region at high altitude (Lake Alchichica, Mexico. The two lakes differ in oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations and in the temperature of water column. If we consider the two lakes separately, we risk reducing the explanation of bacterial size variation in the water column to merely regional factors. Comparing the two lakes, can we gather a more general explanation for bacterial biovolume variation. The results showed that small bacteria dominate in the oxygenated, P-limited epilimnetic waters of both lakes, whereas larger cells are more typical of hypolimnetic waters where phosphorus and nitrogen are not limiting. Indeed, temperature per se cannot be invoked as an important factor explaining the different bacterial size in the two zones. Without excluding the top-down control mechanism of bacterial size, our data suggest that the average lower size of bacterial cells in the epilimnion of oligotrophic lakes is controlled by outcompetition over the larger cells at limiting nutrients.

  19. Fish and Phytoplankton Exhibit Contrasting Temporal Species Abundance Patterns in a Dynamic North Temperate Lake (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Carey, Cayelan C.


    Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of “core” (common occurrence and high abundance) and “occasional” (rare occurrence and low abundance) species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions. PMID:25651399

  20. Phytoplankton response to fish-induced environmental changes in a temperate shallow pond-type lake

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    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Since 1967, the temperate, shallow, pond-type Lake Warniak has been subjected to different biomanipulation methods including the introduction of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val., silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val., and bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson and then their removal in an effort to control macrophytes and phytoplankton. Recently, pilot stocking with predatory fish, particularly pike, Esox lucius L., has also been conducted. Hence, an examination of the long-term response patterns of phytoplankton to multiple fish-induced stressors was undertaken. In recent years, Chara domination (2000-2004 has helped to stabilize a clear-water state, high/good ecological status, and meso-eutrophic conditions. After the disappearance of Charales in 2004, the rapid, unstable changes in phytoplankton biomass, structure, and biodiversity suggested a shift toward a turbid-water state. As a result, the phytoplankton assemblages changed from those dominated by cryptophytes Y+X2+X1+LO (2000-2004 through those dominated by cyanobacteria K (2005-2008, dinoflagellates LO+Y (2009-2011, and cryptophytes Y+LO+F+X2 (2012, to those dominated by diatoms D+K+P+A (2013-2014 with representative taxa that occur in nutrient-rich and/or nutrient-poor water bodies. The 1967-2014 changes indicated that four periods, two with clear-water state and two with turbid-water state, alternately, one after the other, resulted from different fish pressure. Higher autochthonous fish biomass was usually accompanied by lower phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, the introduction of Cyprinidae fish had a stimulating effect on summer phytoplankton dominated by cyanobateria. Among the nutrients, only phosphorus played an important role.

  1. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake. (United States)

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar


    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes.

  2. Simulating 2,368 temperate lakes reveals weak coherence in stratification phenology (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Hanson, Paul C.; Bruce, Louise C; Markfort, Corey D.


    Changes in water temperatures resulting from climate warming can alter the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Lake-specific physical characteristics may play a role in mediating individual lake responses to climate. Past mechanistic studies of lake-climate interactions have simulated generic lake classes at large spatial scales or performed detailed analyses of small numbers of real lakes. Understanding the diversity of lake responses to climate change across landscapes requires a hybrid approach that couples site-specific lake characteristics with broad-scale environmental drivers. This study provides a substantial advancement in lake ecosystem modeling by combining open-source tools with freely available continental-scale data to mechanistically model daily temperatures for 2,368 Wisconsin lakes over three decades (1979-2011). The model accurately predicted observed surface layer temperatures (RMSE: 1.74°C) and the presence/absence of stratification (81.1% agreement). Among-lake coherence was strong for surface temperatures and weak for the timing of stratification, suggesting individual lake characteristics mediate some - but not all - ecologically relevant lake responses to climate.

  3. The changing role of fire in mediating the relationships among oaks, grasslands, mesic temperate forests, and boreal forests in the Lake States (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson


    Historically, oak forests and woodlands intergraded with southern boreal forest, temperate mesic forest, and grassland biomes, forming complex fire-mediated relationships in the Great Lakes region of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA. Variability in fire recurrence intervals allowed oaks to mix with grasses or with mesic forest species in areas with high (2–10 yr...

  4. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system (United States)

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Heureux, Ana M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleotemperature from lake sediments, but despite their potential, we have a poor understanding of (1) autochthonous vs. allochthonous sources of brGDGTs in lakes and (2) the seasonality of and environmental controls on brGDGT production within lakes. To investigate these factors, we examined water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and settling particles from a sediment trap collected on a biweekly to monthly basis over a period of three years at Lower King Pond, a small kettle lake in northern Vermont, USA. We also compared the concentration and fractional abundances of brGDGTs in SPM and settling particles with those of catchment soils, river sediments, and lake surface sediments to constrain the relative importance of brGDGTs derived from the landscape versus brGDGTs produced within the lake itself. We find significant differences in concentrations and fractional abundances of brGDGTs between soil and river sediment samples from the catchment and lake sediments, indicating a mostly autochthonous source for lacustrine brGDGTs. BrGDGT concentrations, fluxes, and fractional abundances in SPM vary over the annual cycle, indicating that brGDGTs are produced throughout the year and respond to changes within the water column. The total annual flux of brGDGTs settling through the water column is comparable to the brGDGT accumulation rates in surface sediments, indicating that in this lake brGDGTs are mostly produced within the water column, not in the sediment itself. While brGDGTs are produced in all seasons within the water column, the flux to the sediments is highest during periods of spring and fall

  5. Anthropogenic and climatic factors enhancing hypolimnetic anoxia in a temperate mountain lake (United States)

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Mata, M. Pilar; Vegas, Juana; Morellón, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Salazar, Ángel; Yusta, Iñaki; Chaos, Aida; Pérez-Martínez, Carmen; Navas, Ana


    Oxygen depletion (temporal or permanent) in freshwater ecosystems is a widespread and globally important environmental problem. However, the factors behind increased hypolimnetic anoxia in lakes and reservoirs are often diverse and may involve processes at different spatial and temporal scales. Here, we evaluate the combined effects of different anthropogenic pressures on the oxygen dynamics and water chemistry of Lake Enol, an emblematic mountain lake in Picos de Europa National Park (NW Spain). A multidisciplinary study conducted over a period of four years (2013-2016) indicates that the extent and duration of hypolimnetic anoxia has increased dramatically in recent years. The extent and duration of hypolimnetic anoxia is typical of meso-eutrophic systems, in contrast with the internal productivity of the lake, which remains oligo-mesotrophic and phosphorus-limited. This apparent contradiction is ascribed to the combination of different external pressures in the catchment, which have increased the input of allochthonous organic matter in recent times through enhanced erosion and sediment transport. The most important among these pressures appears to be cattle grazing, which affects not only the import of carbon and nutrients, but also the lake microbiology. The contribution of clear-cutting, runoff channelling, and tourism is comparatively less significant. The cumulative effects of these local human impacts are not only affecting the lake metabolism, but also the import of sulfate, nitrate- and ammonium-nitrogen, and metals (Zn). However, these local factors alone cannot explain entirely the observed oxygen deficit. Climatic factors (e.g., warmer and drier spring and autumn seasons) are also reducing oxygen levels in deep waters through a longer and increasingly steep thermal stratification. Global warming may indirectly increase anoxia in many other mountain lakes in the near future.

  6. The effect of environmental parameters and cyanobacterial blooms on phytoplankton dynamics of a Portuguese temperate lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Figueiredo, Daniela R.; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Antunes, Sara C.


    The increasing occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters is of great concern due to the ability of many cyanobacteria to produce cyanotoxins. In the present work, the eutrophied Vela Lake (Central Portugal), used for recreational purposes and as a water source for agriculture, was monito...

  7. Energy input and dissipation in a temperate lake during the spring transition (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Simpson, John H.


    ADCP and temperature chain measurements have been used to estimate the rate of energy input by wind stress to the water surface in the south basin of Windermere. The energy input from the atmosphere was found to increase markedly as the lake stratified in spring. The efficiency of energy transfer ( Eff), defined as the ratio of the rate of working in near-surface waters ( RW) to that above the lake surface ( P 10), increased from ˜0.0013 in vertically homogenous conditions to ˜0.0064 in the first 40 days of the stratified regime. A maximum value of Eff˜0.01 was observed when, with increasing stratification, the first mode internal seiche period decreased to match the diurnal wind period of 24 h. The increase in energy input, following the onset of stratification was reflected in enhancement of the mean depth-varying kinetic energy without a corresponding increase in wind forcing. Parallel estimates of energy dissipation in the bottom boundary layer, based on determination of the structure function show that it accounts for ˜15% of RW in stratified conditions. The evolution of stratification in the lake conforms to a heating stirring model which indicates that mixing accounts for ˜21% of RW. Taken together, these estimates of key energetic parameters point the way to the development of full energy budgets for lakes and shallow seas.

  8. Diet Overlap and Predation between Smallmouth Bass and Walleye in a North Temperate Lake (United States)

    Aaron P. Frey; Michael A. Bozek; Clayton J. Edwards; Steve P. Newman


    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) diets from Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin were examined to assess the degree of diet overlap and predation occurring between these species in an attempt to deternine whether walleye influence smallmouth bass recruitment, which is consistently low...

  9. Active bacteria (CTC+) in temperate lakes: temporal and cross-system variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Danielsen, M.


    a gradient of nutrient enrichment in Danish lakes. The purpose was to investigate the importance of substrate (chlorophyll) and temperature for the control of CTC-active cells (CTC+). The abundance of CTC+ cells was much lower and more variable than the total number of cells counted after 4',6-diamidino-2...

  10. Environmental influence on cyanobacteria abundance and microcystin toxin production in a shallow temperate lake. (United States)

    Lee, Tammy A; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Bollens, Stephen M; Faber-Hammond, Joshua J


    The increasing frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater systems is a commonly recognized problem due to detrimental effects on water quality. Vancouver Lake, a shallow, tidally influenced lake in the flood plain of the Columbia River within the city of Vancouver, WA, USA, has experienced numerous summertime cyanobacterial blooms, dominated by Aphanizomenon sp. and Anabaena sp. Cyanobacteria abundance and toxin (microcystin) levels have been monitored in this popular urban lake for several years; however, no previous studies have identified which cyanobacteria species produce toxins, nor analyzed how changes in environmental variables contribute to the fluctuations in toxic cyanobacteria populations. We used a suite of molecular techniques to analyze water samples from Vancouver Lake over two summer bloom cycles (2009 and 2010). Both intracellular and extracellular microcystin concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. Intracellular microcystin concentrations exceeded WHO guidelines for recreational waters several times throughout the sampling period. PCR results demonstrated that Microcystis sp. was the sole microcystin-producing cyanobacteria species present in Vancouver Lake, although Microcystis sp. was rarely detected in microscopical counts. qPCR results indicated that the majority of the Microcystis sp. population contained the toxin-producing gene (mcyE), although Microcystis sp. abundance rarely exceeded 1 percent of overall cyanobacteria abundance. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that PO4-P was the main environmental variable influencing the abundance of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria, as well as intracellular microcystin concentrations. Our study underscores the importance of using molecular genetic techniques, in addition to traditional microscopy, to assess the importance of less conspicuous species in the dynamics of harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of nitrogen fixation in cyanobacterial bloom toxicity in a temperate, eutrophic lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Beversdorf

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms threaten freshwaters worldwide but have proven difficult to predict because the mechanisms of bloom formation and toxin production are unknown, especially on weekly time scales. Water quality management continues to focus on aggregated metrics, such as chlorophyll and total nutrients, which may not be sufficient to explain complex community changes and functions such as toxin production. For example, nitrogen (N speciation and cycling play an important role, on daily time scales, in shaping cyanobacterial communities because declining N has been shown to select for N fixers. In addition, subsequent N pulses from N(2 fixation may stimulate and sustain toxic cyanobacterial growth. Herein, we describe how rapid early summer declines in N followed by bursts of N fixation have shaped cyanobacterial communities in a eutrophic lake (Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, possibly driving toxic Microcystis blooms throughout the growing season. On weekly time scales in 2010 and 2011, we monitored the cyanobacterial community in a eutrophic lake using the phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS region to determine population dynamics. In parallel, we measured microcystin concentrations, N(2 fixation rates, and potential environmental drivers that contribute to structuring the community. In both years, cyanobacterial community change was strongly correlated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations, and Aphanizomenon and Microcystis alternated dominance throughout the pre-toxic, toxic, and post-toxic phases of the lake. Microcystin concentrations increased a few days after the first significant N(2 fixation rates were observed. Then, following large early summer N(2 fixation events, Microcystis increased and became most abundant. Maximum microcystin concentrations coincided with Microcystis dominance. In both years, DIN concentrations dropped again in late summer, and N(2 fixation rates and Aphanizomenon abundance increased

  12. Invasion of Nostocales (cyanobacteria to subtropical and temperate freshwater lakes – Physiological, regional and global driving forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf eSukenik


    Full Text Available Similarly to the increased number of studies on invasive plants and animals in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, many reports were recently published on the invasion of Nostocales (cyanobacteria to freshwater environments worldwide. Invasion and proliferation of Nostocales in new habitats have the potential to significantly alter the structure of native community and to modify ecosystem functioning. But most importantly, they influence the water quality due to a variety of toxic compounds that some species produce. Therefore a special attention was given to the invasion and persistence of toxic cyanobacteria in many aquatic ecosystems. Here we summarize the currently published records on the invasion of two Nostocales genera, Cylindrospermopsis and Aphanizomenon, to lakes and water reservoirs in subtropical and temperate zones. These invading species possess traits thought to be common to many invasive organisms: high growth rate, high resource utilization efficiency and overall superior competitive abilities over native species when local conditions vary. Assuming that dispersion routes of cyanobacteria have not been changed much in recent decades, their recent establishment and proliferation in new habitats indicate changes in the environment under which they can exploit their physiological advantage over the native phytoplankton population. In many cases global warming was identified as the major driving force for the invasion of Nostocales. Due to this uncontrollable trend, invasive Nostocales species are expected to maintain their presence in new habitats and further expand to new environments. In other cases regional changes in nutrient loads and in biotic conditions were attributed to the invasion events

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Stratification-Destratification Cycles and Resulting Cyanobacterial Blooms in Shallow Lakes of the North Temperate Zone (United States)

    King, A. T.; Schaffner, L. R.; Gilman, B.; Gronwall, T. R.; Gronwall, D.; Dietz, E. R.; Hairston, N., Jr.


    function of lake morphometry, summer temperature, and summer storm frequency and intensity. This allows projection of the effects of different climate change scenarios on the incidence of cyanoHABs for this lake and for lakes along a continuum of length-depth morphometries across the North Temperate Zone.

  14. Food-web stability signals critical transitions in temperate shallow lakes. (United States)

    Kuiper, Jan J; van Altena, Cassandra; de Ruiter, Peter C; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M


    A principal aim of ecologists is to identify critical levels of environmental change beyond which ecosystems undergo radical shifts in their functioning. Both food-web theory and alternative stable states theory provide fundamental clues to mechanisms conferring stability to natural systems. Yet, it is unclear how the concept of food-web stability is associated with the resilience of ecosystems susceptible to regime change. Here, we use a combination of food web and ecosystem modelling to show that impending catastrophic shifts in shallow lakes are preceded by a destabilizing reorganization of interaction strengths in the aquatic food web. Analysis of the intricate web of trophic interactions reveals that only few key interactions, involving zooplankton, diatoms and detritus, dictate the deterioration of food-web stability. Our study exposes a tight link between food-web dynamics and the dynamics of the whole ecosystem, implying that trophic organization may serve as an empirical indicator of ecosystem resilience.

  15. Restoration of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osborne, L. L.; Bayley, P. B.; Higler, L. W. G.


    Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991......Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991...

  16. Metabolic and physiochemical responses to a whole-lake experimental increase in dissolved organic carbon in a north-temperate lake (United States)

    Jacob A. Zwart; Nicola Craig; Patrick T. Kelly; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Christopher T. Solomon; Brian C. Weidel; Stuart E. Jones


    Over the last several decades, many lakes globally have increased in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calling into question how lake functions may respond to increasing DOC. Unfortunately, our basis for making predictions is limited to spatial surveys, modeling, and laboratory experiments, which may not accurately capture important whole-ecosystem processes. In this...

  17. Metabolic and physiochemical responses to a whole-lake experimental increase in dissolved organic carbon in a north-temperate lake (United States)

    Zwart, Jacob A.; Craig, Nicola; Kelly, Patrick T.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.


    Over the last several decades, many lakes globally have increased in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), calling into question how lake functions may respond to increasing DOC. Unfortunately, our basis for making predictions is limited to spatial surveys, modeling, and laboratory experiments, which may not accurately capture important whole-ecosystem processes. In this article, we present data on metabolic and physiochemical responses of a multiyear experimental whole-lake increase in DOC concentration. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in pelagic gross primary production, likely due to a small increase in phosphorus as well as a surprising lack of change in epilimnetic light climate. We also speculate on the importance of lake size modifying the relationship between light climate and elevated DOC. A larger increase in ecosystem respiration resulted in an increased heterotrophy for the treatment basin. The magnitude of the increase in heterotrophy was extremely close to the excess DOC load to the treatment basin, indicating that changes in heterotrophy may be predictable if allochthonous carbon loads are well-constrained. Elevated DOC concentration also reduced thermocline and mixed layer depth and reduced whole-lake temperature. Results from this experiment were quantitatively different, and sometimes even in the opposite direction, from expectations based on cross-system surveys and bottle experiments, emphasizing the importance of whole-ecosystem experiments in understanding ecosystem response to environmental change.

  18. The Impact of Nutrient State and Lake Depth on Top-down Control in the Pelagic Zone of Lakes: A Study of 466 Lakes from the Temperate Zone to the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Jensen, J. P.; Jensen, C.


    is unimodally related to TP and is highest in the most nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor lakes and generally higher in shallow than deep lakes, (b) the cascading effect of changes in predator control on phytoplankton decreases with increasing TP, and (c) these general patterns occur with significant variations......%, respectively, at all TP levels. Moreover, deep lakes (more than 6 m) had a higher percentage of Daphnia than shallow (less than 6 m) lakes. The median percentage of Daphnia peaked at 0.15 mg L-1 in shallow lakes and 0.09 mg L-1 in deep lakes. The assumption that fish are responsible for the unimodality...

  19. Emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes as refuge for zooplankton in a eutrophic temperate lake without submerged vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzanelli, Matteo; Perlt, Trine Warming; Christoffersen, Kirsten Seestern


    Several studies have shown that submerged macrophytes provide a refuge for zooplankton against fish predation, whereas the role of emergent and floating-leaved species, which are often dominant in eutrophic turbid lakes, is far less investigated. Zooplankton density in open water and amongst...... water, even during periods where the predation pressure was presumably high (during the recruitment of 0+ fish fry). Zooplankton abundance in open water and among vegetation exhibited low values in July and peaked in August. Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia dominated the zooplankton community in the littoral...... modifications in the predation pressure, refuge availability and concentration of cyanobacteria in the lake. It is suggested that emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes may play an important role in enhancing water clarity due to increased grazing pressure by zooplankton migrating into the plant stands...

  20. Differentiating the degradation dynamics of algal and terrestrial carbon within complex natural dissolved organic carbon in temperate lakes (United States)

    Guillemette, François; McCallister, S. Leigh; del Giorgio, Paul A.


    It has often been hypothesized that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool of algal origin in lakes is more bioavailable than its terrestrial counterpart, but this hypothesis has seldom been directly tested. Here we test this hypothesis by tracking the production and isotopic signature of bacterial respiratory CO2 in 2 week lake water incubations and use the resulting data to reconstruct and model the bacterial consumption dynamics of algal and terrestrial DOC. The proportion of algal DOC respired decreased systematically over time in all experiments, suggesting a rapid consumption and depletion of this substrate. Our results further show that the algal DOC pool was used in proportions and at rates twice and 10 times as high as the terrestrial DOC pool, respectively. On the other hand, the absolute amount of labile terrestrial DOC was on average four times higher than labile algal DOC, accounting for almost the entire long-term residual C metabolism, but also contributing to short-term bacterial C consumption. The absolute amount of labile algal DOC increased with chlorophyll a concentrations, whereas total phosphorus appeared to enhance the amount of terrestrial DOC that bacteria could consume, suggesting that the degradation of these pools is not solely governed by their respective chemical properties, but also by interactions with nutrients. Our study shows that there is a highly reactive pool of terrestrial DOC that is processed in parallel to algal DOC, and because of interactions with nutrients, terrestrial DOC likely supports high levels of bacterial metabolism and CO2 production even in more productive lakes.

  1. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands. (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A; Eglinton, Timothy I; Curtis, Jason H


    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  2. Long-term peat accumulation in temperate forested peatlands (Thuja occidentalis swamps in the Great Lakes region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Ott


    Full Text Available Peatlands are being mapped globally because they are one of the largest pools of terrestrial carbon (C. Most inventories of C have been conducted in northern Sphagnum dominated peatlands or tropical peatlands. Northern white-cedar (cedar, Thuja occidentalis L. peatlands are amongst the most common peatland types in the Great Lakes Region of North America, yet there is no information on their C pool sizes or rates of C accumulation. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to determine: 1 the ages of cedar peatlands; 2 the amount of C stored in the peat profile; and 3 the apparent long-term rate of C accumulation. We sampled 14 cedar peatland sites across northern Minnesota and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Cedar peat was found to be derived mostly from wood and to have an average thickness of 1.12 m (range 0.3–3.25 m. Basal dates indicated that cedar peatlands were initiated between 1,970 and 8,590 years ago, and they appear to have been continuously occupied by cedar. Long-term apparent rates of C accumulation (LARCA ranged from a low of 6.4 g C m-2 yr-1 to a high of 39.7 g C m-2 yr-1, averaging 17.5 g C m-2 yr-1. Cedar peatlands tend to be shallower than Sphagnum peatlands in the region but, due to their higher bulk density (average 0.16 g cm-3, they contain high amounts of C with our sites averaging ~80 kg C m-2. Thus, they represent a regionally important pool of C.

  3. Lift up of Lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo Oliveira, Bruna Raquel


    In this thesis, the beneficial use of dredged sediments to reverse land subsidence in lowlands and delta areas is explored. The major constraints for beneficial use of sediments are the contaminant concentrations, and the proper managing of supply and demand of  sediments (Chapter 1). When

  4. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.


    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  5. Temper Foam (United States)


    Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

  6. What is the influence of a reduction of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on water quality in temperate eutrophic lakes? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernes, Claes; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Gårdmark, Anna; Larsson, Per; Persson, Lennart; Skov, Christian; Speed, James D.M.; Van Donk, Ellen


    Background: In recent decades, many attempts have been made to restore eutrophic lakes through biomanipulation. Reducing the populations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish (either directly or through stocking of piscivorous fish) may induce ecosystem changes that increase water transparency and




    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  8. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)


    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.


    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua


    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.





    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  11. A knife-roller effectively substitutes soil preparation by plough-and-harrow in lowland production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, G.; Silva, J.C.C.; Bastiaans, L.


    Cropping systems in the lowlands of temperate South America have been based on irrigated rice and beef-cattle production. Plough-and-harrow is still the most used method to prepare the soil after a season of irrigated rice, but it causes high soil disturbance and is time- and energy-demanding. To

  12. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.


    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  13. Quantifying seasonal export and retention of nutrients in West European lowland rivers at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Koelmans, A.A.


    To set accurate critical values for the protection of lakes and coastal areas, it is crucial to know the seasonal variation of nutrient exports from rivers. This article presents an improved method for estimating export and in-stream nutrient retention and its seasonal variation. For 13 lowland

  14. Flood occurence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satelite radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Hoekman, D.H.; Vissers, M.A.M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.


    Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase

  15. Impacts of shore expansion and catchment characteristics on lacustrine thermokarst records in permafrost lowlands, Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain


    Josefine Lenz; Benjamin M. Jones; Sebastian Wetterich; Rik Tjallingii; Michael Fritz; Christopher D. Arp; Natalia Rudaya; Guido Grosse


    Arctic lowland landscapes have been modified by thermokarst lake processes throughout the Holocene. Thermokarst lakes form as a result of ice-rich permafrost degradation, and they may expand over time through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. We studied proximal and distal sedimentary records from a thermokarst lake located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to reconstruct the impact of catchment dynamics and morphology on the lacustrine depositional environment and to qua...

  16. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton


    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the

  17. Serial tempering without exchange. (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh


    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  18. Genomic estimation of complex traits reveals ancient maize adaptation to temperate North America (United States)

    By 4000 years ago, people had introduced maize to the southwestern United States; full agriculture was established quickly in the lowland deserts but delayed in the temperate highlands for 2000 years. We test if the earliest upland maize was adapted for early flowering, a characteristic of modern te...

  19. From Leaf Synthesis to Senescence: n-Alkyl Lipid Abundance and D/H Composition Among Plant Species in a Temperate Deciduous Forest at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA (United States)

    Freimuth, E. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.


    The hydrogen isotope composition (D/H, δD) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes is a promising paleohydrology proxy because meteoric water (e.g., precipitation) is the primary hydrogen source for wax synthesis. However, secondary environmental and biological factors modify the net apparent fractionation between precipitation δD and leaf wax δD, limiting quantitative reconstruction of paleohydrology. These secondary factors include soil evaporation, leaf transpiration, biosynthetic fractionation, and the seasonal timing of lipid synthesis. Here, we investigate the influence of each of these factors on n-alkyl lipid δD in five dominant deciduous angiosperm tree species as well as shrubs, ferns and grasses in the watershed surrounding Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA. We quantified n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid concentrations and δD in replicate individuals of each species at weekly to monthly intervals from March to October 2014 to assess inter- and intraspecific isotope variability throughout the growing season. We present soil, xylem and leaf water δD from each individual, and precipitation and atmospheric water vapor δD throughout the season to directly examine the relationship between source water and lipid isotope composition. These data allow us to assess the relative influence of soil evaporation and leaf transpiration among plant types, within species, and along a soil moisture gradient throughout the catchment. We use leaf water δD to approximate biosynthetic fractionation for each individual and test whether this is a species-specific and seasonal constant, and to evaluate variation among plant types with identical growth conditions. Our high frequency sampling approach provides new insights into the seasonal timing of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid synthesis and subsequent fluctuations in concentration and δD in a temperate deciduous forest. These results will advance understanding of the magnitude and timing of secondary influences on the modern leaf wax

  20. The Need for Temperance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Inge Tangen


    Full Text Available This article explores how temperance as a virtue relates to organizational leadership. The study begins with a short survey of classical Greek and Christian notions of temperance before proceeding to ex-plore temperance in relation to self-leadership, visionary and strategic leadership, and relational lead-ership. The final part of the article offers reflections on how temperance might be cultivated from a theological perspective. Temperance is understood not only as sound thinking but also as embodied self-control and active patience. On the level of self-leadership, it is argued that temperance enables the leader to establish forms of integrity that protect the leader’s self from chaos and destruction. Moreover, temperance may also nurture focused visionary leadership that accepts ethical limits and has an eye to the common good. The study also suggests that organizations should cultivate a culture of strategic discipline that is capable of realizing such visions. On the interpersonal level, temperance is viewed as critical in terms of enabling leaders to treat co-workers with respect and wisdom and han-dle conflict with consideration. Finally, is argued that that the cultivation of temperance is not a one-way street from the inside to the outside or a subordination of feelings to reason but rather a very complex process that includes interpersonal humility, finds vision in an encounter with the good, and yet remains a personal responsibility.

  1. Neotropical lowland forests along environmental gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.


    Neotropical lowlands feature an extraordinary display of vegetation types. This is especially the case for Bolivia where three biogeographical regions, Amazonian, Brazilian-Paranaense and Gran Chaco meet in the lowland areas, providing thus an ideal setting to study vegetation-environment

  2. Coastal Temperate Rainforest Symposium (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the April 2012 science symposium - Coastal Temperate Rainforests: Integrating Communities, Climate Science, and Resource...

  3. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  4. Genomic estimation of complex traits reveals ancient maize adaptation to temperate North America. (United States)

    Swarts, Kelly; Gutaker, Rafal M; Benz, Bruce; Blake, Michael; Bukowski, Robert; Holland, James; Kruse-Peeples, Melissa; Lepak, Nicholas; Prim, Lynda; Romay, M Cinta; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jose de Jesus; Schmidt, Chris; Schuenemann, Verena J; Krause, Johannes; Matson, R G; Weigel, Detlef; Buckler, Edward S; Burbano, Hernán A


    By 4000 years ago, people had introduced maize to the southwestern United States; full agriculture was established quickly in the lowland deserts but delayed in the temperate highlands for 2000 years. We test if the earliest upland maize was adapted for early flowering, a characteristic of modern temperate maize. We sequenced fifteen 1900-year-old maize cobs from Turkey Pen Shelter in the temperate Southwest. Indirectly validated genomic models predicted that Turkey Pen maize was marginally adapted with respect to flowering, as well as short, tillering, and segregating for yellow kernel color. Temperate adaptation drove modern population differentiation and was selected in situ from ancient standing variation. Validated prediction of polygenic traits improves our understanding of ancient phenotypes and the dynamics of environmental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Salting our freshwater lakes (United States)

    Bartlett, Sarah L.; Burke, Samantha M.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Summers, Jamie C.; Farrell, Kaitlin J.; McCullough, Ian M.; Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Roberts, Derek C.; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C.; Weathers, Kathleen C.


    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L−1), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue. PMID:28396392

  6. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands: the Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands (United States)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Vermeulen, Bart; Taufik, Muh; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C. C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Antonius J. F.


    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the catchment scale. Our main objective is to study the hydrological dynamics of one of the largest tropical rainforest regions on an island using a combination of satellite remote sensing and novel observations from dedicated field campaigns. This contribution offers a comprehensive analysis of the hydrological dynamics of two neighbouring poorly gauged tropical basins; the Kapuas basin (98 700 km2) in West Kalimantan and the Mahakam basin (77 100 km2) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both basins are characterised by vast areas of inland lowlands. Hereby, we put specific emphasis on key hydrological variables and indicators such as discharge and flood extent. The hydroclimatological data described herein were obtained during fieldwork campaigns carried out in the Kapuas over the period 2013-2015 and in the Mahakam over the period 2008-2010. Additionally, we used the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates over the period 1998-2015 to analyse the distribution of rainfall and the influence of El-Niño - Southern Oscillation. Flood occurrence maps were obtained from the analysis of the Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images from 2007 to 2010. Drought events were derived from time series of simulated groundwater recharge using time series of TRMM rainfall estimates, potential evapotranspiration estimates and the threshold level approach. The Kapuas and the Mahakam lake regions are vast reservoirs of water of about 1000 and 1500 km2 that can store as much as 3 and 6.5 billion m3 of water, respectively. These storage capacity values can be doubled considering the area of flooding under vegetation cover. Discharge time series show that

  7. Great Lakes (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.


    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  8. Postcolonial Hybrids in The Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi


    Full Text Available This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian-born characters. Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial approach is utilized to demonstrate the ways in which the characters perceive the immigration experience, and to unravel the causes of their despair, the disintegration of their family, and the underlying reasons behind the decisions that they make to compensate for their marginal status in the adopted land. It is attempted to shed light on the characters’ insecurities and mental challenges brought forth by their ‘liminal’ condition, in which they find themselves caught in a dilemma between the Indian lifestyle on the one hand, and the American dominant culture, on the other. Furthermore, ‘hybridity’ is discussed, which entails the characters’ partial adoption of the foreign culture that gives birth to mixed identities in the ‘third space.’ This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu. Keywords: Adopted Land; Diaspora; Liminality; Hybridity; Third Space

  9. Simulated Solute Tempering. (United States)

    Denschlag, Robert; Lingenheil, Martin; Tavan, Paul; Mathias, Gerald


    For the enhanced conformational sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we present "simulated solute tempering" (SST) which is an easy to implement variant of simulated tempering. SST extends conventional simulated tempering (CST) by key concepts of "replica exchange with solute tempering" (REST, Liu et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 13749). We have applied SST, CST, and REST to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an alanine octapeptide in explicit water. The weight parameters required for CST and SST are determined by two different formulas whose performance is compared. For SST only one of them yields a uniform sampling of the temperature space. Compared to CST and REST, SST provides the highest exchange probabilities between neighboring rungs in the temperature ladder. Concomitantly, SST leads to the fastest diffusion of the simulation system through the temperature space, in particular, if the "even-odd" exchange scheme is employed in SST. As a result, SST exhibits the highest sampling speed of the investigated tempering methods.

  10. Economic analysis of stockless, horticultural crop rotations on a model farm in temperate zone organic systems


    SCHMUTZ Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Rayns, Francis


    Research draws on an organic research farm site in central England with a temperate zone climate - fairly common for the northern lowlands of Europe. The soil type is a sandy loam with 591 mm rainfall. Detailed economic and agronomic data have been collected since conversion began in 1995. The economic analysis discusses rotational gross and net margins of more than 30 different rotations with different fertility building and vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, onions, carrots, leeks and par...

  11. Flood occurrence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satellite radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayat


    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.

  12. Five thousand years of tropical lake sediment DNA records from Benin (United States)

    Bremond, L.; Favier, C.; Ficetola, G. F.; Tossou, M. G.; Akouégninou, A.; Gielly, L.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Oslisly, R.; Salzmann, U.


    Until now, sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) studies have only focused on cold and temperate regions were DNA is relatively well preserved. Consequently, the tropics, where vegetation is hyperdiverse and natural archives are rare, have been neglected and deserve attention. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to barcode sedDNA from Lake Sele, localized in the tropical lowlands of Benin (Africa), and compared the taxonomic diversity detected by DNA analyses with pollen assemblages. Plant sedDNA was successfully amplified from 33 of the 34 successfully extracted samples. In total, 43 taxa were identified along the 5000 years spanned by the sediment: 22 taxa were identified at the family level and 21 at the genus level. The plant diversity recovered through sedDNA from Lake Sele showed a specific local signal and limited overlapping with pollen. Introduced plants, grown and cultivated close to the water, such as sweet potato, were also well recorded by sedDNA. It appears, therefore, to be a promising approach to studying past diversity in tropical regions, and could help in tracking the introduction and history of agriculture. This is the first time this method has been used in the field of domestication and dissemination of several specific crops, and the results are very encouraging.

  13. Quantifying the nutrient flux within a lowland karstic catchment (United States)

    McCormack, T.; Naughton, O.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.


    Nutrient contamination of surface and groundwaters is an issue of growing importance as the risks associated with agricultural runoff escalate due to increasing demands on global food production. In this study, the nutrient flux occurring within the surface and groundwaters of a lowland karst catchment in western Ireland was investigated with the aid of alkalinity sampling and a hydrological model. Water samples were tested from a variety of rivers, lakes (or turloughs), boreholes and springs at monthly intervals over three years. Alkalinity sampling was used to elucidate the contrasting hydrological functioning between different turloughs. Such disparate hydrological functioning was further investigated with the aid of a hydrological model which allowed for an estimate of allogenic and autogenic derived nutrient loading into the karst system. The model also allowed for an investigation of mixing within the turloughs, comparing observed behaviours with the hypothetical conservative behaviour allowed for by the model. Within the turloughs, nutrient concentrations were found to reduce over the flooded period, even though the turloughs hydrological functioning (and the hydrological model) suggested this should not occur. As such, it was determined that nutrient loss processes were occurring within the system. Denitrification during stable flooded periods (typically 3-4 months per year) was deemed to be the main process reducing nitrogen concentrations within the turloughs whereas phosphorus loss is thought to occur mostly via sedimentation and subsequent soil deposition. The results from this study suggest that, in stable conditions, ephemeral lakes can impart considerable nutrient losses on a karst groundwater system.

  14. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.


    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  15. Lake stratigraphy implies an 80 000 yr delayed melting of buried dead ice in northern Russia


    Henriksen, Mona; Mangerud, Jan; Matiouchkov, Alexei; Paus, Aage; Svendsen, John-Inge


    Sediment cores from lakes Kormovoye and Oshkoty in the glaciated region of the Pechora Lowland, northern Russia, reveal sediment gravity flow deposits overlain by lacustrine mud and gyttja. The sediments were deposited mainly during melting of buried glacier ice beneath the lakes. In Lake Kormovoye, differential melting of dead ice caused the lake bottom to subside at different places at different times, resulting in sedimentation and erosion occurring only some few metres apar...

  16. Climate Change in Lowland Central America During the Late Deglacial and Early Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M B; Hodell, D A; Leyden, B W; Brenner, M; Curtis, J H; Anselmetti, F S; Ariztegui, D; Buck, D G; Guilderson, T P; Rosenmeier, M F; Schnurrenberger, D W


    The transition from arid glacial to moist early Holocene conditions represented a profound change in northern lowland Neotropical climate. Here we report a detailed record of changes in moisture availability during the latter part of this transition ({approx}11,250 to 7,500 cal yr BP) inferred from sediment cores retrieved in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala. Pollen assemblages demonstrate that a mesic forest had been largely established by {approx}11,250 cal yr BP, but sediment properties indicate that lake level was more than 35 m below modern stage. From 11,250 to 10,350 cal yr BP, during the Preboreal period, lithologic changes in sediments from deep-water cores (>50 m below modern water level) indicate several wet-dry cycles that suggest distinct changes in effective moisture. Four dry events (designated PBE1-4) occurred at 11,200, 10,900, 10,700, and 10,400 cal yr BP and correlate with similar variability observed in the Cariaco Basin titanium record and glacial meltwater pulses into the Gulf of Mexico. After 10,350 cal yr BP, multiple sediment proxies suggest a shift to a more persistently moist early Holocene climate. Comparison of results from Lake Peten Itza with other records from the circum-Caribbean demonstrates a coherent climate response during the entire span of our record. Furthermore, lowland Neotropical climate during the late deglacial and early Holocene period appears to be tightly linked to climate change in the high-latitude North Atlantic. We speculate that the observed changes in lowland Neotropical precipitation were related to the intensity of the annual cycle and associated displacements in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Azores-Bermuda high-pressure system. This mechanism operated on millennial-to-submillennial timescales and may have responded to changes in solar radiation, glacial meltwater, North Atlantic sea ice, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC).

  17. Kajian Pembuatan Cokelat Batang dengan Metode Tempering dan Tanpa Tempering


    Eti Indarti; Normalina Arpi; Slamet Budijanto*


    This research is aimed to improve stability of milk chocolate bars by tempering process. The making of chocolate bars consisted of two formulations, namely a higher fat bar (40%) and low fat bar (21.5%).The study includes the chocolate bar preparation with and without tempering results. The melting point of milk chocolate bars that use cocoa butter tempering (L1) is higher than the milk chocolate bars that use fat without tempering (L2) for all treatments. Solid fat content (SFC) of F1 has hi...

  18. Impacts of shore expansion and catchment characteristics on lacustrine thermokarst records in permafrost lowlands, Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain (United States)

    Lenz, Josefine; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wetterich, Sebastian; Tjallingii, Rik; Fritz, Michael; Arp, Christopher D.; Rudaya, Natalia; Grosse, Guido


    Arctic lowland landscapes have been modified by thermokarst lake processes throughout the Holocene. Thermokarst lakes form as a result of ice-rich permafrost degradation, and they may expand over time through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. We studied proximal and distal sedimentary records from a thermokarst lake located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to reconstruct the impact of catchment dynamics and morphology on the lacustrine depositional environment and to quantify carbon accumulation in thermokarst lake sediments. Short cores were collected for analysis of pollen, sedimentological, and geochemical proxies. Radiocarbon and 210Pb/137Cs dating, as well as extrapolation of measured historic lake expansion rates, were applied to estimate a minimum lake age of ~1400 calendar years BP. The pollen record is in agreement with the young lake age as it does not include evidence of the “alder high” that occurred in the region ~4000 cal yr BP. The lake most likely initiated from a remnant pond in a drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) and deepened rapidly as evidenced by accumulation of laminated sediments. Increasing oxygenation of the water column as shown by higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment indicate shifts in ice regime with increasing water depth. More recently, the sediment source changed as the thermokarst lake expanded through lateral permafrost degradation, alternating from redeposited DTLB sediments, to increased amounts of sediment from eroding, older upland deposits, followed by a more balanced combination of both DTLB and upland sources. The characterizing shifts in sediment sources and depositional regimes in expanding thermokarst lakes were, therefore, archived in the thermokarst lake sedimentary record. This study also highlights the potential for Arctic lakes to recycle old carbon from thawing permafrost and thermokarst processes.

  19. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Zlonis


    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  20. Hydrology and phosphorus transport simulation in a lowland polder by a coupled modeling system. (United States)

    Yan, Renhua; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Lingling; Gao, Junfeng


    Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water. The application of the model in the Jianwei polder shows that the simulated phosphorus matches well with the measured values. The high precision of this model combined with its low input data requirement and efficient computation make it practical and easy to the water resources management of Chinese polders. Parameter sensitivity analysis demonstrates that K uptake , c Q2 , c W1 , and c Q1 exert a significant effect on the modeled results, whereas K resuspensionMax , K settling , and K mineralization have little effect on the modeled total phosphorus. Among the three types of uncertainties (i.e., parameter, initial condition, and forcing uncertainties), forcing uncertainty produces the strongest effect on the simulated phosphorus. Based on the analysis result of annual phosphorus balance when considering the high import from irrigation and fertilization, lowland polder is capable of retaining phosphorus and reducing phosphorus export to surrounding aquatic ecosystems because of their special hydrological regulation regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.


    at ambient temperature by 30-40% and 80-130%, respectively. Faster consumption of organic matter and dissolved oxygen downstream of point sources should increase the likelihood of oxygen stress of the stream biota and lead to the export of less organic matter but more mineralised nutrients to the coastal......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... with or without lakes, (ii) factors influencing the temperature dependence of oxygen consumption rate, (iii) consequences of higher temperature and organic content in lake outlets on oxygen consumption rate, and (iv) possible consequences of forecasted global warming on degradation of organic matter. 2. High...

  2. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted


    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  3. The influence of hydrologic residence time on lake carbon cycling dynamics following extreme precipitation events (United States)

    Jacob A. Zwart; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Christopher T. Solomon; Stuart E. Jones


    The frequency and magnitude of extreme events are expected to increase in the future, yet little is known about effects of such events on ecosystem structure and function. We examined how extreme precipitation events affect exports of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (t-DOC) from watersheds to lakes as well as in-lake heterotrophy in three north-temperate lakes....

  4. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several lowland NERICAs (New Rice for Africa) were derived from crosses between IR64 (an Oryza sativa subsp. indica variety) and Tog5681 (an Oryza glaberrima variety) that possess useful traits adapted to lowland conditions in West Africa. The proportion of parental genomic contribution and extent of genetic ...

  5. Morphological assessment of reconstructed lowland streams in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, Ton; Brouwer, de J.H.F.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three reconstructed

  6. Importance of terrestrial arthropods as subsidies in lowland Neotropical rain forest stream ecosystems (United States)

    Small, Gaston E.; Torres, Pedro J.; Schwizer, Lauren M.; Duff, John H.; Pringle, Catherine M.


    The importance of terrestrial arthropods has been documented in temperate stream ecosystems, but little is known about the magnitude of these inputs in tropical streams. Terrestrial arthropods falling from the canopy of tropical forests may be an important subsidy to tropical stream food webs and could also represent an important flux of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in nutrient-poor headwater streams. We quantified input rates of terrestrial insects in eight streams draining lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. In two focal headwater streams, we also measured capture efficiency by the fish assemblage and quantified terrestrially derived N- and P-excretion relative to stream nutrient uptake rates. Average input rates of terrestrial insects ranged from 5 to 41 mg dry mass/m2/d, exceeding previous measurements of aquatic invertebrate secondary production in these study streams, and were relatively consistent year-round, in contrast to values reported in temperate streams. Terrestrial insects accounted for half of the diet of the dominant fish species, Priapicthys annectens. Although terrestrially derived fish excretion was found to be a small flux relative to measured nutrient uptake rates in the focal streams, the efficient capture and processing of terrestrial arthropods by fish made these nutrients available to the local stream ecosystem. This aquatic-terrestrial linkage is likely being decoupled by deforestation in many tropical regions, with largely unknown but potentially important ecological consequences.

  7. Climate variability in the SW Indian Ocean from an 8000-yr long multi-proxy record in the Mauritian lowlands shows a middle to late Holocene shift from negative IOD-state to ENSO-state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Erik J.; Tjallingii, Rik; Vélez, Maria I.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Vlug, Anouk; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Prendergast, Amy L.; de Louw, Perry G B; Florens, F. B Vincent; Baider, Cláudia; Hooghiemstra, Henry


    A multi-proxy reconstruction of a sediment core from the Tatos basin in the Mauritian lowlands reveals a dynamic environmental history during the last 8000 years. Under influence of sea level rise, the basin progressed from a wetland to a shallow lake between 8000 and 2500cal yr BP and it slowly

  8. Kajian Pembuatan Cokelat Batang dengan Metode Tempering dan Tanpa Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eti Indarti


    Full Text Available This research is aimed to improve stability of milk chocolate bars by tempering process. The making of chocolate bars consisted of two formulations, namely a higher fat bar (40% and low fat bar (21.5%.The study includes the chocolate bar preparation with and without tempering results. The melting point of milk chocolate bars that use cocoa butter tempering (L1 is higher than the milk chocolate bars that use fat without tempering (L2 for all treatments. Solid fat content (SFC of F1 has higher solid phase at room temperature (55-60% in all treatments compared with milk chocolate bar F2 (40-43% and chocolate produced by UKM (Malaysia 40-48 % and soccolatte 35-38% at the same temperature (350C. Blooming was not formed on the milk chocolate bars containing cocoa butter L1, while the milk chocolate bars showed blooming with L2 treatment. Keywords: chocolate bar, tempering, moulding, melting point, solid fat content, blooming

  9. A Stochastic Water Balance Framework for Lowland Watersheds (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.

  10. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled......We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  11. The role of fire in the Central European lowlands during the Holocene: what we know so far (United States)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Theuerkauf, Martin; Słowiński, Michał; Brauer, Achim


    The modern landscape of the Central European lowlands results from the complex interaction between its geological and geomorphological configuration that developed during and after the last glaciation as well as its Holocene vegetation history, climate evolution and human activity. Although also fire is known to play a fundamental role in many ecosystems of the world and to be one of the major tools for anthropogenic land cover change, Holocene paleofire history has only marginally been studied in the area of the Central European lowlands so far. Here, we will present the first attempt to establish a Holocene fire synthesis for the Central European lowlands. In a first step, we aim to reconstruct the regional Holocene fire history by comparing available sedimentary charcoal records from lakes and peatlands of northern Germany, northern Poland and the Baltic countries. We will present the current knowledge on the role of fire during different time windows such as the Neolithic period, the Medieval time and the onset of industrialization. In addition, we will discuss the interaction between fire, human activity, vegetation and climate change during the last 250 years in more detail using high-resolution records of sedimentary charcoal and the fire biomarkers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan from the annually laminated lake sediments of Lake Czechowskie, northern Poland. Teams: CEL synthesis - A. Feurdean, M. Obremska, M. Lamentowicz, K. Marcisz, W. Dörfler, I. Feeser, N. Dräger, F. Ott, T. Giesecke, S. Jahns, L. Shumilovskikh, S. Veski, M. Wieckowska-Lüth, J. Wiethold; Czechowskie fire biomarkers - E.C. Hopmans, L.T. Schreuder, M. Obremska, A. Pieńczewska, O. Blarquez, F. Ott, D. Brykala, S. Schouten

  12. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra


    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  13. Subsurface flow in lowland river gravel bars (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.


    Geomorphic and hydraulic processes, which form gravel bars in large lowland rivers, have distinctive characteristics that control the magnitude and spatial patterns of infiltration and exfiltration between rivers and their immediate subsurface environments. We present a bedform-infiltration relation together with a set of field measurements along two reaches of the San Joaquin River, CA to illustrate the conditions required for infiltration and exfiltration of flow between a stream and its undulating bed, and a numerical model to investigate the factors that affect paths and residence times of flow through barforms at different discharges. It is shown that asymmetry of bar morphology is a first-order control on the extent and location of infiltration, which would otherwise produce equal areas of infiltration and exfiltration under the assumption of sinusoidal bedforms. Hydraulic conductivity varies by orders of magnitude due to fine sediment accumulation and downstream coarsening related to the process of bar evolution. This systematic variability not only controls the magnitude of infiltration, but also the residence time of flow through the bed. The lowest hydraulic conductivity along the reach occurred where the difference between the topographic gradient and the water-surface gradient is at a maximum and thus where infiltration would be greatest into a homogeneous bar, indicating the importance of managing sand supply to maintain the ventilation and flow through salmon spawning riffles. Numerical simulations corroborate our interpretation that infiltration patterns and rates are controlled by distinctive features of bar morphology.

  14. Elastic Thickness Estimates for the Northern Lowlands of Mars (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Smrekar, S.


    The northern hemisphere lowlands of Mars cover approximately one-third of the surface of the planet. While crustal remnant magnetization is very strong in much of the Martian highlands, in contrast only a few low amplitude anomalies occur in the lowlands [Acuna et al., 1999]. The scarcity of magnetic anomalies in the lowlands remains unexplained. Crater counts for the northern lowlands basement based on analyses of high-resolution MOLA maps show that they are comparable in age to the southern highlands [Frey, 2004]. Since the basement age is so similar, it seems unlikely that the dynamo could have been active during formation of the highlands but not the lowlands. Topography and gravity measured by the Mars Global Surveyor have enabled the determination of elastic thickness (Te) estimates in the highlands [e.g. McGovern et al., 2002]. However, there have been no successful estimates in the Northern lowlands with the exception of Utopia basin [Zuber et al., 2002]. The failure is assumed due to insufficient power in the topography. Although the northern plains have clearly been eroded, we find that for selected Northern lowland regions, the power in the topography is smaller but comparable to areas of the southern highlands, previously used to obtain Te estimates. Previously, inversions based on isostatic response methods using eroded topography yielded incorrect results [Forsyth, 1985]. McKenzie and Fairhead [1997] find that Forsyths method can only be used to estimate Te where the power of the gravity from the uncompensated topography is comparable to that of the observed gravity at short wavelengths. If this condition is not satisfied, because the short-wavelength gravity is dominated by sub-surface loads and not by the topography, the estimated value of Te provides an upper bound. We use a multi-taper approach that has been successful at minimizing this bias for eroded cratons on Earth [Swain & Kirby, 2003]. In this study we perform detailed modeling of the

  15. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark


    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  16. Chloroplast genome variation in upland and lowland switchgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh A Young

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. exists at multiple ploidies and two phenotypically distinct ecotypes. To facilitate interploidal comparisons and to understand the extent of sequence variation within existing breeding pools, two complete switchgrass chloroplast genomes were sequenced from individuals representative of the upland and lowland ecotypes. The results demonstrated a very high degree of conservation in gene content and order with other sequenced plastid genomes. The lowland ecotype reference sequence (Kanlow Lin1 was 139,677 base pairs while the upland sequence (Summer Lin2 was 139,619 base pairs. Alignments between the lowland reference sequence and short-read sequence data from existing sequence datasets identified as either upland or lowland confirmed known polymorphisms and indicated the presence of other differences. Insertions and deletions principally occurred near stretches of homopolymer simple sequence repeats in intergenic regions while most Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs occurred in intergenic regions and introns within the single copy portions of the genome. The polymorphism rate between upland and lowland switchgrass ecotypes was found to be similar to rates reported between chloroplast genomes of indica and japonica subspecies of rice which were believed to have diverged 0.2-0.4 million years ago.

  17. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco


    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  18. Tracing the effects of the Little Ice Age in the tropical lowlands of eastern Mesoamerica. (United States)

    Lozano-García, Ma del Socorro; Caballero, Margarita; Ortega, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Sosa, Susana


    The causes of late-Holocene centennial to millennial scale climatic variability and the impact that such variability had on tropical ecosystems are still poorly understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, multiproxy record from lowland eastern Mesoamerica, studied to reconstruct climate and vegetation history during the last 2,000 years, in particular to evaluate the response of tropical vegetation to the cooling event of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Our data provide evidence that the densest tropical forest cover and the deepest lake of the last two millennia were coeval with the LIA, with two deep lake phases that follow the Spörer and Maunder minima in solar activity. The high tropical pollen accumulation rates limit LIA's winter cooling to a maximum of 2 degrees C. Tropical vegetation expansion during the LIA is best explained by a reduction in the extent of the dry season as a consequence of increased meridional flow leading to higher winter precipitation. These results highlight the importance of seasonal responses to climatic variability, a factor that could be of relevance when evaluating the impact of recent climate change.


    A deterministic, one-dimensional model is presented which simulates daily dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles and associated water temperatures, ice covers and snow covers for dimictic and polymictic lakes of the temperate zone. The lake parameters required as model input are surface ...

  20. Epiphytic diversity patterns in lowland and subandean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Henao-Diaz


    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. Although many theories have been proposed to explain their richness we currently know little about their relative importance. This diversity is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances such as fragmentation and forest degradation. In this study we compared epiphytic plant diversity patterns in lowland and subandean forests. More epiphytic diversity was found in subandean (PNN Cueva de los Guácharos compared to lowland forest (Palmarí Reserve. In addition a higher abundance of epiphytes was found in conserved forest. Tree host diversity was higher in lowland forests than in subandean forests, so we can reject the possibility that differences between the patterns of epiphytic diversity are caused by regional effects of plant diversity. Our results suggest that humidity seems to be the most important environmental filter explaining epiphyte diversity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU


    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  2. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom


    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  3. Molecular Technologies in Serbian Lowland Forestry under Climate Changes - Possibilities and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Trudić


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Vojvodina province, the northern part of the Republic of Serbia, is predominantly lowland agricultural region with over 75% of arable land which in previous years, has been highly impacted by drought. The annual precipitation is lower than 700 mm and it is the limit for the growth and development of natural forest vegetation. Unfortunately, the atmospheric precipitation is still a major source of water for plant biodiversity. Taking these facts into account, it is highly recommended to primarily use the xerothermic tree species, which have a well-developed root system for “classical” afforestation. Some species from Salicaceae and Fagaceae like poplars, willows, oaks and beeches are surely the best option for afforestation in temperate zones strongly influenced by drought. Conclusions: In order to develop stress-based genomic information in Populus and the rest of woody plant species from Vojvodina, an integrated genetic research needs to be done. The aim of this particular paper is to analyse and summarize data regarding stress-based biotechnology perspectives in Vojvodina and to give recommendations for future forest tree breeding. Drought as a strong negative ecological factor must be carefully considered. In order to achieve sustainability, new forest management plans must consider wide approaches, from molecular to ecosystem level.

  4. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands. (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula


    all Bolivian lowlands reaching 37,944,434 ha and leaves small forest patches in a few PAs. These deforestation scenarios are not meant to predict the future but to show how current and future decisions carried out by the neo-extractivist practices of MAS government could affect deforestation and carbon emission trends. In this perspective, recognizing land use systems as open and dynamic systems is a central challenge in designing efficient land use policies and managing a transition towards sustainable land use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of water quality in lakes by biological indices


    Nikolaev, I.I.


    Some problems of evaluation of water quality by biological indices which can be applied in the practice of ecological monitoring on water bodies are considered in this report. Taking into account, that ecological monitoring is the most urgent for large lakes, situated in civilised (urbanised) and (or) agrarian landscapes the corresponding problems will be considered mainly in conformity with large deep lakes of temperate latitudes. The aim is a general evaluation of some of the methods from t...

  6. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally. This study measures ebullitive and diffusive methane fluxes from two eastern Washington reservoirs, and synthesizes existing studies of methane ebullition in temperate, boreal, and tropical hydropower reservoirs. Ebullition comprises nearly all methane emissions (>97%) from this study's two eastern Washington hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. Summer methane ebullition from these reservoirs was higher than ebullition in six southeastern U.S. hydropower reservoirs, however it was similar to temperate reservoirs in other parts of the world. Our literature synthesis suggests that methane ebullition from temperate hydropower reservoirs can be seasonally elevated compared to tropical climates, however annual emissions are likely to be higher within tropical climates, emphasizing the possible range of methane ebullition fluxes and the need for the further study of temperate reservoirs. Possible future changes to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories highlights the need for accurate assessment of reservoir emissions.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Vancouver Lowlands Shillapoo Wildlife Area, 1994-1995 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Brian; Anderson, Eric; Ashley, Paul


    This project was conducted as part of a comprehensive planning effort for the Vancouver Lowlands project area. The study was funded by The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and carried out by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Vancouver Lowlands is considered an area of high priority by WDFW and is being considered as a potential site for wildlife mitigation activities by BPA. The objectives of this study were to collect baseline information and determine current habitat values for the study area. A brief discussion of potential future management and a proposed listing of priorities for habitat protection are found near the end of this report. This report is a companion to a programmatic management plan being drafted for the area which will outline specific, management programs to improve habitat conditions based, in part, on this study. The following narratives, describing limiting habitat variables, carry recurring themes for each indicator species and habitat type. These recurring variables that limited habitat value include: Waterbodies that lack emergent and submerged vegetation; forest areas that lack natural shrub layers; a predominance of non-hydrophytic and less desirable non-native plants where shrubs are present; a general lack of cover for ground nesting and secure waterfowl nest sites (island type). Human disturbance was the variable that varied more than any other from site to site in the study area. One issue that the models we used do not truly deal with is the quantity and connectivity of habitat. The mallard and heron models deal with spatial relationships but for other species this may be as critical. Observation of habitat maps easily show that forested habitats are in short supply. Their continuity along Lake river and the Columbia has been broken by past development. Wetland distribution has also been affected by past development.

  8. Analysis of land use and climate change impacts by comparing river flow records for headwaters and lowland reaches (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn


    The natural flow regime of rivers has been strongly altered world-wide, resulting in ecosystem degradation and lakes drying up, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Determining whether this is due mainly to climate change or to water withdrawal for direct human use (e.g. irrigation) is difficult, particularly for saline lake basins where hydrology data are scarce. In this study, we developed an approach for assessing climate and land use change impacts based on river flow records for headwater and lowland reaches of rivers, using the case of Lake Urmia basin, in north-westen Iran. Flow regimes at upstream and downstream stations were studied before and after major dam construction and irrigation projects. Data from 57 stations were used to establish five different time intervals representing 10 different land use development periods (scenarios) for upstream (not impacted) and downstream (impacted) systems. An existing river impact (RI) index was used to assess changes in three main characteristics of flow (magnitude, timing and, intra-annual variability). The results showed that irrigation was by far the main driving force for river flow regime changes in the lake basin. All stations close to the lake and on adjacent plains showed significantly higher impacts of land use change than headwaters. As headwaters are relatively unaffected by agriculture, the non-significant changes observed in headwater flow regimes indicate a minor effect of climate change on river flows in the region. The benefit of the method developed is clear interpretation of results based on river flow records, which is useful in communicating land use and climate change information to decision makers and lake restoration planners.

  9. Eddy covariance flux measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange from a lowland peatland flux tower network in England and Wales (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Balzter, Heiko; Burden, Annette; Callaghan, Nathan; Cumming, Alenander; Dixon, Simon; Evans, Jonathan; Kaduk, Joerg; Page, Susan; Pan, Gong; Rayment, Mark; Ridley, Luke; Rylett, Daniel; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Christopher


    Peatlands store disproportionately large amounts of soil carbon relative to other terrestrial ecosystems. Over recent decades, the large amount of carbon stored as peat has proved vulnerable to a range of land use pressures as well as the increasing impacts of climate change. In temperate Europe and elsewhere, large tracts of lowland peatland have been drained and converted to agricultural land use. Such changes have resulted in widespread losses of lowland peatland habitat, land subsidence across extensive areas and the transfer of historically accumulated soil carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). More recently, there has been growth in activities aiming to reduce these impacts through improved land management and peatland restoration. Despite a long history of productive land use and management, the magnitude and controls on greenhouse gas emissions from lowland peatland environments remain poorly quantified. Here, results of surface-atmosphere measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) from a network of seven eddy covariance (EC) flux towers located at a range of lowland peatland ecosystems across the United Kingdom (UK) are presented. This spatially-dense peatland flux tower network forms part of a wider observation programme aiming to quantify carbon, water and greenhouse gas balances for lowland peatlands across the UK. EC measurements totalling over seventeen site years were obtained at sites exhibiting large differences in vegetation cover, hydrological functioning and land management. The sites in the network show remarkable spatial and temporal variability in NEE. Across sites, annual NEE ranged from a net sink of -194 ±38 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 to a net source of 784±70 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1. The results suggest that semi-natural sites remain net sinks for atmospheric CO2. Sites that are drained for intensive agricultural production range from a small net sink to the largest observed source for atmospheric CO2 within the flux tower network

  10. Contribution of bank erosion to the sediment budget of a drained agricultural lowland catchment (United States)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gay, Aurore; Landemaine, Valentin; Evrard, Olivier


    Following the shift towards more intensive agriculture in cultivated lowlands in Europe, field sizes have increased and stream valley meanderings have been removed and realigned along new straight field borders. These modifications have led to profound alterations of the hydromorphology of the streams. To test the impact of these modifications, the long-term and current volumes of sediment originating from stream banks were calculated as they provided potential sources of sediment in a large pond located at the outlet of a small agricultural lowland basin under strong anthropogenic pressure. Bank erosion was measured using several methodologies, i) over a short period using a set of erosion pins along a small stream (1400 m long) to quantify the material exported during a single winter season (2012/2013); ii) over the last 69 years using an original approach involving the comparison of a compilation of three-dimensional historical stream redesign plans from 1944 vs. new measurements conducted in 2013 (DGPS and LiDAR data); iii) over several decades by using tracers (137Cs) that can differentiate between surface and subsoil erosion. At the catchment scale, total sediment exports were estimated from 1945 to 2013 combining seismic imagery and core dating in the lake. Sediment exports decreased with time, from 300 t. km-2.yr-between 1954 and 1980 to 95 t. km-2.yr-1 between 1980 and 2013. Today, erosion rates recorded at the outlet of the catchment vary between 90-102 Therefore, the order of magnitude of the mean export rate is approximately 180 t. km-2.yr-1 for the last 70 years. The contribution of channel banks to this sediment export was the highest ( 30%) between 1954 and 1980 when the ditches were constructed. For the entire period since the landscape modification, the contribution of bank erosion is lower but still reaches 20%. Bank erosion can therefore be considered as a significant contributor to the sediment budget of the lowland catchments that

  11. Lowland farming system inefficiency in Benin (West Africa):

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.


    This paper uses a directional distance function and a single truncated bootstrap approach to investigate inefficiency of lowland farming systems in the Benin Republic. First, we employed a dual approach to estimate and decompose short-run profit inefficiency of each farming system into pure

  12. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2008 ... (Tog5681) to create interspecific lines adapted to lowland .... Pedigree and parental contribution for 21 BC2F10, 17 BC3F8 and 10 BC4F8 interspecific lines developed using an O. sativa variety IR64 and an O. glaberrima variety Tog5681. Lines ..... with this locus could affect the production of viable pollen.

  13. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen


    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  14. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.


    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  15. An Indian Federation in Lowland Ecuador. IWGIA Document 28. (United States)

    Salazar, Ernesto

    Official involvement of the Ecuadorian government with colonization of the southern lowlands, lands traditionally belonging to the Shuar Indians, began in the early 60's when the CREA (Centro de Reconversion Economica del Azuay) was created to provide assistance to white settlers. Until that time, the Shuar lands had been dominated by the Salesian…

  16. Surgical extractions for periodontal disease in a Western Lowland gorilla. (United States)

    Huff, John F


    This case report describes surgical exraction of multiple premolar and molar teeth in a Western Lowland gorilla. Postoperative photographs and radiographs indicated complete healing of the extraction sites. This case report includes a review of gorilla dental anatomy, oral disease in primates, pathogenesis of periodontal disease, predisposing factors to periodontal disease, and principles of surgical tooth extraction.

  17. Technical efficiency of upland and lowland rice production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the efficiency of upland and lowland rice production systems in a prominent rice producing State (Niger State) in Nigeria using descriptive statistics, stochastic production frontier model as well as inefficiency model. The data used were generated from a farm survey involving 240 rice farmers' randomly ...

  18. Agro-morphological variation in lowland humid forest accessions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In year 2004 Ninety-height maize accessions (eighty-six landraces and twelve improved varieties) were collected from the lowland humid forest zone of Cameroon and evaluated on the basis of fifteen agro-morphological characters in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of this study ...

  19. Screening lowland rice varieties for resistance to brown spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve lowland rice varieties (BG 90-2, Cisadane, FARO 12, FARO 15 (early maturing), FARO 15 (late maturing), IR 5, ITA 123, ITA 306, MAS 2401, Suakoko 8 and TOS 2578) were planted in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons in Enyong creek rice field in Akwa Ibom State. The varieties were screened for resistance to brown ...

  20. Retroperitoneal abscesses in two western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Hahn, Alicia; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Raines, Jan


    This report describes two cases of retroperitoneal abscesses in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Clinical symptoms included perivulvar discharge, lameness, hindlimb paresis, and general malaise. Retroperitoneal abscesses should be considered as part of a complete differential list in female gorillas with similar clinical signs.

  1. A selective integrated tempering method. (United States)

    Yang, Lijiang; Qin Gao, Yi


    In this paper, based on the integrated tempering sampling we introduce a selective integrated tempering sampling (SITS) method for the efficient conformation sampling and thermodynamics calculations for a subsystem in a large one, such as biomolecules solvated in aqueous solutions. By introducing a potential surface scaled with temperature, the sampling over the configuration space of interest (e.g., the solvated biomolecule) is selectively enhanced but the rest of the system (e.g., the solvent) stays largely unperturbed. The applications of this method to biomolecular systems allow highly efficient sampling over both energy and configuration spaces of interest. Comparing to the popular and powerful replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), the method presented in this paper is significantly more efficient in yielding relevant thermodynamics quantities (such as the potential of mean force for biomolecular conformational changes in aqueous solutions). It is more important that SITS but not REMD yielded results that are consistent with the traditional umbrella sampling free energy calculations when explicit solvent model is used since SITS avoids the sampling of the irrelevant phase space (such as the boiling water at high temperatures).

  2. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems (United States)

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.


    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  3. Thermal structure of a lake with water in vertical motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, G.; Mongelli, F. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The vertical temperature structures of the seasonal thermocline of two lakes in temperate latitude with different feedings have been examined experimentally and reproduced theoretically by the basic equation of heat diffusion. One of these lakes is fed mainly from springs emerging from the lake bottom: as a consequence a vertical motion of water is established. The other lake is fed from the former by a small superficial channel. It is argued that the observed quantitative features of the stratification cycle agree with the theoretical calculations in both lakes with the same value of the molecular thermal diffusivity. Moreover, the seasonal thermocline of the lake with the bottom feeding is reduced: this involves a faster drop in the temperature amplitude of the annual cycle.

  4. Temperature dependence of the relationship between pCO2 and dissolved organic carbon in lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Pinho, L.


    The relationship between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in Brazilian lakes, encompassing 225 samples across a wide latitudinal range in the tropics, was tested. Unlike the positive relationship reported for lake waters, which was largely based on temperate lakes, we found no significant relationship for low-latitude lakes (< 33°), despite very broad ranges in both pCO2 and DOC levels. These results suggest substantial differences in the carbon cycling of low-latitude lakes, which must be considered when upscaling limnetic carbon cycling to global scales.

  5. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA (United States)

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.


    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  6. Interactive lakes in the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5: the role of lakes in the regional climate of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dugas


    Full Text Available Two one-dimensional (1-D column lake models have been coupled interactively with a developmental version of the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Multidecadal reanalyses-driven simulations with and without lakes revealed the systematic biases of the model and the impact of lakes on the simulated North American climate.The presence of lakes strongly influences the climate of the lake-rich region of the Canadian Shield. Due to their large thermal inertia, lakes act to dampen the diurnal and seasonal cycle of low-level air temperature. In late autumn and winter, ice-free lakes induce large sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a strong enhancement of precipitation downstream of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which is referred to as the snow belt.The FLake (FL and Hostetler (HL lake models perform adequately for small subgrid-scale lakes and for large resolved lakes with shallow depth, located in temperate or warm climatic regions. Both lake models exhibit specific strengths and weaknesses. For example, HL simulates too rapid spring warming and too warm surface temperature, especially in large and deep lakes; FL tends to damp the diurnal cycle of surface temperature. An adaptation of 1-D lake models might be required for an adequate simulation of large and deep lakes.

  7. Temper Fragileness Study for RUL 2 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Rădulea


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study about the tenacity variation depending on the tempering temperature of the steel RUL2 grade, within q wide range of temperatures. By this analysis it is possible to study the cooling of the above mentioned heat treatment on the temper fragileness.

  8. Parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Richard [UCLA MATH DEPT; Hyman, Jeffrey [UCLA MATH DEPT; Caflisch, Russel [UCLA MATH DEPT


    We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulations are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.

  9. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes (United States)

    Houser, J.N.


    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  10. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of fish absence in naturally fishless lakes (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Huryn, Alexander D.


    1. Little is known about native communities in naturally fishless lakes in eastern North America, a region where fish stocking has led to a decline in these habitats. 2. Our study objectives were to: (i) characterise and compare macroinvertebrate communities in fishless lakes found in two biophysical regions of Maine (U.S.A.): kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills and headwater lakes in the central and western mountains; (ii) identify unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities compared to lakes with fish and (iii) develop a method to efficiently identify fishless lakes when thorough fish surveys are not possible. 3. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure in the two physiographic fishless lake types (n = 8 kettle lakes; n = 8 headwater lakes) with submerged light traps and sweep nets. We also compared fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities to those in fish-containing lakes (n = 18) of similar size, location and maximum depth. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in community structure and t-tests for taxon-specific comparisons between lakes. 4. Few differences in macroinvertebrate communities between the two physiographic fishless lake types were apparent. Fishless and fish-containing lakes had numerous differences in macroinvertebrate community structure, abundance, taxonomic composition and species richness. Fish presence or absence was a stronger determinant of community structure in our study than differences in physical conditions relating to lake origin and physiography. 5. Communities in fishless lakes were more speciose and abundant than in fish-containing lakes, especially taxa that are large, active and free-swimming. Families differing in abundance and taxonomic composition included Notonectidae, Corixidae, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae and Chaoboridae. 6. We identified six taxa unique to fishless lakes that are robust indicators of fish absence: Graphoderus

  11. An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, M.; Fosalba, C.; Bruzzone, C.; Noordoven, W.; Jeppesen, E.


    1. In shallow temperate lakes, submerged plants often provide refuge for pelagic zooplankton against fish predation, a mechanism with potential strong cascading effects on water transparency and on the entire ecosystem. In (sub)tropical lakes, however, the interaction between aquatic plants and

  12. Solar UVR-induced DNA damage and inhibition of photosynthesis in phytoplankton from Andean lakes of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Boelen, P; Helbling, EW


    During January 1999, studies were carried out in temperate lakes of the Andean region of Argentina (41degreesS, 71degreesW) to determine the short-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) upon natural phytoplankton assemblages. Organisms from one 'clear' (Lake Moreno) and two

  13. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran


    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza


    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal ...

  14. Effects of beneficial microorganisms on lowland rice development. (United States)

    Nascente, Adriano Stephan; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; Lanna, Anna Cristina; de Sousa, Thatyane Pereira; de Souza, Alan Carlos Alves; da Silva Lobo, Valácia Lemes; da Silva, Gisele Barata


    Microorganisms can promote plant growth by increasing phytomass production, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis rates, and grain yield, which can result in higher profits for farmers. However, there is limited information available about the physiological characteristics of lowland rice after treatment with beneficial microorganisms in the tropical region. This study aimed to determine the effects of different beneficial microorganisms and various application forms on phytomass production, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in the lowland rice cultivar 'BRS Catiana' in a tropical region. The experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions utilizing a completely randomized design and a 7 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments consisted of seven microorganisms, including the rhizobacterial isolates BRM 32113, BRM 32111, BRM 32114, BRM 32112, BRM 32109, and BRM 32110 and Trichoderma asperellum pooled isolates UFRA-06, UFRA-09, UFRA-12, and UFRA-52, which were applied using three different methods (microbiolized seed, microbiolized seed + soil drenched with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 days after sowing (DAS), and microbiolized seed + plant spraying with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 DAS) with a control (water). The use of microorganisms can provide numerous benefits for rice in terms of crop growth and development. The microorganism types and methods of application positively and differentially affected the physiological characteristics evaluated in the experimental lowland rice plants. Notably, the plants treated with the bioagent BRM 32109 on the seeds and on seeds + soil produced plants with the highest dry matter biomass, gas exchange rate, and N, P, Fe, and Mg uptake. Therefore, our findings indicate strong potential for the use of microorganisms in lowland rice cultivation systems in tropical regions. Currently, an additional field experiment is in its second year to validate the beneficial result reported

  15. Biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams (United States)

    de Brouwer, Jan; Eekhout, Joris; Verdonschot, Piet


    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Currently, stream restoration measures are being implemented in these degraded lowland streams, where design principles are often based on outdated relationships between biological and physical conditions. Little is known about the reference conditions in these streams. Therefore, the aim of this research is to quantify the relationships between biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams. The research was conducted in four near-natural lowland streams in Central Poland. Field data were obtained during a field campaign in 2011. The following data were obtained in a 50-m reach in each of the four streams: macroinvertebrate sampling, spatial habitat patterns, bathymetry, and flow-velocity. Furthermore, water level, light sensitivity and temperature sensors were installed to obtain the temporal dynamic of these streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled in 9 different habitat types, i.e. sand, gravel, fine organic matter, stones, branches, leaves, silt, vegetation, and wood. Macroinvertebrates were determined to the highest taxonomic level possible. Data from the bathymetrical surveys were interpolated on a grid and bathymetrical metrics were determined. Flow velocity measurements were related to habitats and flow velocity metrics were determined. Analysis of the data shows that flow conditions vary among the different habitat, with a gradient from hard substrates towards soft substrates. Furthermore, the data show that stream as a unit best explains species composition, but also specific habitat conditions, such as substrate type and flow velocity, correlate with species composition. More specific, the data shows a strong effect of wood on species composition. These findings may have implications for stream restoration design, which

  16. The Effect of Tempering on Strength Properties and Seed Coat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tempering on seed coat adhesion strength and mechanical strength of sorghum and millet grain kernels was investigated at different tempering durations. Tempering reduced the kernel breaking strength and had significant effect on seed coat adhesion strength. Tempering the grain for 60 minutes at ambient temperature ...

  17. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows. (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Alt, Martin; Rudolph, Isabell; Entling, Martin H


    Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity) and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions) of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency) flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  18. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Passos Cordeiro


    Full Text Available The development of species distribution models (SDMs can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative different Habitat Suitability Maps for the lowland tapir. While MAXENT was efficient at identifying areas as suitable or unsuitable, it was less efficient (when compared to the results by ENFA at identifying the gradient of habitat suitability. MAXENT is a more multifaceted technique that establishes more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. Our results demonstrate that for at least one species, the lowland tapir, the use of a simple consensual approach (average of ENFA and MAXENT models outputs better reflected its current distribution patterns. The Brazilian ecoregions have the highest habitat loss for the tapir. Cerrado and Atlantic Forest account for nearly half (48.19% of the total area lost. The Amazon region contains the largest area under protection, and the most extensive remaining habitat for the tapir, but also showed high levels of habitat loss outside protected areas, which increases the importance of support for proper management.

  19. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  20. Lake ecosystem response to climate change 8200 years ago. A multi-proxy study at Lake Højby Sø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna


    of the North Atlantic is projected by almost all global-warming models (e.g. IPCC 2007). In Denmark the 8.2 kyr event pre-dates the introduction of agriculture (by more than two millennia) and any other major human impact on the environment, so allowing the anthropogenic factor to be disregarded. At Lake Højby......The assessment of present-day climate effects on lake ecosystems in lowland Europe is difficult for two reasons: i. the absence of long-term monitoring data (usually less than 30 yrs) which makes it difficult to determine natural variation, and ii. the problem of distinguishing between the effects...... of climate and the effects of human activities. These problems also complicate the prediction of possible future climate influence on lake ecology. A way of circumventing these problems is the use of lake sediment records which contain a wealth of information about past lake history over long time scales...

  1. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson


    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  2. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson


    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  3. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water. (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay


    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  4. Seasonal habitat selection by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a small Canadian shield lake: Constraints imposed by winter conditions (United States)

    Blanchfield, P.J.; Tate, L.S.; Plumb, J.M.; Acolas, M.-L.; Beaty, K.G.


    The need for cold, well-oxygenated waters significantly reduces the habitat available for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) during stratification of small temperate lakes. We examined the spatial and pelagic distribution of lake trout over two consecutive summers and winters and tested whether winter increased habitat availability and access to littoral regions in a boreal shield lake in which pelagic prey fish are absent. In winter, lake trout had a narrowly defined pelagic distribution that was skewed to the upper 3 m of the water column and spatially situated in the central region of the lake. Individual core areas of use (50% Kernel utilization distributions) in winter were much reduced (75%) and spatially non-overlapping compared to summer areas, but activity levels were similar between seasons. Winter habitat selection is in contrast to observations from the stratified season, when lake trout were consistently located in much deeper waters (>6 m) and widely distributed throughout the lake. Winter distribution of lake trout appeared to be strongly influenced by ambient light levels; snow depth and day length accounted for up to 69% of the variation in daily median fish depth. More restricted habitat use during winter than summer was in contrast to our original prediction and illustrates that a different suite of factors influence lake trout distribution between these seasons. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  5. Nutrient flows in lowland dairy farms in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bassanino


    Full Text Available A traditional dairy production system is still common today in the mountain environment of the Italian Alps, enhancing the economic valorisation of milk through the production of quality cheese such as Fontina PDO (Protected Designation of Origin, and favouring the agro-environmental management of marginal areas. This type of dairy system depends mainly on summer grazing: farmers set up the farm stock on the basis of the high-altitude grassland areas available. For the rest of the year, the livestock is housed on the farm lowland, consequently reaching high stocking rates. Since grassland areas are limited in size here, animal feeding is largely based on acquired forages. In order to study the environmental sustainability of the lowland farm areas, agronomic management, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P farm-gate balances were calculated for 22 livestock farms in the Valle d’Aosta region. Lowland surfaces show a quite high variability, with an average value of 6.8 ha. An unbalanced stocking rate referred to the lowland is common showing an average value of 5.7 L.U. ha-1, but reaching a maximum of 26.8 L.U. ha-1. Lowland milk production is approximately 1700 kg per L.U. per year, but some farms could reach 3500 kg per L.U. The feed efficiency varies from 1.1 to 4.7 kg milk per kg feed, depending on the farm feeding strategy. The average N farm-gate balance is equal to 75 kg N ha-1. The two main input components are represented by purchased hay and feed, both showing the highest variability between farms. The output data also differ substantially between farms. The manure sold is the most important output component and represents 70% of the total output on average. The P farm gate balance surplus is equal to 6 kg ha-1, but more than 25% of the farms considered show a negative value. The surpluses calculated in this work can be compared with the values belonging to a distribution calculated for bovine farms under different management and

  6. Comparison of sampling efficiency between simulated tempering and replica exchange


    Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng


    We compared the sampling efficiency of simulated tempering and replica exchange. Our results indicate that simulated tempering is superior to replica exchange if the parameters for temperature transition in simulated tempering are adjusted to be proportional to the partition function. It is shown that, in simulated tempering, the rate of traversing energy space of different temperatures is much higher than that in replica exchange, especially in the case of low tempering frequency and∕or larg...

  7. Comparison of sampling efficiency between simulated tempering and replica exchange. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng


    We compared the sampling efficiency of simulated tempering and replica exchange. Our results indicate that simulated tempering is superior to replica exchange if the parameters for temperature transition in simulated tempering are adjusted to be proportional to the partition function. It is shown that, in simulated tempering, the rate of traversing energy space of different temperatures is much higher than that in replica exchange, especially in the case of low tempering frequency and/or larger temperature separations.

  8. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  9. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.


    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large...... zooplankton. However, recovery of macrophytes is often delayed and use of artificial plant beds (APB) has been suggested as a tool to enhance zooplankton refuges, thereby reinforcing the shift to a clear-water state and, eventually, colonisation of natural plants. 2. To further evaluate the potential of APB...... in lake restoration, we followed the day–night habitat choices of zooplankton throughout summer in a clear and a turbid lake. Observations were made in the pelagic and littoral zones and in APB in the littoral representing three different plant densities (coverage 0%, 40% and 80%). 3. In the clear lake...

  10. Playa Lakes (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  11. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco


    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  12. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    The United States is home to more than 87,000 dams, 2,198 of which are actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, it is imperative for the U.S. to accurately quantify greenhouse gas fluxes from its hydropower reservoirs. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, can account for nearly all of a reservoir’s methane emissions to the atmosphere. However, methane ebullition in hydropower reservoirs has been studied in only three temperate locations, none of which are in the United States. This study measures high ebullitive methane fluxes from two hydropower reservoirs in eastern Washington, synthesizes the known information about methane ebullition from tropical, boreal, and temperate hydropower reservoirs, and investigates the implications for U.S. hydropower management and growth.

  13. The Lake Petén Itzá Scientifi c Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ariztegui


    Full Text Available Polar ice cores provide us with high-resolution records of past climate change at high latitudes on both glacial-to-interglacial and millennial timescales. Paleoclimatologists and climate modelers have focused increasingly on the tropics, however, as a potentially important driver of global climate change because of the region’s role in controlling the Earth’s energy budget and in regulating the water vapor content of the atmosphere. Tropical climate change is often expressed most strongly as variations in precipitation, and closed-basin lakes are sensitive recorders of the balance between precipitation and evaporation. Recent advances in fl oating platformsand drilling technology now offer the paleolimnological community the opportunity to obtain long sediment records from lowland tropical lakes, as illustrated by the recent successful drilling of Lakes Bosumtwi and Malawi in Africa (Koeberl et al., 2005; Scholz et al., 2006. Tropical lakes suitable for paleoclimatic research were sought in Central America to complement the African lake drilling. Most lakes in the Neotropics are shallow, however, and these basins fell dry during the Late Glacial period because the climate in the region was more arid than today. The search for an appropriate lake to study succeeded in 1999 when a bathymetric survey of Lake Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala, revealed a maximum depth of 165 m, making itthe deepest lake in the lowlands of Central America (Fig. 1 .Although the lake was greatly reduced in volume during the Late Glacial period, the deep basin remained submerged and thus contains a continuous history of lacustrine sediment deposition. A subsequent seismic survey of Lake Petén Itzá in 2002 showed a thick sediment package overlying basement, with several subbasins containing up to 100 m of sediment (Anselmetti et al., 2006.

  14. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.


    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (<~60 y) or surface sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  15. Methane emissions and uptake in temperate and tropical forest trees on free-draining soils. (United States)

    Welch, Bertie; Sayer, Emma; Siegenthaler, Andy; Gauci, Vincent


    Forests play an important role in the exchange of radiatively important gases with the atmosphere. Previous studies have shown that in both temperate and tropical wetland forests tree stems are significant sources of methane (CH4), yet little is known about trace greenhouse gas dynamics in free-draining soils that dominate global forested areas. We examined trace gas (CH4 and N2O) fluxes from both soils and tree stems in a lowland tropical forest on free-draining soils in Panama, Central America and from a deciduous woodland in the United Kingdom. The tropical field site was a long-term experimental litter manipulation experiment in the Barro Colorado Nature Monument within the Panama Canal Zone, fluxes were sampled over the dry to wet season transition (March-August) in 2014 and November 2015. Temperate fluxes were sampled at Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, over 12 months from February 2015 to January 2016. Tree stem samples were collected via syringe from temporary chambers strapped to the trees (as per Siegenthaler et al. (2015)) and the soil fluxes were sampled from permanently installed collars inserted to a 3cm depth. We found that seasonality (precipitation) is a significant driver of changing soil exchange from methane uptake to emission at the Panama sites. Experimental changes to litter quantity only become significant when coupled with seasonal change. Seasonal variability is an important control of the fluxes at out temperate forest site with changes in temperature and soil water content leading to changes in soil and tree stem trace gas fluxes from Wytham Woods. Siegenthaler, A., Welch, B., Pangala, S. R., Peacock, M., and Gauci, V.: Technical Note: Semi-rigid chambers for methane gas flux measurements on tree-stems, Biogeosciences Discuss., 12, 16019-16048, doi:10.5194/bgd-12-16019-2015, 2015.

  16. White Lake AOC (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  17. Englacial Hydrology of Temperate Glaciers (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Creyts, T. T.


    The englacial region of temperate glaciers is generally treated as a passive conveyor of water from the surface to the bed. Consequently, few studies have examined this region and relatively little is known. This is an important issue because englacial processes probably exert a first order control on the distribution of water to the subglacial hydraulic system. Controlling the water distribution probably controls the type of subglacial hydraulic features present and therefore sliding behavior. Certainly, englacial conduits play a major, if not primary, role in conveying water in the ablation zone. In regions of over-deepenings, areas highly crevassed, or in the accumulation zone, the importance of englacial conduits is less clear. Field studies have shown that intersecting englacial passageways in these regions are relatively common, implying that large water fluxes can drain efficiently through a network of fractures. Hypothetically, efficient drainage systems composed of englacial conduits develop in response to point input of large surface water fluxes. Where input is small and distributed, common to highly crevassed areas or the accumulation zone, water is probably routed through a network of englacial fractures. Glacier geometry may also play a role. Conduits may not develop in the over-deepened (closed basins) regions of a glacier requiring another flow pathway. That englacial fractures exist and can convey water presents a promising alternative. Measured rates of flow in fractures strongly suggest laminar conditions and a sufficient fracture density exists to accommodate the estimated water flux generated upstream by surface melt. The slow flow rates do not generate sufficient viscous heat to compensate expected rates of closure by freezing, however field observations and seismic evidence point to spontaneous fracture formation at depth that must regenerate the fracture network. It is unfortunate that englacial investigations are ignored in favor of

  18. Scenario-based risk analysis of winter snowstorms in the German lowlands (United States)

    von Wulffen, Anja


    The northern German lowlands are not especially known for a high frequency of snowfall events. Nevertheless under certain synoptic conditions Lake-Effect-like phenomena caused by the proximity especially of the Baltic Sea can lead to significantly reinforced snowfall intensities that are often accompanied by rather high wind speeds. This makes for infrequent but potentially disastrous snowstorms in a region less accustomed to snow impacts. One possible consequence of an infrastructure failure cascade resulting from severe and longer-lasting snowstorms is a regional disruption of the food supply chain. In the context of "just-in-time"-logistics and the accompanying decrease of storage capabilities, this poses a significant threat to the population's food security. Within the project NeuENV ("New strategies to ensure sufficient food supply in case of crisis in Germany") a snowstorm in the German lowlands involving widespread disruptions of the transportation infrastructure as well as power failures is therefore used as one model for future food supply chain disruptions. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of the supply chain and crisis management resilience, a detailed snowstorm scenario is being developed. For this purpose, a database of impact reports of past snowstorm events is assembled and analysed to obtain a comprehensive overview of potential infrastructure impairments and failures. Examples of events analysed in this context include the winter 1978/79 with its disastrous snow drifts that commonly attained heights of 3m to 5m leading to a transportation infrastructure collapse across a wide area, the wet snow event in November 2005 in the Münsterland region that caused power failures for up to 250.000 homes, and more recent snowstorms such as Daisy in January 2010. A catalogue of thresholds for relevant parameters indicating when significant failures can be expected is then compiled through a comparison of impact reports with the detailed meteorological

  19. Late Holocene Droughts Recorded in Speleothems From the Maya Lowlands of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Endsley, E. A.; Gallup, C. D.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.; Brenner, M.; Gentry, C. L.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.


    Evidence for Holocene droughts in Mesoamerica exists from numerous paleolimnological studies. Speleothems from the Yucatan Peninsula can be used to help constrain the timing, intensity, and regional extent of these droughts. Late Holocene wet/dry cycles are inferred from the oxygen isotope record of speleothem calcite and the timing is constrained using U/Th dating. In the lowland neotropics, there is a strong negative correlation between δ18O of precipitation and rainfall amount, i.e. the "amount effect." The δ18O of speleothem calcite can then be used as a proxy for the relative amount of past precipitation in the Maya lowlands. A speleothem from Cueva Tzabnah, near Tecoh, Yucatan, Mexico, has a basal date of 2711 ±329 yr BP and a top date of 548 ±61 yr BP, indicating growth during most of the period of Maya prehistory. The 25cm-long speleothem has an average growth rate of 0.12mm/yr, and contains several visible hiatuses indicating cessation of growth, possibly due to drier climate conditions. Oxygen isotopes were measured at 0.5mm intervals, with an average value of -5.24‰. δ18O values increase near the hiatuses in speleothem growth, interpreted as evidence for the presence of drought conditions. These relative increases in δ18O will be dated using U/Th methods to constrain the timing of the drought events. In the top 3mm, the average δ18O value is 2.49‰ greater than the average speleothem δ18O value, and possibly represents drier conditions beginning in the mid-15th century AD consistent with a nearby lake sediment core record from Aguada X'camaal (Hodell et al., 2005). Well-dated drought events during the late Holocene will provide insight into the role that climate may have played in the cultural evolution of the Maya civilization. References: Hodell, D.A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J.H., Medina-Gonzalez, R., Ildefonso-Chan Can, E., Albornaz-Pat, A., Guilderson, T.P., 2005. Climate change on the Yucatan Peninsula during the Little Ice Age. Quaternary

  20. Vegetation as a Mechanism for Increased Vadose Zone Infiltration in the Pacific Lowlands of Nicaragua (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Fremier, A. K.; Heinse, R.; DeClerck, F.; Chávez Huamán, W.


    Expansion of agricultural land in the Pacific Lowlands of Nicaragua coupled with intense seasonal rains increases vulnerabilities to the adverse effects of altered surface and vadose zone hydrologic processes seen in flooding, increased soil loss, as well as pollution of rivers and lakes. A primary hydrologic vadose zone process that is altered with land conversion is infiltration often due to changes in bulk density, soil structure, and vertical vegetation structure. Our aim was to study how vegetation affects the soil physical properties that determine infiltration in the vadose zone. We hypothesized that vegetation would increase saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in more forested plots due to preferential pathways in the soil from root and fauna activity. We determined Ks using a Guelph Permeameter in fifteen plots, including, two pastures, two cultivated areas, and eleven plots of varying degrees of forestation in Rivas, Nicaragua. To quantify the effects of soil physical properties and vegetation on Ks we measured sand, silt, clay, bulk density, and soil organic matter as well as vegetation measurements leaf area index (LAI) and total plot tree basal area (DBH>10cm). We applied the Rosetta pedotransfer function (USDA Salinity Lab) to model Ks from sand, silt, clay, and bulk density measurements. We performed a blue dye tracer study in a pasture and a primary forest plot to explore possible mechanisms for changes in Ks between forest and pasture plots. Clay, sand, LAI, and basal area were all individually significant (p<0.0001) in the regression model. The pedotransfer function modeling resulted in 25.7% of the Ks values from low and medium LAI plots (LAI<3.5) being under predicted (i.e. observed value greater than modeled value), whereas 66.7% of Ks values from high LAI plots were under predicted, partially attributed to increased preferential pathways. The blue dye tracer study revealed 10 times more preferential pathways in the forested plot than in the

  1. A synthesis of thermokarst lake water balance in high-latitude regions of North America from isotope tracers (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Turner, Kevin W.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Arp, Christopher D.; Birks, Jean; Bouchard, Frédéric; Edwards, Thomas W.D.; Farquharson, Nicole; Hall, Roland I.; McDonald, Ian; Narancic, Biljana; Ouimet, Chantal; Pienitz, Reinhard; Tondu, Jana; White, Hilary


    Numerous studies utilizing remote sensing imagery and other methods have documented that thermokarst lakes are undergoing varied hydrological transitions in response to recent climate changes, from surface area expansion to drainage and evaporative desiccation. Here, we provide a synthesis of hydrological conditions for 376 lakes of mainly thermokarst origin across high-latitude North America. We assemble surface water isotope compositions measured during the past decade at five lake-rich landscapes including Arctic Coastal Plain (Alaska), Yukon Flats (Alaska), Old Crow Flats (Yukon), northwestern Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba), and Nunavik (Quebec). These landscapes represent the broad range of thermokarst environments by spanning gradients in meteorological, permafrost, and vegetation conditions. An isotope framework was established based on flux-weighted long-term averages of meteorological conditions for each lake to quantify water balance metrics. The isotope composition of source water and evaporation-to-inflow ratio for each lake were determined, and the results demonstrated a substantial array of regional and subregional diversity of lake hydrological conditions. Controls on lake water balance and how these vary among the five landscapes and with differing environmental drivers are assessed. Findings reveal that lakes in the Hudson Bay Lowlands are most vulnerable to evaporative desiccation, whereas those in Nunavik are most resilient. However, we also identify the complexity in predicting hydrological responses of these thermokarst landscapes to future climate change.

  2. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach (United States)

    Sacks, Laura A.


    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  3. Morphological assessment of reconstructed lowland streams in the Netherlands (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; Hoitink, Antonius J. F.; de Brouwer, Jan H. F.; Verdonschot, Piet F. M.


    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three reconstructed streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realise water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  4. Herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs. (United States)

    Laini, Alex; Bartoli, Marco; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco


    Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the

  5. Autodeformation of Carburized Steel during Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article analyses the results of autodeformation registered during tempering of carburized steel. Test pieces for the tests were carburized till the different depth in order to examine influence of depth of carburization on the deformation of steel during heat treatment operation. Carburization was performed on the one surface of test pieces seeking to analyze extent of acted normal stresses to autodeformation of steel. Different bending loads were applied for analyzed steel from 5 MPa to 100 MPa. Deflection of test pieces was analyzed. The obtained results proved that size and direction of deflection were affected by depth of carburization. Particular results of stretched and compressed surface examination showed different behavior of test pieces during tempering process. Test pieces, which undergo deformation at the beginning of martensitic transformation, after unloading bend further. When tempered test pieces with assimetrically carburized layer bend during hardening, its direction and extent of autodeformation depend on depth of carburization and tempering temperature. Kinetics of autodeformation (during tempering is affected by difference of volume changes in the carburized part and in the unaffected low carbon part of specimen, and similarly by decomposition of retained austenite in the carburized part.DOI:

  6. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up (United States)


    Combining observations from the CoRoT satellite and the ESO HARPS instrument, astronomers have discovered the first "normal" exoplanet that can be studied in great detail. Designated Corot-9b, the planet regularly passes in front of a star similar to the Sun located 1500 light-years away from Earth towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake). "This is a normal, temperate exoplanet just like dozens we already know, but this is the first whose properties we can study in depth," says Claire Moutou, who is part of the international team of 60 astronomers that made the discovery. "It is bound to become a Rosetta stone in exoplanet research." "Corot-9b is the first exoplanet that really does resemble planets in our solar system," adds lead author Hans Deeg. "It has the size of Jupiter and an orbit similar to that of Mercury." "Like our own giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the planet is mostly made of hydrogen and helium," says team member Tristan Guillot, "and it may contain up to 20 Earth masses of other elements, including water and rock at high temperatures and pressures." Corot-9b passes in front of its host star every 95 days, as seen from Earth [1]. This "transit" lasts for about 8 hours, and provides astronomers with much additional information on the planet. This is fortunate as the gas giant shares many features with the majority of exoplanets discovered so far [2]. "Our analysis has provided more information on Corot-9b than for other exoplanets of the same type," says co-author Didier Queloz. "It may open up a new field of research to understand the atmospheres of moderate- and low-temperature planets, and in particular a completely new window in our understanding of low-temperature chemistry." More than 400 exoplanets have been discovered so far, 70 of them through the transit method. Corot-9b is special in that its distance from its host star is about ten times larger than that of any planet previously discovered by this method. And unlike all such

  7. Long-period effects of the Denali earthquake on water bodies in the Puget Lowland: Observations and modeling (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T.L.; Steele, W.P.


    Analysis of strong-motion instrument recordings in Seattle, Washington, resulting from the 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake reveals that amplification in the 0.2-to 1.0-Hz frequency band is largely governed by the shallow sediments both inside and outside the sedimentary basins beneath the Puget Lowland. Sites above the deep sedimentary strata show additional seismic-wave amplification in the 0.04- to 0.2-Hz frequency range. Surface waves generated by the Mw 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 produced pronounced water waves across Washington state. The largest water waves coincided with the area of largest seismic-wave amplification underlain by the Seattle basin. In the current work, we present reports that show Lakes Union and Washington, both located on the Seattle basin, are susceptible to large water waves generated by large local earthquakes and teleseisms. A simple model of a water body is adopted to explain the generation of waves in water basins. This model provides reasonable estimates for the water-wave amplitudes in swimming pools during the Denali earthquake but appears to underestimate the waves observed in Lake Union.

  8. Sedimentary archives of fire, vegetation history, and human impacts during the late Holocene in the eastern lowland of Taiwan (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Chi


    The Hualien Plain is one of the richest prehistoric sites in eastern Taiwan, and the reconstruction of late Holocene environment on the basis of the lacustrine sediments near Hualien Plain can benefit to the understandings of human-climate-environment interactions in past. The multi-decadal records of vegetation history, agriculture evidences and fire events in Liyu Lake of eastern Taiwan were reconstructed by using palynological and charcoal analysis of lake sediments. A 2.8 m sediment core covering a time period from 2,680 cal BP to the present was used to investigate the alterations in the landscape with respect to human activities and climate change. During 2680-2410 cal yr BP, frequent burning and high preservation of cultivated Poaceae pollen indicated the early cultivation during the late Neolithic period. There followed a warm climate during 2,410-1,510 cal yr BP, and the increase of lowland forest pollen showed a period of forest recovery as a consequence of reducing human activity. Following a phase of recolonization of prehistory human during 1510-560 cal yr BP, a slightly increasing trend of cultivated Poacease indicated the human activities, but the human population was low. The last 560 years record showed an intense trend of deforestation and cultivation which may correlate to a rapid increase in the human population in this area.

  9. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches (United States)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus


    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  10. Potential for thermal tolerance to mediate climate change effects on three members of a cool temperate lizard genus, Niveoscincus. (United States)

    Caldwell, Amanda J; While, Geoffrey M; Beeton, Nicholas J; Wapstra, Erik


    Climatic changes are predicted to be greater in higher latitude and mountainous regions but species specific impacts are difficult to predict. This is partly due to inter-specific variance in the physiological traits which mediate environmental temperature effects at the organismal level. We examined variation in the critical thermal minimum (CTmin), critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and evaporative water loss rates (EWL) of a widespread lowland (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and two range restricted highland (N. microlepidotus and N. greeni) members of a cool temperate Tasmanian lizard genus. The widespread lowland species had significantly higher CTmin and CTmax and significantly lower EWL than both highland species. Implications of inter-specific variation in thermal tolerance for activity were examined under contemporary and future climate change scenarios. Instances of air temperatures below CTmin were predicted to decline in frequency for the widespread lowland and both highland species. Air temperatures of high altitude sites were not predicted to exceed the CTmax of either highland species throughout the 21st century. In contrast, the widespread lowland species is predicted to experience air temperatures in excess of CTmax on 1 or 2 days by three of six global circulation models from 2068-2096. To estimate climate change effects on activity we reran the thermal tolerance models using minimum and maximum temperatures selected for activity. A net gain in available activity time was predicted under climate change for all three species; while air temperatures were predicted to exceed maximum temperatures selected for activity with increasing frequency, the change was not as great as the predicted decline in air temperatures below minimum temperatures selected for activity. We hypothesise that the major effect of rising air temperatures under climate change is an increase in available activity period for both the widespread lowland and highland species. The

  11. Tempering of Low-Temperature Bainite (United States)

    Peet, Mathew J.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Miller, Mike K.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.


    Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atom probe tomography have been used to identify the changes which occur during the tempering of a carbide-free bainitic steel transformed at 473 K (200 °C). Partitioning of solute between ferrite and thin-films of retained austenite was observed on tempering at 673 K (400 °C) for 30 minutes. After tempering at 673 K (400 °C) and 773 K (500 °C) for 30 minutes, cementite was observed in the form of nanometre scale precipitates. Proximity histograms showed that the partitioning of solutes other than silicon from the cementite was slight at 673 K (400 °C) and more obvious at 773 K (500 °C). In both cases, the nanometre scale carbides are greatly depleted in silicon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Marcomini


    Full Text Available SAE 52100 steel is not only used as a rolled raw material for bearing manufacturing but for building some rolling devices as well, such as guide rollers and straightener rollers. The purpose of this work is the characterization of a Fe-C-Mn-Si-Cr bearing alloy (SAE 52100 steel, modified with 1.74% Si by plotting the variation of quenched and tempered hardness curve (tempering curve and tempered martensite embrittlement susceptibility. The present application is based on the same idea as 300M steel regarding SAE 4340 steel. The effect of silicon on the kinetics of cementite precipitation leads to a rise in temperature of tempered martensite embrittlement. Quench and temper treatments were carried out and impact tests were performed with modified and commercial steels and the results were compared. Microstructure aspects are studied by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The silicon alloyed steel presents great resistance to softening after tempering and no tempered martensite embrittlement.

  13. Lowland copperhead (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation causing severe neuromuscular paralysis in a dog. (United States)

    Wright, L V; Indrawirawan, Y H


    A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. The toxic components of lowland copperhead snake venom are reviewed. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  15. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  16. A Transnational Temperance Discourse? William Wells Brown, Creole Civilization, and Temperate Manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Lynn Stewart


    Full Text Available

    In the nineteenth century, temperance movements provided the occasion for a transnational discourse. These conversations possessed an intensity throughout Britain and the United States. In America temperance often became associated with strongly nationalistic Euro-American forms of identity and internal purity. Nonetheless, African American reformers and abolitionists bound themselves to temperance ideals in forming civil societies that would heal persons and provide communal modes of democratic freedom in the aftermath and recovery from chattel slavery. This paper explores the possibilities of temperance as a transnational discourse by considering its meaning in the life and work of the African American author and activist, William Wells Brown. Brown expressed a “creole civilization” that employed the stylistics of the trickster as a unique mode of restraint that revealed a peculiar power of passivity that was able to claim efficacy over one’s life and community. This meaning of temperance diverges from and dovetails with certain European meanings of civilization that were being forged in the nineteenth century. Brown was in conversation with temperance reformers in America, Britain, and Europe. He imagined the possible meaning of temperance in African, Egyptian, Christian, and Islamic civilizations. He speculated upon the possibility of temperance as a defining characteristic of a transnational civilization and culture that would provide spaces for the expression of democratic freedom. Brown reimagined temperance as a form of corporeal restraint that offered a direct and sacred relation to the land, space, people that appeared in between an ethnic nationalist ethos and the European imperialistic civilization.

  17. Multisystem altruistic metadynamics—Well-tempered variant (United States)

    Hošek, Petr; Kříž, Pavel; Toulcová, Daniela; Spiwok, Vojtěch


    Metadynamics method has been widely used to enhance sampling in molecular simulations. Its original form suffers two major drawbacks, poor convergence in complex (especially biomolecular) systems and its serial nature. The first drawback has been addressed by introduction of a convergent variant known as well-tempered metadynamics. The second was addressed by introduction of a parallel multisystem metadynamics referred to as altruistic metadynamics. Here, we combine both approaches into well-tempered altruistic metadynamics. We provide mathematical arguments and trial simulations to show that it accurately predicts free energy surfaces.

  18. Multisystem altruistic metadynamics-Well-tempered variant. (United States)

    Hošek, Petr; Kříž, Pavel; Toulcová, Daniela; Spiwok, Vojtěch


    Metadynamics method has been widely used to enhance sampling in molecular simulations. Its original form suffers two major drawbacks, poor convergence in complex (especially biomolecular) systems and its serial nature. The first drawback has been addressed by introduction of a convergent variant known as well-tempered metadynamics. The second was addressed by introduction of a parallel multisystem metadynamics referred to as altruistic metadynamics. Here, we combine both approaches into well-tempered altruistic metadynamics. We provide mathematical arguments and trial simulations to show that it accurately predicts free energy surfaces.

  19. Infiltration of Martian outflow channel floodwaters into lowland cavernous systems (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Bourke, Mary; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey; Baker, Victor; Fairén, Alberto G.; Davies, Richard J.; Bridget, Lynne; Santiago, Rogelio Linares; Hernández, Mario Zarroca; Berman, Daniel C.


    The hydrosphere of Mars has remained mostly concealed within the subsurface for the past ∼3.5 Gyr. Localized rupturing of the permafrost-capped crust led to voluminous groundwater discharges that carved some of the largest known channels in the solar system. However, our knowledge of the nature of the flows and their ultimate fate remains incomplete, partly because diagnostic landforms at outflow channel termini have been largely destroyed or buried. The Hebrus Valles outflow channels were excavated by fluid discharges that emanated from two point sources, and they mostly terminate in systems of fractures and depressions within the northern plains. Our investigation indicates that outflow channel floodwaters were captured and reabsorbed into the subsurface in zones where caverns developed within the northern plains. These findings imply that the study region comprises the only known location in the Martian northern lowlands where the fate of outflow channel discharges can be assessed with confidence. We propose that evacuation of subsurface materials via mud volcanism was an important process in cavern formation. Our conceptual model provides a hypothesis to account for the fate of sediments and fluids from some of the Martian outflow channels. It also reveals a mechanism for lowland cavern formation and upper crustal volatile enrichment after the development of the Martian global cryosphere.

  20. Warm-temperate deciduous forests around the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Box E.O; Fujiwara K


    Warm-temperate deciduous forests are "southern", mainly oak-dominated deciduous forests, as found over the warmer southern parts of the temperate deciduous forest regions of East Asia, Europe and eastern North America...

  1. Performance changes during a weeklong high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athletes. (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M


    Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.

  2. What surface water tells about groundwater in lowlands - and what it does not (United States)

    Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Kalettka, Thomas; Dannowski, Ralf; Merz, Christoph


    Lowland regions often exhibit a high density streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands. This holds, e.g., for Northeast Europe. As a consequence of heterogeneous sedimentation during and after glaciation, and temporarily dead ice blocks left behind in the late stage of the last glaciation, the landscape is now spotted by small depressions that are often filled with water, called kettle holes. Tight coupling between groundwater and surface water with non-stationary gradients and flow directions is often considered rather complex and surely is a challenge for hydrological models. However, on the other hand, close links imply that the one system bears information about the other and vice versa. For example, for the 170 km2 Quillow catchment in Northeast Germany a detailed groundwater map was generated from airborne remote sensing data exclusively, that is, from laser scan data of water level elevation in streams and kettle holes. On average, about 12 points of support per km2 were used. Such a high density can hardly be achieved at that scale based on groundwater wells. The resulting map was checked for consistency and plausibility. The groundwater map allowed delineating the catchments of the single kettle holes in order to assess the impact of land use of water quality. These catchments differed substantially from those determined based on topography. In general, the former usually exhibited a clearly elongated shape of up to some km length, resembling more single groundwater flowpaths rather than exhibiting the typical shape of stream catchments. Analysis of water quality monitoring data revealed that kettle hole water reflected the concentration of earth and alkaline earth metals of the shallow groundwater. However, this did not hold for nutrients and redox sensitive solutes due to rapid biogeochemical turnover in the eutrophic to hypertrophic small lentic systems.

  3. The Temperance Movement and Social Work (United States)

    Murdach, Allison D.


    This article examines a forgotten episode in social work history: the involvement of the profession in the temperance movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Though some notable social workers such as Jane Addams, Robert A. Woods, and Representative Jeannette Rankin (the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress), championed the…

  4. Simulation of quenching and tempering of steels (United States)

    Jin, Long

    An efficient simulation method, which includes microstructure, temperature and stress analysis applicable to both quenching and tempering processes, is developed and implemented using the commercial FEM package ABAQUS. This simulation encompasses phase transformations and their effects on the temperature distribution and stress/strain evolution, including the dependency of material properties on temperature and microstructure, transformation strains, latent heats and transformation plasticity. Three different multi-phase constitutive models, namely the average property model, the Voigt model and the Reuss model, have been implemented. The average property model is based on the linear mixture of material properties of different phase, while the Voigt model assumes the same strain field in all phases and the Reuss model assumes the iso-stress field. The simulation model has been applied to quenching and tempering of modified 4320 steel. Experiments of tempering and quenching on carburized circular plates of the same steel have been performed. The calculated distortion and residual stress profiles are in good agreement with corresponding measurements made in experiments and thus verifies the correctness of the model. The simulation model developed in this study is a useful design tool for quenching and tempering as well as machining of steels.

  5. Bacterial Chitin Hydrolysis in Two Lakes with Contrasting Trophic Statuses


    Köllner, Krista E.; Carstens, Dörte; Keller, Esther; Vazquez, Francisco; Schubert, Carsten J.; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut


    Chitin, which is a biopolymer of the amino sugar glucosamine (GlcN), is highly abundant in aquatic ecosystems, and its degradation is assigned a key role in the recycling of carbon and nitrogen. In order to study the significance of chitin decomposition in two temperate freshwater lakes with contrasting trophic and redox conditions, we measured the turnover rate of the chitin analog methylumbelliferyl-N,N′-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-DC) and the presence of chitinase (chiA) genes in zooplankton...

  6. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.


    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  7. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh


    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  8. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie


    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  9. Breakage or uprooting: How tree death type affects hillslope processes in old-growth temperate forests (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.


    Tree breakage and uprooting are two possible scenarios of tree death that have differing effects on hillslope processes. In this study we aimed to (i) reveal the long-term structure of the biomechanical effects of trees (BETs) in relation to their radial growth and tree death types in four old-growth temperate forests in four different elevation settings with an altitudinal gradient of 152-1105 m a.s.l., (ii) quantify affected areas and soil volumes associated with the studied BETs in reserves, and (iii) derive a general model of the role of BETs in hillslope processes in central European temperate forests. We analyzed the individual dynamics of circa 55,000 trees in an area of 161 ha within four old-growth forests over 3-4 decades. Basal tree censuses established in all sites in the 1970s and repeated tree censuses in the 1990s and 2000s provided detailed information about the radial growth of each tree of DBH ≥ 10 cm as well as about types of tree death. We focused on the quantification of: (i) surviving still-living trees, (ii) new recruits, (iii) standing dead trees, (iv) uprooted trees, and (v) broken trees. Frequencies of phenomena were related to affected areas and volumes of soil using individual statistical models. The elevation contrasts were a significant factor in the structure of BETs. Differences between sites increased from frequencies of events through affected areas to volumes of soil associated with BETs. An average 2.7 m3 ha-1 year-1 was associated with all BETs of the living and dying trees in lowlands, while there was an average of 7.8 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the highest mountain site. Differences were caused mainly by the effects of dying trees. BETs associated with dead trees were 7-8 times larger in the mountains. Effects of dying trees and particularly treethrows represented about 70% of all BETs at both mountain sites, while it was 58% at the highland site and only 32% at the lowland site. Our results show a more significant role of BETs in

  10. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lu, Zong; Whitman, Matthew S.


    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003–2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  11. The influence of tree morphology on stemflow generation in a tropical lowland rainforest (United States)

    Uber, Magdalena; Levia, Delphis F.; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander


    Even though stemflow usually accounts for only a small proportion of rainfall, it is an important point source of water and ion input to forest floors and may, for instance, influence soil moisture patterns and groundwater recharge. Previous studies showed that the generation of stemflow depends on a multitude of meteorological and biological factors. Interestingly, despite the tremendous progress in stemflow research during the last decades it is still largely unknown which combination of tree characteristics determines stemflow volumes in species-rich tropical forests. This knowledge gap motivated us to analyse the influence of tree characteristics on stemflow volumes in a 1 hectare plot located in a Panamanian lowland rainforest. Our study comprised stemflow measurements in six randomly selected 10 m by 10 m subplots. In each subplot we measured stemflow of all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 5 cm on an event-basis for a period of six weeks. Additionally, we identified all tree species and determined a set of tree characteristics including DBH, crown diameter, bark roughness, bark furrowing, epiphyte coverage, tree architecture, stem inclination, and crown position. During the sampling period, we collected 985 L of stemflow (0.98 % of total rainfall). Based on regression analyses and comparisons among plant functional groups we show that palms were most efficient in yielding stemflow due to their large inclined fronds. Trees with large emergent crowns also produced relatively large amounts of stemflow. Due to their abundance, understory trees contribute much to stemflow yield not on individual but on the plot scale. Even though parameters such as crown diameter, branch inclination and position of the crown influence stemflow generation to some extent, these parameters explain less than 30 % of the variation in stemflow volumes. In contrast to published results from temperate forests, we did not detect a negative correlation between bark roughness

  12. Comparison of leaf anatomy on some Nepenthes spp. (Nepenthaceae) from highland and lowland habitat in Indonesia (United States)

    Arimy, N. Q.; Nisyawati, Metusala, D.


    Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) is one of the unique plants with pitcher to absorb nutritional needs. This dicotyledonous plant is able to live in the lowland and highland. The difference of their habitat may influence its anatomical structures, such in leaves. This study aimed to compare the anatomy of lowland and highland Nepenthes leaves. We examined Nepenthes rafflesiana and N. mirabilis from the group of lowland Nepenthes. We also examined Nepenthes aristolochioides and N. singalana from the group of highland Nepenthes. Each species was represented by three adult leaves from 1-3 individual plants. Each leaf was made transverse section by using a hand mini microtome and the paradermal section was made by leaf screaping technique. Paradermal and the transverse section were dehydrated by using graded series of alcohol. Transverse section was stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %, while the paradermal section with safranin 1 %. Microscopic observations were performed at Bioimaging Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia, Depok using a light microscope. The results showed there are differences in the anatomy structure between these two habitats. Highland Nepenthes has thicker and larger hypodermis than lowland Nepenthes. Cuticle layer in the highland Nepenthes was thicker than the lowland Nepenthes. Nectary gland on the highland Nepenthes was thicker and larger than the lowland Nepenthes. In addition, highland Nepenthes has bigger and fewer stomata density than the lowland Nepenthes.

  13. Kax and kol: collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization. (United States)

    Dunning, Nicholas P; Beach, Timothy P; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl


    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas.

  14. Integrated analysis of water quality in a mesoscale lowland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Habeck


    Full Text Available This article describes a modelling study on nitrogen transport from diffuse sources in the Nuthe catchment, representing a typical lowland region in the north-eastern Germany. Building on a hydrological validation performed in advance using the ecohydrological model SWIM, the nitrogen flows were simulated over a 20-year period (1981-2000. The relatively good quality of the input data, particularly for the years from 1993 to 2000, enabled the nitrogen flows to be reproduced sufficiently well, although modelling nutrient flows is always associated with a great deal of uncertainty. Subsequently, scenario calculations were carried out in order to investigate how nitrogen transport from the catchment could be further reduced. The selected scenario results with the greatest reduction of nitrogen washoff will briefly be presented in the paper.

  15. Leaching and residual activity of imidazolinone herbicides in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Refatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L. production system have a potential for leaching. This can result in contamination of underground water resources and cause injury to not tolerant crops that are sown in a succession and/or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine the leaching potential and the residual activity of the herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice system. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years and consisted of conducting a field test to be followed by two bioassays with a year of difference between their implementation. Initially an experiment was conducted in lowland area where it was planted the cultivar of rice ‘PUITA INTA CL’. Approximately one and two years thereafter, soil samples from each plot were collected at intervals of 5cm to a depth of 30cm (B factor for the bioassay to evaluate persistence of herbicides. Factor A was composed of mixtures formulated of imazethapyr + imazapic (75 + 25g a.i. L-1, imazapyr + imazapic (525 + 175g a.i. kg-1 in two doses, imazethapyr (100g a.i. L-1 and treatment control without application. Basing on results, it was concluded that the mixtures imazethapyr + imazapic, imazapyr + imazapic and imazethapyr leached into the soil, reaching depths of up to 25cm in lowland soil. Imidazolinone herbicides used today in the irrigated rice Clearfield® system are persistent in soil, and their phytotoxic activity can be observed up to two years after application.

  16. A late Holocene tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands, Central America (United States)

    Nooren, K.; Huizinga, A.; Hoek, W.; Bergen, M. V.; Middelkoop, H.


    The Maya Lowlands in southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize were densely populated for thousands of years, and have been the subject of intensive studies on the interaction between humans and their environment. Accurate radiocarbon dating of proxy records and disrupting events has proved to be difficult due to the lack of organic material in many deposits and the 'old carbon effect' related to the calcareous geology of the Yucatan Peninsula. So far, tephrostratigraphy has hardly been used to define time markers for palynological, limnological and archaeological studies in this region, despite the frequent occurrence of tephra fall. With the objective to fill this gap, we developed a tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands using sediment cores from a flood basin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in southern Mexico. Tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating were used to estimate the timing of past volcanic eruptions, and chemical compositions of glass shards were used to identify potential sources. At least six tephralayers were deposited since 2000 BC, the most notable representing eruptions of El Chichón volcano in the 5th and 15th century AD. The high sulphur emissions accompanying El Chichón's eruptions allowed testing of our age-depth model through a correlation with volcanic sulphate peaks in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. We demonstrate the applicability of the established tephrochronological framework in a detailed chronological reconstruction of the formation of the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain in southern Mexico. This plain with over 500 beach ridges is a highly sensitive recorder of combined sea level rise, subsidence, storm activity and changes in climate and upstream land use since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures circa 5000 years ago.

  17. Movements of boreal caribou in the James Bay lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Hazell


    Full Text Available Little is known about the movements and home range of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus in the James Bay lowlands, northern Ontario. Our preliminary study involves the use of GPS collars with Argos satellite system uplink to monitor movements of caribou and 10 animals were collared in December 2004. Animals appeared to have reduced rates of daily movement starting approximately in mid to late December and stretching until late February. Similarly, most animals appeared to have very reduced rates of movement from the beginning of May to the end of June indicating that this is their calving period (includes both parturition as well as the period immediately after parturition. Thus the over-wintering range was assumed to be where the animals were from mid-December to late February and the calving range was defined as the area they were in from the beginning of May to the end of June. Individual home-ranges were typically large, the mean 90% kernel home range for 2004 - 2007 was 41 579 km2. Over wintering areas and calving areas were small when compared to annual home-range size and reflect the reduced rates of movement during these time periods. Female caribou show site fidelity to calving grounds, using the same core areas year after year. However, the same level of site fidelity was not observed in over-wintering areas. The caribou in the James Bay lowlands display behaviours that are characteristic of both the forest-tundra and forest-forest ecotypes which may warrant the reconsideration of the validity of proposed ecotypes with respect to protection under species-at-risk legislation.

  18. Modelling nitrate transport and turnover in a lowland catchment system (United States)

    Wriedt, Gunter; Rode, Michael


    SummaryNitrate transport in groundwater dominated lowland catchment systems is influenced by complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interactions. A modelling approach was developed combining a distributed soil nitrogen model with a three-dimensional groundwater model and a reactive transport model linking nitrate turnover and availability of reaction partners such as pyrite and organic matter. The modelling approach was applied to a hypothetical case study based on data from the pleistocene lowland catchment "Schaugraben" (20 km 2) in the North of Saxony-Anhalt, with focus on the investigation of interactions of spatially distributed transport and chemical processes. The modelling approach could successfully simulate transport and turnover of nitrate in a groundwater dominated catchment. The advancement of the nitrate front and the corresponding depletion of pyrite as well as the distribution of seepage fluxes and nitrate concentrations in seepage water in the channel system showed distinct spatial variation. Surface water nitrate concentrations corresponding to the average soil leachate concentrations were not completely reached after a simulation period of 200 years for a conservative transport simulation. Under reactive conditions, about 80% of the nitrate was lost due to denitrification. Given a uniformly distributed input of nitrate, drain loads developed in a sigmoidal curve defined only by travel time distribution. The average travel time was 93 years. A distributed input of nitrate resulted in reduction of travel time to 80 years due to the different arrangement of source areas and flow. The modelling approach is a step towards bridging the gap between simple large scale models and detailed small scale studies, maintaining process orientation while allowing to consider landscape heterogeneity.

  19. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  20. Bathymetry of Lake Huron (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Great Lakes Bathymetry (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Superior (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of lakes across heterogeneous landscapes in arctic and subarctic Alaska (United States)

    Larsen, A. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Schmidt, J. H.; Kristenson, H. J.; Swanson, D. K.


    Lakes are an important component of high-latitude regions, providing habitat for fish and wildlife and playing a critical role in biogeochemical and global carbon cycles. High-latitude lakes are sensitive to climate change, in part due to their development within permafrost soils. Considerable heterogeneity exists across arctic and subarctic landscapes, yet little is known about how this landscape variability influences chemical and physical attributes of lakes. We investigated the physical and chemical limnology of 617 lakes in Alaska's boreal forest and boreal-arctic transition zone. We categorized lakes into 10 basin types based on parent material, topography, genesis, and permafrost characteristics. Physical parameters varied across lake basin types, with the deepest lakes occurring in ice-poor glacial deposits and ice-rich terrain, while the shallowest lakes were observed in floodplain deposits and coastal lowlands. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations were generally low across all landscapes, whereas total N and P were highest in lakes underlain by ice-rich Pleistocene loess. Total N and P concentrations were significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, indicating a possible colimitation of primary productivity in these systems. Base cation concentrations helped elucidate lake basin hydrology and the relative influence of shallow versus deep groundwater inputs to surface water. Using these results, we developed a simple conceptual model for each lake and landscape type based on differences in physical and chemical parameters. Overall, we expect that the vulnerability of lake ecosystems to climate change will vary across lake basin types and will be mediated by spatial patterns in permafrost characteristics and subsurface hydrology.

  5. Great Lakes Science Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  6. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.


    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  7. Modelling the occurrence of postflexion stages of a marine estuarine-dependent fish in temperate South African estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanasivan Kisten


    Full Text Available The movement of postflexion larvae of marine estuarine-dependent species into estuaries is critical for the survival of fishes reliant on estuaries as nurseries. However, detailed studies focused on environmental variability experienced by postflexion larvae entering a range of estuary types under varying conditions are rare. This study assessed the in situ conditions (temperature, salinity and water clarity under which the southern African endemic fish Rhabdosargus holubi (Sparidae recruits into estuaries. Postflexion larvae were sampled in three biogeographic regions (cool temperate, warm temperate and subtropical boundary, which included three estuary types (permanently open estuaries (POEs, temporarily open/closed estuaries and estuarine lake systems on a seasonal basis, independent of each other. Rhabdosargus holubi larvae were more abundant in spring and summer, in POEs in the warm temperate region. Models predicted that higher larval occurrence in estuaries is a function of lower salinity (e.g. mesohaline zones of 5-17.9 salinity and lower water clarity (e.g. 0-0.2 Kd, light extinction coefficient, particularly for warm, temperate POEs. This re-emphasizes the importance of freshwater for optimal nursery functioning, which may be compromised by impoundments, abstraction and climate change in water-short countries like South Africa.

  8. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales


    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  9. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  10. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization. (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi


    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  11. Geomorphic approaches to integrated floodplain management of lowland fluvial systems in North America and Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, P; Middelkoop H


    ... loads and geomorphic processes. Over the past decade, floodplain management of many lowland rivers has taken on new importance because of concerns about the potential for global environmental change to alter floodplain processes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Soltanmuradova


    Full Text Available The article presents phyto-geographical analysis of the flora of coastal ecosystems of the lowland Dagestan. Found 24 geographical elements. Provides quantitative and percentage of geo-types and geo-elements.

  13. LBA-ECO LC-07 Wetland Extent, Vegetation, and Inundation: Lowland Amazon Basin (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a map of wetland extent, vegetation type, and dual-season flooding state of the entire lowland Amazon basin. The map was derived from mosaics...

  14. Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert K. Colwell; Gunnar Brehm; Catherine L. Cardelús; Alex C. Gilman; John T. Longino


    .... Based on new data for plants and insects on an elevational transect in Costa Rica, we assess the potential for lowland biotic attrition, range-shift gaps, and mountaintop extinctions under projected warming...

  15. The Legacy of Destructive Snow Goose Foraging on Supratidal Marsh Habitat in the Hudson Bay Lowlands


    Koons, David


    Ecological succession and climate change are pushing tundra as well as Arctic and subarctic lowland plant communities toward increased woody vegetation cover. However, areas along the Hudson Bay Lowlands that are over-grazed by hyper-abundant lesser snow geese are experiencing drastic losses of grass, sedge, and woody cover. We assessed long-term changes in proportional ground cover and habitat patch characteristic at a subartic supratidal marsh that was largely vacated by breeding snow gee...

  16. Water Quality and Water Borne Diseases in Lowland Ecosystem of Banyuasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia


    Ekawati, Dianita; Malaka, Tan; Susanto, Robiyanto H; Kamaluddin, M. T; Setyawan, Dwi


    Water quality and quantity is always an important issue in lowland ecosystem of Banyuasin. Low domestic water supply sanitation is considered as having an important contribution on the high frequency of waterborne diseases in the area. The study aims at recording water borne diseases and the water quality in the lowland area of Banyuasin District. This field research was conducted using a cross-sectional method. Total samples were 210 households in Telang which were observed during July throu...

  17. Herpetofauna of lowland bottomlands of southeastern Arizona: a comparison of sites (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen; William R. Radke; Dennis J. Caldwell


    We intensively sampled the riparian herpetofauna at three sites in southeastern Arizona, a canyon site, Leslie Canyon, and two lowland sites, San Bernardino NWR and Empire-Ci¨¦nega Creek at Las Ci¨¦negas National Conservation Area. We also compiled a list of herpetofaunal records for the original lowland riparian area at Tucson using museum records. The herpetofaunas...

  18. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Allender, M C; McCain, S L; Ramsay, E C; Schumacher, J; Ilha, M R S


    A 39-yr-old wild-caught, female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died during an immobilization to assess swelling and apparent pain of the cervical region. Necropsy revealed a fistulous tract containing plant material in the oropharynx, above the soft palate, communicating with a left-sided cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Prevotella sp. were isolated from the cervical lesion. This is a report of cervical necrotizing fasciitis in a western lowland gorilla.

  19. Oceanic temperate forest versus warm temperate rainforest: a reply to Grubb et al. (2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Richardson, Sarah J.


    that they ‘see no virtue in using climatic variables to define a [vegetation] formation type’, and then discuss problems with the climate- based global biome schemes of Holdridge (1947), Whittaker (1970), Box (1981) and Prentice et al. (1992). As our oceanic temperate forest (OTF) concept is underpinned......Grubb et al. (2017) point out that we (McGlone et al. 2016) erroneously stated that the definition of warm temperate rain forest (WTRF; Grubb et al. 2013) was based in part on climatic criteria. We apologise: their text made clear that this was not the case. However, they go on to say...... by climatic variables, and as they suggest that it largely falls within their WTRF and cool temperate rain forest (CTRF) concepts, we take this opportunity to further discuss the relative merits of these contrasting ways of classifying vegetation cover....

  20. Bacterial chitin hydrolysis in two lakes with contrasting trophic statuses. (United States)

    Köllner, Krista E; Carstens, Dörte; Keller, Esther; Vazquez, Francisco; Schubert, Carsten J; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut


    Chitin, which is a biopolymer of the amino sugar glucosamine (GlcN), is highly abundant in aquatic ecosystems, and its degradation is assigned a key role in the recycling of carbon and nitrogen. In order to study the significance of chitin decomposition in two temperate freshwater lakes with contrasting trophic and redox conditions, we measured the turnover rate of the chitin analog methylumbelliferyl-N,N'-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-DC) and the presence of chitinase (chiA) genes in zooplankton, water, and sediment samples. In contrast to the eutrophic and partially anoxic lake, chiA gene fragments were detectable throughout the oligotrophic water column and chiA copy numbers per ml of water were up to 15 times higher than in the eutrophic waters. For both lakes, the highest chiA abundance was found in the euphotic zone--the main habitat of zooplankton, but also the site of production of easily degradable algal chitin. The bulk of chitinase activity was measured in zooplankton samples and the sediments, where recalcitrant chitin is deposited. Both, chiA abundance and chitinase activity correlated well with organic carbon, nitrogen, and concentrations of particulate GlcN. Our findings show that chitin, although its overall contribution to the total organic carbon is small (~0.01 to 0.1%), constitutes an important microbial growth substrate in these temperate freshwater lakes, particularly where other easily degradable carbon sources are scarce.

  1. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza


    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal mechanisms together with data from the permanent networks of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) and the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), based in Tehran. Microseismicity is focused primarily on the Shahrud fault system, which bounds the east Alborz range to the south. Relatively few earthquakes are associated with the Khazar thrust fault, which bounds the north side of the range. A cluster of shallow microseismicity (Khazar fault (within the South Caspian Lowlands; SCL), an area typically thought to be non-deforming. This area coincides with the location of three relatively deep thrust earthquakes (Mw 5.3-5.5) which occurred in 1999, 2004 and 2005. Inversion of teleseismic body waveforms allows us to constrain the depth of these earthquakes at 26-29 km. Although significant sedimentation throughout the SCL obscures any expression of recent fault activity at the surface, focal mechanisms of well-located events from the shallow cluster of micro-seismicity show a significant component of left-lateral strike-slip motion (assuming slip occurs on NE-SW fault planes, typical of active faults in the region), as well as a small normal component. Inversion of traveltimes for well-located events in our network yields a velocity structure for the region, and a Moho depth of 41 km. The pattern of deep thrust and shallow normal seismicity could be explained by bending of the rigid South Caspian crust as it underthrusts the East

  2. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen JA; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Jonathan F.; Winslow, Luke


    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989–2014) and future (2040–2064 and 2065–2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33–75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27–60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi Sunardi


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sifat mekanis pada baja AISI 4140 dengan proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan dan variasi suhu pada proses self tempering. Material terlebih dahulu dipanaskan pada suhu 850°C, di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit, media pendinginan adalah Oli SAE 20. Pada proses tempering baja dipanaskan kembali dengan suhu 200°C di tahan dengan waktu 30 dan 120 menit. Sedangkan untuk proses self tempering, baja di panaskan pada suhu 850°C di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit kemudian didinginkan, suhu yang harus dicapai pada pendinginan adalah 200°C, 400°C dan 600°C. Proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan mempunyai nilai kekerasan terbesar 50,1 HRC dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan nilai kekerasan terbesar pada proses self tempering dengan variasi suhu adalah 29,68 HRC pada suhu 200°C. Nilai ketangguhan terbesar pada saat proses tempering adalah 0,341 (J/mm2 dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering ketangguhan terbesar pada suhu 600°C dengan nilai 0,375 (J/mm2. Laju korosi terbesar pada saat tempering adalah 0,055 (mpy dengan waktu tahan 30 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering laju korosi terbesar pada suhu 400°C dengan nilai 0,0388 (mpy. 

  4. Unprecedented slow growth and mortality of the rare colonial cyanobacterium, Nostoc zetterstedtii, in oligotrophic lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Møller, Claus Lindskov


    Centimeter-large colonies of Nostoc zetterstedtii from a Swedish oligotrophic lake had the lowest growth and mortality rates of any studied temperate macrophyte. Annual growth rates at two shallow sites averaged 0.57– 0.73 3 1023 d21, corresponding to doubling times of colony dry weight in 2...... is adapted to pristine Lobelia lakes with clear water and chronically low nutrient levels, but it is threatened by strong attenuation of light by brownification or eutrophication....

  5. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps. (United States)

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor


    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  6. Structural and functional responses of the oligochaete and aeolosomatid assemblage in lowland streams: a one-way-pollution-modelled ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. López van Oosterom


    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of the assemblage of Oligochaeta and Aeolosomatidae to organic pollution; comparing taxonomic richness, diversity, abundance, and diet of the individuals inhabiting two lowland streams with different degrees of anthropic impact (the Rodríguez and the Carnaval belonging to the Río de la Plata basin, Argentina. The physicochemical parameters in the Rodríguez Stream indicated a strong deterioration of the water quality compared to that of the Carnaval. A canonical-correlation analysis indicated that the Tubificinae, Megadrili, Enchytraeidae, and Rhyacodrilinae were more closely associated with the Rodríguez Stream; whereas the Naidinae, Pristininae, and Opystocystidae were more highly represented in the Carnaval. The diversity and taxonomic richness in the Rodríguez Stream exhibited significant differences from those of the Carnaval (P<0.001, but the abundance was not different between the two sites. Schoener’s index revealed the higher degree of dietary overlap of the two streams because all the species analysed consumed a high proportion of detritus, especially the organisms in the Rodríguez. In the Carnaval Stream a higher number of alimentary items were consumed, and mainly by the Naidinae. This difference, probably reflecting the greater availability of this resource at sites impacted by organic pollution, underscores the fundamental role of oligochaetes in the food webs of aquatic ecosystems. The combined use of structural and functional parameters enables a more comprehensive view of how these lotic systems function and as such provides information that will serve to design tools for the management of such temperate environments.

  7. Stable isotopic biogeochemistry of carbon and nitrogen in a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake (United States)

    Wharton, R. A. Jr; Lyons, W. B.; Des Marais, D. J.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)


    Lake Hoare (77 degrees 38' S, 162 degrees 53' E) is an amictic, oligotrophic, 34-m-deep, closed-basin lake in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Its perennial ice cover minimizes wind-generated currents and reduces light penetration, as well as restricts sediment deposition into the lake and the exchange of atmospheric gases between the water column and the atmosphere. The biological community of Lake Hoare consists solely of microorganisms -- both planktonic populations and benthic microbial mats. Lake Hoare is one of several perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys that represent the end-member conditions of cold desert and saline lakes. The dry valley lakes provide a unique opportunity to examine lacustrine processes that operate at all latitudes, but under an extreme set of environmental conditions. The dry valley lakes may also offer a valuable record of catchment and global changes in the past and present. Furthermore, these lakes are modern-day equivalents of periglacial lakes that are likely to have been common during periods of glacial maxima at temperate latitudes. We have analyzed the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of Lake Hoare for delta 13C and the organic matter of the sediments and sediment-trap material for delta 13C and delta 15N. The delta 13C of the DIC indicates that 12C is differentially removed in the shallow, oxic portions of the lake via photosynthesis. In the anoxic portions of the lake (27-34 m) a net addition of 12C to the DIC pool occurs via organic matter decomposition. The dissolution of CaCO3 at depth also contributes to the DIC pool. Except near the Canada Glacier where a substantial amount of allochthonous organic matter enters the lake, the organic carbon being deposited on the lake bottom at different sites is isotopically similar, suggesting an autochthonous source for the organic carbon. Preliminary inorganic carbon flux calculations suggest that a high percentage of the organic carbon fixed in the water column is

  8. Are long-term trends in lake carbon dioxide flux responsive to climaticvariability and change? (United States)

    Golub, M.; Desai, A. R.


    Inland water bodies are major but understudied conduits of carbon in within the global land-ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle. While many researchers have shown significant 20th century trends in physical and biological lake processes driven by climatic change, there is less research on how these influence lake-atmosphere carbon dioxide flux. We investigated the effects of climatic drivers on physical features and CO2 flux in lakes. We estimated the long-term trends in ice phenology, thermal structure, and amount of carbon exchanged, using 15-25-year time series of measurements of temperature, alkalinity, pH for eleven lakes monitored by the North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER) program. Lakes coherently responded to regional climatic warming, showing declining ice cover duration, prolonged growing season, and increasingly warmer waters. Long-term trends of CO2 trends varied among lakes, however, with the majority of lakes showing a weakening source of CO2 to atmosphere. We further compared the sensitivity of CO2 flux to climate forcing in lakes as a function of trophic states, dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and morphometric features. These results provide new insights into our understanding about the role of lakes in regional and global carbon balances, on the sensitivity of CO2 flux to climatic variability, and in improving prediction of future carbon-climate change feedbacks.

  9. Olfactory discrimination in the western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla. (United States)

    Hepper, Peter G; Wells, Deborah L


    The olfactory abilities of great apes have been subject to little empirical investigation, save for a few observational reports. This study, using an habituation/dishabituation task, provides experimental evidence for a core olfactory ability, namely, olfactory discrimination, in the gorilla. In Experiment 1, six zoo-housed western lowland gorillas were individually presented with the same odour on four trials, and with a novel odour on the fifth trial. Odours (almond and vanilla) were presented on plastic balls, and behavioural responses of sniffing and chewing/licking the balls were recorded. A second experiment presented the same odour on four trials and no odour on the fifth to examine whether any dishabituation was due to the presence of a new odour or the absence of the familiar odour. Gorillas habituated their behaviour with repeated presentation of the same odour, but dishabituated, i.e. increased sniffing and chewing/licking, when presented with the novel odour. No dishabituation was noted when using water as the stimulus across all trials or when used as the novel odour. Overall, results show that gorillas are able to discriminate between odours.

  10. Simulated Tempering and Swapping on Mean-Field Models


    Bhatnagar, Nayantara; Randall, Dana


    Simulated and parallel tempering are families of Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms where a temperature parameter is varied during the simulation to overcome bottlenecks to convergence due to multimodality. In this work we introduce and analyze the convergence for a set of new tempering distributions which we call \\textit{entropy dampening}. For asymmetric exponential distributions and the mean field Ising model with and external field simulated tempering is known to converge slowly. We show...

  11. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven


    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  12. Lowland-Edge Vegetation on Habitat of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus in Rubber Forest of Tabalong District, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus frequently visits certain lowland (baruh and never visits other, although both lowlands are inundated during rainy season or even have no water during the dry season. Data on seedling, sapling, pole, and tree of two former lowlands and of two latter ones were collected. Important value indexes were compared based on Renkonen similarity index. Treatments on vegetation were qualitatively recorded. The former lowlands had more diverse vegetation and higher security level than the latter had. Food sources, such as Hevea brasiliensis, Syzygium stapfiana, Vitex pubescens, Elaeocarpus stipularis, and Artocarpus teysmanii were available and more abundant on the former lowlands which were poorly cared. However, such condition could change anytime, because all lowlands include in the cultivated area.

  13. Thaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape (United States)

    van Huissteden, Ko; Heijmans, Monique; Dean, Josh; Meisel, Ove; Goovaerts, Arne; Parmentier, Frans-Jan; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Kononov, Alexander; Maximov, Trofim; Borges, Alberto; Bouillon, Steven


    Arctic climate change induces drastic changes in permafrost surface wetness. As a result of thawing ground ice bodies, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds are formed. Alternatively, ongoing thaw may enhance drainage as a result of increased interconnectedness of thawing ice wedge troughs, as inferred from a model study (Liljedahl et al., 2016, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2674). However, a recent review highlighted the limited predictability of consequences of thawing permafrost on hydrology (Walvoord and Kurylyk, 2016, Vadose Zone J., DOI:10.2136/vzj2016.01.0010). Overall, these changes in tundra wetness modify carbon cycling in the Arctic and in particular the emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, providing a possibly positive feedback on climate change. Here we present the results of a combined remote sensing, geomorphological, vegetation and biogechemical study of thaw ponds in Arctic Siberian tundra, at Kytalyk research station near Chokurdakh, Indigirka lowlands. The station is located in an area dominated by Pleistocene ice-rich 'yedoma' sediments and drained thaw lake bottoms of Holocene age. The development of three types of ponds in the Kytalyk area (polygon centre ponds, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds) has been traced with high resolution satellite and aerial imagery. The remote sensing data show net areal expansion of all types of ponds. Next to formation of new ponds, local vegetation change from dry vegetation types to wet, sedge-dominated vegetation is common. Thawing ice wedges and thaw ponds show an increase in area and number at most studied locations. In particular the area of polygon centre ponds increased strongly between 2010 and 2015, but this is highly sensitive to antecedent precipitation conditions. Despite a nearly 60% increase of the area of thawing ice wedge troughs, there is no evidence of decreasing water surfaces by increasing drainage through connected ice wedge troughs. The number of thaw ponds shows an equilibrium

  14. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O


    and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic......The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... populations may have epidemiological importance in relation to the recent changes in production and infrastructure in these former Soviet states....

  15. Extended Hamiltonian approach to continuous tempering. (United States)

    Gobbo, Gianpaolo; Leimkuhler, Benedict J


    We introduce an enhanced sampling simulation technique based on continuous tempering, i.e., on continuously varying the temperature of the system under investigation. Our approach is mathematically straightforward, being based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation in which an auxiliary degree of freedom, determining the effective temperature, is coupled to the physical system. The physical system and its temperature evolve continuously in time according to the equations of motion derived from the extended Hamiltonian. Due to the Hamiltonian structure, it is easy to show that a particular subset of the configurations of the extended system is distributed according to the canonical ensemble for the physical system at the correct physical temperature.

  16. A temperature predictor for parallel tempering simulations. (United States)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; van der Spoel, David


    An algorithm is proposed that generates a set of temperatures for use in parallel tempering simulations (also known as temperature-replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations) of proteins to obtain a desired exchange probability Pdes. The input consists of the number of protein atoms and water molecules in the system, information about the use of constraints and virtual sites and the lower temperature limits. The temperatures generated yield probabilities which are very close to Pdes (correlation 97%), independent of force field and over a wide temperature range. To facilitate its use, the algorithm has been implemented as a web server at .

  17. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia (United States)

    Justice, Chris


    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  18. Oceanic temperate forest versus warm temperate rainforest: a reply to Grubb et al. (2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenwerf, Robert


    Grubb et al. (2017) point out that we (McGlone et al. 2016) erroneously stated that the definition of warm temperate rain forest (WTRF; Grubb et al. 2013) was based in part on climatic criteria. We apologise: their text made clear that this was not the case. However, they go on to say that they ‘...

  19. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  20. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes. (United States)

    Michelutti, Neal; Wolfe, Alexander P; Cooke, Colin A; Hobbs, William O; Vuille, Mathias; Smol, John P


    Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  1. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Michelutti

    Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  2. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia


    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps, study area boundaries, and maps of regional permafrost landscapes including detailed metadata are available at

  3. Effects of initial temperature and tempering medium on thermal tempering of dental porcelains. (United States)

    Hojjatie, B; Anusavice, K J


    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that quenching of porcelain in silicone oil rather than in compressed air will significantly increase the flexure strength by reducing the potential for crack formation during transient cooling. A secondary hypothesis to be tested is that the initial tempering temperature can be reduced significantly below the porcelain maturing temperature of 982 degrees C but well above Tg without a decrease in strength. Opaque-body porcelain disks, 16 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness, with a thermal contraction mismatch (delta alpha) of -1.5, 0, and +3.2 ppm/degrees C were tempered from initial temperatures of 650, 750, 850, and 982 degrees C in silicone oil with kinematic viscosities of 50, 1000, and 5000 centistokes. Porcelain disks were also subjected to three cooling procedures in air: slow cooling in a furnace (SC), free convective cooling in a laboratory bench (FC), and tempering (T) by blasting the surface of body porcelain with air. The crack size induced by a Vickers microhardness indenter was measured within one minute after crack development. For determination of the influence of initial cooling temperature on biaxial flexure strength, six body porcelain disks (delta alpha = 0) were tempered in air from initial temperatures of 650, 750, 850, and 982 degrees C. The mean crack size of specimens tempered in oil was significantly smaller (p < or = 0.001) than that of specimens that were slowly-cooled or fast-cooled in air for all thermal contraction mismatch cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Geology and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok. (United States)

    Leitchenkov, German L; Antonov, Anton V; Luneov, Pavel I; Lipenkov, Vladimir Ya


    The reconstruction of the geological (tectonic) structure and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok is based on geophysical surveys and the study of mineral particles found in cores of accreted ice and frozen lake water (sampled after the lake was unsealed). Seismic reflection and refraction investigations conducted in the southern part of Lake Vostok show very thin (200-300 m) sedimentary cover overlying a crystalline basement. Most of this thin veneer is thought to have been deposited during temperate-glacial conditions in Oligocene to Middle Miocene time (ca 34-14 Ma). The composition of the lake-bottom sediments can be deduced from mineral inclusions found in cores of accreted ice. Inclusions are represented by soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micrometre-sized quartz grains. Some of these inclusions contain subangular to semi-rounded rock clasts (siltstones and sandstones) ranging from 0.3 to 8 mm in size. In total, 31 zircon grains have been identified in two rock clasts and dated using SHRIMP-II. The ages of the studied zircons range from 0.6 to 2.0 Ga with two distinct clusters between 0.8 and 1.15 Ga and between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. Rock clasts obviously came from the western lake shore, which is thus composed of terrigenous strata with an age of not older than 600 Ma. The sedimentary nature of the western lake shore is also confirmed by seismic refraction data showing seismic velocities there of 5.4-5.5 km s(-1) at the bedrock surface. After Lake Vostok was unsealed, its water (frozen and sampled next season) was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis. This study showed the existence of calcium carbonate and silica microparticles (10-20 μm across) in frozen water. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Threshold sensitivity of shallow Arctic lakes and sublake permafrost to changing winter climate (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Bondurant, Allen C.; Romanovksy, Vladimir E.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Parsekian, Andrew D.


    Interactions and feedbacks between abundant surface waters and permafrost fundamentally shape lowland Arctic landscapes. Sublake permafrost is maintained when the maximum ice thickness (MIT) exceeds lake depth and mean annual bed temperatures (MABTs) remain below freezing. However, declining MIT since the 1970s is likely causing talik development below shallow lakes. Here we show high-temperature sensitivity to winter ice growth at the water-sediment interface of shallow lakes based on year-round lake sensor data. Empirical model experiments suggest that shallow (1 m depth) lakes have warmed substantially over the last 30 years (2.4°C), with MABT above freezing 5 of the last 7 years. This is in comparison to slower rates of warming in deeper (3 m) lakes (0.9°C), with already well-developed taliks. Our findings indicate that permafrost below shallow lakes has already begun crossing a critical thawing threshold approximately 70 years prior to predicted terrestrial permafrost thaw in northern Alaska.

  6. Trophic state and geographic gradients influence planktonic cyanobacterial diversity and distribution in New Zealand lakes. (United States)

    Wood, Susanna A; Maier, Marcia Y; Puddick, Jonathan; Pochon, Xavier; Zaiko, Anastasija; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hamilton, David P


    Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production. Statistical analysis revealed significant delineation among cyanobacterial communities from different trophic classes. Multivariate regression indicated that geographical features (latitude, longitude and altitude) were significant in driving cyanobacterial community structure; however, partitioning of their effects varied among trophic categories. High-throughput sequencing was undertaken on selected samples to investigate their taxonomic composition. The most abundant and diverse (71 operational taxonomic units) taxon across all lake types was the picocyanobacteria genus Synechococcus Cyanotoxins (microcystins n = 23, anatoxins n = 1) were only detected in eutrophic lowland lakes. Collectively, these data infer that increasing eutrophication of lakes will have broad-scale impacts on planktonic cyanobacteria diversity and the prevalence of cyanotoxins. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators. (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr


    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m 2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  8. Lowland extirpation of anuran populations on a tropical mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Campos-Cerqueira


    Full Text Available Background Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM, a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931–1989and current data (2015/2016. Methods Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects. Results In the recordings, we detected the 12 native frog species known to occur in LM. Over a span of ∼25 years, two species have become extinct and four species suffered extirpation in lowland areas. As a consequence, low elevation areas in the LM (<300 m have lost at least six anuran species. Discussion We hypothesize that these extirpations are due to the effects of climate change and infectious diseases, which are restricting many species to higher elevations and a much smaller area. Land use change is not responsible for these changes because LM has been a protected reserve for the past 80 years. However, previous studies indicate that (1 climate change has increased temperatures in Puerto Rico, and (2 Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd was found in 10 native species and early detection of Bd coincides with anurans declines in the LM. Our study confirms the general impressions of amphibian population extirpations at low elevations, and corroborates the levels of threat assigned by IUCN.

  9. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. (United States)

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N


    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production.

  10. Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.


    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

  11. Satellite Perspectives on Highland - Lowland Human Interaction in Ancient Syria (United States)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Törmä, M.; Lönnqvist, K.; Nuñez, M.


    Nowadays we can travel by GoogleEarth 3D to Syria ( and zoom in on the desert landscape of the mountainous region of Jebel Bishri between the Euphrates river and the Syrian Desert. This is the area, where the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project SYGIS worked in 2000-2010 studying the relationship of humans with their environment from ancient times to the present. What kind of landscape views and visions did the ancients have and how did they utilize them? The present paper focuses on seeking answers for these questions by combining satellite data sources, such as imagery and radar data, with location information of archaeological remains collected on the ground. Landsat as well as QuickBird imagery have been fused with SRTM mission and ASTER DEM data in creating 3D landscape models and fly-over simulations. The oasis of El Kowm on the western piedmont of the mountain seems to have served as a base camp for early huntergatherers and pastoral nomads dwelling seasonally in the region of Jebel Bishri. According to the archaeological finds, the interaction between the lowland and the mountain people already started during the Palaeolithic era but was continued by pastoral nomads of the region from the Neolithic period onwards. The Upper Palaeolithic period meant a clear change in cognitive thinking and obviously in understanding the properties of landscape, visibility and perceiving sceneries in 3D. Mobility of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads is based on subsistence economy, but mobility also enhances visions and prospects of phenomena appearing in the horizon.

  12. Echocardiographic parameters of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Murphy, Hayley Weston; Dennis, Patricia; Devlin, William; Meehan, Tom; Kutinsky, Ilana


    A total of 163 echocardiographic studies on western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were submitted for evaluation; 140 from 99 animals were suitable for analysis. Of these, 81 studies (42 studies from 35 males ranging in age from 11-41+ yr and 39 studies from 31 females ranging in age from 11-41+ yr) are reported here. Three studies from 3 females and 56 studies from 30 males were excluded from this report due to cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac parameters measured were aortic root (Ao Rt) diameter and left atrial (L atrium) size. Left ventricular (LV) measurements included left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVID(s)) and diastole (LVID(d)) as well as diastolic septal (IVS) and posterior wall thickness (LVPW). Values considered to be normal in females > 11 yr of age were: Ao Rt 60%. The data from male gorillas show a separation in animals based on three cardiac parameters: systolic function, LV cavity size, and LV wall thickness. Male gorillas > 11 yr of age fall into two groups; unaffected and affected. Unaffected animals are defined as those with no echocardiographic abnormalities and a consistent Ao Rt of 58%. The affected group consisted of male gorillas that exhibited changes in echocardiographic parameters representing the presence of cardiovascular disease. The results determined in this database, gathered from data collected from 1999-2009, suggest a sex-based difference between males and females with predominantly males demonstrating evidence of cardiac disease. The most striking finding seen in this study is that of progressive LV hypertrophy and depressed LV EF in affected adult male gorillas.

  13. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr


    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  14. Not-so-well-tempered neutralino (United States)

    Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim; Stephenson-Haskins, Laurel


    Light electroweakinos, the neutral and charged fermionic supersymmetric partners of the standard model SU (2 )×U (1 ) gauge bosons and of the two SU(2) Higgs doublets, are an important target for searches for new physics with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, if the lightest neutralino is the dark matter, constraints from direct dark matter detection experiments rule out large swaths of the parameter space accessible to the LHC, including in large part the so-called "well-tempered" neutralinos. We focus on the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and explore in detail which regions of parameter space are not excluded by null results from direct dark matter detection, assuming exclusive thermal production of neutralinos in the early universe, and illustrate the complementarity with current and future LHC searches for electroweak gauginos. We consider both bino-Higgsino and bino-wino "not-so-well-tempered" neutralinos, i.e. we include models where the lightest neutralino constitutes only part of the cosmological dark matter, with the consequent suppression of the constraints from direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  15. Hydroecology of Amazonian lacustrine Arcellinida (testate amoebae): A case study from Lake Quistococha, Peru. (United States)

    Patterson, R Timothy; Huckerby, Gail; Kelly, Thomas J; Swindles, Graeme T; Nasser, Nawaf A


    Organic rich sediments were obtained from seven core tops taken in Lake Quistococha, near the city of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon. Subsamples from 0 to 4cm depth in each core were analyzed under dissecting light microscopy to carry out the first investigation of Arcellinida (testate lobose amoebae) from a lacustrine environment in this ecologically important region. The fauna was characterized by a low diversity, low abundance community dominated by centropyxids. This fauna is similar to 'stressed' assemblages reported from temperate latitudes, except that test concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than typical in temperate lakes. Principle arcellinidan stressors in Lake Quistococha likely include the low pH 4 conditions in the lake, and a general lack of suitable minerogenic material to construct tests in the organic rich lake substrate. The low pH conditions are the result of runoff and seepage of water high in dissolved organic carbon from the adjacent similarly low pH 4 terrestrial peatland. The dearth of minerogenic material is the result of the lake being isolated from riverine input for the past ∼2000 years, even during flooding events. Other limiting factors contributing to depressed arcellinidan populations may include nutrient supply, predation pressure, competition, and post-mortem taphonomic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. An Integrated Time-Temperature Approach for Predicting Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels


    O'Connell, Corey James


    The purpose of this work was to develop a steel tempering model that is useful to the commercial heat treater. Most of the tempering models reported address isothermal conditions which are not typical of most heating methods used to perform the tempering heat treatment. In this work, a non-isothermal tempering model was developed based on the tempering response of four steel alloys. This tempering model employs the quantity resulting from the numerical integration of the time-temperature prof...

  17. The tempering quality evaluation of cocoa liquor during industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tempering quality evaluation of the crude cocoa liquor with average fat content 55.0 ± 0.3 % and an average acid value, 1.57 ± 0.34) has been established. The various parameters considered were recasting time (RT) and appearance (AP) of the tempered product on one hand and the flow (F) of the crude liquor on ...

  18. Effects of temperature, salinity and fish in structuring the macroinvertebrate community in shallow lakes: implications for effects of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brucet

    Full Text Available Climate warming may lead to changes in the trophic structure and diversity of shallow lakes as a combined effect of increased temperature and salinity and likely increased strength of trophic interactions. We investigated the potential effects of temperature, salinity and fish on the plant-associated macroinvertebrate community by introducing artificial plants in eight comparable shallow brackish lakes located in two climatic regions of contrasting temperature: cold-temperate and Mediterranean. In both regions, lakes covered a salinity gradient from freshwater to oligohaline waters. We undertook day and night-time sampling of macroinvertebrates associated with the artificial plants and fish and free-swimming macroinvertebrate predators within artificial plants and in pelagic areas. Our results showed marked differences in the trophic structure between cold and warm shallow lakes. Plant-associated macroinvertebrates and free-swimming macroinvertebrate predators were more abundant and the communities richer in species in the cold compared to the warm climate, most probably as a result of differences in fish predation pressure. Submerged plants in warm brackish lakes did not seem to counteract the effect of fish predation on macroinvertebrates to the same extent as in temperate freshwater lakes, since small fish were abundant and tended to aggregate within the macrophytes. The richness and abundance of most plant-associated macroinvertebrate taxa decreased with salinity. Despite the lower densities of plant-associated macroinvertebrates in the Mediterranean lakes, periphyton biomass was lower than in cold temperate systems, a fact that was mainly attributed to grazing and disturbance by fish. Our results suggest that, if the current process of warming entails higher chances of shallow lakes becoming warmer and more saline, climatic change may result in a decrease in macroinvertebrate species richness and abundance in shallow lakes.

  19. Profundal benthic invertebrates in an oligotrophic tropical lake: different strategies for coping with anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Hernández


    Full Text Available The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes are poorly understood with respect to their composition, abundance, biomass and regulatory factors. Whereas the hypolimnia of temperate oligotrophic lakes remain oxygenated, the higher temperatures in tropical lakes frequently lead to the rapid development of hypolimnetic anoxia independent of trophic status. The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes must therefore develop strategies to respond to anoxic conditions. The dynamics of the deep benthic community of Lake Alchichica were studied over 15 months. We hypothesized that the sedimentation of the winter diatom bloom constitutes an input of high-quality food that contributes to the establishment and development of the deep benthic community. However, the remineralization of this organic matter leads to the prompt development of hypolimnetic anoxia, thus limiting the establishment and/or persistence of the deep benthic community. In contrast with the diverse littoral benthic community (50 taxa in Lake Alchichica, only two species constitute its deep benthic community, the ostracod Candona cf. patzcuaro and the chironomid Chironomus cf. austini, which combined exhibit a low density (1197±1976 ind m-2 and biomass (16.13±30.81 mg C m-2. C. patzcuaro is dominant and is present throughout the year, whereas Ch. austini is recorded only when the bottom water of the lake is oxygenated. A comparison with the analogous but temperate Lake Mergozzo in Italy illustrates the role that anoxia plays in tropical lakes by diminishing not only taxonomic richness (13 versus 2 spp. in temperate versus tropical lakes, respectively but also abundance (1145 versus 287 ind m-2, respectively. C. patzcuaro is found throughout the annual cycle of the lake’s profundal zone, entering into diapause during the anoxic period and recovering as soon as the profundal zone reoxygenates. Ch. austini has adjusted its life cycle to use the habitat and available resources while

  20. A Geomorphic Analysis of Floodplain Lakes along the Embanked Lower Mississippi River for Managing Hydrologic Connectivity (United States)

    Hudson, Paul; Boot, Dax; Sounny-Slitinne, M. Anwar; Kristensen, Kristiaan


    A Geomorphic Analysis of Floodplain Lakes along the Embanked Lower Mississippi River for Managing Hydrologic Connectivity Floodplain lakes are vital to the environmental integrity of lowland rivers. Embankment by levees (dikes) for flood control greatly reduces the size of lowland floodplains and is detrimental to the quality and functioning of floodplain water bodies, presenting a challenge to government agencies charged with environmental management. The embanked floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River is an enormous surface which includes a variety of lake types formed by geomorphic and anthropogenic processes. While much is known about the channel and hydrologic regime, very little is known about the physical structure and functioning of the embanked floodplain of the lower Mississippi. Importantly, management agencies do not have an inventory of the basic characteristics (e.g., type, frequency, location, size, shape) of water bodies within the lower Mississippi embanked floodplain. An analysis of lakes along the Lower Mississippi River embanked floodplain is performed by utilizing the National Hydrographic Dataset (NHD) from the U.S. Geological Survey, a LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM), as well as streamflow data from the USGS. The vector NHD data includes every official mapped water body (blue line polygons) on USGS topographic maps at scales of 1:100,000 and 1:24,000. Collectively, we identify thousands of discreet water bodies within the embanked floodplain. Utilizing planimetric properties the water bodies were classified into the following lake types: cutoffs (neck and chute), sloughs, crevasse (scour), local drainage (topographic), and borrow pits. The data is then statistically analyzed to examine significant differences in the spatial variability in lake types along the entire lower Mississippi embanked floodplain in association with geomorphic divisions and hydrologic regime. The total embanked floodplain area of the LMR is 7,303 km2,. The total

  1. Spray mist cooling heat transfer in glass tempering process (United States)

    Sozbir, Nedim; Yao, S. C.


    Energy saving is a very important issue in glass plants, especially in a glass tempering process, where very high velocity air jet impingement is applied during the cooling process of glass tempering. In fact, air compressor energy may be reduced by a spray cooling due to its high heat transfer capabilities. Presently, in this paper, both pure air and water mist spray cooling are investigated in the glass tempering process. The test results indicate that thin and low-cost tempered glass can be made by mist cooling without fracture. It is possible to find the optimal water flux and duration of mist application to achieve a desirable temperature distribution in the glass for deep penetration of the cooling front but without inducing cracking during the tempering. The use of mist cooling could give about 29 % air pressure reduction for 2-mm glass plate and 50 % reduction for both 3- and 4-mm glass plates.

  2. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya Lowlands of Petén, Guatemala (United States)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Barbante, Carlo


    Vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining macroscopic charcoal and the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these two different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change available in the area. We detected three periods of high fire activity during the Holocene: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3700 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attribute the first maximum mostly to climate conditions and the last maximum to human activities. The rapid change between burned vegetation types at the 3700 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity.

  3. National Lakes Assessment Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  4. DNR 24K Lakes (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  5. The Great Lakes (United States)

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  6. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.


    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  7. Heavy Metal Enrichment History in annually laminated Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland) (United States)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim


    Within the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses (ICLEA) high-resolution geo-archives (e.g. lakes as natural data loggers) of the northeastern german and northern polish lowlands are investigated to identify influences of land-use on the landscape evolution. For two annually laminated lake sediment records, situated in rural environments in NE-Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and N-Poland (Czechowskie Lake), we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals. Both lakes show a similar pattern of relatively low heavy metal concentrations if compared to the so-called index of geoaccumulation (Müller 1979), which is based on the average global metal content in shales (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Only Pb, Zn and Cd show a clear parallel pattern of enrichment in both lakes starting around 1850 according to mainly atmospheric input due to increasing industrialization within the framework of the Industrial Revolution. Highest input for Cd, Zn, and Pb occur around 1960 to 1980 and thereafter a clear pattern of declining anthropogenic input is registered. On the base of heavy-metal analysis of pre-industrial sediments and different sediment types (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) the local and specific geogenic background values for various metals are determined. These results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic heavy metal accumulations and enrichment factors as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact. Müller, G. (1979): Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79: 778-783. Turekian, K. and Wedepohl, K. (1961): Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. 72: 175-192.

  8. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 1, 1984 ... Salisbury. COCHRANE, K.L. 1978. Seasonal fluctuations in the catches of Lim- nothrissa miodon (Boulenger) in Lake Kariba. Lake Kariba Fish. Res. Inst. Proj. Rept. 29: 1-163 (cyclostyled). DONNELLY, B.G. 1971. The fish population changes on Lake. Kariba between 1960 and 1968. Part I Cichlidae.

  9. Isotopically exchangeable Al in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A.M. [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Fink, D. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Rose, J. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Waite, T. David [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    Periodic discharges of high concentrations of aluminium (Al) causing fish kills and other adverse effects occur worldwide in waterways affected by coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS). The exchangeability — a metal's ability to readily transfer between the soil solid- and solution-phases — of Al in these soils is therefore of particular importance as it has implications for metal transport, plant availability and toxicity to living organisms. In the present study, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable Al (E values) were measured in 27 CLASS and compared with common salt extractions (i.e. KCl and CuCl{sub 2}) used to estimate exchangeable soil pools of Al. E values of Al were high in the soils, ranging from 357 to 3040 mg·kg{sup −1}. Exchangeable concentrations estimated using 1 M KCl were consistently lower than measured E values, although a reasonable correlation was obtained between the two values (E = 1.68 × Al{sub KCl}, r{sup 2} = 0.66, n = 25). The addition of a 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extraction step improved the 1:1 agreement between extractable and isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations, but lead to significant mobilisation of non-isotopically exchangeable Al in surficial ‘organic-rich’ CLASS having E values < 1000 mg·kg{sup −1}. It was concluded that currently used (i.e. 1 M KCl) methodology severely underestimates exchangeable Al and total actual acidity values in CLASS and should be corrected by a factor similar to the one determined here. - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Al was compared to 1 M KCl or 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extractable Al. • 1 M KCl always underestimated isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations. • 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} mobilised non-isotopically exchangeable Al • 1 M KCl values require correction of ~ 1.7 to reflect exchangeable Al concentrations.

  10. Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar (United States)

    Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.


    Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals

  11. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh


    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  12. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Gopa, E-mail: [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Thomas Paul, V. [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Panneerselvam, G. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)


    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe{sub 2}C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, instead of Fe{sub 2}C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of

  13. Phosphorous dynamics in a temperate intertidal estuary (United States)

    Lillebø, A. I.; Neto, J. M.; Flindt, M. R.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.


    Conservation and management of aquatic systems require detailed information of the processes that affect their functioning and development. The objectives of the present work were to describe the phosphorus dynamics during a complete tidal cycle and to quantify the relative contribution of the most common estuarine areas (e.g. seagrass beds, salt marshes, mud- and sand-flats without vegetation) to phosphorus net internal loading in a temperate intertidal estuary. Results show that phosphate efflux rates were higher during the first hours of tidal flood, and that phosphate concentrations were lowest at high tide. During tidal ebbing, ephemeral tide pools may cover a considerable percentage of the intertidal area. In these tide pools, water shallowness combined with enhanced temperatures stimulate the occurrence of high phosphate effluxes. The effluxes to the main water body during high tide contributed 57% of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and efflux during low tide contributed 43% to the net internal loading. Calculations of the phosphate net effluxes (kg P) indicate a strong contribution of the bare bottom mud-flats to the whole system internal phosphate loading, especially during the warmer periods. As a consequence of eutrophication, perennial benthic macrophytes are commonly replaced by fast-growing epiphytic macroalgae. Calculations showed that for a hypothetical intertidal estuary in a temperate region, management programs considering an eventual re-colonization of mud-flats by seagrasses or salt marsh plants may reduce the P-efflux by 13-16 kg ha -1. For example, in the small Mondego estuary, eutrophication has contributed to a reduction of the Zostera noltii meadows, leading to an increase in 190 kg of phosphorus net internal loading.

  14. Phenology of temperate trees in tropical climates (United States)

    Borchert, Rolf; Robertson, Kevin; Schwartz, Mark D.; Williams-Linera, Guadalupe


    Several North American broad-leaved tree species range from the northern United States at ˜47°N to moist tropical montane forests in Mexico and Central America at 15-20°N. Along this gradient the average minimum temperatures of the coldest month (T Jan), which characterize annual variation in temperature, increase from -10 to 12°C and tree phenology changes from deciduous to leaf-exchanging or evergreen in the southern range with a year-long growing season. Between 30 and 45°N, the time of bud break is highly correlated with T Jan and bud break can be reliably predicted for the week in which mean minimum temperature rises to 7°C. Temperature-dependent deciduous phenology—and hence the validity of temperature-driven phenology models—terminates in southern North America near 30°N, where T Jan>7°C enables growth of tropical trees and cultivation of frost-sensitive citrus fruits. In tropical climates most temperate broad-leaved species exchange old for new leaves within a few weeks in January-February, i.e., their phenology becomes similar to that of tropical leaf-exchanging species. Leaf buds of the southern ecotypes of these temperate species are therefore not winter-dormant and have no chilling requirement. As in many tropical trees, bud break of Celtis, Quercus and Fagus growing in warm climates is induced in early spring by increasing daylength. In tropical climates vegetative phenology is determined mainly by leaf longevity, seasonal variation in water stress and day length. As water stress during the dry season varies widely with soil water storage, climate-driven models cannot predict tree phenology in the tropics and tropical tree phenology does not constitute a useful indicator of global warming.

  15. Estimated Financial Impact of Trypanosoma vivax on the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian Lowlands


    Seidl Andrew; Dávila Alberto MR; Silva Roberto AMS


    The financial impact of the first outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland is estimated. Results are extended to include outbreaks in the Bolivian lowlands providing a notion of the potential influence of the disease and an analytical basis. More than 11 million head of cattle, valued at more than US$3 billion are found in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. The total estimated cost of the 1995 outbreak of T. vivax is the sum of the present values of mortality...

  16. Solar Forcing of Drought Frequency in the Maya Lowlands (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.; Guilderson, Thomas


    We analyzed lake-sediment cores from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, to reconstruct the climate history of the region over the past 2600 years. Time series analysis of sediment proxies, which are sensitive to the changing ratio of evaporation to precipitation (oxygen isotopes and gypsum precipitation), reveal a recurrent pattern of drought with a dominant periodicity of 208 years. This cycle is similar to the documented 206-year period in records of cosmogenic nuclide production (carbon-14 and beryllium-10) that is thought to reflect variations in solar activity. We conclude that a significant component of century-scale variability in Yucatan droughts is explained by solar forcing. Furthermore, some of the maxima in the 208-year drought cycle correspond with discontinuities in Maya cultural evolution, suggesting that the Maya were affected by these bicentennial oscillations in precipitation.

  17. Fish but Not Macroinvertebrates Promote Trophic Cascading Effects in High Density Submersed Plant Experimental Lake Food Webs in Two Contrasting Climate Regions


    Carlos Iglesias; Erik Jeppesen; Néstor Mazzeo; Juan Pablo Pacheco; Franco Teixeira-de Mello; Frank Landkildehus; Claudia Fosalba; Clemente, Juan M.; Mariana Meerhoff


    Predators play a key role in the functioning of shallow lakes. Differences between the response of temperate and subtropical systems to fish predation have been proposed, but experimental evidence is scarce. To elucidate cascading effects produced by predators in contrasting climatic zones, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in three pairs of lakes in Uruguay and Denmark. We used two typical planktivorous-omnivorous fish species (Jenynsia multidentata + Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Gasteros...

  18. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA


    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  19. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti


    of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress......Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so...

  20. Some Lake Level Control Alternatives for the Great Salt Lake


    Allen, Marvin E.; Christensen, Ronald K.; Riley, J. Paul


    Fluctuations of the level of the Great Salt Lake cause large changes in both surface area and shoreline. Developments adjacent to the lake have been damaged by both high and low lake levels; and unless measures are implemented to regulate lake level fluctuations or otherwise to protect these developments, damages will continue. Various possible managment alternatives for mitigating potential damages from lake leve...

  1. Climate change implications in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North America (United States)

    Shanley, Colin S.; Pyare, Sanjay; Goldstein, Michael I.; Alaback, Paul B.; Albert, David M.; Beier, Colin M.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Edwards, Rick T.; Hood, Eran; MacKinnon, Andy; McPhee, Megan V.; Patterson, Trista; Suring, Lowell H.; Tallmon, David; Wipfli, Mark S.


    We synthesized an expert review of climate change implications for hydroecological and terrestrial ecological systems in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North America. Our synthesis is based on an analysis of projected temperature, precipitation, and snowfall stratified by eight biogeoclimatic provinces and three vegetation zones. Five IPCC CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are the basis for projections of mean annual temperature increasing from a current average (1961–1990) of 3.2 °C to 4.9–6.9 °C (5 GCM range; RCP4.5 scenario) or 6.4–8.7 °C (RCP8.5), mean annual precipitation increasing from 3130 mm to 3210–3400 mm (3–9 % increase) or 3320–3690 mm (6–18 % increase), and total precipitation as snow decreasing from 1200 mm to 940–720 mm (22–40 % decrease) or 720–500 mm (40–58 % decrease) by the 2080s (2071–2100; 30-year normal period). These projected changes are anticipated to result in a cascade of ecosystem-level effects including: increased frequency of flooding and rain-on-snow events; an elevated snowline and reduced snowpack; changes in the timing and magnitude of stream flow, freshwater thermal regimes, and riverine nutrient exports; shrinking alpine habitats; altitudinal and latitudinal expansion of lowland and subalpine forest types; shifts in suitable habitat boundaries for vegetation and wildlife communities; adverse effects on species with rare ecological niches or limited dispersibility; and shifts in anadromous salmon distribution and productivity. Our collaborative synthesis of potential impacts highlights the coupling of social and ecological systems that characterize the region as well as a number of major information gaps to help guide assessments of future conditions and adaptive capacity.

  2. Spatial variability in tree stem CH4 fluxes suggests that uptake dominates over emission across temperate and tropical upland forests. (United States)

    Gauci, Vincent; Welch, Bertie; Pangala, Sunitha; Sayer, Emma; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Bastviken, David


    Forests play an important role in the exchange of radiatively important gases with the atmosphere. Previous studies have shown that in both temperate and tropical wetland forests tree stems are significant sources of methane (CH4), yet little is known about trace greenhouse gas dynamics in 'upland' free-draining soils that dominate global forested areas. We examined trace gas (CH4 and N2O) fluxes from both soils and tree stems in lowland tropical forest on free-draining soils in Panama, Central America (Barro Colorado Nature Monument), in the Amazon (Cunia) and from a deciduous woodland in the United Kingdom (Wytham, Oxfordshire). In Panama, fluxes were sampled over the dry to wet season transition (March-August) in 2014 and November 2015. In Cunia, we measured mature and young tree fluxes in a single campaign during 2013 from two 20 x 30 m plots. CH4 and N2O flux was measured from the stem between 20 and 140 cm above the forest floor. Soil fluxes were measured 1 m away from each tree under investigation. Temperate fluxes were sampled at Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, over 12 months from February 2015 to January 2016. Tree stem samples were collected via syringe from temporary chambers strapped to the trees and soil fluxes were sampled from installed collars. We found that trees behaved as both sources (near the tree base) and sinks (higher up the tree stem) of methane across Panamanian and UK sites, however, this pattern was only apparent in a subset of trees in the Amazon where the dominant process was stem CH4 uptake for the majority of trees. We synthesise these results and those of our N2O measurements and report the consequences for ecosystem budgets of these gases.

  3. Fishfauna from the lowland Mures River (Romania and the floodplain natural park area (Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CUPSA


    Full Text Available The lowland Mures river has approximately 120 km in length, thereof more than 80 kilometers are comprised on the Mures Floodplain Natural Park that was established since the year 2007. This river stretch has different biotopes with lotic or lentic semblances with very characteristic and diverse fish fauna. Along the lowland main stream a system of canals, marshes and pools are connected. The results of repeated ichtiological surveys carried out during the years 1998 – 2001 and 2004 reveals that 48 fish species live in this river sector and other 2 species has uncertain presence. Most of the species from the river mainstream has maintain their former abundance (24 species while other 16 fish species has increased their abundance. The burbot Lota lota and Zingel zingel becomes frequent in the lowland Mures, probably as consequence of their population renewal. The number of fish species that having undergone regression is less (4 species and the exotic species present here are limited to 8 species. The major threatening factors in the lowland Mures represents the mineral aggregate extractions directly from the riverbed and the waste waters spill. Subsequent, the meanders and backwaters shortening or cutting down has a negative impact on the fish populations.

  4. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  5. Description of the phosphorus sorption and desorption processes in lowland peaty clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.


    To determine phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface water, information is needed about the behavior of P in soils. In this study, the sorption and desorption characteristics of lowland peaty clay soils are described based on experimental laboratory studies. The maximum P sorption

  6. Resilience and flood risk management : A systems approach applied to lowland rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, K.M.


    Floods along lowland rivers still cause a lot of damage and casualties although centuries of experience with flood risk management have passed. In order to reduce flood impacts and to prevent flood waves from causing disasters, the current and alternative flood risk management strategies need to be

  7. Organic anion exudation by lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) at zinc and phosphorus deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Wei, C.Z.; Wissuwa, M.


    The objectives of this paper were to determine (1) if lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants respond similarly to low zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) availability by increased root exudation of low-molecular weight organic anions (LMWOAs) and (2) if genotypic variation in tolerance to low soil supply of

  8. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.


    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference ...

  9. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.


    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet


    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  11. Alien Roadside Species More Easily Invade Alpine than Lowland Plant Communities in a Subarctic Mountain Ecosystem (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan


    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment. PMID:24586947

  12. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya : Pt. 3: Socio-economic profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.


    Third part of a five-part study on seasonal fluctuations in food supply and nutrition in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report offers a description of the socioeconomic characteristics of the

  13. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan


    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  14. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey; John A. Stanturf; Brian Roy. Lockhart


    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More...

  15. Climate change impact on the leaching of a heavy metal contamination in a small lowland catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Kroes, J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Blenkinsop, S.; Broers, H.P.


    The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the transport of pre-existing spatially-extensive trace metal contamination to a small lowland catchment in the south of the Netherlands. The area surrounding the Keersop has been contaminated with heavy metals by

  16. The Impact of Climate Change on Metal Transport in a Lowland Catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, René R.; van der Perk, Marcel; van der Grift, Bas; de Nijs, Ton C M; Bierkens, Marc F P


    This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the

  17. Ecological effects of re-introduction of salmonid spawning gravel in lowland Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben; Kronvang, Brian


    recently been conducted in many streams and rivers. However, systematic monitoring of these spawning gravel restoration projects is limited. The overall aim of this paper was to evaluate gravel reintroduction as a long-term salmonid rehabilitation method in 32 lowland streams. Displacement of gravel...

  18. Nitrogen economy and water productivity of lowland rice under water-saving irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, P.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Lu, G.; Tuong, T.P.


    Water saving in irrigated lowland rice production is increasingly needed to cope with a decreasing availability of fresh water. We investigated the effect of irrigation regimes on grain yield and nitrogen (N) uptake and recovery, and the effect of N management on water productivity (grain

  19. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya; Pt. 4/5 : Food consumption and anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.; Niemeijer, R.


    This is Part 4/5 of a series concerned with seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report deals with food consumption and the nutritional condition of the study population. Results show

  20. Andean Mountain Building Did not Preclude Dispersal of Lowland Epiphytic Orchids in the Neotropics. (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Klitgård, Bente B; Pansarin, Emerson; Gerlach, Günter


    The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages. Using novel molecular sequences (five nuclear and plastid regions) and twelve biogeographic models, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of Cycnoches originated in Amazonia ca 5 Mya. The first colonization of Central America occurred from a direct migration event from Amazonia, and multiple bidirectional trans-Andean migrations between Amazonia and Central America took place subsequently. Notably, these rare biological exchanges occurred well after major mountain building periods. The Andes have limited plant migration, yet it has seldom allowed episodic gene exchange of lowland epiphyte lineages such as orchids with great potential for effortless dispersal because of the very light, anemochorous seeds.

  1. The Land Remembers: Landscape Terms and Place Names in Lowland Chontal of Oaxaca, Mexico (United States)

    O'Connor, Loretta; Kroefges, Peter C.


    This paper examines landscape terminology and place names of the Chontal region in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, with a focus on terms from Lowland Chontal, a highly endangered language spoken near the Pacific coast. In addition to the linguistic analysis, the paper presents a general description of the physical geography of the area and…

  2. Ecosystem and restoration consequences of invasive woody species removal in Hawaiian lowland wet forest (United States)

    R. Ostertag; S. Cordell; J. Michaud; T.C. Cole; J.R. Schulten; K.M. Publico; J.H. Enoka


    A removal experiment was used to examine the restoration potential of a lowland wet forest in Hawaii, a remnant forest type that has been heavily invaded by non-native species and in which there is very little native species regeneration. All non-native woody and herbaceous biomass (approximately 45% of basal area) was removed in four 100-m² removal plots;...

  3. Hydrological controls on salinity exposure and the effects on plants in lowland polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stofberg, Sija F.


    The Dutch lowlands may be subject to salinization, through saline upward seepage and increased salt concentrations in the surface water, which may affect agriculture and nature areas with floating fens. A simple approach was proposed to estimate root zone salinization in areas with fresh water

  4. Accumulation of metallic elements by Amanita muscaria from rural lowland and industrial upland regions. (United States)

    Lipka, Krzysztof; Falandysz, Jerzy


    This study was carried out on the accumulation and occurrence of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn in the mushroom Amanita muscaria and forest topsoil from two lowland sites in the Tuchola Pinewoods in the north-central region and an upland site in the Świetokrzyskie Mountains in the south-central region of Poland. Topsoil from the upland location showed Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Na and Zn at significantly higher concentration levels (pseudo-total fraction and often also the labile or extractable fraction) than at both lowland locations, where topsoil was richer in Mg, and similar in Rb. Amanita muscaria from the upland region differed from individuals collected in the lowland sites by higher concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Hg and Mn in caps. This could be related to higher concentration levels of the metallic elements in topsoil in the upland region. On other side, A. muscaria from the upland site was poorer in Co and Fe in caps, and in Ca, Co, Fe and Sr in stipes. In spite of the differences in content of the geogenic metallic elements in topsoil between the lowland and upland locations, A. muscaria from both regions was able to regulate uptake and accumulation of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn, which were at similar concentration levels in caps but not necessarily in stipes.

  5. Hydrology and substrates: determinants of oligochaete distribution in lowland streams (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    In most soft-bottomed, lowland streams in the Netherlands discharge regimes largely follow the precipitation pattern. Winter discharges are higher and much more dynamic then summer discharges, although rain storms throughout the year cause unexpected peak flows. Minimal precipitation, reduced stream

  6. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas inhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, J.; Votýpka, J.; Todd, A.; Jirků, M.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.; Neel, C.; Modrý, D.


    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Plasmodium spp. * African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  7. Suspected macular degeneration in a captive Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Steinmetz, Andrea; Bernhard, Andreas; Sahr, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard


    The case of a 31-year-old captive female Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with decreased near vision but good distance vision is presented. Examination of the fundus revealed drusen-like bodies in the macula presumably because of an age-related macular degeneration (AMD). © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Malignant hypertension and retinopathy in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Niemuth, Jennifer N; De Voe, Ryan S; Jennings, Samuel H; Loomis, Michael R; Troan, Brigid V


    A 34-year-old western lowland gorilla presented with peracute blindness. Clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, laboratory analyses, blood pressure measurements, and necropsy were performed. The clinical and postmortem findings supported malignant hypertension. We describe a case of naturally occurring hypertensive encephalopathy and retinopathy in a gorilla. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dental lesions in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B.; Jonsson, Lena M.; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen


    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesio...

  10. Plant and bird diversity in rubber agroforests in the lowlands of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien; Danielsen, Finn; Vincent, Gregoire; Hardiwinoto, Suryo; van Andel, Jelte

    Plant and bird diversity in the Indonesian jungle rubber agroforestry system was compared to that in primary forest and rubber plantations by integrating new and existing data from a lowland rain forest area in Sumatra. Jungle rubber gardens are low-input rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforests that

  11. Choosing soil management systems for rice production on lowland soils in South Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.C.R.; Hoogmoed, W.B.


    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area of the state. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for flood-irrigated rice (Oriza

  12. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.


    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Drilling in tempered glass – modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have...... been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility...... of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so....

  14. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds? (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.


    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams. (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T


    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  16. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  17. Geomorphology of the Chippewa River delta of Glacial Lake Saginaw, central Lower Michigan, USA (United States)

    Connallon, Christopher B.; Schaetzl, Randall J.


    We introduce, characterize, and interpret the geomorphic history of a relict, Pleistocene-aged delta of the Chippewa River in central Lower Michigan. The broad, sandy Chippewa delta developed into various stages of Glacial Lake Saginaw, between ca. ≈ 17 and 15 ka·BP (calibrated ages). Although the delta was first identified in 1955 on a statewide glacial geology map, neither its extent nor its Pleistocene history had been previously determined. The delta is typically forested, owing to its wet, sandy soils, which stand out against the agricultural fields of the surrounding, loamy lake plain sediments. The delta heads near the city of Mt Pleasant and extends eastward onto the Saginaw Lowlands, i.e., the plain of Glacial Lake Saginaw. Data from 3285 water well logs, 180 hand augered sites, and 185 points randomly located in a GIS on two-storied (sand over loam) soils were used to determine the extent, textural properties, and thickness of the delta. The delta is ≈ 18 km wide and ≈ 38 km long and is sandy throughout. Deltaic sediments from neighboring rivers that also drained into Glacial Lake Saginaw merge with the lower Chippewa delta, obscuring its boundary there. The delta is thickest near the delta's head and in the center, but thins to 1-2 m or less on its eastern margins. Mean thicknesses are 2.3-2.9 m, suggestive of a thin sediment body, frequently impacted by the waves and fluctuating waters of the lakes. Although beach ridges are only weakly expressed across the delta because of the sandy sediment, the coarsest parts of the delta are generally coincident with some of these inferred former shorezones and have a broad, incised channel that formed while lake levels were low. The thick upper delta generally lies above the relict shorelines of Glacial Lakes Saginaw and Arkona (≈ 17.1 to ≈ 16 ka·BP), whereas most of the thin, distal delta is associated with Glacial Lake Warren (≈ 15 ka·BP). Together, these data suggest that the Chippewa delta formed

  18. Peat accumulation in drained thermokarst lake basins in continuous, ice-rich permafrost, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey Walter


    Thermokarst lakes and peat-accumulating drained lake basins cover a substantial portion of Arctic lowland landscapes, yet the role of thermokarst lake drainage and ensuing peat formation in landscape-scale carbon (C) budgets remains understudied. Here we use measurements of terrestrial peat thickness, bulk density, organic matter content, and basal radiocarbon age from permafrost cores, soil pits, and exposures in vegetated, drained lake basins to characterize regional lake drainage chronology, C accumulation rates, and the role of thermokarst-lake cycling in carbon dynamics throughout the Holocene on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Most detectable lake drainage events occurred within the last 4,000 years with the highest drainage frequency during the medieval climate anomaly. Peat accumulation rates were highest in young (50–500 years) drained lake basins (35.2 g C m−2 yr−1) and decreased exponentially with time since drainage to 9 g C m−2 yr−1 in the oldest basins. Spatial analyses of terrestrial peat depth, basal peat radiocarbon ages, basin geomorphology, and satellite-derived land surface properties (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF)) from Landsat satellite data revealed significant relationships between peat thickness and mean basin NDVI or MNF. By upscaling observed relationships, we infer that drained thermokarst lake basins, covering 391 km2 (76%) of the 515 km2 study region, store 6.4–6.6 Tg organic C in drained lake basin terrestrial peat. Peat accumulation in drained lake basins likely serves to offset greenhouse gas release from thermokarst-impacted landscapes and should be incorporated in landscape-scale C budgets.

  19. Robust environmental flow release strategies in arid and semi-arid regions to rehabilitate endangered saline lakes (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn


    Saline lakes despite their extreme importance for critical habitat, are often threatened by desiccation due to irrigation and land development. For many closed lakes, the lake's level and salinity is highly controlled by hydrology of the basin and the balance between inflows and evaporation. In arid and semi-arid regions overexploitation of water for agricultural use in upstream has imbalance the natural inflow to the lake and the evaporation from surface. Due to the high irrigation water demand in these regions, environmental flow release has led to greater water withdrawals in irrigation seasons. Considering farmers attitude in irrigation along with hydrological and climatic condition, could be an important criteria to design proper environmental flow release plan to maximise lakes' inflow. This study employs a new methodology to define environmental flow strategy in arid and semi-arid regions with intensive agricultural lands adjacent to a terminal lake. The method analyzes farmers' water-use behaviour and natural flow regime in the upstream to design the environmental flow release strategy from a reservoir. We have applied the methodology to water resources systems in Lake Urmia Basin, a highly endangered saline lake in Iran. The spatial analysis show that the lake basin's hydrology is controlled by many upstream reservoirs and intensive agricultural water demand in downstream. Cropland has increased rapidly in the lake basin during last decades through construction of dams and diversion. The released environmental flow was exploited by farmers in lowlands and inflow to the lake in some rivers has been decreased even by 80%. The new environmental flow release has showed water should be released in the shortest possible time (according to reservoir outlet capacity) during the lowest irrigation demand period.

  20. Error and efficiency of simulated tempering simulations. (United States)

    Rosta, Edina; Hummer, Gerhard


    We derive simple analytical expressions for the error and computational efficiency of simulated tempering (ST) simulations. The theory applies to the important case of systems whose dynamics at long times is dominated by the slow interconversion between two metastable states. An extension to the multistate case is described. We show that the relative gain in efficiency of ST simulations over regular molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is given by the ratio of their reactive fluxes, i.e., the number of transitions between the two states summed over all ST temperatures divided by the number of transitions at the single temperature of the MD or MC simulation. This relation for the efficiency is derived for the limit in which changes in the ST temperature are fast compared to the two-state transitions. In this limit, ST is most efficient. Our expression for the maximum efficiency gain of ST simulations is essentially identical to the corresponding expression derived by us for replica exchange MD and MC simulations [E. Rosta and G. Hummer, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 165102 (2009)] on a different route. We find quantitative agreement between predicted and observed efficiency gains in a test against ST and replica exchange MC simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model. Based on the efficiency formula, we provide recommendations for the optimal choice of ST simulation parameters, in particular, the range and number of temperatures, and the frequency of attempted temperature changes.

  1. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  2. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in temperate estuarine sediments. (United States)

    Abreu, C; Jurgens, G; De Marco, P; Saano, A; Bordalo, A A


    Application of molecular techniques to ecological studies has unveiled a wide diversity of micro-organisms in natural communities, previously unknown to microbial ecologists. New lineages of Archaea were retrieved from several non-extreme environments, showing that these micro-organisms are present in a large variety of ecosystems. The aim was therefore to assess the presence and diversity of Archaea in the sediments of the river Douro estuary (Portugal), relating the results obtained to ecological data. Total DNA was extracted from sediment samples obtained from an estuary deprived of vegetation, amplified by PCR and the resulting DNA fragments cloned. The archaeal origin of the cloned inserts was checked by Southern blot, dot blot or colony blot hybridization. Recombinant plasmids were further analysed by restriction with AvaII and selected for sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of 14 sequences revealed the presence of members of the domain Archaea. Most of the sequences could be assigned to the kingdom Crenarchaeota. Most of these sequences were closely related to those obtained from non-extreme Crenarchaeota members previously retrieved from diverse ecosystems, such as freshwater and marine environments. The presence of archaeal 16S rDNA sequences in temperate estuarine sediments emerges as a valuable contribution to the understanding of the complexity of the ecosystem.

  3. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF. Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6 and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10. After tempering the cast steels were characterized by a structure of tempered lower bainite with numerous precipitations of carbides. Performed research of mechanical properties has shown that high temperatures of tempering of bainitic structure do not cause decrease of mechanical properties beneath the required minimum.oo It has also been proved that high-temperature tempering (>720 oC ensures high impact energy at the 20% decrease of mechanical properties.

  4. Dung beetle communities: a neotropical-north temperate comparison. (United States)

    Radtke, Meghan G; Fonseca, Cláudio R V da; Williamson, G Bruce


    Dung beetle communities have been compared across north temperate latitudes. Tropical dung beetle communities appear to be more diverse based on studies using different methodologies. Here, we present results from a standardized sampling protocol used to compare dung beetle communities across five neotropical forests in Brazil and Ecuador and two warm, north temperate forests in Mississippi and Louisiana. Species richness in the tropical forests was three to seven times higher than the temperate forests, as would be expected by studies of other taxa across tropical and temperate latitudes. Average body size in the temperate forests was larger than the tropical forests, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. Dung beetle abundance and volume per trap-day were generally higher in Ecuador than Brazil, and higher in Mississippi than Louisiana, but there were no tropical-temperate differences. Species rank-abundance curves were similar within countries and between countries. Rank-volume distributions indicated a smaller range of beetle body sizes in Ecuador versus Brazil or the USA. Community similarity was high within countries and low between countries. Community differences between Brazil and Ecuador sites may be explained by differences in productivity based on geological age of the soils.

  5. Biological invasion by a benthivorous fish reduced the cover and species richness of aquatic plants in most lakes of a large North American ecoregion. (United States)

    Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Beck, Marcus W; Cross, Timothy K; Koch, Justine D; Bartodziej, William M; Sorensen, Peter W


    Biological invasions are projected to be the main driver of biodiversity and ecosystem function loss in lakes in the 21st century. However, the extent of these future losses is difficult to quantify because most invasions are recent and confounded by other stressors. In this study, we quantified the outcome of a century-old invasion, the introduction of common carp to North America, to illustrate potential consequences of introducing non-native ecosystem engineers to lakes worldwide. We used the decline in aquatic plant richness and cover as an index of ecological impact across three ecoregions: Great Plains, Eastern Temperate Forests and Northern Forests. Using whole-lake manipulations, we demonstrated that both submersed plant cover and richness declined exponentially as carp biomass increased such that plant cover was reduced to plant species richness along with Secchi depth, lake area and human development of lake watersheds. Model parameters showed that carp reduced species richness to a similar degree across lakes of various Secchi depths and surface areas. In regions dominated by carp (e.g., Great Plains), carp had a stronger impact on plant richness than human watershed development. Overall, our analysis shows that the introduction of common carp played a key role in driving a severe reduction in plant cover and richness in a majority of Great Plains lakes and a large portion of Eastern Temperate Forests lakes in North America. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Local forcings affect lake zooplankton vulnerability and response to climate warming. (United States)

    Alric, Benjamin; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Berthon, Vincent; Arnaud, Fabien; Pignol, Cecile; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Sabatier, Pierre; Perga, Marie-Elodie


    While considerable insights on the ecological consequences of climate change have been gained from studies conducted on remote lakes, little has been done on lakes under direct human exposure. Ecosystem vulnerability and responses to climate warming might yet largely depend on the ecological state and thus on local anthropogenic pressures. We tested this hypothesis through a paleolimnological approach on three temperate large lakes submitted to rather similar climate warming but varying intensities of analogous local forcings (changes in nutrient inputs and fisheries management practices). Changes in the structure of the cladoceran community were considered as revealing for alterations, over the time, of the pelagic food web. Trajectories of the cladoceran communities were compared among the three study lakes (Lakes Geneva, Bourget, and Annecy) over the last 70-150 years. Generalized additive models were used to develop a hierarchical understanding of the respective roles of local stressors and climate warming in structuring cladoceran communities. The cladoceran communities were not equally affected by climate warming between lakes. In Lake Annecy, which is the most nutrient-limited, the cladoceran community was essentially controlled by local stressors, with very limited impact of climate. In contrast, the more nutrient-loaded Lakes Geneva and Bourget were more sensitive to climate warming, although the magnitude of their responses and the pathways under which climate warming affected the communities varied between the two lakes. Finally, our results demonstrated that lake vulnerability and responses to climate warming are modulated by lake trophic status but can also be altered by fisheries management practices through changes in fish predation pressure.

  7. Lake Mead, NV (United States)


    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  8. Great Lakes Literacy Principles (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey


    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  9. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven


    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  10. Landscape phenology of Wisconsin's temperate mixed forest (United States)

    Liang, Liang

    This dissertation covers an intensive study of the landscape phenology of Wisconsin's temperate mixed forest. It endeavors to connect conventional plant phenology study back to its ecological complexity (from gardens/trees to the forest) and to compare field-observed phenology with remotely sensed phenology for regional to global monitoring/forecasting applications (from the forest to biomes). A new research perspective: landscape phenology (LP) is proposed in this dissertation. LP is defined as an approach to seasonal vegetation dynamics that integrates spatial patterns and temporal processes within heterogeneous environment across multiple scales. High density in situ observations, remote sensing data, and spatio-temporal analysis are employed for understanding patterns and processes within the complexity of seasonal landscape dynamics. In particular, bi-daily spring forest phenologies of multiple tree/shrub species and understory plants were observed using field protocols or digital photography; high-frequency micrometeorological measurements were used in tandem with LiDAR-based microtopography/canopy heights as well as soil condition data, to characterize microenvironments; and high-resolution, multi-temporal satellite images were employed to facilitate plant community delineation and landscape scaling. A hierarchical upscaling approach is introduced, aiming to integrate in situ phenological observations with the remotely sensed phenological measures. Primary results from this work include: a detailed account of spatio-temporal variations of spring plant phenology and their environmental drivers within a typical seasonal forest; thermal time (accumulated growing degree hours) driven linear phenological models for six forest species; a landscape-level phenological progression regime driven by antecedent weather fluctuations; a conceptual landscape phenology model that assigns phenological behaviors to levels of population, community, and ecosystem patch; and a

  11. Climate and landscape influence on indicators of lake carbon cycling through spatial patterns in dissolved organic carbon. (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Seekell, David A; Del Giorgio, Paul A


    Freshwater ecosystems are strongly influenced by both climate and the surrounding landscape, yet the specific pathways connecting climatic and landscape drivers to the functioning of lake ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that the links that exist between spatial patterns in climate and landscape properties and the spatial variation in lake carbon (C) cycling at regional scales are at least partly mediated by the movement of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic component of the landscape. We assembled a set of indicators of lake C cycling (bacterial respiration and production, chlorophyll a, production to respiration ratio, and partial pressure of CO2 ), DOC concentration and composition, and landscape and climate characteristics for 239 temperate and boreal lakes spanning large environmental and geographic gradients across seven regions. There were various degrees of spatial structure in climate and landscape features that were coherent with the regionally structured patterns observed in lake DOC and indicators of C cycling. These different regions aligned well, albeit nonlinearly along a mean annual temperature gradient; whereas there was a considerable statistical effect of climate and landscape properties on lake C cycling, the direct effect was small and the overall effect was almost entirely overlapping with that of DOC concentration and composition. Our results suggest that key climatic and landscape signals are conveyed to lakes in part via the movement of terrestrial DOC to lakes and that DOC acts both as a driver of lake C cycling and as a proxy for other external signals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)


    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  13. Investigations on pelagic food webs in mountain lakes - aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirí NEDOMA


    Full Text Available A methodical approach for the assessment of pelagic biomass and the main carbon fluxes in remote and hardly accessible mountain lakes was elaborated and tested. Number and biomass of bacteria (BAC, autotrophic picoplankton (APP, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF, ciliates (CIL, phytoplankton (PHY, zooplankton smaller than 40 μm (ZOOS and zooplankton larger than 40 μm (ZOOL were investigated regularly during two ice-free periods in 13 European mountain lakes (1st level approach – fixed samples elaborated in specialized laboratories. Carbon fluxes measured in 9 lakes included: primary production, exudation by PHY and BAC uptake of exudates, BAC production, elimination of BAC. These processes were measured in the field by specialized teams (2nd level approach. The ranges of values found in mountain lakes were evaluated and possible methodical and interpretative errors discussed. BAC were a significant component of pelagic biomass. The intercomparison between different partners showed differences in bacterial counts lower than 10%, whereas the mean cell volumes measured fluctuated by more than 40%. APP was never found in a significant quantity, except in one lake. HNF and CIL, though regularly found, were usually scarce and only occasionally significant in terms of biomass. The main components of pelagic biomass were BAC, PHY and ZOOL+ZOOS, except for acidified lakes, where zooplankton was very low. In oligotrophic mountain lakes, the percentage of extracellular production in the total primary production was considerable. Bacterial abundance and production often reached values quite comparable with the situation found in lowland mesotrophic lakes during winter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rasulova


    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water bodies, especially small, has become a ubiquitous problem. In this connection the efforts of the experts is increasingly aimed at the search for the methods of monitoring, prediction and control of this undesirable and dangerous process. One of the methods to assess the level trophic status is based on the determination of the content of chlorophyll-a, which was used in integrated studies of the ecological status, and trophic status of the water bodies of the Coastal plain of Dagestan.

  15. Annual precipitation regulates spatial and temporal drivers of lake water clarity. (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C; Greb, Steven R; Diebel, Matthew; Turner, Monica G


    Understanding how and why lakes vary and respond to different drivers through time and space is needed to understand, predict, and manage freshwater quality in an era of rapidly changing land use and climate. Water clarity regulates many characteristics of aquatic ecosystems and is responsive to watershed features, making it a sentinel of environmental change. However, whether precipitation alters the relative importance of features that influence lake water clarity or the spatial scales at which they operate is unknown. We used a data set of thousands of northern temperate lakes and asked (1) How does water clarity differ between a very wet vs. dry year? (2) Does the relative importance of different watershed features, or the spatial extent at which they are measured, vary between wet and dry years? (3) What lake and watershed characteristics regulate long-term water clarity trends? Among lakes, water clarity was reduced and less variable in the wet year than in the dry year; furthermore, water clarity was reduced much more in high-clarity lakes during the wet year than in low-clarity lakes. Climate, land use/land cover, and lake morphometry explained most variance in clarity among lakes in both years, but the spatial scales at which some features were important differed between the dry and wet years. Watershed percent agriculture was most important in the dry year, whereas riparian zone percent agriculture (around each lake and upstream features) was most important in the wet year. Between 1991 and 2012, water clarity declined in 23% of lakes and increased in only 6% of lakes. Conductance influenced the direction of temporal trend (clarity declined in lakes with low conductance), whereas the proportion of watershed wetlands, catchment-to-lake-area ratio, and lake maximum depth interacted with antecedent precipitation. Many predictors of water clarity, such as lake depth and landscape position, are features that cannot be readily managed. Given trends of

  16. Food-web stability signals critical transitions in temperate shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; van Altena, Cassandra; de Ruiter, P.C.; Van Gerven, Luuk P.A.; Janse, Jan H.; Mooij, Wolf M.


    A principal aim of ecologists is to identify critical levels of environmental change beyond which ecosystems undergo radical shifts in their functioning. Both food-web theory and alternative stable states theory provide fundamental clues to mechanisms conferring stability to natural systems. Yet, it

  17. Release of CO2 and CH4 from lakes and drainage ditches in temperate wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.; Veraart, A.J.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.


    Shallow fresh water bodies in peat areas are important contributors to greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere. In this study we determined the magnitude of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from 12 water bodies in Dutch wetlands during the summer season and studied the factors that might regulate emissions of CH4

  18. Lake eutrophication and its implications for organic carbon sequestration in Europe. (United States)

    Anderson, N J; Bennion, H; Lotter, A F


    The eutrophication of lowland lakes in Europe by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is severe because of the long history of land-cover change and agricultural intensification. The ecological and socio-economic effects of eutrophication are well understood but its effect on organic carbon (OC) sequestration by lakes and its change overtime has not been determined. Here, we compile data from ~90 culturally impacted European lakes [~60% are eutrophic, Total P (TP) >30 μg P l(-1) ] and determine the extent to which OC burial rates have increased over the past 100-150 years. The average focussing corrected, OC accumulation rate (C ARFC ) for the period 1950-1990 was ~60 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , and for lakes with >100 μg TP l(-1) the average was ~100 g C m(-2) yr(-1) . The ratio of post-1950 to 1900-1950 C AR is low (~1.5) indicating that C accumulation rates have been high throughout the 20th century. Compared to background estimates of OC burial (~5-10 g C m(-2) yr(-1) ), contemporary rates have increased by at least four to fivefold. The statistical relationship between C ARFC and TP derived from this study (r(2) = 0.5) can be used to estimate OC burial at sites lacking estimates of sediment C-burial. The implications of eutrophication, diagenesis, lake morphometry and sediment focussing as controls of OC burial rates are considered. A conservative interpretation of the results of the this study suggests that lowland European meso- to eutrophic lakes with >30 μg TP l(-1) had OC burial rates in excess of 50 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over the past century, indicating that previous estimates of regional lake OC burial have seriously underestimated their contribution to European carbon sequestration. Enhanced OC burial by lakes is one positive side-effect of the otherwise negative impact of the anthropogenic disruption of nutrient cycles. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Water regime of Playa Lakes from southern Spain: conditioning factors and hydrological modeling. (United States)

    Moral, Francisco; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Miguel; Beltrán, Manuel; Benavente, José; Cifuentes, Victor Juan


    Andalusia's lowland countryside has a network of small geographically isolated playa lakes scattered across an area of 9000 km2 whose watersheds are mostly occupied by clayey rocks. The hydrological model proposed by the authors seeks to find equilibrium among usefulness, simplicity, and applicability to isolated playas in a semiarid context elsewhere. Based in such model, the authors have used monthly climatic data, water stage measurements, and the basin morphometry of a particular case (Los Jarales playa lake) to calibrate the soil water budget in the catchment and the water inputs from the watershed (runoff plus groundwater flow) at different scales, from monthly to daily. After the hydrologic model was calibrated, the authors implemented simulations with the goal of reproducing the past hydrological dynamics and forecasting water regime changes that would be caused by a modification of the wetland morphometry.

  20. Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.


    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  1. Great Lakes: Great Gardening. (United States)

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  2. Evaporation From Lake Superior (United States)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.


    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  3. Genetic differentiation revealed by selective loci of drought-responding EST-SSRs between upland and lowland rice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    Full Text Available Upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L. represent two of the most important rice ecotypes adapted to ago-ecosystems with contrasting soil-water conditions. Upland rice, domesticated in the water-limited environment, contains valuable drought-resistant characters that can be used in water-saving breeding. Knowledge about the divergence between upland and lowland rice will provide valuable cues for the evolution of drought-resistance in rice. Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice was explored by 47 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs located in drought responding expressed sequence tags (ESTs among 377 rice landraces. The morphological traits of drought-resistance were evaluated in the field experiments. Different outlier loci were detected in the japonica and indica subspecies, respectively. Considerable genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice on these outlier loci was estimated in japonica (Fst = 0.258 and indica (Fst = 0.127. Furthermore, populations of the upland and lowland ecotypes were clustered separately on these outlier loci. A significant correlation between genetic distance matrices and the dissimilarity matrices of drought-resistant traits was determined, indicating a certain relationship between the upland-lowland rice differentiation and the drought-resistance. Divergent selections occur between upland and lowland rice on the drought-resistance as the Qsts of some drought-resistant traits are significantly higher than the neutral Fst. In addition, the upland- and lowland-preferable alleles responded differently among ecotypes or allelic types under osmotic stress. This shows the evolutionary signature of drought resistance at the gene expression level. The findings of this study can strengthen our understanding of the evolution of drought-resistance in rice with significant implications in the improvement of rice drought-resistance.

  4. Lake Superior revisited 1984 (United States)

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.


    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  5. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten


    in the Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil, and moderate densities of widespread species in the tropical lowlands. Contemporary climate explains well the variation in species richness for the 25% most widespread species; for the remaining 75% of species with more restricted distributions, variation can only...... be explained well from topography and landscape complexity. Phylogenetically old species are mainly found along the Andes and along the Rio coast of Brazil. Most other areas outside the Andes probably had very moderate rates of later diversification. In contrast, the humid tropical Andes region was a centre...... of intensive speciation throughout the evolutionary history of the group, and species richness patterns here seem largely to be driven by the rate of speciation, with further diversification from the highlands into adjacent lowlands. The diversification process in montane areas may be related to high...

  6. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit


    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake (Vv(o2max)within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O(2) extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia......, and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  7. Human-driven topographic effects on the distribution of forest in a flat, lowland agricultural region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Dalgaard, Tommy


    -absence at a 48×48 m resolution) in a lowland agricultural region (Denmark, 43,075 km2) at regional and landscape scales (whole study area and 10×10 km grid cells, respectively), how landscape-scale forest-topography relationships vary geographically, and which potential drivers (topographic heterogeneity, forest......, topographic predictors explained only 5% of the distribution of forest. In contrast, the explanatory power of topography varied from 0%–61% at landscape scale, with clear geographic patterning. Explanatory power of topography at landscape scale was moderately dependent on the potential drivers......Complex topography buffers forests against deforestation in mountainous regions. However, it is unknown if terrain also shapes forest distribution in lowlands where human impacts are likely to be less constrained by terrain. In such regions, if important at all, topographic effects will depend...

  8. The Lowland-to-Upland Transition--Modelling Plant Responses to Environmental Change. (United States)

    Woodward, F I


    A published correlative model has predicted that the distributional limits of plants and vegetation zones on mountains will increase in altitude with global warming. I test this hypothesis using results from published experimental studies. Investigations and models of the responses of leaf growth to temperature are in accord with the prediction. However, the individualistic responses of species to CO 2 enrichment indicate that the prediction is unlikely to be true for all species: growth is stimulated by CO 2 enrichment for some species but not for others. Wind speed generally increases with altitude on mountains, and plants from high altitude tend to be more wind resistant than species from the lowland. Therefore it is expected that, particularly on wind-swept mountains, global warming will not necessarily be followed by the spread of lowland species into the uplands. © 1993 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Estimated Financial Impact of Trypanosoma vivax on the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian Lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Andrew


    Full Text Available The financial impact of the first outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland is estimated. Results are extended to include outbreaks in the Bolivian lowlands providing a notion of the potential influence of the disease and an analytical basis. More than 11 million head of cattle, valued at more than US$3 billion are found in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. The total estimated cost of the 1995 outbreak of T. vivax is the sum of the present values of mortality, abortion, and productivity losses and treatment costs, or about 4% of total brood cow value on affected ranches. Had the outbreak gone untreated, the estimated losses would have exceeded 17% of total brood cow value.

  10. Estimated financial impact of Trypanosoma vivax on the Brazilian pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. (United States)

    Seidl, A; Dávila, A M; Silva, R A


    The financial impact of the first outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland is estimated. Results are extended to include outbreaks in the Bolivian lowlands providing a notion of the potential influence of the disease and an analytical basis. More than 11 million head of cattle, valued at more than US$3 billion are found in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. The total estimated cost of the 1995 outbreak of T. vivax is the sum of the present values of mortality, abortion, and productivity losses and treatment costs, or about 4% of total brood cow value on affected ranches. Had the outbreak gone untreated, the estimated losses would have exceeded 17% of total brood cow value.

  11. Why are There So Few Magnetic Anomalies in Martian Lowlands and Basins? (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Aharonson, Oded; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Dombard, Andrew J.; Frey, Herbert V.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; McGovern, Patrick J.


    The discovery of large areas of strongly magnetized crust on Mars [1,2] provides important information on the timing of both crustal and deeper interior processes on that planet. Critical to an understanding of that timing, as well as to the processes that have contributed to the magnetization and demagnetization of crustal materials, is the geographical distribution of magnetic anomalies discernible from spacecraft orbit. The paucity of resolved magnetic anomalies in the northern lowlands and within and surrounding the best-preserved major impact basins has been noted since the crustal field was first globally mapped [1], but no straightforward explanation of that full pattern has yet been offered. Here we suggest that ancient hydrothermal alteration of magnetic carriers in Martian lowlands and basins may have contributed to the magnetization distribution observed today.

  12. The lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is present in lowland tropical forests of far eastern Panamá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria A Rebollar

    Full Text Available The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is one of the main causes of amphibian population declines and extinctions all over the world. In the Neotropics, this fungal disease has caused catastrophic declines in the highlands as it has spread throughout Central America down to Panamá. In this study, we determined the prevalence and intensity of Bd infection in three species of frogs in one highland and four lowland tropical forests, including two lowland regions in eastern Panamá in which the pathogen had not been detected previously. Bd was present in all the sites sampled with a prevalence ranging from 15-34%, similar to other Neotropical lowland sites. The intensity of Bd infection on individual frogs was low, ranging from average values of 0.11-24 zoospore equivalents per site. Our work indicates that Bd is present in anuran communities in lowland Panamá, including the Darién province, and that the intensity of the infection may vary among species from different habitats and with different life histories. The population-level consequences of Bd infection in amphibian communities from the lowlands remain to be determined. Detailed studies of amphibian species from the lowlands will be essential to determine the reason why these species are persisting despite the presence of the pathogen.

  13. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand


    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with la...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP

  14. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41327697X; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  15. Functional turnover from lowland to montane forests: evidence from the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran


    Jafari SM; Zarre S; Alavipanah SK; Ghahremaninejad F


    Plant functional traits and functional diversity play key roles in ecosystem functioning. Exploring patterns of functional diversity is of great importance in the management process of forest ecosystems. Altitudinal pattern of plant functional diversity is poorly investigated in Hyrcanian relict forest, N Iran. We explored differences in trait composition between lowland and montane forest types. Altitudinal variation of plant functional traits along 2400 m altitudinal gradient was examined. ...

  16. Resilience and flood risk management: A systems approach applied to lowland rivers


    de Bruijn, K.M.


    Floods along lowland rivers still cause a lot of damage and casualties although centuries of experience with flood risk management have passed. In order to reduce flood impacts and to prevent flood waves from causing disasters, the current and alternative flood risk management strategies need to be reconsidered. As a potential solution the Dutch policy makers propose to increase the resilience of systems, since resilient systems are expected to be able to cope better with disturbances such as...

  17. Living on Scorched Earth: the Political Ecology of Land Ownership in Guatemala's Northern Lowlands


    Ybarra, Megan


    This dissertation examines Q'eqchi' Maya survivors of Guatemala's genocidal counterinsurgency campaign that burned over 440 villages to the ground. I argue that lowlands Q'eqchi's communities' struggles for land were not won or lost on civil war battlefields, but are still being determined through the contested politics of land ownership on scorched earth. I present the implications of my argument for territory, identity and development through four case studies based on 17 months of ethnogra...

  18. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland (United States)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.


    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  19. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna


    -use/land-cover changes of historical and current wood-pastures in lowlands and warm landscapes of hills and basins of Czechia. To achieve this, nine sites covering a total area of 98.6 km2 were studied in Czechia. The situation on three time horizons (1820–1840s, the early 1950s and today) was analysed. The results have...

  20. Tree species diversity and utilities in a contracting lowland hillside rainforest fragment in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Thi Van


    Full Text Available Background Within the highly bio-diverse ‘Northern Vietnam Lowland Rain Forests Ecoregion’ only small, and mostly highly modified forestlands persist within vast exotic-species plantations. The aim of this study was to elucidate vegetation patterns of a secondary hillside rainforest remnant (elevation 120–330 m, 76 ha as an outcome of natural processes, and anthropogenic processes linked to changing forest values. Methods In the rainforest remnant tree species and various bio-physical parameters (relating to soils and terrain were surveyed on forty 20 m × 20 m sized plots. The forest's vegetation patterns and tree diversity were analysed using dendrograms, canonical correspondence analysis, and other statistical tools. Results Forest tree species richness was high (172 in the survey, 94 per hectare, including many endemic species (>16%; some recently described. Vegetation patterns and diversity were largely explained by topography, with colline/sub-montane species present mainly along hillside ridges, and lowland/humid-tropical species predominant on lower slopes. Scarcity of high-value timber species reflected past logging, whereas abundance of light-demanding species, and species valued for fruits, provided evidence of human-aided forest restoration and ‘enrichment’ in terms of useful trees. Exhaustion of sought-after forest products, and decreasing appreciation of non-wood products concurred with further encroachment of exotic plantations in between 2010 and 2015. Regeneration of rare tree species was reduced probably due to forest isolation. Conclusions Despite long-term anthropogenic influences, remnant forests in the lowlands of Vietnam can harbor high plant biodiversity, including many endangered species. Various successive future changes (vanishing species, generalist dominance, and associated forest structural-qualitative changes are, however, expected to occur in small forest fragments. Lowland forest biodiversity can only

  1. Hydrogeologic framework of the Willamette Lowland aquifer system, Oregon and Washington (United States)

    Woodward, D.G.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Vaccaro, J.J.


    This report summarizes the hydraulic characteristics of the materials that make up the Willamette Lowland aquifer system, ground-water movement in the aquifer system, estimates of ground-water recharge, ground-water quality characteristics, construction and use of cross-sectional numerical ground-water flow models, hydrologic controls on ground-water movement, water budgets and flow paths, and a description and application of a conceptual model.

  2. Reye's or Reye's-like syndrome in western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Minter, Larry J; Cullen, John M; Loomis, Michael R


    A 15-year-old western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died shortly after transfer to the North Carolina Zoo. Complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and necropsy were performed. Combination of compatible clinical signs, biochemical and histopathological findings fulfilled all of the CDC definition criteria of Reye's or a Reye's like syndrome. This report describes a case of Reye's syndrome or Reye's-like syndrome in a non-human primate. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica


    Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V.; Ewel, John J.


    We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, δD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata) having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively...

  4. Studies of aquatic fungi. XII. Aquatic fungi of the lowland River Biebrza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available The work was undertaken to investigate the mycoflora ot the lowland river Biebrza. Samples of water collected once a month over spring and autumn (1984 for hydrochemical analysis and studies of the fungus content. Twenty five species of fungi were found most of them in the river Biebrza. The following fungi unknown from Poland were found in the river Biebrza: Karlingia rosea, Blastocladiella britannica, Cladolegnia eccenirica, Centrospora filiformis and Flagellospora cunmla.

  5. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth


    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  6. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla. (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania


    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany.

  7. G0 Seed Potential of The Aeroponics Potatoes Seed In The Lowlands With A Root Zone Cooling Into G1 In The Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Sumarni


    Full Text Available Abstract. In tropical country likes in Indonesia, potato seeds that originated from temperate zone can only be produced in low temperature of highland. Besides this way has many limitation of productivity, it often causes soil erosion. To minimize environment destroying risk tuber seed production in lowland is a challenge. This research was done to trace that modified root zone cooling method of aerophonic system can be applied to produce high quality of tuber seeds in lowland. The First Generations (G0 of var. Atlantic and var. Granola were used as plant materials, and randomized block design (RBD with four replications was applied in this research. Data regarding with vegetative as well as tuber production parameters were analyzed using Coefficient of variance (ANOVA and continued with the least significant difference test (LSD; p = 5%. The results showed that aerophonic generated seeds (G0 had vigorous growth and could produce the normal G1. In term of tuber yield component and number of leaves var. Atlantic showed higher than var. Granola did. The comparison of seed weight between G0 and G1 was about 10 grams and 54 g on average, respectively. Since the size and weight of such G1 could be categorized as Large (L in term of commercial seed market, It’s implied that the lowland modified aerophonic system could be nominated as a prospective method for producing G0 tuber seed in the future.    Potensi Bibit G0 Dari Bibit Kentang Aeroponik Di Dataran Rendah Dengan Akar Zona Pendingin Menjadi G1 Di Dataran Tinggi  Abstrak. Di negara tropis seperti di Indonesia, bibit kentang yang berasal dari zona sedang hanya dapat diproduksi pada suhu rendah di dataran tinggi. Selain itu cara ini memiliki banyak keterbatasan produktivitas dan sering menyebabkan erosi tanah. Meminimalkan resiko dampak kerusakan lingkungan akibat produksi benih umbi di dataran rendah adalah sebuah tantangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji bahwa metode zona akar

  8. The stratigraphy and history of Mars' northern lowlands through mineralogy of impact craters: A comprehensive survey (United States)

    Pan, Lu; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Carter, John; Ernst, Carolyn M.


    The basin-filling materials of the northern lowlands, which cover approximately one third of Mars' surface, record the long-term evolution of Mars' geology and climate. The buried stratigraphy was inferred through analyses of impact crater mineralogy, detected using data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. Examining 1045 impact craters across the northern lowlands, we find widespread olivine and pyroxene and diverse hydrated/hydroxylated minerals, including Fe/Mg smectite, chlorite, prehnite, and hydrated silica. The distribution of mafic minerals is consistent with infilling volcanic materials across the entire lowlands ( 1-4 × 107 km3), indicating a significant volume of volatile release by volcanic outgassing. Hydrated/hydroxylated minerals are detected more frequently in large craters, consistent with the scenario that the hydrated minerals are being excavated from deep basement rocks, beneath 1-2 km thick mafic lava flows or volcaniclastic materials. The prevalences of different types of hydrated minerals are similar to statistics from the southern highlands. No evidence of concentrated salt deposits has been found, which would indicate a long-lived global ocean. We also find significant geographical variations of local mineralogy and stratigraphy in different basins (geological provinces), independent of dust cover. For example, many hydrated and mafic minerals are newly discovered within the polar Scandia region (>60°N), and Chryse Planitia has more mafic mineral detections than other basins, possibly due to a previously unrecognized volcanic source.

  9. Spread of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus across Lowland Populations of Túngara Frogs in Panamá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Rodríguez-Brenes

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats (> 500 meters above sea level, m a.s.l. of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the spread (2009 to 2014 of Bd across lowland habitats east of the Panamá Canal (< 500 m a.s.l. with a focus on the Túngara frog (Physalaemus [Engystomops] pustulosus, one of the most common and abundant frog species in this region. Highland populations in western Panamá were already infected with Bd at the start of the study, which was consistent with previous studies indicating that Bd is enzootic in this region. In central Panamá, we collected the first positive samples in 2010, and by 2014, we detected Bd from remote sites in eastern Panamá (Darién National Park. We discuss the importance of studying Bd in lowland species, which may serve as potential reservoirs and agents of dispersal of Bd to highland species that are more susceptible to chytridiomycosis.

  10. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare


    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  11. Incised channel fills containing conifers indicate that seasonally dry vegetation dominated Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.; Looy, C.V.; Ames, P.R.; DiMichele, W.A.


    The idea that the Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands were temporally dominated by rainforest (i.e., the Coal Forest) is deeply ingrained in the literature. Here we challenge two centuries of research by suggesting that this concept is based on a taphonomic artifact, and that seasonally dry vegetation dominated instead. This controversial finding arises from the discovery of a new middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian) fossil plant assemblage in southeast Illinois, United States. The assemblage, which contains xerophytic walchian conifers, occurs in channels incised into a calcic Vertisol below the Baker Coal. These plants grew on seasonally dry tropical lowlands inferred to have developed during a glacial phase. This xerophytic flora differs markedly from that of the typical clubmoss-dominated Coal Forest developed during deglaciation events. Although preserved only very rarely, we argue that such xerophytic floras were temporally as dominant, and perhaps more dominant, than the iconic Coal Forests, which are overrepresented in the fossil record due to taphonomic megabias. These findings require the iconography of Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands to be redrawn. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  12. Preliminary atlas of active shallow tectonic deformation in the Puget Lowland, Washington (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.


    This atlas presents an up-to-date map compilation of the geological and geophysical observations that underpin interpretations of active, surface-deforming faults in the Puget Lowland, Washington. Shallow lowland faults are mapped where observations of deformation from paleoseismic, seismic-reflection, and potential-field investigations converge. Together, results from these studies strengthen the identification and characterization of regional faults and show that as many as a dozen shallow faults have been active during the Holocene. The suite of maps presented in our atlas identifies sites that have evidence of deformation attributed to these shallow faults. For example, the paleoseismic-investigations map shows where coseismic surface rupture and deformation produced geomorphic scarps and deformed shorelines. Other maps compile results of seismic-reflection and potential-field studies that demonstrate evidence of deformation along suspected fault structures in the subsurface. Summary maps show the fault traces derived from, and draped over, the datasets presented in the preceding maps. Overall, the atlas provides map users with a visual overview of the observations and interpretations that support the existence of active, shallow faults beneath the densely populated Puget Lowland.

  13. Analysis of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) specific Alu repeats. (United States)

    McLain, Adam T; Carman, Glenn W; Fullerton, Mitchell L; Beckstrom, Thomas O; Gensler, William; Meyer, Thomas J; Faulk, Christopher; Batzer, Mark A


    Research into great ape genomes has revealed widely divergent activity levels over time for Alu elements. However, the diversity of this mobile element family in the genome of the western lowland gorilla has previously been uncharacterized. Alu elements are primate-specific short interspersed elements that have been used as phylogenetic and population genetic markers for more than two decades. Alu elements are present at high copy number in the genomes of all primates surveyed thus far. The AluY subfamily and its derivatives have been recognized as the evolutionarily youngest Alu subfamily in the Old World primate lineage. Here we use a combination of computational and wet-bench laboratory methods to assess and catalog AluY subfamily activity level and composition in the western lowland gorilla genome (gorGor3.1). A total of 1,075 independent AluY insertions were identified and computationally divided into 10 subfamilies, with the largest number of gorilla-specific elements assigned to the canonical AluY subfamily. The retrotransposition activity level appears to be significantly lower than that seen in the human and chimpanzee lineages, while higher than that seen in orangutan genomes, indicative of differential Alu amplification in the western lowland gorilla lineage as compared to other Homininae.

  14. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (United States)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie


    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  15. Hail resistance of solar collectors with tempered glass covers (United States)

    Lof, G. O. G.; French, R. R.


    The resistance of solar collectors glazed with 3 mm of tempered glass to hailstones of up to 10 cm in diameter and 0.5 kg in weight which fell on Fort Collins, Colorado is discussed. Of the ten solar heating systems directly in the hailpath with tempered glass covers, seven were undamaged, two lost one collector panel each, and a 700-panel collector had seven broken covers, amounting to a total breakage of nine panels out of 956, approximately 1%. In addition, one system with nontempered glass covers suffered two glass punctures in a 26-panel collector. It is concluded that the risk of hail damage to commercial solar collectors glazed with 3-mm tempered glass is negligibly small, and greatly exceeded by the risk of hail damage to the roofs of buildings and automobiles or to fiberglass-reinforced polyester sheets used as collector glazings.

  16. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael


    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  17. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  18. Development and characteristics of alpine lakes in the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river, Central Asia (United States)

    Müller, J. P.; Mergili, M.; Schneider, J. F.


    The Amu Darya is one of the most important rivers in the lowlands of Central Asia, ensuring the supply of irrigation water for agriculture in that arid region. Control of the water flow due to hydropower generation in Tajikistan (Norak Dam, planned Rogun Dam) is a highly political issue. The sources of the Amu Darya are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan (Pamir, Alai and Hindukush mountains). These environments are highly dynamic systems particularly sensitive to climate fluctuations and changes. During the previous decades, numerous lakes have developed or enlarged in the forefields of the retreating glaciers. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes or retained by rocky swells, block or debris dams. The latter two types of dams are usually formed by landslides or moraines, Usoi Dam impounding lake Sarez is the highest landslide dam in the world and goes back to an earthquake in 1911. Whilst the safety situation of Lake Sarez is still discussed controversially, a number of glacial lakes poses a threat to the mountain communities downstream. At least two significant glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) were recorded in the study are in the last ten years, one of which caused major destruction. Besides the hazards, lakes may also offer a potential for hydropower generation. Furthermore, they mirror the dynamics of the high-mountain environment and therefore indicate fluctuations and changes. Consequently, up-to date information on the lakes present in the watershed is required. A comprehensive multi-temporal lake inventory for the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river was prepared and analyzed, based on remotely sensed data. ASTER and Landsat scenes were used as well as Corona images from the late 1960s. The satellite information was complemented by helicopter surveys and in-detail field investigations of selected lakes in 2003, 2009 and 2011. Lake type, size, drainage and development

  19. Parameters structuring macrophyte communities in rivers and lakes – results from a case study in North-Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szoszkiewicz K.


    Full Text Available We analysed macrophyte species composition and abundance, water chemistry and hydromorphological parameters of all major river stretches and lakes in the catchment of the lowland river Wel, Poland. We studied (i which hydromorphological and physico-chemical factors best explained macrophyte species composition, (ii if environmental factors structuring macrophyte communities were different between rivers and lakes; and (iii if macrophyte indices developed to indicate eutrophication correlated with nutrient concentrations. Based on two-way indicator species analysis, correlation analysis and canonical correspondence analysis, we found that river substrate was most important in structuring macrophyte species composition and abundance in rivers, while water quality parameters were most important in lakes; species richness and diversity were correlated with river size and substrate type in rivers, but not in lakes; the relative abundance of macrophyte growth forms was best explained by total organic carbon and Secchi depth in lakes, but it was not correlated with any of the water chemical or hydromorphological parameters in rivers. Irrespective of which factors best explained macrophyte community composition, macrophyte metrics developed to indicate ecological status responded most strongly to total phosphorus concentrations, both in rivers and lakes. We conclude that macrophyte metrics are valuable tools for ecological status assessment also in ecosystems where parameters other than nutrients shape macrophyte community composition.

  20. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels


    G. Golański


    The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF) and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF). Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6) and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10). After temperin...

  1. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel


    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  2. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota. (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R


    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  3. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.


    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  4. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) 2008 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) survey is an ecosystem assessment of temperate foraging habitats of endangered leatherback turtles off the coast of...

  5. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter


    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  6. Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) as zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers: Implications for fine sediment transport in lowland rivers (United States)

    Smith, James; Rice, Stephen; Hodgkins, Richard


    Despite increasing recognition that animals play important roles in geomorphological systems (zoogeomorphology), with important ecological implications for the animals and their ecosystems (ecosystem engineering), sediment transport continues to be regarded as an abiotic process. This research challenges that orthodoxy by investigating the biotic processes associated with bioturbation in rivers caused by feeding bream (Abramis brama (L.)) and quantifying their impact on fine sediment suspension and sediment yield. Experiments in lakes have demonstrated that bream negatively influence ecosystem dynamics through bottom up mechanisms as a result of physical bioturbation caused by benthivorous feeding. Although this level of bioturbation, and thus sediment entrainment, can alter the fundamental biogeochemical cycles and food web dynamics in lentic ecosystems, research is yet to assess this potential effect in riverine ecosystems or evaluate this bioturbation mechanism as a driver of fluvial sediment flux - even though they are common in rivers across mainland Europe. A series of ex-situ mesocosm experiments have investigated the controls of fine sediment entrainment by bream, assessing the roles of both biomass (size and number) and food density on suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Bream create large volumes of suspended sediment during feeding (highest recorded turbidity 1172 NTU) and there are significant (p fish, fish size and food density. Supplementary experiments have assessed bream as ecosystem engineers in the presence of the congener species, roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which share the same ecological niche. In the presence of roach, the impact of bream on turbidity increased by an average of 120% (6.6 NTU to 15 NTU) and increased further at the 90th percentile by 240% (32 NTU to 110 NTU). In light of these findings, the extensive geographical distribution of bream and the observation that shoals of bream commonly exceed one thousand

  7. The investigation of applicability of the Hollomon-Jaffe equation on tempering the HSLA steel


    A. Patarić; Mihailović, M.; Z. Gulišija; Z. Janjušević


    High strength low-alloyed (HSLA) Cr-Mn-Si steels belong to a group of steels that can reach their full mechanical properties after quenching and tempering. Those properties depend both on the temperature and time of tempering. Knowing the tempering parameters, it is possible to reach the desired properties of the treated steel. Some results on investigating the Hollomon-Jaffe equation (in parametric form) application for tempering of HSLA steel, are shown in this paper. The experiments were p...

  8. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of talar morphology in extant gorilla taxa from highland and lowland habitats. (United States)

    Knigge, Ryan P; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Mcnulty, Kieran P


    Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to climb significantly more often than eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei), a behavioral distinction attributable to major differences in their respective habitats (i.e., highland vs. lowland). Genetic evidence suggests that the lineages leading to these taxa began diverging from one another between approximately 1 and 3 million years ago. Thus, gorillas offer a special opportunity to examine the degree to which morphology of recently diverged taxa may be "fine-tuned" to differing ecological requirements. Using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics, we compared talar morphology in a sample of 87 specimens including western (lowland), mountain (highland), and grauer gorillas (lowland and highland populations). Talar shape was captured with a series of landmarks and semilandmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. A between-group principal components analysis of overall talar shape separates gorillas by ecological habitat and by taxon. An analysis of only the trochlea and lateral malleolar facet identifies subtle variations in trochlear shape between western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas, potentially indicative of convergent evolution of arboreal adaptations in the talus. Lastly, talar shape scales differently with centroid size for highland and lowland gorillas, suggesting that ankle morphology may track body-size mediated variation in arboreal behaviors differently depending on ecological setting. Several of the observed shape differences are linked biomechanically to the facilitation of climbing in lowland gorillas and to stability and load-bearing on terrestrial substrates in the highland taxa, providing an important comparative model for studying morphological variation in groups known only from fossils (e.g., early hominins). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lake Level Reconstructions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  10. Great Lakes Ice Charts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  11. CESM Lakes Monthly (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains monthly aggregates of 2D near-surface fields from the WRF model simulations labeled "default" (using WRF default approach to setting lake...

  12. Halls Lake 1990 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  13. History of Lake Andes (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the facts...

  14. Sunk Lake Natural Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  15. Challenges to the Lake (United States)

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  16. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  17. Phytoplankton variability in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, in response to local weather variation. (United States)

    Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo


    Phytoplankton species show a variety in morphology which is the result of adaptations to pelagic life including responses to fluctuations in water column dynamics driven by weather conditions. This has been reported in the oceans and in Northern temperate lakes. In order to observe whether tropical freshwater phytoplankton responds to seasonal variation in weather, the weekly variation in temperature of the water column and phytoplankton composition was studied in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, a shallow (6.2m) lake at 1 640m above sea level. A chain of data loggers for temperature was placed in the deepest point in the lake to register temperature every hour at four different depths, and phytoplankton samples were retrieved every week for a year. Additional monthly samples for nutrients were taken at two depths. Notwithstanding its shallowness, the lake developed a thermal gradient which kept the water column stratified for several months during dry season. Whole lake overturns occurred during cold spells with intense precipitation. Phytoplankton changed throughout the year mainly through a shift in dominant taxa. From September to February the lake was frequently mixed by rain storms and windy weather. At this time, phytoplankton was dominated by Chlorococcal green algae. From March to June, the lake was stratified and warmer. Phytoplankton became dominated by Cyanobateria, mainly colonial Chroococcales. The rainy season started again in May 2009. During June and July the lake started to mix intermittently during rain events and phytoplankton showed a brief increase in the contribution of Chlorococcales. These changes fitted well to a general model of phytoplankton succession based on functional groups identified according to their morphology and adaptations.

  18. Phytoplankton variability in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, in response to local weather variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species show a variety in morphology which is the result of adaptations to pelagic life including responses to fluctuations in water column dynamics driven by weather conditions. This has been reported in the oceans and in Northern temperate lakes. In order to observe whether tropical freshwater phytoplankton responds to seasonal variation in weather, the weekly variation in temperature of the water column and phytoplankton composition was studied in Lake Fraijanes, Costa Rica, a shallow (6.2m lake at 1 640m above sea level. A chain of data loggers for temperature was placed in the deepest point in the lake to register temperature every hour at four different depths, and phytoplankton samples were retrieved every week for a year. Additional monthly samples for nutrients were taken at two depths. Notwithstanding its shallowness, the lake developed a thermal gradient which kept the water column stratified for several months during dry season. Whole lake overturns occurred during cold spells with intense precipitation. Phytoplankton changed throughout the year mainly through a shift in dominant taxa. From September to February the lake was frequently mixed by rain storms and windy weather. At this time, phytoplankton was dominated by Chlorococcal green algae. From March to June, the lake was stratified and warmer. Phytoplankton became dominated by Cyanobateria, mainly colonial Chroococcales. The rainy season started again in May 2009. During June and July the lake started to mix intermittently during rain events and phytoplankton showed a brief increase in the contribution of Chlorococcales. These changes fitted well to a general model of phytoplankton succession based on functional groups identified according to their morphology and adaptations.

  19. Feeling the Heat: Supraglacial Lake Changes as Observed via Time-Lapse Photography, Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal (United States)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.; Breashears, D.; Bilham, R. G.


    Supraglacial lakes are suspected of playing a catalytic role in the current rapid melting rate of temperate glaciers. Our field work on the Ngozumpa glacier, in the Nepalese Himalaya, was targeted to quantify the physics of this process. A field season was conducted in June 2011 to investigate the formation and evolution of these lakes via time-lapse photography. One supraglacial lake in particular was chosen for more intensive study. A pressure transducer recorded lake level changes throughout the field season; probes measured surface water temperature, water temperature at depth, and air temperature; and solar irradiation (incoming and outgoing) was measured with a pair of silicon pyranometers. Depth surveys were conducted, water samples were collected, and melt rates on north and south facing ice walls also were measured with a laser rangefinder during hours of peak insolation. During the course of the field season, 28 cm of overall water rise was measured in the lake. Two major icefall events a week apart contributed to 8 and 6 cm, respectively, rise alone. Surface water and air temperatures increased during this time, along with the amount of solar irradiation reaching the surface of the lake. South-facing ice walls were found to melt faster, but no walls were found to be immune to melt and collapse. Hourly time-lapse photography captured a major icefall in this lake, while another camera captured a larger lake farther upglacier draining more than 3 meters overnight. A third camera, aimed near the terminus, captured a lake changing in color (from milky blue to brown) and doubling in size during the field season. These initial results show substantial change in a short amount of time. Continued time-lapse photography should provide us with an even better record of surface evolution on this climatically sensitive glacier in the Himalaya.

  20. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering...

  1. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal? (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.


    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  2. Presence of the Cyanotoxin Microcystin in Arctic Lakes of Southwestern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica V. Trout-Haney


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and their toxins have received significant attention in eutrophic temperate and tropical systems where conspicuous blooms of certain planktonic taxa release toxins into fresh water, threatening its potability and safe use for recreation. Although toxigenic cyanobacteria are not confined to high nutrient environments, bloom-forming species, or planktonic taxa, these other situations are studied les often studied. For example, toxin production in picoplankton and benthic cyanobacteria—the predominant photoautotrophs found in polar lakes—is poorly understood. We quantified the occurrence of microcystin (MC, a hepatotoxic cyanotoxin across 18 Arctic lakes in southwestern Greenland. All of the focal lakes contained detectable levels of MC, with concentrations ranging from 5 ng·L−1 to >400 ng·L−1 during summer, 2013–2015. These concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than many eutrophic systems, yet the median lake MC concentration in Greenland (57 ng·L−1 was still 6.5 times higher than the median summer MC toxicity observed across 50 New Hampshire lakes between 1998 and 2008 (8.7 ng·L−1. The presence of cyanotoxins in these Greenlandic lakes demonstrates that high latitude lakes can support toxigenic cyanobacteria, and suggests that we may be underestimating the potential for these systems to develop high levels of cyanotoxins in the future.

  3. Climate warming of Wisconsin lakes can be either amplified or suppressed by trends in water clarity (United States)

    Winslow, Luke; Rose, Kevin C.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen


    While climate change is rapidly warming lakes and reservoirs, warming rates can be highly variable among systems because lake characteristics can modulate atmospheric forcing. While it is known that water clarity changes can alter lake water temperatures, it is unknown if frequently observed water clarity trends are sufficient to meaningfully impact the thermal trajectories of diverse lake populations. Using process-based modeling and empirical observations, this study demonstrates that water clarity changes of about 1% per year amplifies or suppresses warming at rates comparable to climate-induced warming. These results demonstrate that trends in water clarity, which are occurring in many lakes, may be as important as rising air temperatures in determining how waterbodies respond to climate change. These data support the following publication:   Jordan S. Read, Luke A. Winslow, Gretchen J.A. Hansen, Jamon Van Den Hoek, Paul C. Hanson, Louise C. Bruce, 2014, Simulating 2368 temperate lakes reveals weak coherence in stratification phenology: Ecological Modeling,

  4. PeRL: A circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A.B.K.; Sjoberg, Ylva; Gunther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, J.; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles; Boike, Julia


    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( <  300 m a.s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1. 0 × 106 m2 down to 1. 0 × 102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1. 0 × 10 to 9. 4 × 101 km−2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45–99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps

  5. A note on the water budget of temperate glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.


    In this note, the total dissipative melting in temperate glaciers is studied. The analysis is based on the notion that the dissipation is determined by the loss of potential energy due to the downward motion of mass (ice, snow, meltwater and rain). A mathematical formulation of the dissipation is

  6. Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847364


    In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise

  7. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods : temperate and tropical (United States)

    R. Sidney Boone; Charles J. Kozlik; Paul J. Bois; Eugene M. Wengert


    This report contains suggested dry kiln schedules for over 500 commercial woods, both temperate and tropical. Kiln schedules are completely assembled and written out for easy use. Schedules for several thicknesses and specialty products (e.g. squares, handle stock, gunstock blanks) are given for many species. The majority of the schedules are from the world literature...

  8. ballistic performance of a quenched and tempered steel against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



  9. The Fracture Process of Tempered Soda-Lime-Silica Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik


    This work presents experimental observations of the characteristic fracture process of tempered glass. Square specimens with a side length of 300 mm, various thicknesses and a residual stress state characterized by photoelastic measurements were used. Fracture was initiated using a 2.5 mm diamond...

  10. Mixed livestock grazing in diverse temperate and semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns for product quality, uniformity and continuity and for animal welfare will increasingly drive production processes. In this paper, the potential of mixed grazing for higher output of quality animal products, within these constraints, is assessed under both temperate and semi-arid conditions. Complementary ...

  11. Conservation importance of early post-disturbance temperate forests (United States)

    Charles Kwit; David I. King; Beverly Collins; Mark E. Swanson


    The early post-disturbance stage of temperate forest succession (also referred to as 'early-seral' or 'early-successional' forest) has been the subject of interest and debate. Often thought of as an ephemeral (and often disorganized) state of eventual closed-canopy systems, its direct and immediate role in conservation traditionally has been ignored...

  12. Effects of temperate agriculture on neotropical migrant landbirds (United States)

    Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Louis B. Best; Raymond J. O' Connor; Eric K. Bollinger


    The ecology of Neotropical migrant landbirds in temperate farmland is reviewed to develop management recommendations for the conservation of migrants. Migrants constitute about 71% of bird species using farmland and 86% of bird species nesting there. The number and abundances of Neotropical migrants using farmland are greatest in uncultivated edges with trees and...

  13. Temperate non-breeding surveys - a key to shorebird conservation (United States)

    Sue Thomas


    Completion of the United States and Canadian shorebird conservation plans recently identified and prioritized shorebird monitoring, management, and conservation needs in the Western Hemisphere. We present an emerging approach to monitor shorebird use of temperate non-breeding areas under the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM). This...

  14. Tempered Water Lower Port Connector Structural Analysis Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREA, B.A.


    Structural analysis of the lower port connection of the Tempered Water System of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility was performed. Subsequent detailed design changes to enhance operability resulted in the need to re-evaluate the bases of the original analysis to verify its continued validity. This evaluation is contained in Appendix A of this report. The original evaluation is contained in Appendix B.

  15. Temperate forest dynamics and carbon storage: A 26-year case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon stores that are, in the face of recent improvements in their conservation, likely to increase their storage capacity in the future. Despite this, these ecosystems are poorly understood, especially over longer time periods. To remedy this and to better understand these important ...

  16. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cryogenic treatment is a recent advancement in the field of machining to improve the properties of cutting tool materials. Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the technique can also be extended to it. Although the importance of tempering after cryogenic treatment has been ...

  17. Joint measurement of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, S.; Wiesen, D.

    Risk aversion—but also the higher-order risk preferences of prudence and temperance—are fundamental concepts in the study of economic decision making. We propose a method to jointly measure the intensity of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance. Our theoretical approach is to define risk

  18. Silviculture for restoration of degraded temperate and boreal forests (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Emile S. Gardiner


    Throughout the temperate and boreal zones, human intervention has influenced landscapes and forests for millennia. The degree of human disturbance has only been constrained by the technology and resources available to different cultures and by time since initial habitation. Humans have influenced forests by regulating populations of browsers, clearing for agriculture,...

  19. Dragon Lake, Siberia (United States)


    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Influence of Forest Harvest on Nitrate Concentration in Temperate Streams—A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christine Mupepele


    Full Text Available Forest harvest alters natural nutrient cycles, which is reflected in stream water run-off from harvested catchments. Nitrate is an essential nutrient for plant growth, but increased concentrations in rivers, lakes, and oceans have contributed to eutrophication and anoxic conditions. Based on a literature review, we assessed the impact of three different harvest methods—clearcut, patchcut, and selective harvest—on nitrate concentrations in temperate forest streams. In a meta-analysis, the influence of harvest methods and additional environmental variables was analysed. Nitrate concentrations are significantly influenced by harvest methods, forest composition, site altitude, and time passed after the harvesting. The remaining unexplained between-site variability is small compared to the between-site variability explained by the model, indicating the model’s validity. The effect of forest harvest is most pronounced in coniferous and deciduous forests, where clearcuts and patchcuts result in high nitrate run-off three to five years after harvest. Mixed forest plots can compensate for clearcut and patchcut, and do not show a significantly increased nitrate concentration after harvest. Selective harvest at low intensities succeeded in maintaining nitrate levels similar to control or pre-harvest levels in coniferous and mixed forests, and showed a positive but not significant trend in deciduous forests. Coniferous and deciduous monocultures clearly face the problem that nitrate wash-out cannot be minimized by reducing clearcut to patchcut harvest, whereas mixed forests are more suitable to diminish nitrate wash-out in both clearcut and patchcut.

  1. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter


    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  2. Digital landscapes and Late Pleistocene environments of deglaciation: The use of LiDAR data to test outburst flood hypotheses of lowland river gorge formation (United States)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl; Cripps, Jonathan; Passmore, Dave; Oldknow, Christopher; Eades, Gwilym


    We report on the quantitative interrogation of DEMs developed from airborne LiDAR data for the identification and reconstruction of Late Pleistocene glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). There is much importance attached to the quantification of geomorphic processes associated with deglaciation given global warming and current observations of rapidly melting glaciers and ice caps (e.g. Greenland). Given the period of direct observation is short, recourse can be made to the study of past ice sheets and associated landforms in order to reconstruct the rates and magnitudes of change during deglaciation. Meltwater channels, lakes and outflow channels are examples of landforms that can be used to identify the position, timing and retreat of former ice margins. With regards lake drainage there is a need to distinguish 'instantaneous' outburst floods from long term downcutting in order to improve our interpretations on the rates and magnitudes of geomorphic processes. There has been success in this regards at the megaflood scale but less attention has been paid to low magnitude outburst floods that can nevertheless have important regional implications for geomorphic processes. Here we use 5m DEMs and 2m resolution LiDAR data using ArcMap10, in combination with fieldwork, to investigate outflow channels in lowland environments of northern England, and develop methodological guidelines to aid the identification of GLOF events in previously glaciated landscapes. We identified a suite of distinguishing landforms from the 2m LiDAR data, not always identifiable in the 5m DEM, that indicate rapid erosion as opposed to long-term incision: 1) abandoned head cuts; 2) spillways representing sudden incision events once a downstream blockage has failed; 3) headcut extension of incised gorges upstream of the breach site; and 4) sedimentary deposits of 'chaotic' poorly sorted, water-lain sediments mapped at low elevations in the gorge; and run-up bars at higher elevations. All of these

  3. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic? (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.


    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  4. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))


    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  5. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan. (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus


    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m2. As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate-induced warming of lakes can be either amplified or suppressed by trends in water clarity (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.


    Climate change is rapidly warming aquatic ecosystems including lakes and reservoirs. However, variability in lake characteristics can modulate how lakes respond to climate. Water clarity is especially important both because it influences the depth range over which heat is absorbed, and because it is changing in many lakes. Here, we show that simulated long-term water clarity trends influence how both surface and bottom water temperatures of lakes and reservoirs respond to climate change. Clarity changes can either amplify or suppress climate-induced warming, depending on lake depth and the direction of clarity change. Using a process-based model to simulate 1894 north temperate lakes from 1979 to 2012, we show that a scenario of decreasing clarity at a conservative yet widely observed rate of 0.92% yr−1 warmed surface waters and cooled bottom waters at rates comparable in magnitude to climate-induced warming. For lakes deeper than 6.5 m, decreasing clarity was sufficient to fully offset the effects of climate-induced warming on median whole-lake mean temperatures. Conversely, a scenario increasing clarity at the same rate cooled surface waters and warmed bottom waters relative to baseline warming rates. Furthermore, in 43% of lakes, increasing clarity more than doubled baseline bottom temperature warming rates. Long-term empirical observations of water temperature in lakes with and without clarity trends support these simulation results. Together, these results demonstrate that water clarity trends may be as important as rising air temperatures in determining how waterbodies respond to climate change.

  7. Ranging behaviour and socio-biology of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on lowland mesotrophic river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neill, Lughaidh O.; Veldhuizen, Tijmen; de Jongh, Addy; Rochford, John

    We examined the spatial structure and sociobiology of a native wild population of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on mesotrophic rivers in a mild temperate climate. Radio-tracking of 20 individuals revealed exclusive intra-sexual adult home-ranges. Adult female homeranges (7.5 km, SD = 1.5 km, n = 7)

  8. Phosphorus dynamics in lowland streams as a response to climatic, hydrological and agricultural land use gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Teixeira-de Mello, F.


    contrasting climate and hydrological regimes (temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay). We applied two alternative nutrient sampling programmes (high frequency composite sampling and low frequency instantaneous-grab sampling) and three alternative methods to estimate exported P from the catchments. A source...

  9. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Van Geest, G.J.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.


    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic /terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  10. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Geest, van G.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.


    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic/terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  11. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.


    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  12. Invertebrate and fish assemblage relations to dissolved Oxygen minima in lowland streams of southwestern Louisiana (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Mize, Scott V.; Kroes, Daniel; Wallace, James E.


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in lowland streams are naturally lower than those in upland streams; however, in some regions where monitoring data are lacking, DO criteria originally established for upland streams have been applied to lowland streams. This study investigated the DO concentrations at which fish and invertebrate assemblages at 35 sites located on lowland streams in southwestern Louisiana began to demonstrate biological thresholds.Average threshold values for taxa richness, diversity and abundance metrics were 2.6 and 2.3 mg/L for the invertebrate and fish assemblages, respectively. These thresholds are approximately twice the DO concentration that some native fish species are capable of tolerating and are comparable with DO criteria that have been recently applied to some coastal streams in Louisiana and Texas. DO minima >2.5 mg/L were favoured for all but extremely tolerant taxa. Extremely tolerant taxa had respiratory adaptations that gave them a competitive advantage, and their success when DO minima were <2 mg/L could be related more to reductions in competition or predation than to DO concentration directly.DO generally had an inverse relation to the amount of agriculture in the buffer area; however, DO concentrations at sites with both low and high amounts of agriculture (including three least-disturbed sites) declined to <2.5 mg/L. Thus, although DO fell below a concentration that was identified as an approximate biological threshold, sources of this condition were sometimes natural (allochthonous material) and had little relation to anthropogenic activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Gasanov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. This article is devoted to the analysis of climatic conditions of the territory of the Terek-Kuma Lowland. Data of the last 60 years (1951–2010 are compared with conditions of 1881–1935 (air temperature and 1898–1948 (precipitation and relative humidity. Determination of tendencies in the age-old range, and for the last 60 years is given.Location. Terek-Kuma Lowland, Eastern Ciscaucasia, Russia.Methods. The following environmental parameters are characterized: the amount of monthly rainfall, average temperatures and humidity, evaporation, moisture ratio and the lack of moisture. Statistical characteristics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation of annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and humidity, evaporation, lack of moisture are calculated. Separately, the same parameters were calculated for the warm (April – October and cold (November – March seasons. Significance of differences between them was assessed by the standard deviation (α and the coefficient of variation (Cv.Results. Our analysis of the moisture conditions of the Terek-Kuma Lowland in the last 60 years has shown significant changes in key climate indicators in comparison with the corresponding (for the duration of observations rates in preceding years. The average annual temperature for the period , including for the warm season (April – October, increased by 0.6 °C, annual precipitation decreased respectively by 29.6 and 35.9 mm. Coefficient of humidity (ratio of annual precipitation to evaporation in the ambient range from 0.11 in 1898–1948 increased to 0.14 in 1951–2010.Conclusions. Aridity of the climate did not increase on this territory. In 1951–2010 coefficient of humidity increased to 0.14, and fits into the range for dry (arid regions, while in 1898–1948 coefficient of humidity was 0.11 and it was an important characteristic of extra arid (very dry areas.

  14. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  15. Modelling hydrological processes and analysing water-related ecosystem services of Western Siberian lowland basins (United States)

    Schmalz, Britta; Kiesel, Jens; Kruse, Marion; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Sheludkov, Artyom; Khoroshavin, Vitaliy; Veshkurseva, Tatyana; Müller, Felix; Fohrer, Nicola


    For discussing and planning sustainable land management of river basins, stakeholders need suitable information on spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological components and ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept, i.e., services provided by ecosystems that contribute to human welfare benefits, contributes comprehensive information for sustainable river management. This study shows an approach to use ecohydrological modelling results for quantifying and assessing water-related ecosystem services in three lowland river basins in Western Siberia, a region which is of global significance in terms of carbon sequestration, agricultural production and biodiversity preservation. Using the ecohydrological model SWAT, the three basins Pyschma (16762 km²), Vagai (3348 km²) and Loktinka (373 km²) were modelled following a gradient from the landscape units taiga, pre-taiga to forest steppe. For a correct representation of the Siberian lowland hydrology, the consideration of snow melt and retention of surface runoff as well as the implementation of a second groundwater aquifer was of great importance. Good to satisfying model performances were obtained for the extreme hydrological conditions. The simulated SWAT output variables of different hydrological processes were used as indicators for the two regulating services water flow and erosion regulation. The model results were translated into a relative ecosystem service valuation scale. The resulting ecosystem service maps show different spatial and seasonal patterns. Although the high resolution modelling results are averaged out within the aggregated relative valuation scale, seasonal differences can be depicted: during snowmelt, low relevant regulation can be determined, especially for water flow regulation, but a very high relevant regulation was calculated for the vegetation period during summer and for the winter period. The SWAT model serves as a suitable quantification method for the assessment of water

  16. Origin of the HIV-1 group O epidemic in western lowland gorillas (United States)

    D’arc, Mirela; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Esteban, Amandine; Learn, Gerald H.; Boué, Vanina; Liegeois, Florian; Etienne, Lucie; Tagg, Nikki; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Boesch, Christophe; Madinda, Nadège F.; Robbins, Martha M.; Gray, Maryke; Cournil, Amandine; Ooms, Marcel; Letko, Michael; Simon, Viviana A.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Peeters, Martine


    HIV-1, the cause of AIDS, is composed of four phylogenetic lineages, groups M, N, O, and P, each of which resulted from an independent cross-species transmission event of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting African apes. Although groups M and N have been traced to geographically distinct chimpanzee communities in southern Cameroon, the reservoirs of groups O and P remain unknown. Here, we screened fecal samples from western lowland (n = 2,611), eastern lowland (n = 103), and mountain (n = 218) gorillas for gorilla SIV (SIVgor) antibodies and nucleic acids. Despite testing wild troops throughout southern Cameroon (n = 14), northern Gabon (n = 16), the Democratic Republic of Congo (n = 2), and Uganda (n = 1), SIVgor was identified at only four sites in southern Cameroon, with prevalences ranging from 0.8–22%. Amplification of partial and full-length SIVgor sequences revealed extensive genetic diversity, but all SIVgor strains were derived from a single lineage within the chimpanzee SIV (SIVcpz) radiation. Two fully sequenced gorilla viruses from southwestern Cameroon were very closely related to, and likely represent the source population of, HIV-1 group P. Most of the genome of a third SIVgor strain, from central Cameroon, was very closely related to HIV-1 group O, again pointing to gorillas as the immediate source. Functional analyses identified the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G as a barrier for chimpanzee-to-gorilla, but not gorilla-to-human, virus transmission. These data indicate that HIV-1 group O, which spreads epidemically in west central Africa and is estimated to have infected around 100,000 people, originated by cross-species transmission from western lowland gorillas. PMID:25733890

  17. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael


    Global agriculture is at a critical juncture when competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. Livestock production, especially ruminant livestock is central to this debate. Ruminants make an important contribution to global food security by converting feed that is unsuitable for human consumption to high value protein, demand for which is currently increasing at an unprecedented rate. Sustainable intensification of ruminant livestock production may be applied to pastoral grazing, mixed-cropping, feedlot and housed production systems. All these systems have associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, such as reduced animal fertility, health and welfare, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. Further, in many societies livestock represent a resource far greater than just food, e.g. fibre, draught, fertiliser, fuel, bank and social. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice, e.g. temperate grassland. The North Wyke Farm Platform ( was established during 2010 as a UK national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland temperate grasslands. Following construction, a typical beef and sheep system based on permanent pasture receiving chemical fertilisers on first grade pasture (>60% perennial ryegrass) was implemented across the 67.2 ha farm platform in order to obtain baseline

  18. Crater Lake revealed (United States)

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.


    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova


    Full Text Available Questions of delimitation of state property on specially protected areas land of the Caspian lowland in Daghestan need further study. It is Requires the definition of the status of land of recreational zones of the coast of the Caspian sea, including coastal and border strips, legal and logical resolution of the millet for the management of these lands as Federal property. It is Necessary to accelerate the work on the delimitation of the remaining areas of land in this zone, to take inventory, to put these lands on cadastral registration and to sign lease agreements with businesses on these lands. 

  20. Dientamoeba fragilis: initial evidence of pathogenicity in the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Lankester, Felix; Kiyang, John Anyam; Bailey, Wendi; Unwin, Steve


    A 7-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) shared an enclosure with 10 other gorillas at the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC), a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Cameroon. The gorilla had been living at the LWC for more than 6 yr prior to the exhibition of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like clinical signs. The gorilla improved dramatically after metronidazole therapy. The report suggests that metronidazole was effective because it eliminated the protozoa, Dientamoeba fragilis. Dientamoeba fragilis should be considered on the differential diagnosis list of any captive gorilla with IBS-like symptoms.

  1. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē


    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  2. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland. (United States)

    Lara, Mark J; Genet, Hélène; McGuire, Anthony D; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R N; Jorgenson, Mark T; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Breen, Amy; Bolton, William R


    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  3. A comparative study of phosphate sorption in lowland soils under oxic and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Pedersen, Thomas Vils; Jensen, Henning S.


    soils was compared with oxic conditions to assess the potential of lowland soils to function as traps for Pi when flooded with drainage water. Batch sorption experiments were performed on seven minerogenic soils. Sorption to the anoxic soils was conducted after anoxic incubation, resulting in reduction...... FeII phosphates may have caused the higher sorption capacities. Use of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) is therefore misleading as a measure of Pi sorption at low Psol concentrations. The results demonstrate that none of the strongly anoxic soils, irrespective of the initial FeIII oxide content...

  4. Ischiopagus tripus conjoined twins in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Langer, S; Jurczynski, K; Gessler, A; Kaup, F-J; Bleyer, M; Mätz-Rensing, K


    Conjoined twinning is rare in man and non-human primates. The current report describes a case of ischiopagus tripus conjoined Western Lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) twins. The female twins were joined at the umbilical and pelvic region, involving the liver, xiphoid, umbilicus, body wall and skin. Computed tomography revealed two complete spines. The combined pelvic space was formed by two sacra, each connected with two iliac bones. The twins were only conjoined by a common pubis. Cause of death was attributed to cardiac and circulatory collapse resulting from a large patent foramen ovale (8 mm in diameter) of one twin and neonatal asphyxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An ongoing hydro-biogeochemical characterization of a partly drained lowland in a clay till subcatchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Iversen, Bo Vangsø


    infiltration to stream connected drain pipes. The major part of the lowland area consists of peat, sandy peat, organic silty clay, and clays, and the major flow-pathways controlling nitrate reduction largely depends on the hydraulic conductivity of the media, the pressure potential and the redox dynamics...... of the sediment. The aims of the investigations are to (i) develop a 3D mapping of the riparian zone geology, (ii) identify the major flow pathways from hydro-geological characteristics and tracer experiments, (iii) determine the sediment geochemistry and nitrate reduction potential, (iv) investigate the coupled...

  6. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard


    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  7. Methane emissions in the Pantanal, South America, during the low water season - importance of environmental variables and within-lake variability (United States)

    Bastviken, David; Santoro, Ana Lucia; Marotta, Humberto; Queiroz Pinho, Luana; Calheiros, Debora; Crill, Patrick; Enrich-Prast, Alex


    Freshwater environments contribute on the order of 75% of the natural methane (CH4) emissions. While there are indications that tropical lakes emit 58-400 % more CH4 per area unit than similar environments in boreal and temperate biomes, direct measurements of tropical lake emissions are scarce. We measured CH4 emissions from 15 lakes in the Pantanal region of South America, one of the world's largest tropical wetland areas, during the low water period. Measured fluxes ranged from 3.9 to 74.2 mmol m-2 d-1 and the average flux from all studied lakes was 8.79 mmol m-2 d-1 (equivalent to 131.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). Ebullition accounted for 91 % of the flux (28-98 % on individual lakes). The use of floating diffusion chambers underlain by a submersed bubble shield in combination with regular, unshielded chambers provides a straightforward way of separating diffusive flux and ebullition. We observed diurnal cycling of emission rates and therefore 24 hour measurements are recommended compared to measurements not accounting for the full diurnal cycle. Within-lake variability of CH4 emissions may be equally or more important than between-lake variability in floodplain areas, and this study identified habitats within lakes having widely different flux rates. Future measurements with static floating chambers should be based on many individual chambers distributed in the various sub-environments shown to differ in emissions in order to account for the within-lake variability.

  8. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  9. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  10. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania. (United States)

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C


    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  11. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  12. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse (United States)

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  13. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  14. Lake Erie Fish Community Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  15. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.


    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  16. Release of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from small wetland lakes in western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, M.E.; Huttunen, J.T.; Martikainen, P.J. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Env ironmental Science, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Naumov, A.V.; Chichulin, A.V. [I nst. of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, 630099 Novos ibirsk (Russian Federation); Lapshina, E.D. [Yugra State Univ., 628012, Khanty-Mansiysk (Russian Federation); Bleuten , W. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Physical Geography,3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)


    CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes were measured from three small wetland lakes located in the middle taiga and forest tundra zones on West Siberian Lowlands (WSL), the world's largest wetland area. Fluxes were measured during summer 2005 using floating chambers and were validated against the thin boundary layer model based on the relationship between gas exchange and wind speed. All studied lakes were supersaturated with CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, and acted on a seasonal basis as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Daily mean CO{sub 2} fluxes measured with chambers ranged from near the zero to 3.1 g CO{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/d and corresponding CH{sub 4} fluxes from 1.1 to 120 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d. CH{sub 4} ebullition (0.65-11 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d) was detected in two of the lakes. Total carbon evasion from the studied lakes during the active season was 23-66 g C/m{sup 2}, of which more than 90% was released as CO{sub 2}-C. The carbon loss per unit area from the studied lakes was of similar magnitude as previously reported values of net carbon uptake of Siberian peatlands. This emphasizes the importance of small water-bodies in the carbon balance of West Siberian landscape.

  17. Changes in water level, land use, and hydrological budget in a semi-permanent playa lake, southwest Spain. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Green, A J; López, R; Martos-Rosillo, S


    Medina playa lake, a Ramsar site in western Andalusia, is a brackish lowland lake of 120 ha with an average depth of 1 m. Water flows into Medina from its 1,748-ha watershed, but the hydrology of the lake has not previously been studied. This paper describes the application of a water budget model on a monthly scale over a 6-year period, based on a conceptual hydrological model, and considers different future scenarios after calibration to improve the understanding of the lake's hydrological functioning. Climatic variables from a nearby weather station and observational data (water-level evolution) were used to develop the model. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each model component provided a reasonable output with a realistic interaction among the components. The model was then used to explore the potential consequences of land-use changes. Irrigation of olive groves would significantly reduce both the hydroperiod (becoming dry 15% of the time) and the average depth of the lake (water level climate change.

  18. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy). (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias


    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.


    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  20. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.


    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  1. Michigan: The Great Lakes State (United States)

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally


    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  2. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears


    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  3. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino


    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  4. Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation. (United States)

    Zeng, Caibin; Yang, Qigui; Chen, YangQuan


    Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.

  5. Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Caibin, E-mail:; Yang, Qigui, E-mail: [School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, YangQuan, E-mail: [MESA LAB, School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, 5200 N. Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)


    Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.

  6. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina). (United States)

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto


    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors.

  7. Main types of soil degradation in the Kura-Aras Lowland of Azerbaijan (United States)

    Babaev, M. P.; Gurbanov, E. A.; Ramazanova, F. M.


    The main types of soil degradation in the Kura-Aras Lowland are irrigation-induced erosion, natural water and wind erosion, and salinization. Among 2098.8 thousand ha of agricultural land in the lowland, the areas of lands subjected to erosion and salinization reach 333.6 and 373.4 thousand ha, respectively. The dependence of irrigation-induced erosion on the soil type (sierozems, meadow sierozems, and gray-cinnamonic soils), the inclination of the irrigation furrows, the irrigation water salinity (0.15-0.95 g/L), and the water discharge (0.8-1.4 L/s) was studied. It was found that soil erosion and salinization result in changes in the soil bulk density and porosity and in a decreasing content of humus and nutrients. Certain changes take place in the soil texture. The land areas subjected to rainstorm erosion of strong, moderate, and low degrees are estimated at 57.7, 24.4, and 15.3 thousand ha, respectively. Measures to control soil erosion and salinization are discussed.

  8. The Impact of Climate Change on Metal Transport in a Lowland Catchment. (United States)

    Wijngaard, René R; van der Perk, Marcel; van der Grift, Bas; de Nijs, Ton C M; Bierkens, Marc F P


    This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the Dommel catchment in the Netherlands. The model is forced with climate change projections and the simulated fluxes are used as input to a metal transport model that simulates heavy metal concentrations and loads in quickflow and baseflow pathways. Metal transport is simulated under baseline climate ("2000-2010") and future climate ("2090-2099") conditions including scenarios for no climate change and climate change. The outcomes show an increase in Cd and Zn loads and the mean flux-weighted Cd and Zn concentrations in the discharged runoff, which is attributed to breakthrough of heavy metals from the soil system. Due to climate change, runoff enhances and leaching is accelerated, resulting in enhanced Cd and Zn loads. Mean flux-weighted concentrations in the discharged runoff increase during early summer and decrease during late summer and early autumn under the most extreme scenario of climate change. The results of this study provide improved understanding on the processes responsible for future changes in heavy metal contamination in lowland catchments.

  9. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia (United States)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.


    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  10. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz


    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  11. Hydrological controls on DOC  :  nitrate resource stoichiometry in a lowland, agricultural catchment, southern UK (United States)

    Heppell, Catherine M.; Binley, Andrew; Trimmer, Mark; Darch, Tegan; Jones, Ashley; Malone, Ed; Collins, Adrian L.; Johnes, Penny J.; Freer, Jim E.; Lloyd, Charlotte E. M.


    The role that hydrology plays in governing the interactions between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen in rivers draining lowland, agricultural landscapes is currently poorly understood. In light of the potential changes to the production and delivery of DOC and nitrate to rivers arising from climate change and land use management, there is a pressing need to improve our understanding of hydrological controls on DOC and nitrate dynamics in such catchments. We measured DOC and nitrate concentrations in river water of six reaches of the lowland river Hampshire Avon (Wiltshire, southern UK) in order to quantify the relationship between BFI (BFI) and DOC : nitrate molar ratios across contrasting geologies (Chalk, Greensand, and clay). We found a significant positive relationship between nitrate and BFI (p 5 throughout the year, whilst groundwater-dominated reaches underlain by Chalk, with a high BFI have DOC : nitrate ratios in surface waters that are an order of magnitude lower (< 0.5). Our analysis also reveals significant seasonal variations in DOC : nitrate transport and highlights critical periods of nitrate export (e.g. winter in sub-catchments underlain by Chalk and Greensand, and autumn in drained, clay sub-catchments) when DOC : nitrate molar ratios are low, suggesting low potential for in-stream uptake of inorganic forms of nitrogen. Consequently, our study emphasizes the tight relationship between DOC and nitrate availability in agricultural catchments, and further reveals that this relationship is controlled to a great extent by the hydrological setting.

  12. Beyond the Mayan Lowlands: impacts of the Terminal Classic Drought in the Caribbean Antilles (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Kerr, Matthew T.


    High-resolution paleoclimate records from the Mayan Lowlands and the Cariaco Basin have shown that the collapse of the Mayan socio-political structure at the end of the Classic period ˜1000 C.E. was linked to a series of severe, multi-decadal drought events, collectively termed the 'Terminal Classic Drought' (TCD), between ˜750 and 1100 C.E. Here we present proxy evidence indicating that increased aridity leading up to and during the TCD also strongly affected the Caribbean Antilles. Additionally, the timing of the TCD corresponds with cultural and demographic shifts in the Greater Antilles, including the appearance of Ostionoid cultural traditions, the colonization of new islands, and the intensification of agriculture. We propose that these multi-decadal droughts affected not only the very large and complex socio-political structures governing large populations like that of the Late Classic Maya, but also smaller and less politically complex societies across the Caribbean. However, instead of resulting in societal collapses as suspected in the Mayan Lowlands, these climatic events may have spurred a cultural transition across the Caribbean Antilles that ultimately led to the development of Taíno cultural traditions encountered by Christopher Columbus upon his arrival in 1492 C.E.

  13. Necromass in forests of Madre de Dios, Peru: a comparison between terra firme and lowland forests

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    Alejandro Araujo-Murakami


    Full Text Available Stocks of dead wood or necromass represent an important portion of biomass and nutrients in tropical forests. The objectives of this study were: 1 to evaluate and compare the necromass of “terra firme” and lowlands forests, (2 to study the relationship between necromass, above-ground biomass and wood density, and (3 to estimate the necromass of the department of Madre de Dios, Peru. Stocks of necromass and above-ground biomass were estimated at three different locations using permanent plots and line intercept transects. The average volume of necromass for the three sites was 72.9 m3 ha-1 with an average weight varying between 24.8 and 30.7 Mg ha-1, depending on the estimations of dead wood density used for the calculations. Terra firme forests had significantly higher stocks of necromass than lowland forests. The amount of necromass was 11% of the total above-ground biomass in Madre de Dios forests. The total stock of carbon stored in dead wood for the entire department of Madre de Dios was estimated to be approximately 100 mega tonnes of carbon. This is ten times more than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Peru between 2000 and 2008. The substantial stocks of necromass emphasize the importance of these types of field studies, considering that this component of tropical forest carbon cannot be detected using other methods such as satellite remote sensing.

  14. Cultural Phylogenetics of the Tupi Language Family in Lowland South America (United States)

    Walker, Robert S.; Wichmann, Søren; Mailund, Thomas; Atkisson, Curtis J.


    Background Recent advances in automated assessment of basic vocabulary lists allow the construction of linguistic phylogenies useful for tracing dynamics of human population expansions, reconstructing ancestral cultures, and modeling transition rates of cultural traits over time. Methods Here we investigate the Tupi expansion, a widely-dispersed language family in lowland South America, with a distance-based phylogeny based on 40-word vocabulary lists from 48 languages. We coded 11 cultural traits across the diverse Tupi family including traditional warfare patterns, post-marital residence, corporate structure, community size, paternity beliefs, sibling terminology, presence of canoes, tattooing, shamanism, men's houses, and lip plugs. Results/Discussion The linguistic phylogeny supports a Tupi homeland in west-central Brazil with subsequent major expansions across much of lowland South America. Consistently, ancestral reconstructions of cultural traits over the linguistic phylogeny suggest that social complexity has tended to decline through time, most notably in the independent emergence of several nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. Estimated rates of cultural change across the Tupi expansion are on the order of only a few changes per 10,000 years, in accord with previous cultural phylogenetic results in other language families around the world, and indicate a conservative nature to much of human culture. PMID:22506065

  15. Vernal-like conjunctivitis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Hopper, Jane S; Holding, Ellen; Scurrell, Emma J; Featherstone, Heidi


    A 17-year-old female western lowland gorilla presented with bilateral ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and rhinitis that was investigated and treated over a 34-month period. Clinical findings, diagnostic results, treatment, and follow-up are described. A mild intermittent mucoid ocular discharge was initially noted. 10 months later, conjunctival hyperemia and thickening developed and progressed rapidly to a mass-like lesion covering the right eye. Hematology revealed eosinophilia. Conjunctival cytology revealed eosinophils and neutrophils, and histopathology revealed a chronic proliferative eosinophilic conjunctivitis. 21 months after, the ocular lesions were investigated the gorilla developed masses within both external nares. Histopathology of the nasal lesions revealed chronic-active eosinophilic rhinitis. Treatment of the gorilla was based on protocols recommended for human patients. Protocols for mild, moderate, and finally severe disease were used, involving topical and oral combinations of treatments. The gorilla eventually responded to systemic immunosuppressant therapy recommended for severe refractory disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of vernal-like conjunctivitis in a western lowland gorilla. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Predicting losing and gaining river reaches in lowland New Zealand based on a statistical methodology (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zammit, Christian; Dudley, Bruce


    The phenomenon of losing and gaining in rivers normally takes place in lowland where often there are various, sometimes conflicting uses for water resources, e.g., agriculture, industry, recreation, and maintenance of ecosystem function. To better support water allocation decisions, it is crucial to understand the location and seasonal dynamics of these losses and gains. We present a statistical methodology to predict losing and gaining river reaches in New Zealand based on 1) information surveys with surface water and groundwater experts from regional government, 2) A collection of river/watershed characteristics, including climate, soil and hydrogeologic information, and 3) the random forests technique. The surveys on losing and gaining reaches were conducted face-to-face at 16 New Zealand regional government authorities, and climate, soil, river geometry, and hydrogeologic data from various sources were collected and compiled to represent river/watershed characteristics. The random forests technique was used to build up the statistical relationship between river reach status (gain and loss) and river/watershed characteristics, and then to predict for river reaches at Strahler order one without prior losing and gaining information. Results show that the model has a classification error of around 10% for "gain" and "loss". The results will assist further research, and water allocation decisions in lowland New Zealand.

  17. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo. (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A


    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  18. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  19. Groundwater and surface water interaction in flow-through gravel pit lakes. (United States)

    Nella Mollema, Pauline; Antonellini, Marco


    Gravel pits are excavated in aquifers to fulfill the need for construction materials. Flow-through lakes form when the gravel pits are below the water table and fill with groundwater. In certain areas there are more than 60 of these lakes close together and their presence changes the drainage patterns and water- and hydrochemical budgets of a watershed. In flow-through gravel pit lakes, groundwater mixes with surface water and interacts with the atmosphere; outflow occurs only via groundwater. The lifespan of gravel pit lakes may be up to thousands of years as their depth to surface ratio is typically large and sedimentation rates are low. We have studied two gravel pit lake systems, a fluvial freshwater system in the Netherlands and a coastal brackish lake system in Italy. One Dutch gravel pit lake studied in detail is in part artificially replenished with Meuse River water for drinking water production that occurs downstream of the lake by water pumps. The Italian gravel pit lakes are fed by brackish groundwater that is a mix of freshwater from precipitation, Apennine Rivers and brackish (Holocene) Adriatic Sea water. Here, the drainage system of the low lying land enhances groundwater flow into the lake. Surface water evaporation is larger in temperate and Mediterranean climates than the actual evapotranspiration of pre-existing grassland and forests. The lakes, therefore, cause a loss of freshwater. The creation of water surfaces allows algae and other flora and fauna to develop. In general, water becomes gradually enriched in certain chemical constituents on its way through the hydrological cycle, especially as groundwater due to water-rock interactions. When groundwater ex-filtrates into gravel pit lakes, the natural flow of solutes towards the sea is interrupted. Hydrochemical analysis of ground- and surface waters, as well as chemical analysis of lake bottom sediments and stable H and O isotope data, show that gravel pit lake water is characterized (among

  20. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku


    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic