Turunen, M M
The paper focuses on current concepts of temperament that has led to different approaches within the field of temperament research. The concept of temperament has interested scholars from ancient Greece until modern European and American research teams. Also in Soviet psychology temperament is getting attention. In Finland temperament research has advanced on two different lines. There is widespread agreement that temperament is a group of related traits and not just one trait attributed to the child. Controversy exists as to what extent temperament is an inborn characteristic of the child and to what extent temperament is born in the interactions between the child and his environment. Although there is controversy between structural and functional approaches, there is consensus of some points. First: temperament is generally regarded as a tendency existing over long periods of time rather than being visible in single behavioral acts. Second: temperament traits are genetically transmitted and this biological basis has been shown in several twin studies. Temperament concerns differences between individuals and not species-general characteristics. Temperament research has a tradition of putting emphasis on infancy. In adulthood temperament traits are more difficult to pin down. Pioneering researchers in the field, Chess and Thomas, have suggested that pure temperament traits might in adult personality be seen only in situations where new environmental challenges render former coping skills ineffective. Temperament research is still very scarce concerning adult personality though there are some studies about the role of affect in adult personality. Two basic temperament traits are generally accepted: activity level and emotionality, for the rest there are disagreements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hertzig, Margaret E
One of many publications emanating from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), the prospective study of Stella Chess, Alexander Thomas, and Mahin Hassibi of six cases of depression during childhood and adolescence, which appeared in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease in 1983, provides an opportunity to reflect on the climate in which the NYLS was conceived and conducted. Its methodology is reviewed, and principle findings are summarized. In the more than 50 years since the inception of the NYLS, the attention of temperament investigators has shifted from a focus on definition and measurement to the examination of relations between temperament and psychopathology, including the exploration of the neurocircuitry underlying different dimensions of temperament and their contributions to the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of axis I disorders in developing children.
Kamei, Kimie; Terao, Takeshi; Katayama, Yosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko
It is generally accepted that a range of factors affect adherence to psychotropic medications. In the present study, we focused on the influence of affective temperaments (i.e., depressive, hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments) on treatment adherence. Thirty-eight psychiatric consecutive inpatients were instructed to perform Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) for affective temperaments, Drug attitude inventory-10 (DAI-10) for concordance and persistence, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for compliance. VAS scores for dose compliance were significantly and negatively associated with irritable temperament scores whereas DAI-10 scores were significantly and positively associated with male gender, depressive temperament scores and hyperthymic temperament scores. The main limitations of the study were the relatively small number of subjects and the lack of objective method of adherence. These findings suggest that patients with irritable temperament may be poor in their compliance with treatment, and that more education may be required for patients with irritable temperament in order to maintain good compliance. In contrast, men and patients with depressive or hyperthymic temperament have a relatively positive attitude towards medication. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of 21/12. Although this temperament has been in use since the nineteenth century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this pa...
Saudino, Kimberly J.
Most temperament theories presume a biological basis to those behavioral tendencies thought to be temperamental in origin. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to test this assumption. Twin and adoption studies suggest that individual differences in infant and child temperament are genetically influenced. However, behavioral genetics has much more to offer to the study of temperament than simple heritability estimates. The present paper describes some recent findings from behavioral genetic...
Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274
Lolich, María; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Zapata, Stephanie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
.... Tango is one of the most typical Argentinean folk dance-musical repertoires. The main purpose of this study is to compare affective temperaments between Argentinean professional tango dancers and the general population...
Thomas, Alexander; And Others
The theoretical and practical implications of viewing difficult temperament as a characteristic of the individual rather than as a social perception are discussed, with an emphasis on an interactionist view of developmental process. (Author/MP)
Lolich, María; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Zapata, Stephanie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
Links between affective temperaments and folk culture have been infrequently explored systematically. Creativity and personality and temperament studies, conversely, have reported several associations. Tango is one of the most typical Argentinean folk dance-musical repertoires. The main purpose of this study is to compare affective temperaments between Argentinean professional tango dancers and the general population. TEMPS-A was administered to a sample of 63 professional tango dancers and 63 comparison subjects from the general population who did not practice tango. Subscale median scores and total median scores with non-parametric statistics were analyzed. Median scores on hyperthymic subscale (p ≤ 0.001), irritable subscale (p=0.05) and total median score were significantly higher among tango dancers compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001). Self-report measures were used. A larger sample size would have provided greater statistical power for data analysis. Besides, the naturalistic study design did not allow controlling for other clinical variables and limited the generalization of results to broader populations. Our data adds new evidence for the hypothesis that artistic performance is related to one's temperament. Tango passionata, which has both melancholic and vigorous (including "upbeat") features, seems to impart tango dancers' hyperthymic and irritable temperament features. Our study supports the increasing literature on the validity of utilizing temperament as a sub-affective traits in relation to artistic creativity and performing arts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Potapova, Natalia V; Gartstein, Maria A; Bridgett, David J
Temperament ratings were obtained from 98 fathers when their infants were 4 and 6 months of age to examine effects of paternal characteristics on infant temperament. Parental stress, internalizing symptoms, and father's temperament were considered as factors possibly contributing to differences in their child's temperament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosellini, Anthony J.; Bagge, Courtney L.
The present study evaluated if hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative and positive temperament (particularly the positive temperament-positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the ...
Lorr, Maurice; Stefic, Edward C.
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the dimensionality of the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament (TDOT) when administered in a single stimulus form; and (b) to test a set of hypotheses relative to the constructs measured in the TDOT. (Author/RK)
Cassimjee, Nafisa; Murphy, Raegan
We investigate the association between temperament and character dimensions, on the one hand,and computerised neuropsychological test performance, on the other hand. Temperament and character dimensions were operationalised as scores on the subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), a 240-item measure that is based on the psychobiological theory of personality. Neuropsychological outcomes were measured on six computerised tests of executive functioning and abstract reasoning ...
Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili
To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.
This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical
Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C
Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament.
Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku
Although temperament and motivation both reflect individual differences in what is perceived as rewarding or threatening, and what is to be approached and what avoided, respectively, we know rather little about how they are connected in educational settings. In this study, we examined how different aspects of temperament (reward and punishment…
Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak
The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...
Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; Jordan, Patricia L.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.
Although much is known about the structure of adult temperament and personality, significantly less is known about the structure of child temperament. We examined the structure of child temperament in 205 seven-year-olds using observational measures. Exploratory factor analysis identified factors representing positive emotionality/sociability, disinhibition/anger, fear/behavioral inhibition, and sadness. The predictive validity of these dimensions was evaluated by examining their associations with children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms: positive emotionality/sociability showed positive associations with ADHD symptoms, disinhibition/anger showed positive associations with externalizing symptoms, fear/behavioral inhibition showed negative associations with ADHD and CD symptoms, and sadness showed positive associations with both internalizing and externalizing problems. These associations were consistent with extant literature on temperament and psychopathology, supporting the validity of the structure obtained. PMID:24293740
Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M; Mackrell, Sarah V M; Jordan, Patricia L; Hayden, Elizabeth P
Although much is known about the structure of adult temperament and personality, significantly less is known about the structure of child temperament. We examined the structure of child temperament in 205 seven-year-olds using observational measures. Exploratory factor analysis identified factors representing positive emotionality/sociability, disinhibition/anger, fear/behavioral inhibition, and sadness. The predictive validity of these dimensions was evaluated by examining their associations with children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms: positive emotionality/sociability showed positive associations with ADHD symptoms, disinhibition/anger showed positive associations with externalizing symptoms, fear/behavioral inhibition showed negative associations with ADHD and CD symptoms, and sadness showed positive associations with both internalizing and externalizing problems. These associations were consistent with extant literature on temperament and psychopathology, supporting the validity of the structure obtained.
McGarry, Robert J.
Discussed is how musicians can get used to playing in equal temperament--the system of tuning in which all 12 tones of the chromatic scale stand equidistant from each other in both a logarithmical and musical sense. (RM)
H. KORHOHEN; Niemelä, P.; P. SIIRILÄ
The present study sought to evaluate the relationship between temperament and reproductive success in farmed sable (Martes zibellina). Experimental material comprised altogether 58 males and 236 females. Temperament was measured by using a stick test. About 85% of matings occurred in July. Most whelpings were in April. Over 80% of young and old males were classified as curious. Number of fearful and aggressive males was small. Among females, the amount of curious animals was much lower compar...
Necka, Edward; Hlawacz, Teresa
In contrast to vast literature devoted to the relationships between creativity and personality, relatively few studies addressed the question of the creativity-temperament link. Temperament is conceptualized as the biologically rooted, mostly inborn, foundations for personality and other individual traits. Sixty artists and 60 bank officers…
Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
We describe large-sample research using the Infant Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith and Rothbart, 1996) in 1,076 infants at 6 and 12 months of age. The Lab-TAB was designed to assess temperament dimensions through a series of episodes that mimic everyday situations. Our goal is to provide guidelines for scoring Lab-TAB episodes to derive temperament composites. We also present a set of analyses examining mean differences and stability of temperament in early infancy, gender differences in infant temperament, as well as a validation of Lab-TAB episodes and composites with parent reported Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981) scales. In general, laboratory observed temperament was only modestly related to parent reported temperament. However, temperament measures were significantly stable across time and several gender differences that align with previous research emerged. In sum, the Lab-TAB usefully assesses individual differences in infant emotionality. PMID:28596748
Laceulle, Odilia M.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther
Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place
Brock, M. E.; Freuler, A.; Baranek, G. T.; Watson, L. R.; Poe, M. D.; Sabatino, A.
This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations…
Yazici, Esra; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila
Pregnancy and postpartum periods are the main reproductive periods during which women experience mood disorders. Affective temperaments are known antecedents of mood disorders and their importance is increasing in time for early diagnosis and determining risky groups. But data about affective temperaments during perinatal period is limited. Women during pregnancy and perinatal period and healthy controls who are not in perinatal period are included in the study. 83 pregnant women in 1st trimester, 94 pregnant women in 2nd trimester and 115 pregnant women in 3rd trimester; 32 women in 1st month postpartum and 89 women in 2nd month postpartum; and 88 healthy non-pregnant women with similar ages were evaluated regarding their temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) scores. Women in perinatal period had higher scores of hyperthymic temperaments than the control group. Women in the 2nd month of postpartum period had also higher anxious temperament scores. And women in the second trimester had the highest hyperthymic temperament scores. Pregnancy and postpartum periods correlate with hyperthymic temperament characteristics in women without active psychiatric diagnosis. Future studies will help to understand if this is a mental quietness or increased risk for bipolarity.
Full Text Available The present study sought to evaluate the relationship between temperament and reproductive success in farmed sable (Martes zibellina. Experimental material comprised altogether 58 males and 236 females. Temperament was measured by using a stick test. About 85% of matings occurred in July. Most whelpings were in April. Over 80% of young and old males were classified as curious. Number of fearful and aggressive males was small. Among females, the amount of curious animals was much lower compared to males. Every third female was fearful. Temperament did not affect length of the gestation period which averaged 268 ± 14 days. Gestation period was longer for early breeding females (r = -0.629
Johnson, Daniel P.
A consortium leader discusses four dimensions of faculty temperament (extroversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving) that influence learning networks' success. Networks require strong commitment, a sense of shared purpose, a mixture of information sharing and psychological support, effective facilitation,…
Stanhope, Linda; And Others
Investigated the relationship between children's temperaments, in interaction with situational factors, and their helping behavior. Twenty-four preschool children were presented with four opportunities for helping a female adult. Mothers rated children's helpfulness at home. Multiple measures of sociablity were gathered from mothers and preschool…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…
Medine Yazici Gulec
Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.
Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.
The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support…
Gonda, Xenia; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
Affective temperaments may carry distinct evolutionary advantages both on the individual or a group level, so we can expect that in different cultural and national samples the frequency of dominant affective temperaments will show characteristic differences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of distribution of dominant affective temperaments in different national studies of general non-clinical population. In our study we included six studies published in different countries around the world (Argentina, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Portugal, and Lebanon) which investigated a large sample of non-clinical population using TEMPS-A, and reported frequencies for dominant affective temperaments. The frequencies of dominant affective temperaments were compared using chi square tests. We found a significant difference in the frequency of affective temperaments among the different national studies in case of the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments. We found important parallels between the frequency of affective temperaments and cultural dimensions described by Hofstede (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). The characteristics encompassed by the depressive temperament show considerable similarities with Hofstede's individualism-collectivism dimension, while those of the hyperthymic temperament seem to be similar to uncertainty avoidance, and the irritable temperament shows similarities with Hofstede's power distance. Furthermore, the relative frequency of these dominant temperaments in case of the different national samples paralleled the relative scores of these countries on the corresponding cultural scales. Our results indicate an important relationship between affective temperaments and cultural dimensions, which suggests that these phenomena may be the manifestations of the same genetically determined predispositions in different forms. We included a study by Erfurth et al. (2005), in which affective temperaments were evaluated
Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.
Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688
Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.
Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L
This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Regulative theory of temperament versus affective temperaments measured by the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A: a study in a non-clinical Polish sample
Full Text Available Background This study investigates the relationship between temperament traits postulated by Strelau’s regulative theory of temperament (RTT and Akiskal’s affective temperaments. This study represents the first attempt to compare these two concepts in a non-clinical Polish sample. Participants and procedure The study involved 615 healthy Caucasian adults (395 women and 220 men aged from 17 to 69 years (M = 30.79, SD = 9.69. Temperament traits postulated by the RTT were assessed with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour–Temperament Inventory. The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Results Emotional reactivity and perseveration (RTT positively correlated with anxious, cyclothymic, depressive and irritable temperaments (TEMPS-A, predicting from 2% (irritable temperament to 24% (anxious temperaments of the variance in the affective temperaments. Hyperthymic temperament (TEMPS-A positively correlated with briskness, sensory sensitivity, endurance and activity (RTT. Activity was the best predictor of hyperthymic temperament, accounting for 25% of the variance. TEMPS-A scores showed that women were more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious and less hyperthymic than men. Conclusions These results suggest that two RTT traits, emotional reactivity and perseveration, may be related to all the affective temperaments of TEMPS-A, except hyperthymic temperament, which is most likely linked to the RTT activity trait.
James A Janssen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity
Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to evaluate the relationship between chronotype and temperamental traits and temperament structure specified in the Regulative Theory of Temperament among physical education students who are actively engaged in sport. The analyses were performed separately in groups of men, women, and individual and team sports representatives. Participants and procedure The study included 157 participants (women n = 35, men n = 122; individual sports n = 88 and team sports n = 69. Measures used in the study were the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ. Results Among women and men chronotype was positively correlated with Briskness (BR and Endurance (EN. In women chronotype was negatively related to Emotional Reactivity (ER. Sensory Sensitivity (SS was positively associated with chronotype in men. In the individual sport group chronotype was associated with four temperamental traits: BR, EN, ER (negatively and SS. Activity (AC significantly correlated with chronotype in the team sport group. Two out of three indicators of temperament structure – potential for stimulation processing (MPS and structure harmony parameter (Zh1 – were related to chronotype in both genders. Conclusions The results obtained in the present research indicate that temperament is significantly related to chronotype. Evening chronotype men and women might be overstimulated and morning types might be understimulated. These data might be useful for coaches and provide a guide for further individualization of the training process.
Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.
The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support to the association between temperament, childhood development and social competence. With regard to communication disorders, extant literature suggests that at least certain elements of temperament (e.g., attention regulation, inhibitory control) are associated with the presence of certain communication disorders. However, the precise nature of this association remains unclear. Three possible accounts of the association between temperament and speech-language disorder are presented. One, the disability model (i.e., certain disorders impact psychological processes leading to changes in these processes, personality, etc., Roy & Bless, 2000a) suggests speech-language disorders may lead to or cause changes in psychological or temperamental characteristics. The disability account cannot be categorically refuted based on currently available research findings. The (pre)dispositional or vulnerability model (i.e., certain psychological processes directly cause the disorder or indirectly modify the course or expression of the disorder, Roy & Bless, 2000a) suggests that psychological or temperamental characteristics may lead to or cause changes in speech-language disorders. The vulnerability account has received some empirical support with regard to stuttering and voice disorders but has not received widespread empirical testing for most speech-language disorders. A third, interaction account, suggests that “disability” and ““vulnerability” may both impact communication disorders in a complex, dynamically-changing manner, a possibility that must await further empirical study. Suggestions for future research directions are
Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette
Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness
Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Solon, Carly; Braga, Raphael J; Burdick, Katherine E
There is evidence that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) score higher on affective temperament ratings compared to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, unaffected relatives demonstrate similar patterns as BD patients suggesting that such temperaments are related to the genetic risk for BD and may serve as endophenotypes for the disorder. It is unknown whether affective temperaments are associated with other core features of BD, such as impairments in neurocognition. This study examined the relationship between affective temperaments and neurocognition in patients with BD and in HCs. Temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego, Auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in 64 patients with BD and 109 HCs. Neurocognitive functioning was evaluated using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Correlational analyses between temperaments and cognition were conducted in BD and HC subjects. Data suggest that affective temperaments and neurocognition are correlated. In BD higher ratings of cyclothymia and irritability were associated with better processing speed, working memory, reasoning and problem-solving. In the HC group, increased irritability was related to worse performance on measures of attention and social cognition. Lack of functional outcome measures to evaluate the impact of temperaments and cognition on psychosocial functioning. It would be useful to test these findings on unaffected relatives of BD patients. Cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are correlated with specific aspects of neurocognition in BD. This study is among the few exploring the dimensional relationship between temperaments and cognition in BD, and provides preliminary evidence for future studies investigating the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the association between these variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; Van Ijzendoorn, M.H.; Parsons, C.E.; Young, K.S.; De Carli, P.; Kringelbach, M.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task,
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.
Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…
Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun
Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…
The results indicate that the rigid temperament subtype reacted slower to both complex (executive functioning) and less complex tasks (attention and working memory) than the impulsive temperament subtype. ... Significant differences were maintained with analyses of intelligence and parental education as covariates.
Full Text Available Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by "role conflict" (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61-17.32 and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49 was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers' anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one's own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace.
Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.
Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…
Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.
This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…
Klein, Helen Altman
Examined self-perception as a correlate of individual temperament. Administered Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children and the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised to 131 third and fifth graders. Offers suggestions for classroom changes that will enhance the development of positive self-perception. (MM)
Aguiar Ferreira, Alexandre de; Vasconcelos, Alina Gomide; Neves, Fernando Silva; Laks, Jerson; Correa, Humberto
The affective temperament profiles among patients with mood disorders may be an important parameter in the clinical evaluation of these patients. It has been proposed that temperament traits have familiality and may represent vulnerability markers to identify the risk to developing specific clinical type of mood disorders. To test these theories, measures of temperament were examined in bipolar patients (BP), unipolar major depressive patients (UP), healthy relatives of these patients (HRP) and normal controls (NC). We compared affective temperament scores, using the brief Brazilian version of TEMPS-A--TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro, between 90 BP, 88 UP, 132 HRP and 136 NC. A MANCOVA model was constructed. Dependent variables were the six subscales of the TEMPS-RJ (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, hyperthymic, anxious and worrying temperaments). The effects of age and gender were adjusted as covariates. Furthermore, we performed a comparison between a subgroup of 68 HRP, relatives of bipolar patients (HRBP), and the remainders 64 HRP, relatives of unipolar patients (HRUP) and controls. The clinical group (BP, UP) showed higher temperament scores than NC, except for hyperthymic scores. BP showed higher cyclothymic (pBipolar I and II subjects were placed in the same group. The cyclothymic and hyperthymic traits were associated with bipolarity in patients and cyclothymic temperament could be a characteristic trait of the healthy relatives of bipolar patients. Our data support that affective temperament might become a useful tool for clinical evaluation and research purposes in mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stępka, Ewa; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna
Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability) Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey) Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801
Full Text Available Background . The neurophysiological process of perceiving the results of tooth bleaching requires the correct interaction between the central nervous system and the organs of sight. Exaggerated beliefs concerning defective facial features may enhance inner attitudes about one’s own color of dentition, as well as a feeling of dissatisfaction with the degree of leaching. Objectives. The study aimed to assess the degree of the patient satisfaction with the results of tooth bleaching in relation to their temperament. Material and methods. There were 68 generally healthy volunteers, aged 28–38 years, with external discolorations of the teeth. They had never undergone dental bleaching and their frontal teeth did not have any fillings. After clinical evaluation and the completion of formalities, the patients were asked to fill in Strelau’s temperament questionnaire. Questionnaires and visual status were assessed three times by three doctors: before bleaching, and then 24 hours and two weeks after the home-bleaching operation, which was done with the use of Opalescence (Ultradent in uniform sequence. Results . There were practically no adverse side results, except a periodic dentin hypersensitivity that occurred periodically in 44 patients. The results of the visual assessment performed by the physicians did not differ. The questionnaire data showed that women were more critical of the results in relation to the expectations. Among elancholics, full satisfaction was declared by 41%, whereas among sanguine people, full satisfaction was obtained by 85%. Satisfaction with the aesthetic results was associated with bleaching by at least 4 degrees. Conclusions . Patients’ temperament affects their subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, which should be taken into consideration in the patient’s individual dental treatment plan.
Dixon, Simon; Mauch, Matthias; Tidhar, Dan
The inharmonicity of vibrating strings can easily be estimated from recordings of isolated tones. Likewise, the tuning system (temperament) of a keyboard instrument can be ascertained from isolated tones by estimating the fundamental frequencies corresponding to each key of the instrument. This paper addresses a more difficult problem: the automatic estimation of the inharmonicity and temperament of a harpsichord given only a recording of an unknown musical work. An initial conservative transcription is used to generate a list of note candidates, and high-precision frequency estimation techniques and robust statistics are employed to estimate the inharmonicity and fundamental frequency of each note. These estimates are then matched to a set of known keyboard temperaments, allowing for variation in the tuning reference frequency, in order to obtain the temperament used in the recording. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain inharmonicity estimates and to classify keyboard temperament automatically from audio recordings of standard musical works, to the extent of accurately (96%) distinguishing between six different temperaments commonly used in harpsichord recordings. Although there is an interaction between inharmonicity and temperament, this is shown to be minor relative to the tuning accuracy. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.
Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.
N. C. Burdick
Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.
Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo
In the last decades, three main different personality domains have been investigated in the field of eating disorders: personality traits, temperament, and personality disorders. The use of a wide range of instruments and the presence of many different approaches in the definition of personality dimensions make it difficult to summarize the emerging results from different studies. The aim of this narrative review is to critically highlight and discuss all interesting developments in this field, as reflected in the recent literature. The study of personality and temperament in eating disorders seems to be in line with the recently suggested dimensional approach, which highlights the importance of symptoms aggregation, rather than the categorical diagnoses. Recent literature seems to confirm that specific personality and temperamental profiles can be drawn for patients with eating disorders, which can discriminate different eating disorders' diagnoses/symptoms. These observations have relevant clinical implications as treatment of eating disorders is largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions. However, large longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify the suggested relationships and to identify more defined therapeutic strategies.
Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid
Temperament and personality traits can serve as both risk factors as well as protective factors in the development of morbid obesity. In the present review, we present an overview of studies focusing on the relationship between temperament/personality and morbid obesity in pre-operative and postoperative bariatric surgery patients. We consider studies that focus on both a categorical and dimensional point of view on temperament/personality, as well as studies based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Finally, we will integrate the research findings, discuss the implications for assessment and treatment and formulate suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Stroustrup, Annemarie; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Svensson, Katherine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cantoral, Alejandra; Solano González, Maritsa; Torres-Calapiz, Mariana; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J
Temperament is a psychological construct that reflects both personality and an infant's reaction to social stimuli. It can be assessed early in life and is stable over time Temperament predicts many later life behaviors and illnesses, including impulsivity, emotional regulation and obesity. Early life exposure to neurotoxicants often results in developmental deficits in attention, social function, and IQ, but environmental predictors of infant temperament are largely unknown. We propose that prenatal exposure to both chemical and non-chemical environmental toxicants impacts the development of temperament, which can itself be used as a marker of risk for maladaptive neurobehavior in later life. In this study, we assessed associations among prenatal and early life exposure to lead, mercury, poverty, maternal depression and toddler temperament. A prospective cohort of women living in the Mexico City area were followed longitudinally beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to lead (blood, bone), mercury, and maternal depression were assessed repeatedly and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) was completed when the child was 24 months old. The association between each measure of prenatal exposure and performance on individual TTS subscales was evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Latent profile analysis was used to classify subjects by TTS performance. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate the prospective association between prenatal exposures and TTS performance. 500 mother-child pairs completed the TTS and had complete data on exposures and covariates. Three latent profiles were identified and categorized as predominantly difficult, intermediate, or easy temperament. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression predicted increasing probability of difficult toddler temperament. Maternal bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, also predicted difficult temperament. Prenatal lead exposure modified this association
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.
Zanarini and colleagues have proposed that hyperbolic temperament, involving a preponderance of negative emotions and cognitions combined with a need for those dysphoric inner states to be validated and understood, underlies borderline symptomatology. This study examined neuroticism and childhood maltreatment as predictors of hyperbolic features measured 10 years later in a clinical sample. Neuroticism and childhood maltreatment were significant and independent predictors of prospective hyperbolic temperament. These findings expand upon the hyperbolic temperament model of borderline phenomenology by depicting its developmental antecedents. PMID:23013348
Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J
The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...
Waskel, S A
Individuals (N = 331) between the ages 35 and 55 completed a death concern scale and a temperament type sorter and provided information relative to the intensity of and their ability to identify a midlife crisis event. Participants were classified within temperament types by gender, education level, crisis intensity, and ability to identify the crisis event. Five temperament types (ESTJ [extrovert, sensing, thinking, judging], ESFJ [extrovert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISFJ [introvert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISTJ [introvert, sensing, thinking, judging], and ENFP [extrovert, intuitive, feeling, perceiving]) significantly correlated with thinking about and anxiety about death. Gender and education level, as well as crisis intensity, also correlated significantly with death concerns. Temperament type characteristics that may have relevancy to the findings are discussed.
P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.); S. Wessels (Sylvia); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)
textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale
... of the psychobiological personality. The aim of this review was to identify temperament and character traits linked both to anxiety symptoms and to specific anxious disorders comparing the data obtained from studies using the two forms...
Durfee, Dallin; Colton, John
The physics of waves, resonance, harmonics, and beats has determined how musical instruments are tuned, and has even affected the kinds of music written in different time periods. The laws of physics make it impossible for any fixed scale to have perfect consonance for all chords in all keys, and as a result, various musical scales, or temperaments, have been developed and used throughout history. The study of musical temperament is a rich application of wave physics. It ties several principles together in a context which can be very motivating for students. Furthermore, the topic is accessible to students in introductory classes. We have developed an open source application called Temperament Studio which allows students to explore musical temperament and to hear and measure the effects predicted by wave physics.
Marie J Haskell
Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.
Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...
Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Mitake, Tomoe; Nogi, Yukako; Inoue, Koki
Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local govern...
Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D
Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
A listening experiment was arranged to evaluate perceptual preferences between two musical tuning systems: twelve-tone equal temperament (i.e. the current international standard) and twelve fifth-tones tuning. The latter being a system that, according to its author Maria Renold, provides a more accurate and aurally genuine reproduction of musical harmonics. Hence, it is considered a superior tuning method compared to the equal temperament tuning. 34 participants (mainly experienced musici...
Denissen, J.J.A.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Penke, L.; Wood, D.
In this article, we present an integrative perspective on temperament and personality development. Personality and temperament are conceptualized as regulatory systems that start as physiological reactivity to environmental features early in life, but are increasingly supplemented by regulation
A novel parametric circulating temperament is presented using a constructive approach. The temperament is optimal with respect to a heuristically chosen set of musical requirements. It is parametric in the sense that the tempering of the narrowest (i.e. closest to pure) major third can be freely chosen. Equal temperament arises as a limiting case. The temperament is optimal in the sense that the tempering of the widest major third and the narrowest fifth is minimized given the size of the lea...
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Shirahama, Masanao; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Hirakawa, Hirofumi; Kohno, Kentaro
In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance. From the database of our previous studies, the data of 111 healthy subjects who had both TCI and TEMPS-A scores were extracted for the present study. Two multiple regression analyses were performed; one to predict variance in anxious temperament scores without and with harm avoidance scores, and relevant factors, and another to predict variance in harm avoidance scores without and with anxious temperament scores, and relevant factors. Anxious temperament was significantly and positively associated with depressive temperament, irritable temperament, and Hamilton rating scale for depression whereas harm avoidance was significantly and negatively associated with hyperthymic temperament, novelty seeking, persistence, and self-directedness, although both were significantly and positively associated with each other. These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that anxious temperament may have "depressive proneness" whereas harm avoidance may have "passive proneness". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan
The numerous temperament and personality constructs in childhood impede the systematic integration of findings on how these individual differences relate to developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews the main temperament and personality theories and proposes a theoretical taxonomy representing the common structure of both temperament and…
Figueira, M Luisa; Caeiro, Lara; Ferro, Ana; Cordeiro, Raul; Duarte, Pedro M; Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K
The structure of temperament displays subaffective traits as attributes of adaptive value. There are few studies on how different professions compare on temperaments. Our aim was to examine the relationship between the choices of Portuguese students in their fields of study, and their respective temperaments. The sample included 1386 students from six different universities (law, engineering, arts, medicine, psychology, and nursing), of both genders (67% female), and ages between 17 and 58 (X + or - SD = 21 + or - 3.4). Law and art students presented a cyclothymic or irritable temperament. Engineering students presented a hyperthymic temperament. Psychology and nursing students presented predominantly depressive and anxious temperaments. Medicine students were least extreme in temperament scores or frequencies. Nursing students came largely from one university located in a Portuguese city (northeast from Lisbon) which could be a potential limitation to be confirmed. Distinct temperamental profiles of students enrolled in different professional fields could be identified in our sample taking into account the presence or absence of excessive temperaments. Future physicians did not present a predominant temperament, future lawyers and artists presented predominantly a cyclothymic or irritable temperament, future engineers presented a hyperthymic temperament and, future psychologists and nurses presented predominantly depressive and anxious temperaments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background One of the smoking risk factors influencing nicotine dependency may be human personality; however, few studies have examined the association between Akiskal’s affective temperaments and smoking in adults. Our study aims to evaluate the associations between nicotine dependence and affective temperaments using the TEMPS-A. Participants and procedure The sample in this study consisted of 678 healthy Caucasian adults aged from 17 to 69 years, including 134 self-declared nicotine-dependent subjects (89 females and 45 males and 544 self-declared non-nicotine-dependent subjects (352 females and 192 males. The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Results Nicotine-dependent individuals scored higher on cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments than non-nicotine-dependents (no significant differences with regard to depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Among the nicotine-dependent individuals, females scored higher on anxious temperaments than males (no differences with regard to the other affective temperaments, and among the non-nicotine-dependent individuals, females exhibited more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments than males, while males exhibited more hyperthymic temperaments than females. Conclusions The results suggest that affective, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in both genders and anxious temperaments in females may be predictors of nicotine dependence in adults.
Lee, Eunju J.
A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…
Full Text Available According to Pavlov there are two mechanisms that express the nature of the central nervous system (CNS: strength of excitation and strength of inhibition of the nerve cells. They play an important role in the basic temperament traits. Namely, the weaker the stimulus that elicits a perceptible response and the weaker the stimulus that starts lower efficiency, the higher is one's reactivity. In two different studies we tried to examine how different expressions of effectiveness of the CNS (excitation, inhibition and mobility of the CNS relate to speed of information processing and some dimensions of personality, with general intelligence as a covariate. The most challenging was the insight to relations with the dimensions, which are expected to be in line with alertness and arousal. We found some interesting links between strength of excitation and mobility on one side and extraversion (which is in accordance with Eysenck's arousal theory and openness on the other side, but also positive, albeit moderate, correlation with speed of information processing. Some relations between CNS properties and other constructs showed to be far from linear, which should be seriously considered in the following research of this phenomenon.
Sloan, Erica K; Capitanio, John P; Tarara, Ross P; Cole, Steve W
Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from seven healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology.
Engström, Christer; Brändström, Sven; Sigvardsson, Sören; Cloninger, Robert; Nylander, Per-Olof
The nature of the relationship between personality and bipolar affective disorders is an important but unanswered question. We have studied personality in bipolar patients by using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). TCI were administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls from the normal population. Bipolar patients were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and lower in reward dependence (RD), self-directedness (SD), and cooperativeness (CO) than controls. Bipolar patients are more fatigable, less sentimental, more independent, less purposeful, less resourceful, less empathic, less helpful, less pure-hearted, and have less impulse control than controls. Bipolar II patients are more impulsive, more fatigable, less resourceful, and have less impulse control than bipolar I patients. Our results are limited to euthymic bipolar patients and cannot be generalized to affective disorders. Even when clinically euthymic on lithium maintenance, bipolar patients continue to have a characteristic cognitive deficit. This is in agreement with cognitive theories about cognitive deficits in depression that are regarded as important vulnerability factors in mood disorders.
Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.
Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant...... temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....
Rosellini, Anthony J; Lawrence, Amy E; Meyer, Joseph F; Brown, Timothy A
Although situational avoidance is viewed as the most disabling aspect of panic disorder, few studies have evaluated how dimensions of neurotic (i.e., neuroticism, behavioral inhibition) and extraverted (i.e., extraversion, behavioral activation) temperament may influence the presence and severity of agoraphobia. Using logistic regression and structural equation modeling, we examined the unique effects of extraverted temperament on situational avoidance in a sample of 274 outpatients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Results showed low extraverted temperament (i.e., introversion) to be associated with both the presence and the severity of situational avoidance. Findings are discussed in regard to conceptualizations of conditioned avoidance, activity levels, sociability, and positive emotions within the context of panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.
Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.
Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months
Jansen, Pauline W; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
A low socioeconomic status (SES) has consistently been associated with behavioural problems during childhood. The studies of SES and behaviour in infants used temperament as a behavioural measure. However, these studies in younger children yielded inconsistent findings. Furthermore, they generally did not examine explanatory mechanisms underlying the association between SES and temperament. We investigated the association between SES and temperament in infancy. The study was embedded in the Generation R study, a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Maternal and paternal education, family income, and maternal occupational status were used as indicators of SES. At the age of 6 months, 4,055 mothers filled out six scales of the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised. Lower SES was associated with more difficult infant temperament as measured by five of the six temperament dimensions (e.g. Fear: unadjusted z-score difference between lowest and highest education: 0.57 (95%CI: 0.43, 0.71)). Only the direction of the association between SES and Sadness was reversed. The effect of SES on Distress to Limitations, Recovery from Distress, and Duration of Orienting scores was largely explained by family stress and maternal psychological well-being. These covariates could not explain the higher levels of Activity and Fear nor the lower Sadness scores of infants from low SES groups. SES inequalities in temperament were already present in six months old infants and could partially be explained by family stress and maternal psychological well-being. The results imply that socioeconomic inequalities in mental health in adults may have their origin early in life.
Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Colom, Francesc; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Rosa, Adriane R; Sanna, Livia; De Rossi, Pietro; Girardi, Nicoletta; Bonnin, C Mar; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Vazquez, Gustavo H; Gasto, Cristobal; Tatarelli, Roberto; Vieta, Eduard
Recently, the concept of predominant polarity (two-thirds of episodes belonging to a single pole of the illness) has been introduced to further characterise subtypes of bipolar disorders. This concept has been proven to have diagnostic and therapeutic implications, but little is known on the underlying psychopathology and temperaments. With this study, we aimed to further validate the concept and explore its relationships with temperament. This study enrolled 143 patients with bipolar or unipolar disorder. We analysed predominant polarity in the sample of bipolar I patients (N=124), focussing on those who showed a clear predominance for one or the other polarity, and distinguishing manic/hypomanic (MP) from depressive polarity (DP), and a unipolar major depression (UP) group (N=19),. We also assessed temperament by means of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). Over 55% of the bipolar I sample fulfilled predominant polarity criteria, with two-thirds of those meeting criteria for MP and one third for DP. MP and DP were similar in scoring higher than UP on the hyperthymic/cyclothymic scales of the TEMPS-A; the UP group scored higher on the anxious/depressive scales. Our results show that both bipolar I MP and DP subgroups are temperamentally similar and different from UP. Depression in DP bipolar I patients should be viewed as the overlap of depression on a hyperthymic/cyclothymic temperament. These findings confirm the value of the predominant polarity concept as well as the importance of temperaments to separate bipolar from unipolar disorders.
Ranger, Manon; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha
Pain is a subjective and uniquely lived experience. Because reactions to pain vary so widely from one person to another, and better pain management remains a major issue in our attempt to resolve pain and suffering of varying populations, we need to generate interventions that better target interindividual variations. One research avenue could be the study of each person's own biologic and psychologic makeup. Within this path, individual temperament is a rich and fascinating terrain to consider. The purpose of the present article is to describe the relationship between individual temperament and pain response (and pain perception) by searching the literature. Nursing implications regarding this theme are then discussed.
Adebayo Kolawole John; Adekoya Adewale M.; Ekwonna Chinnasa
Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a branch of AI that is employed to solving problems which emphasizes the use of previous solutions in solving similar new problems. This work presents TAMDS, a Temperament and Mood Detection system which employs Case-Based Reasoning technique. The proposed system is adapted to the field of psychology to help psychologists solve part of the problems in their complex domain. We have designed TAMDS to detect temperament and moods of individuals. A major aim of our s...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.
Watson, Joanna; Kowalski, Helen
Examined effect of toddler temperament on caregiver-toddler interaction in child care. Found that children classified as difficult attracted significantly more attention, not necessarily positive, from caregivers. Children rated as easy were overlooked more often than others. Children's sociability/withdrawal made little difference to caregiver…
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show how the temperament of leaders has an effect on temporary absence from work in public administration and may potentially be one of the causes of temporary absence from work. Research on Slovenian public administration was conducted in February 2015 and involved 3,220 respondents. A quantitative research method (survey was used to collect the data which were then analyzed with the SPSS statistical program and Microsoft Excel. The results of the research reveal that leaders’ temperaments have a statistically signifi cant effect on temporary absence from work in public administration. The effect is evident both in the number of days as well as in the number of occurrences of absence from work. The survey results show that public administration is dominated by leaders with choleric (45% and phlegmatic temperaments (41%. Employees with a leader with a melancholic temperament were absent from work the most (11.7 days, followed by those working under a sanguine leader (10.6 days; the greatest frequency of absence were reported for employees with a sanguine leader (1.9 times, and the fewest for those with a melancholic leader (1.5 times.
Soo Jin Lee
Conclusion: These results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types in children using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further investigation into the biopsychological profiles of the children, the longitudinal stability of the Sasang typology can be examined.
Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.
Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…
Fernández-Vilar, Ma Angeles; Carranza, Jose Antonio
The majority of studies on temperament in the educational context originate from the Anglo-Saxon culture, where there has been an increase in research in this field over the last four decades. The objective of this paper is to contribute towards systematizing of relevant findings that have been carried out in the educational context from the field…
Information on demographic characteristics and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) and temperament was obtained by questionnaire in a crossfaculty sample of 211 university students (41% male, n=87) at a university in Botswana. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (Cloninger, 1987) was used to ...
History acknowledged Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, the author of the highly skilled textbook of medicine "Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb" or "The Canon of Medicine", as one of the greatest physicians in medicine. According to this medical textbook, the explanation of the existence of a cold temperament for sleep was that during sleep hours, ...
Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin
Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis
The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…
Cervera, Maria Dolores; Mendez, Rosa Maria
This study examined the relationships between temperament and ecological context among Yucatec Mayan children based on the assumption that maternal ethnotheories act as mediators and are related to world view. Since the latter is related to ecological context, its transformation may result in variations in ethnotheories and, therefore, temperament…
The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...
The Challenge and Opportunity of the Inverted U. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 61-76. Hogan, R. (2005). In defense of personality ...27 April 2017 at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Orlando, FL Disclaimer: All...14. ABSTRACT Personality and temperament scales are used in employment settings to predict performance because they are valid and have
Teven, Jason J.
This study utilized the Big Five personality measure to assess the relationships among teacher temperament, caring orientation, and dimensions of teacher burnout. Perceptions of supervisor caring, job satisfaction, and teacher motivation were assessed. Respondents in this study were 48 college faculty teaching a variety of classes at a…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Sought to define the population and formulate tentative treatment implications from the results of somatotyping 60 emotionally disturbed adolescent girls. Results showed a predominance of endomorphic-mesomorph and mesomorphic-endomorph temperament. Tentative treatment recommendations are given. (Author/JAC)
Skala, K; Kapusta, N D; Schlaff, G; Unseld, M; Erfurth, A; Lesch, O M; Walter, H; Akiskal, K K; Akiskal, H S
Suicide is a major health problem accounting for up to 1.5 percent of all deaths worldwide and represents one of the most common causes of death in adolescents and young adults. A number of studies has been performed to establish risk factors for suicide in patients with psychiatric disorders including temperamental features. This study set out to assess the relationship between suicidal ideation and temperament in young adults. A cross-sectional sample of healthy college students (n=1381) was examined using a self-rating questionnaire. Suicidal ideation, social background, educational status, substance abuse, and affective temperament according to TEMPS-M were assessed. Predictors of lifetime suicidal ideation were examined in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Suicidal ideation was reported by 12.5% of all subjects at some point in their life and was higher in nicotine dependents, youth with alcohol related problems and users of illicit substances as well as in youth with lower educational status. Lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with the anxious, depressive and cyclothymic temperament in both sexes and the irritable temperament in males. These results remained significant after adjustment for smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, drug experience and educational status in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The use of self-rating instruments always reduces objectivity and introduces the possibility of misreporting. Considering the fact that many subjects completing suicide have never been diagnosed with mental disorders it might be reasonable to include an investigation of temperament in screenings for risk of suicide. This might be especially useful for health care professionals without mental health care background. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin
Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.
Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.
DePasquale, C; Wagner, T; Archard, G A; Ferguson, B; Braithwaite, V A
Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration-collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.
Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M
Sleep-temperament associations have not yet been examined among university students, despite awareness of the high incidence of sleep problems in this population. The present study was conducted (a) to examine whether sleep quality was associated with temperament among university-attending young adults and (b) to determine whether particular components of sleep quality were differentially associated with temperament. University students completed questionnaires designed to assess sleep quality and temperament. Poor sleep quality was associated with increased negative affect and orienting sensitivity as well as decreased effortful control; regression analyses revealed differential associations between components of nighttime sleep quality and temperament ratings. The presented study reveals conceptual continuity in sleep-temperament relations from infancy to young adulthood and highlights important avenues for future research.
Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L.; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred
In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response
Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen
To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.
Kendrick, F; Wilson, S; Coury, D L; Preisch, J W
Several demographic studies have been done to identify children at risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD). Discussions have described these children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay as strong tempered, cranky, restless, and fussy. The parents of these children have acknowledged these behaviors. To determine whether there were differences in temperament, children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay were compared with children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay by assessing the nine temperament components described by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) questionnaire. Parents completed the temperament questionnaire and ninety-two children between twelve and thirty-six months old were studied. Scores for the nine temperament components were tabulated and temperament difficulty was determined as defined by the authors of the toddler Temperament Scale. At-test comparison between the two groups revealed no significant difference for the nine temperament components. There was also no difference when comparing clusters of the nine components. The conclusion is that there is no difference in the temperaments between the group of children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and the comparison group of children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay.
Allan, Nicholas P; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Lonigan, Christopher J; Hart, Sara A; Taylor, Jeanette
A multivariate independent pathway model was used to examine the shared and unique genetic and environmental influences of Positive Affect (PA), Negative Affect (NA), and effortful control (EC) in a sample of 686 twin pairs (M age = 10.07, SD = 1.74). There were common genetic influences and nonshared environmental influences shared across all three temperament dimensions and shared environmental influences in common to NA and EC. There were also significant independent genetic influences unique to PA and NA and significant independent shared environmental influences unique to PA. This study demonstrates that there are genetic and environmental influences that affect the covariance among temperament dimensions as well as unique genetic and environmental influences that influence the dimensions independently.
Schraeder, B D; Tobey, G Y
This longitudinal study examined the toddler and preschool behavioral characteristics of children who were born with very low birth weights (VLBW; less than or equal to 1,500 grams). The subjects were 40 VLBW children (average birth weight, 1,203 grams) who at birth were appropriate for gestational age and free from congenital anomalies. Data were gathered during home visits when the children were 12, 24, 36 and 48 months and were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and z tests. Arrhythmicity, low adaptability, and low persistence during the toddler and preschool years characterized the behavioral styles of VLBW children. The temperament dimensions of rhythmicity, adaptability, intensity, mood, and threshold were related to the quality of the child's environment. Clinicians need to be alert to the impact of temperament on the interpersonal milieu of VLBW children and their families.
Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E
Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.
Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo
Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Bulent Kadri Gültekin,1 Sema Saglam,2 Merve Iris Koc,1 Selma Bozkurt Zincir,1 Murad Atmaca31Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Istanbul; 2Department of Psychiatry, Adiyaman Training and Research Hospital, Adiyaman, 3Firat University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry, Elazig, TurkeyBackground: The primary aim of the present study was to compare temperament and character traits and levels of alexithymia between patients with panic disorder and healthy controls.Methods: Sixty patients with panic disorder admitted to the psychiatry clinic at Firat University Hospital were enrolled in the study, along with 62 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I (SCID-I, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, and Panic Agoraphobia Scale (PAS were administered to all subjects.Results: Within the temperament dimension, the mean subscale score for harm avoidance was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder than in controls. With respect to character traits, mean scores for self-directedness and cooperativeness were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Rates of alexithymia were 35% (n=21 and 11.3% (n=7 in patients with panic disorder and healthy controls, respectively. The difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder (P=0.03. A moderate positive correlation was identified between PAS and TAS scores (r=0.447, P<0.01. Moderately significant positive correlations were also noted for PAS and TCI subscale scores and scores for novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence.Conclusion: In our study sample, patients with panic disorder and healthy controls differed in TCI parameters and rate of alexithymia. Larger prospective studies are required to assess for causal associations.Keywords: panic disorder, temperament
Liu, Tianli; Gatsonis, Constantine A; Baylin, Ana; Kubzansky, Laura D; Loucks, Eric B; Buka, Stephen L
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with aggressive behaviors among offspring across the life course. We posit that anger, as a precedent of aggression, may have mediated the association. The current study examines the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and anger proneness among the adult offspring. Participants were 611 adult offspring (ages 38-48 years) of mothers enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1966 in Boston and Providence. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected during prenatal visits. Spielberger's trait anger scale was used to measure anger proneness which has two components: anger temperament and angry reaction. Results from the full sample analyses showed that offspring whose mother smoked one pack or more per day on average scored 1.7 higher in anger temperament T scores in comparison to offspring whose mother never smoked during pregnancy (β=1.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.1, 3.2). The fixed effects analyses among siblings that accounted for more confounding found a greater effect of around one standard deviation increase in anger temperament T scores corresponding to maternal smoking of one pack or more (β=7.4, 95% CI: 0.5, 14.4). We did not observe an association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring angry reaction or other negative emotions including anxiety and depression. We concluded that prenatal exposure to heavy cigarette smoke was associated with an increased level of anger temperament, a stable personality trait that may carry the influence of prenatal smoking through the life course. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen
Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681
Izci, Filiz; Gültekin, Bulent Kadri; Saglam, Sema; Koc, Merve Iris; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Atmaca, Murad
Background The primary aim of the present study was to compare temperament and character traits and levels of alexithymia between patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Methods Sixty patients with panic disorder admitted to the psychiatry clinic at Fırat University Hospital were enrolled in the study, along with 62 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I (SCID-I), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and Panic Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) were administered to all subjects. Results Within the temperament dimension, the mean subscale score for harm avoidance was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder than in controls. With respect to character traits, mean scores for self-directedness and cooperativeness were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Rates of alexithymia were 35% (n=21) and 11.3% (n=7) in patients with panic disorder and healthy controls, respectively. The difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder (P=0.03). A moderate positive correlation was identified between PAS and TAS scores (r=0.447, Ppanic disorder and healthy controls differed in TCI parameters and rate of alexithymia. Larger prospective studies are required to assess for causal associations. PMID:24876780
Spitz, Amanda Seiser; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Kanellis, Michael J; Qian, Fang
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between a mother's perception of her child's temperament and the child's risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). Data was collected from 629 records of children ages 0 to 4 who were patients of the University of Iowa's Infant Oral Health Program. Data included: (1) maternal report of child's temperament; (2) knowledge of ECC; (3) dietary and oral hygiene habits; and (4) clinical evidence of cavitated and noncavitated lesions and visible plaque on maxillary incisors. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Bivariate analyses showed that children reported as "easy" were more likely to: (1) be younger (P=.001); (2) be breast-fed to sleep (P=.046); (3) be breast-fed throughout the night (P=.012); and (4) have their teeth brushed twice daily (P=.006). Children reported as "difficult" were more likely to: (1) be bottle-fed to sleep (P=.002); and (2) have noncavitated lesions (P=.044). Final logistic regression analysis indicated that children perceived as "easy" were more likely to breast-fed throughout the night (odds ratio [OR]= 1.77; P=.016), while those perceived as "difficult" were more likely to be bottle-fed to sleep (OR=1.74; P=.016). Maternal reported child temperament may be related to important early childhood caries risk factors.
Allmann, Anna E.S.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Klein, Daniel N.
Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children’s temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were three and nine years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were three and six years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children’s early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263
Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.
Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants
Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.
Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants
DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R
Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.
We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable,
Full Text Available The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.
Acar, Ibrahim H.; Torquati, Julia C.; Encinger, Amy; Colgrove, Amy
The current study examined the associations between low-income preschool children's temperament (reactive and regulatory) and their relationships with parents and teachers. In particular, we focused on the moderating role of regulatory temperament on reactive temperament in the prediction of closeness and conflict with parents and teachers. Two…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…
Gartstein, Maria A.; Prokasky, Amanda; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan; Bridgett, David J.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Leerkes, Esther; Cheatham, Carol L.; Eiden, Rina D.; Mize, Krystal D.; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Mireault, Gina; Seamon, Erich
There is renewed interest in person-centered approaches to understanding the structure of temperament. However, questions concerning temperament types are not frequently framed in a developmental context, especially during infancy. In addition, the most common person-centered techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and latent profile analysis (LPA),…
The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…
Vervoort, L.; Wolters, L.H.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; Prins, P.J.; de Haan, E.; Boer, F.; Hartman, C.A.
The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N = 39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N = 35). Links differed
Horn, M Greg; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Gagnon, Sandra G
Although previous research indicates that parental child feeding practices are one component of a bidirectional relationship between children and parents, little is known about how child temperament operates in this relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between child temperament and parental feeding practices and attitudes using a sibling design. By collecting data regarding pairs of siblings, we were able to investigate sibling differences and differential parental treatment. We examined mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their two children's temperaments as well as reports of the feeding practices and attitudes they use with each child. Fifty-five mothers and fathers completed questionnaires including the Carey Temperament Scales and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results from correlation analyses showed that 6 of the 9 father reports of temperament between two siblings were positively related, whereas 1 of the 9 mother reports were positively related. Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of temperament were positively correlated for a single child. Some patterns were found between parental reports of sibling temperament and child feeding practices and attitudes, suggesting that temperament plays a role in how parents feed their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...
Methods: thirty six stabilized outpatients were recruited from the aftercare consultation of Psychiatry to perform Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto questionnaire version (TEMPS-A) for affective temperaments and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for treatment adherence.
Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet
The purpose of this research is to explore the social competence and temperament of 4-6 age group children attending pre-school education institutions, to identify whether their social competence levels vary by gender, and to show the relationship between the sub-dimensions of social competence and those of temperament. The study group consists of…
Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi
This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…
Wills, Thomas Ashby; Dishion, Thomas J.
Presented is a conceptual framework linking the construct of temperament with environmental factors that covary with the onset and escalation of substance use. We propose that transactions between temperament characteristics of the child in family and peer contexts influence the development of self-control ability, a mediating factor for onset and…
Conclusion: The subtype and severity of sCP were associated with developmental profiles in children with sCP Temperament patterns were different between SD and SQ groups, but only weakly related to motor deficit. These data could allow clinicians to anticipate the developmental profiles and temperament patterns and plan appropriate therapeutic strategies for children with sCP.
Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly
There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.
Lee, Dong Hun; Oakland, Thomas; Ahn, Changgu
Temperament styles of 4,628 South Korean children, ages 9-17, are described in reference to possible gender and age differences and compared with those of 3,200 US age peers in the light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs, one that highlights four bipolar qualities: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative,…
Results. There was a link between temperament type and apparent delivery of student-focused teaching. Staff members' perceptions of their approach to teaching did not correspond to their actual teaching behaviour. Discussion. Staff development strategies could take into account individual temperaments in order to direct ...
Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo
This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…
Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9–13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance. PMID:28446886
Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.
Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Aeby, Victor G.; Boyd, Jane S.
This study describes the application of temperament styles to school-based mental health practice in an alternative school and illustrates how a multidisciplinary team consisting of a special education teacher, health educator, and social worker used temperament to maximize effective interactions with a student who had been placed in the school…
Pisula, Ewa; Kawa, Rafał; Danielewicz, Dorota; Pisula, Wojciech
Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others). High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.
Sherry, John L.
Shows that the biologically rooted individual difference behavior variable of temperament was consistent and moderately strong causal factor in forming television use motivations among undergraduate students. Finds distinct patterns of relationships between temperament and all television use gratifications supporting the uses and gratifications…
Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin
Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – Autoquestionnaire (TEMPSA is a self-rated questionnaire that measures five dimensions of affective temperaments. It is designed for assessing affective temperaments in general and clinical population. Estimation of the affective temperaments proved to play an important role in prediction and assessment of early signs of mood disorders. The aim of our study was to translate, adapt and analyse the long version of the TEMPS-A instrument. 1167 students from different Slovenian universities participated. We analysed the results with classical test theory and Rasch model. The results showed good reliability of all five scales with alpha coefficients between .76 and .84, only the reliability of the depressive temperament was lower in comparison with other subscales (α=.66. With the principal component analysis we extracted five components. Hyperthymic temperament proved to be the most homogenous, yet less sensitive to discriminate between those with adaptive personality structure on one hand and possibility to develop mood disorder in the future on the other. The structure of anxious temperament is not very clear, since two different types of anxious temperament emerged. The first one relates to somatic items, whereas the other links more to the items of general anxiousness. Nevertheless, our results are in agreement with several previous studies in Europe, Asia and North and South America.
Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Hartman, Catharina A.
The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N=39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N=35). Links differed
Full Text Available Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others. High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…
Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.
del Rosario, Mithi; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted
Temperament atypicalities have been documented in infancy and early development in children who develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigates whether there are differences in developmental trajectories of temperament between infants and toddlers with and without ASD. Parents of infant siblings of children with autism completed the Carey Temperament Scales about their child at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. Temperament trajectories of children with ASD reflected increases over time in activity level, and decreasing adaptability and approach behaviors relative to high-risk typically developing children. This study is the first to compare temperament trajectories between high-risk typically developing infants and infants subsequently diagnosed with ASD in the developmental window when overt symptoms of ASD first emerge. PMID:23820765
West, Amy E; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Pavuluri, Mani N
Recent theories suggest that children with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) may exhibit more difficult temperaments premorbidly, including traits such as behavioral disinhibition and difficulty with emotion regulation. We investigated temperament characteristics retrospectively during infancy and toddlerhood in subjects with PBD (n=25), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). Children with PBD were reported to experience increased difficult temperament in both infancy and toddlerhood compared to children with ADHD. Several characteristics of difficult temperament were associated with residual symptoms of mania and depression. Difficult premorbid temperament characteristics may be a specific indicator of a bipolar diathesis, or might signal underlying dysfunction in affective processes that significantly increase risk for a mood disorder.
MA. Niman Bardhi
Full Text Available Internalizing problems are characterized by anxiety, depressed mood, social withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Childhood internalizing problems are a concerning mental health issue due to their continuity into adolescence and associated functional impairment. This study focused on studying the relation between affective temperaments and internalizing problems, in a sample of adolescents in the community. There has been very little research in mental health problems in children and adolescents in Kosovo. The aim of this study was to identify the link between affective temperaments with youth psychopathology, by measuring both temperament with Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS and youth psychopathology with Youth Self Report (YSR in the Kosovo sample. Our study found that depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritiative temperaments were more displayed in female respondents. Meanwhile, hyperthermic temperament was not found to be reported as interrelated to gender. However, gender related differences were significant on the YSR scales, with female respondents reporting higher values on those scales. The study found that there is a significant difference between the groups with normal scores on Depressive Temperament with group with high scores for all scales of Internalizing problems. More scores in Depressive Temperament more scores in Internalizing Scales. The same tendencies were found for Cyclothimic Temperament and Anxious temperament. Hyperthermic temperament was not found to have significant effect on Anxious/ Depressed, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, and Social Problem. Irritative temperament was found to have significant effect only in Anxious/ Depressed F (2 = 13.1, p<.01, η2= .03. The higher scores in Anxious/ Depressed scores were found in the group with high scores in Irritative Temperament. The study concluded that temperament may only be one of several factors contributing to the development of
Full Text Available The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses.100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions.Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant.Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance.
Jaracz, Marcin; Rosiak, Izabela; Bertrand-Bucińska, Anna; Jaskulski, Maciej; Nieżurawska, Joanna; Borkowska, Alina
The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses. 100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions. Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant. Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance.
Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contribute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.
Christian, Lisa M; Galley, Jeffrey D; Hade, Erinn M; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Kamp Dush, Claire; Bailey, Michael T
Understanding the dynamics of the gut-brain axis has clinical implications for physical and mental health conditions, including obesity and anxiety. As such disorders have early life antecedents, it is of value to determine if associations between the gut microbiome and behavior are present in early life in humans. We used next generation pyrosequencing to examine associations between the community structure of the gut microbiome and maternal ratings of child temperament in 77 children at 18-27months of age. It was hypothesized that children would differ in their gut microbial structure, as indicated by measures of alpha and beta diversity, based on their temperamental characteristics. Among both boys and girls, greater Surgency/Extraversion was associated greater phylogenetic diversity. In addition, among boys only, subscales loading on this composite scale were associated with differences in phylogenetic diversity, the Shannon Diversity index (SDI), beta diversity, and differences in abundances of Dialister, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Parabacteroides. In girls only, higher Effortful Control was associated with a lower SDI score and differences in both beta diversity and Rikenellaceae were observed in relation to Fear. Some differences in dietary patterns were observed in relation to temperament, but these did not account for the observed differences in the microbiome. Differences in gut microbiome composition, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and abundances of specific bacterial species, were observed in association with temperament in toddlers. This study was cross-sectional and observational and, therefore, does not permit determination of the causal direction of effects. However, if bidirectional brain-gut relationships are present in humans in early life, this may represent an opportunity for intervention relevant to physical as well as mental health disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quinonez, R; Santos, R G; Wilson, S; Cross, H
Among the potential risk factors associated with nursing caries/baby bottle tooth decay--a subset of Early Childhood Caries (ECC)--is a "strong-tempered" behavioral style in the child. However, the few empirical studies that have investigated this description remain controversial. The research goal of this study was to operationalize the "strong-tempered" profile and investigate its association to parental feeding practices and ECC levels. In an observational-correlational study design, 58 children (ASA I), ages 18 to 70 months (M = 43 months, SD = 17), were reliably assessed for ECC levels by a clinical evaluator. A second evaluator, blind to ECC status, interviewed parents using a demographic survey, a feeding practices measure, and the EAS Temperament Survey for Children. Multiple regression analyses indicated that none of the four temperament factors (Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Shyness) significantly predicted duration of feeding habit defined as the length of time in months that the child breast or bottle fed, whichever lasted the longest. However, the combination of greater duration of feeding habit and higher levels of Shyness predicted all three measures of ECC: the presence or absence of caries (r2 = .19, P < .001), the number of carious teeth (r2 = .23, P < .001) and the number of carious surfaces (r2 = .21, P < .001). Furthermore, the addition of Native status significantly increased the predictive value of all of three models (r2 = .37, r2 = .43, r2 = .29, respectively, Ps < .0001). Temperament did not predict the duration of feeding habit but together, shyness and duration of feeding habit was associated with ECC.
Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J
Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective.
Full Text Available The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB S. Retowski, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Questionnaire (FCZ-KT B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau, Personality Inventory NEO-PI-Costa Jr. and Mc'Crae Polish Adaptation and Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel – K. Durniat Adaptation. The study revealed a clear positive correlation with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a component of Agreeableness - Trust (A1, with Extraversion (E and its components: Warmth (E1, Excitement Seeking (E5 Activity (E4 and Gregariousness (E2 and the component of Conscientiousness – Self-Discipline (C5, component of Openness to Experience – Actions (O4, and also negative correlations with Neuroticism (N and its components: Vulnerability (N6, Self-Consciousness (N4 and Anxiety (N1. The study also revealed a clear positive correlations Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with Activity (AK, Endurance (WT and Briskness (ŻW and a clear negative correlation with Perseveration (PE, Emotional Reactivity (RE. In the group of volunteers there were also showed positive correlations of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a Career (Assessment and Promotion (OA and the Communication and Information (KI. Regression model developed using multiple regression (stepwise regression method takes into account the following variables: Activity (AK - Temperament, Agreeableness component of the Personality - Straightforwardness (A2, and the component of Neuroticism – Self
Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N
The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related
Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Câmara, Rachel A; Köhler, Cristiano A; Maes, Michael; Nunes-Neto, Paulo R; Brunoni, André R; Quevedo, João; Fernandes, Brisa S; Perugi, Giulio; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Carvalho, André F
Preliminary evidence indicates that premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) may be frequently co-morbid with bipolar spectrum disorders. In addition, the manifestations of PMDD seem similar to a subthreshold depressive mixed state. Nevertheless, the associations between PMDD and affective temperaments and emotional traits have not been previously investigated. A consecutive sample of 514 drug-free Brazilian women (mean age: 22.8; SD=5.4years) took part in this cross-sectional study. Screening for PMDD was obtained with the validated Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST). Affective temperaments and emotional dimensions were evaluated with the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS). In addition, socio-demographic and data on menstrual cycle were collected. According to the PSST, 83 (16.1%) women screened positive for PMDD, while 216 (42.0%) women had no/mild premenstrual symptoms. The cyclothymic temperament was independently associated with PMDD (OR=4.57; 95% CI: 2.11-9.90), while the euthymic temperament had an independent association with a lower likelihood of a positive screening for PMDD (OR=0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.64). In addition, anger and sensitivity emerged as emotional dimensions significantly associated with PMDD. A positive screening for PMDD was associated with a predominant cyclothymic temperament, while an euthymic temperament was associated with a lower likelihood for a positive screening for PMDD. These data deserve replication in prospective studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Rafaela; Gaspardo, Claudia Maria; Cordaro Bucker Furini, Guilherme; Martinez, Francisco Eulogio; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz
Children born preterm are at risk for later developmental disorders. The present study examined the predictive effects of neonatal, sociodemographic, and temperament characteristics on behavioral outcomes at toddlerhood, in children born preterm. The sample included 100 toddlers born preterm and with very-low-birth-weight, and their mothers. Neonatal characteristics were evaluated using medical records. The mothers were interviewed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for temperament assessment, and the Child Behavior Checklist for behavioral assessment. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Predictors of 39% of the variability of the total behavioral problems in toddlers born prematurely were: temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, lower family socioeconomic status, and younger mothers at childbirth. Temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control and lower family socioeconomic status were predictors of 23% of the variability of internalizing behavioral problems. Additionally, 37% of the variability of externalizing behavioral problems was explained by temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, and younger mothers at childbirth. The neonatal characteristics and stressful events in the neonatal intensive care unit did not predict behavioral problems at toddlerhood. However, temperament was a consistent predictor of behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. Preventive follow-up programs could assess dispositional traits of temperament to provide early identification of preterm infants at high-risk for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward
The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.
Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.
Yoo Rha Hong
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.
Kampman, Olli; Viikki, Merja; Leinonen, Esa
The review focused on associations between temperament dimensions and clinical features in different anxiety disorders, likewise in obsessive-compulsive disorder in clinical samples of adults. A literature search was conducted in the Medline and PsycINFO databases covering the years 2010-2016. A systematic review and grading of the level of evidence for an association between temperament dimension scores and clinical features in each disorder were performed. Twenty papers reporting 18 different studies were included. Five of the papers focused on panic disorder (PD), five on social anxiety disorder (SAD), three on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), three on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and an additional three papers on several anxiety disorders. The review consolidates the finding that trait anxiety, especially as assessed by Cloninger's model or the five-factor model, is a phenomenon common to all anxiety disorders and OCD. More follow-up studies including large samples are needed to differentiate the dimensional profiles of trait anxiety in specific disorders.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. Material and Methods: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28 adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model. Results: The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Conclusions: Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3:375–390
Hwang, A-W; Soong, W-T; Liao, H-F
This study aimed at investigating: (1) the effects of temperament and biological risk at birth on various developmental domains at toddler and preschool ages; (2) the interaction effects of the biological risk and temperament on development. Participants One hundred and ten full-term and 98 preterm children without significant physical or developmental disabilities and consisting of various biological risks were examined at toddler age (18-36 months) and preschool age (51-67 months). The Neonatal Medical Index was used to classify the biological risk level. Parental reports on the Chinese Toddler Temperament Scale at toddler age were collected and the temperament (easy, intermediate and difficult) of each child was assigned according to local norm. The Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers was used for assessing child development at toddler and preschool ages. Other family variables were also collected as possible confounders for child development. Two-way ancova was conducted to analyse the predictability of biological risk and temperament, by controlling the potential family variables on child development. At toddler age, higher biological risk had significant adverse effects on both the Perceptual-motor developmental quotients (DQs) (F(1,201)= 19.4, P Toddlers. There were no significant interactions between biological risk and temperament on DQs at both ages. The biological risk and temperament affected child development at toddler age but not at preschool age. No interaction of biological risk and temperament effects on the child development at toddler age existed. The effects of biological risk and temperament on child development were temporary for the children with relatively low biological risk.
Yildirim, Tulay; Solmaz, Dilek; Emul, Murat; Akgol, Gurkan; Yalvac, Dilek; Ersoy, Yuksel
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein, pain by the Visual Analog Scale, disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, functional status by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; psychological status by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and overall health assessment by the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale were assessed in patients. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto Questionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament. [Results] There was no statistical difference in the distribution of temperament subtypes between patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and the controls. Depressive, anxious, and cyclothymic temperament scores were higher in patients with high values on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Visual Analog Scale. There was a correlation between anxious subtypes of affective temperament scores and the value of Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale. Correlation analysis also found depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperament and psychiatric symptoms to be significantly related. [Conclusion] Affective temperament may contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and may increase disease activity and may reduce their quality of life.
Gustavo da Silva Freitas
Full Text Available Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperament of 24 calves Nellore and Guzerath purebreds , with a mean of 235.81 ± 39.95 days of age after submitted into two treatments during the breeding season of the cows. The treatments were: T1 - calves submitted to the management of permanent feeding (PF and T2 - calves submitted to the management of controlled feeding (CF. Ninety days after the beginning of the breeding season, the CF was interrupted and the calves stayed with their mothers until weaning. The temperament of calves was evaluated in the weaning management through the following methods: escape velocity in meters/second (EV, reactivity test in the contention trunk (RT, crush score (CS and escape distance (ED. The EV was obtained with the use of the equipment "flight speed" placed in the exit of the trunk contention. The animals with higher velocity were considered the worst temperament. The CS, on a scale of 1 to 5, evaluated the general condition of the animals including movement, stress, behavioral signs of stress such as muscle tone, sclerotic membrane and muscle shake. The highest scores were given to animals with worst temperament. The ED was held inside the barn (97m², where the observer moved toward the animal (one step per second and registered the distance in meters of how the animal allowed the approach before starting the escape. The animals that maintained for a period more than 60 seconds inside the barn had the highest ED (8.5 m. With the adoption of the CF and a good
Robins, Richard W; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels o...
Irina N Trofimova
Full Text Available Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioural regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses. This article reports on the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with Major Depression using the FET framework. Method: Intake records of 467, ages 17-24, 25-45, 46-65, 66-84 were examined, with temperament assessed by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (based on the FET. Results: The presence of Major Depression was associated with changes in mean temperament scores on 9 of the 12 traits. The results were in line with the DSM-5 criteria of fatigue (patients with MD reported a significant decrease in three types of endurance - motor-physical, social-verbal and mental, of psychomotor retardation (a significant decrease in physical and social-verbal tempo and of worthlessness (as low Self-Confidence. The results also showed that three new symptoms, high Impulsivity, high Neuroticism and diminished Plasticity, should be considered as depressive symptoms in future versions of the DSM. As a significant negative result, no interaction of age or sex (with the exception of the Self-Confidence scale with MD was found for temperament traits. Conclusions: The value of differentiating between physical, social and mental aspects of behaviour is demonstrated in the differential effects of major depression and gender. The value of
Gocłowska, M.A.; Aldhobaiban, N.; Elliot, A.J.; Murayama, K.; Kobeisy, A.; Abdelaziz, A.
People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament,
Ozturk, Fatma Ozgun; Ekinci, Mine; Ozturk, Onder; Canan, Fatih
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of affective temperament profiles and emotional and behavioural characteristics with Internet addiction among high school students. The study sample included 303 high school students. A sociodemographic characteristics data form, internet addiction scale (IAS), the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire were used to collect data. Of the sample, 6.6% were found to be addicted to Internet. Having a computer in the home (P Internet for more than two years (P Internet addicts was more than that for nonaddicts (P Internet addiction and affective temperament profiles, especially with anxious temperament. Furthermore, emotional and behavioural problems are more frequent in adolescents who have problematic Internet use.
Marcin Jaracz; Izabela Rosiak; Anna Bertrand-Bucińska; Maciej Jaskulski; Joanna Nieżurawska; Alina Borkowska
.... The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses...
Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B
The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of
Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B
The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H
To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.
Atherton, Olivia E; Tackett, Jennifer L; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W
Relational aggression is linked to numerous adverse consequences. However, we know little about how temperament leads individuals to become perpetrators/victims of relational aggression, or how being a perpetrator/victim influences the development of temperament. We used longitudinal data from 674 Mexican-origin youth to examine relations between relational aggression and mother- and child-reported temperament from 5(th) grade (Mage=10.8; SD=0.60) through 11(th) grade (Mage=16.8; SD=0.50). Results show that: (a) high Negative Emotionality and low Effortful Control predicted increases in victimization; (b) low Effortful Control predicted increases in perpetration; (c) victims increased in Negative Emotionality and decreased in Effortful Control; and (d) perpetrators increased in Negative Emotionality and Surgency. Thus, temperament serves as both an antecedent to and a consequence of relational aggression.
Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E－Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.
Scheper, Frederike Y.; Majdandžić, Mirjana; van de Ven, Peter M.; Jansen, Lucres M.C.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Schuengel, Carlo; de Vries, Annelou L.C.
Evidence from general population studies shows the contribution of various temperament traits to the development of child psychopathology. Little is known about which traits are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in young clinically referred children. The current study assessed
Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K
Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.
Burns, James G
Differences in temperament (consistent differences among individuals in behavior) can have important effects on fitness-related activities such as dispersal and competition. However, evolutionary ecologists have put limited effort into validating their tests of temperament. This article attempts to validate three standard tests of temperament in guppies: the open-field test, emergence test, and novel-object test. Through multiple reliability trials, and comparison of results between different types of test, this study establishes the confidence that can be placed in these temperament tests. The open-field test is shown to be a good test of boldness and exploratory behavior; the open-field test was reliable when tested in multiple ways. There were problems with the emergence test and novel-object test, which leads one to conclude that the protocols used in this study should not be considered valid tests for this species. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Hanington, Lucy; Ramchandani, Paul; Stein, Alan
Current research supports a link between maternal depression and difficult child temperament. The direction of effect is often assumed to be from parent to child, but few studies have addressed child to parent effects. In a large cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N?=?14663), we aimed to further existing knowledge by investigating the relationship between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and child temperament, and determining the direction of ...
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...
Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.
Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperament...
Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The p...
Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin
Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity. © The Author(s) 2014.
Harper, Felicity W K; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A
The developmental psychology literature shows that children with higher levels of effortful control (EC) and ego-resilience (ER) display greater social competence and better emotional adjustment. This study examined whether these dispositional attributes contribute to positive quality of life (QOL) in pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 103 pediatric cancer patients (and their parents) who were part of a larger parent study. At study entry, parents reported their own anxiety and depression and their children's EC and ER. At 3-month follow-up, parents reported children's QOL. ER was positively correlated with children's QOL. EC showed a positive indirect effect on QOL through ER. Inclusion of potential correlates of pediatric QOL (e.g., parent neuroticism) did not change these relationships. Temperament and personality play significant roles in pediatric cancer patients' QOL. Assessing dispositional attributes early in treatment may help identify children at risk for poor QOL during and after treatment.
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients display low novelty seeking scores on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ, which may reflect the low dopamine function that characterises the disease. People with PD also display raised harm avoidance scores. Due to these and other observations, a “parkinsonian personality” has been suggested. However, little is known about how these features relate to cognitive and affective disorders, which are also common in PD. We examined links between TPQ scores and performance on an attentional orienting task in a sample of 20 people with PD. In addition, associations between TPQ and depression and anxiety scores were explored. It was found that novelty seeking scores were significantly correlated with a reaction time measure of attentional orienting to visual novelty. Harm avoidance scores were significantly correlated with anxiety, but not depression scores. These findings extend our understanding of how temperament interacts with cognitive and affective features of the disorder.
Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L
Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection
Mahre, M B; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Jesse, F F A
The delayed domestication of may be associated with their poor temperament and to date there is no published information on the temperament of the farmed Understanding of the temperament and selection program for its evaluation in a breeding herd is important not only for farming but also to other types of animal production. We investigated the temperament of ( = 17) raised in the tropics and determined its relationship with stress. A distance of 13.2 m was fixed for the measurement of flight times. hinds with rapid speed are considered temperamental. Each hind was earmarked for a crush test score between 1 and 5; 1 represents calm and 5 represents highly agitated . Stress was determined by measuring plasma cortisol using a cortisol RIA kit and live weight gain was determined by weighing the animals weekly. The hinds were aged using their date of birth records. We found a strong negative correlation between flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration ( cortisol level and lower weight gain ( cortisol concentration could be used for selecting hinds based on temperament for the breeding herd. This method is quick and easy to implement on a farm; therefore, it remains the test choice for selecting animals based on temperament for the breeding herd.
Strong, Connie M; Nowakowska, Cecylia; Santosa, Claudia M; Wang, Po W; Kraemer, Helena C; Ketter, Terence A
To investigate temperament-creativity relationships in euthymic bipolar (BP) and unipolar major depressive (MDD) patients, creative discipline controls (CC), and healthy controls (HC). 49 BP, 25 MDD, 32 CC, and 47 HC (all euthymic) completed three self-report temperament/personality measures: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); and four creativity measures yielding six parameters: the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS-Total, BWAS-Like, and BWAS-Dislike), the Adjective Check List Creative Personality Scale (ACL-CPS), and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural (TTCT-F) and Verbal (TTCT-V) versions. Factor analysis was used to consolidate the 16 subscales from the three temperament/personality measures, and the resulting factors were assessed in relationship to the creativity parameters. Five personality/temperament factors emerged. Two of these factors had prominent relationships with creativity measures. A Neuroticism/Cyclothymia/Dysthymia Factor, comprised mostly of NEO-PI-R-Neuroticism and TEMPS-A-Cyclothymia and TEMPS-A-Dysthymia, was related to BWAS-Total scores (r=0.36, pcreativity. The former could provide affective (Neuroticism, i.e. access to negative affect, and Cyclothymia, i.e. changeability of affect) and the latter cognitive (flexibility) advantages to enhance creativity. Further studies are indicated to clarify mechanisms of creativity and its relationships to affective processes and bipolar disorders.
Helles, Adam; Wallinius, Märta; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva
Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades. Temperament and character were assessed in 40 adult males with a childhood diagnosis of ASD. Results were analysed by the stability of ASD diagnosis over time and current psychiatric comorbidity. Three distinct temperament and character profiles emerged from the data. Those no longer meeting criteria for ASD had high reward dependence while those with a stable ASD diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity showed elevated harm avoidance and low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Finally, those with a stable ASD and no comorbidity showed low novelty seeking and somewhat elevated harm avoidance. Temperament and character are important factors correlated with long-term diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity in males diagnosed with ASD in childhood. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.
Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Seyfarth, Robert M; Serpell, James A; Cheney, Dorothy L
It is often assumed that measures of temperament within individuals are more correlated to one another than to measures of problem solving. However, the exact relationship between temperament and problem-solving tasks remains unclear because large-scale studies have typically focused on each independently. To explore this relationship, we tested 119 prospective adolescent guide dogs on a battery of 11 temperament and problem-solving tasks. We then summarized the data using both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory principal components analysis. Results of confirmatory analysis revealed that a priori separation of tests as measuring either temperament or problem solving led to weak results, poor model fit, some construct validity, and no predictive validity. In contrast, results of exploratory analysis were best summarized by principal components that mixed temperament and problem-solving traits. These components had both construct and predictive validity (i.e., association with success in the guide dog training program). We conclude that there is complex interplay between tasks of "temperament" and "problem solving" and that the study of both together will be more informative than approaches that consider either in isolation.
Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D
Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
van den Akker, A.L.
The overall aim of this dissertation was to examine how child temperament and personality change, what the role of parenting is in explaining these changes, and how child temperament/personality and parenting together predict child internalizing and externalizing problems. In this dissertation, we took both a person-, and a variable-centered approach to the study of temperament and personality. Taking a person-centered approach, we showed that the personality types often found in research on ...
Giusti, Lorenzo; Provenzi, Livio; Tavian, Daniela; Missaglia, Sara; Butti, Niccolò; Montirosso, Rosario
Individual differences in infants' temperament are under genetic control. We investigated the association between brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF val66met ) polymorphism and temperament in 63 full-term infants. Met-carriers (N=25) had lower Regulatory capacities compared to val-homozygotes (N=38). These findings suggest that the BDNF polymorphism affects early temperament individual differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew S Fox
Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and
Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H
Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In
Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
Student's temperament plays a significant role in teacher's perception of the student's learning style, educational competence (EC), and teachability. Hence, temperament contributes to student's academic achievement and teacher's subjective ratings of school grades. However, little is known about the effect of gender and teacher's age on this association. We examined the effect of teacher's and student's gender and teacher's age on teacher-perceived temperament, EC, and teachability, and whether there is significant same gender or different gender association between teachers and students in this relationship. The participants were population-based sample of 3,212 Finnish adolescents (M= 15.1 years) and 221 subject teachers. Temperament was assessed with Temperament Assessment Battery for Children - Revised and Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey batteries and EC with three subscales covering Cognitive ability, Motivation, and Maturity. Data were analyzed with multi-level modelling. Teachers perceived boys' temperament and EC more negatively than girls'. However, the differences between boys and girls were not as large when perceived by male teachers, as they were when perceived by female teachers. Males perceived boys more positively and more capable in EC and teachability than females. They were also stricter regarding their perceptions of girls' traits. With increasing age, males perceived boys' inhibition as higher and mood lower. Generally, the older the teacher, the more mature he/she perceived the student. Teachers' ratings varied systematically by their gender and age, and by students' gender. This bias may have an effect on school grades and needs be taken into consideration in teacher education. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI. Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: 1 Curious/Energetic, 2 Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, 3 Analytical/Tough-minded, and 4 Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: 1 gender; 2 level of education; 3 religious preference; 4 political orientation; 5 the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the Fisher Temperament Inventory and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n=215, which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.
Liu, Fang; Ma, Li-Ji; Yi, Ming-Ji
Childhood behavioral problems can predict future psychiatric disorders. Temperament development is important for a healthy personality in adulthood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding is associated with the occurrence of behavioral problems and the temperament development in preschool children. A total of 737 children (399 boys and 338 girls) aged 4-5 years in Zibo City were recruited by stratified random cluster sampling. They were born at term with a birth weight of >/= 2.5 kg. The feeding patterns and the breastfeeding duration in infancy were collected. Behavioral and temperament developments were investigated by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), temperament questionnaire for 3-7-year-old children and a self-designed inventory questionnaire. The association of feeding patterns and the breastfeeding duration with behavioral problem occurrence and the temperament development in children were analyzed by a multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis and a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. After controlling for confounding variables, such as family income and parental education levels, it was found that a breastfeeding duration of >/= 9 months was a protective factor against behavioral problem occurrence in boys (OR=0.184). In girls, a breastfeeding duration of >/= 9 months was also a protective factor against behavioral problem occurrence (OR=0.165), while a mixed feeding with more breast milk and less formula milk was a risk factor (OR=2.203). The factors influencing temperament development consisted of exclusive formula feeding and the duration of breastfeeding (lasting for 4-6 months or 7-9 months) as well as a mixed feeding (with more formula milk and less breast milk, more breast milk and less formula milk, or equal amount of both). The fewer amounts and the shorter duration of breastfeeding are risk factors for behavioral problems occurrence in children aged 4-5 years. Children's temperament development is
Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat
The ability to characterise psychopathologies on the basis of their underlying neurobiology is critical in improving our understanding of disorder etiology and making more effective diagnostic and treatment decisions. Given the well-documented relationship between temperament (i.e. core personality traits) and psychopathology, research investigating the neurobiological substrates that underlie temperament is potentially key to our understanding of the biological basis of mental disorder. We present evidence that specific areas of the prefrontal cortex (including the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices) and limbic structures (including the amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) are key regions associated with three fundamental dimensions of temperament: Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Constraint. Proposed relationships are based on two types of research: (a) research into the neurobiological correlates of affective and cognitive processes underlying these dimensions; and (b) research into the neurobiology of various psychopathologies, which have been correlated with these dimensions. A model is proposed detailing how these structures might comprise neural networks whose functioning underlies the three temperaments. Recommendations are made for future research into the neurobiology of temperament, including the need to focus on neural networks rather than individual structures, and the importance of prospective, longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies in at-risk youth.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.
Full Text Available Self-regulation is associated with many positive outcomes, but there is limited information about individual difference regarding children’s spontaneous use of strategies to self-regulate and the relative success of those strategies. In the current study, we examined whether temperament and gender are associated with self-regulation and explored the types of spontaneous strategies children use during Mischel’s delay of gratification protocol. In addition, we investigated whether spontaneous strategy use during the task could moderate the effects of temperament on self-regulation and whether temperament would mediate the effect of gender on self-regulation. Participants were 349 9-year-olds (182 boys, Mage = 9.18, SD = 1.17. Mothers reported on children’s temperament and the Delay of Gratification task was used to assess self-regulation. Both temperament and child’s gender were significantly associated with children’s delay time. Girls were able to delay longer than boys, and children scoring high on activity level were less able to delay. Activity level also mediated the relationship between gender and delay time. Finally, we found an interaction effect between activity level and certain strategies in relation to self-regulatory behavior.
Farrell, Ann H; Brook, Christina; Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A
Conventionally, individual differences have been assessed using temperament measures for infants and children, and personality measures for adults. We chose to explore both temperament and personality to see whether a convergence exists specifically during adolescence. A sample of 225 adolescents completed Rothbart's Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R), a 4-factor temperament scale, and the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO PI-R), a 6-factor personality scale. As hypothesized, we found significant relations between the 2 measures. However, there were some important differences between the 2 measures regarding Honesty-Humility, Openness, and Frustration that highlight the unique contributions of both instruments to understanding and measuring adolescent individual differences. As there is a relatively scant history of measuring temperament or personality in adolescence, it is sometimes difficult for researchers to decide which instrument is most appropriate. The results reported here suggest that either the EATQ-R or the HEXACO PI-R could be appropriate, depending on the specific research questions being asked.
Hong, Fang; Doan, Stacey N; Lopez, Angelica; Evans, Gary W
Self-regulation is associated with many positive outcomes, but there is limited information about individual difference regarding children's spontaneous use of strategies to self-regulate and the relative success of those strategies. In the current study, we examined whether temperament and gender are associated with self-regulation and explored the types of spontaneous strategies children use during Mischel's delay of gratification protocol. In addition, we investigated whether spontaneous strategy use during the task could moderate the effects of temperament on self-regulation and whether temperament would mediate the effect of gender on self-regulation. Participants were 349 9-year-olds (182 boys, Mage = 9.18, SD = 1.17). Mothers reported on children's temperament and the Delay of Gratification task was used to assess self-regulation. Both temperament and child's gender were significantly associated with children's delay time. Girls were able to delay longer than boys, and children scoring high on activity level were less able to delay. Activity level also mediated the relationship between gender and delay time. Finally, we found an interaction effect between activity level and certain strategies in relation to self-regulatory behavior.
Chung, J H; Byun, H; Lee, S H; Park, C W; Jang, E Y
To describe the personality traits of temperament and character in patients with tinnitus and to identify differences in these traits associated with the severity of tinnitus. Case series with comparisons. Tertiary referral centre. From January to December 2014, one hundred and thirty-four adult patients with chronic subjective tinnitus completed psychoacoustic measurements of tinnitus and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Personality traits were assessed by the TCI. The TCI assesses seven dimensions of personality traits and four temperaments 'novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence', as well as three characters 'self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence'. The values of the TCI parameters in the tinnitus patients were compared with reference data from a non-institutional adult population, and associations between TCI parameter values and tinnitus severity were evaluated. In terms of temperament, tinnitus patients had higher scores for 'harm avoidance', whereas scores for 'novelty seeking', 'reward dependence' and 'persistence' were significantly lower than the reference. In terms of character, lower 'cooperativeness' and 'self-transcendence' were identified in the subjects with tinnitus. The 'novelty seeking' score was inversely related to tinnitus severity (r = -0.285, P = 0.001), while other temperament and character traits did not show significant correlations. There may be a connection between tinnitus and personality traits, especially in the case of 'novelty seeking', which is relatively constant over a lifetime. The TCI questionnaire may be useful in facilitating the application of personality traits to tailored counselling for tinnitus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study examined the role of child temperament as moderator of the effect of parenting style on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A series of structural equation models were fit to a representative sample of 2,631 Canadian children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In addition to testing for the presence of Temperament × Parenting interactions, these models also examined the direct and indirect effects of a number of additional contextual factors such as neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, social support, and maternal depression. The results indicate that exposure to more positive parenting reduces behavior problems in children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. No moderating effects of temperament on hostile parenting were found. Such results serve to highlight the pivotal role of positive features of the rearing environment as catalysts for the successful adaptation of children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. The results of this modeling work also serve to emphasize the importance of considering the ways in which more distal factors can affect children's behavioral adaptation by contributing to changes in proximal family processes.
Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.
The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN, with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE, was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD and 54 healthy control (HC subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.
Dopierala, Ewa; Chrobak, Adrian A; Kapczinski, Flavio; Michalak, Michal; Tereszko, Anna; Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Dudek, Dominika; Dembinska-Krajewska, Daria; Siwek, Marcin; Jaracz, Jan; Rybakowski, Janusz K
To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects. The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.
Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Kodama, Kensuke; Kohno, Kentaro; Makino, Mayu; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Araki, Yasuo; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori
There is a well-known association between artistic creativity and cyclothymic temperament but the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament have not yet been fully identified. Recently, we showed that the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus may be associated with esthetic judgment of representational paintings, we therefore sought to investigate brain activity during esthetic judgment of paintings in relation to measures of cyclothymic temperament. Regions of interest (ROI) were set at the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus using automated anatomical labeling, and percent signal changes of the ROIs were measured by marsbar toolbox. The associations between percent signal changes of the ROIs during esthetic judgments of paintings and cyclothymic temperament scores were investigated by Pearson׳s coefficient. Moreover, the associations were further analyzed using multiple regression analysis whereby cyclothymic temperament scores were a dependent factor and percent signal changes of the 3 ROIs and the other 4 temperament scores were independent factors. There was a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with the percent signal changes of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, but not with those of bilateral cuneus. Even after adjustment using multiple regression analysis, this finding remained unchanged. The number of subjects was relatively small and the task was limited to appreciation of paintings. The present findings suggest that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farmer, Richard F.; Goldberg, Lewis R.
The psychometric properties of the newest version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (the TCI-R) were evaluated in a large (n = 727) community sample, as was the TCI-140, a short inventory derivative. Facets-to-scale confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the TCI-R did not support the organization of temperament and character…
Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Frosch, Cynthia A.
This study explored how children's self-concepts were related to child temperament, dyadic parenting behavior, and triadic family interaction. At age 3, child temperament, mothers' and fathers' parenting behavior, and triadic (mother, father, and child) family interaction were observed in the homes of 50 families. At age 4, children's…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate
Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…
Venables, Peter H.; Raine, Adrian
Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of…
van den Akker, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028424
The overall aim of this dissertation was to examine how child temperament and personality change, what the role of parenting is in explaining these changes, and how child temperament/personality and parenting together predict child internalizing and externalizing problems. In this dissertation, we
This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...
Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per
Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.
Perugi, Giulio; Hantouche, Elie; Vannucchi, Giulia
Contrary to DSM-5 definition based on recurrence of low grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is better defined in a neurodevelopmental perspective as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament. Emotional dysregulation with extreme mood instability and reactivity is the core features of the complex symptomatology. In the present article, we critically reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of cyclothymia, focusing on the temperamental and neurodevelopmental perspectives. Current epidemiological and clinical research showed the high prevalence and the validity of cyclothymia as a distinct form of bipolarity, frequently associated with multiple comorbidities with anxiety, impulse control, substance use, and so called "personality" disorders. Many patients receive correct diagnosis and treatments after many years of illness, when the superposition of complications reduces the possibility of complete remission. A therapeutic model combining the focus on symptomatic presentations with a temperamental perspective seems to represent an effective approach for cyclothymic patients with complex clinical presentations. Cyclothymic mood instability is an understudied issue despite the evidence of its clinical relevance. Unresolved issues concern its diagnostic delimitation and the possible relationships with emotional dysregulation observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders. We need to confirm the specificity of the disorder and to improve its recognition in early phase of the life, especially in youth. Early recognition means avoiding unnecessary complications and establishing specific treatments and clinical management since the beginning.
Four groups of 16 people selected for their relatively extreme scores (greater or equal to 1 S.D. from the mean) on both the E and N scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory visited the laboratory for four separate but identical testing sessions. Three physiological indices were recorded at each session: heart rate (HR), basal skin conductance level (SCL), and the number of spontaneous skin conductance responses (SCR). Test-retest correlation coefficients were calculated within E x N groups across days. HR and SCR showed moderate to good reliabilities across all groups. The most interesting finding was that SCL was a consistently reliable index for extraverts but not for introverts. Correlations between days were statistically significant for extraverts but not for introverts. A speculative explanation for these results is that SCL is affected by cognitive activity rather than autonomic arousal per se. This study suggests that there are systematic effects of temperament on physiological measures that are important and should not be relegated to error variance.
Bosello, Romina; Favaro, Angela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Soave, Manuela; Vidotto, Giulio; Huon, Gail; Santonastaso, Paolo
The phenomenon of body art, such as tattoos and piercings, has ancient roots, rediscovered in Western society during the '70s. The aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence and the characteristics of tattoos and piercings among Italian adolescents of high school in Padua, with particular attention to family context and temperament. Some questionnaires about the presence or the wish of tattoos/piercings, smoke and alcohol use, familiar conflicts, and some temperamental features, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence, have been administered to a sample of 829 students. Tattoo and piercing's prevalence among adolescents was respectively 4% and 24%; 2.5% of the sample had both. Respectively 62% and 35% of the subjects expressed the desire of having a tattoo or piercing. A significant association has been found between tattoo/piercing's presence and smoke and alcohol use (p tattoos and piercings, are more likely to have familiar conflicts and minor perceived support and they have higher scores on the novelty seeking scale. Those who wish a tattoo/piercing showed higher reward dependence. This study confirms that tattoos/piercings are common among young people and it stresses the relevance of familiar and temperamental features, and the association between tattoos/piercings and some maladaptive behaviors, like smoke and alcohol use.
Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.
Brumariu, Laura E; Kerns, Kathryn A
This longitudinal study tested whether associations between early attachment history and temperament and later anxiety symptoms are direct, or are indirect and explained by children's competencies in regulating emotions and relating to peers. Attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, preoccupied, disorganized) were assessed at 15 and 36 months, and temperament (negative emotionality-NE, Shyness) was assessed at 54 months. Peer competence (PC) and the ability to manage intense emotions were assessed at early school age, and anxiety symptoms in preadolescence. Both attachment history and temperament predicted anxiety. PC mediated the relations of security and disorganization with anxiety, and the ability to manage intense emotions mediated the relation between security and anxiety. PC also mediated the relations of NE and shyness with anxiety, and the ability to manage intense emotions mediated the relation of NE with anxiety. The findings highlight specific mechanisms that may contribute to the development of anxiety.
Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.
Srivastava, Shefali; Ketter, Terence A
Although extensive literature supports connections between bipolar disorder and creativity, possible mechanisms underlying such relationships are only beginning to emerge. Herein we review evidence supporting one such possible mechanism, namely that personality/temperament contribute to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder, a theory supported by studies showing that certain personality/temperamental traits are not only common to bipolar disorder patients and creative individuals but also correlate with measures of creativity. Thus, we suggest based on studies using three important personality/temperament measures-the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO); the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); and the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A)-that changeable (increased TEMPS-A-cyclothymia) and at times negative (increased NEO-neuroticism) affect and open-minded (increased NEO-openness) and intuitive (increased MBTI-intuition) cognition may contribute importantly to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder.
Full Text Available This study investigated the interactive effects of proximal and distal environmental influences on child temperament. Specifically, the relation between mothers' own early familial experiences, mother-child attachment security, and child temperament was examined. Sixty mothers completed a semi-structured interview pertaining to their childhood attachment experiences with their own parents when children were aged 6 months, and completed a questionnaire on their children's temperament at 2 years. Mother-child attachment security was also rated at 2 years. Children whose mothers received higher scores of early adverse caregiving experiences displayed poorer temperamental activity level outcomes only when they also showed high concomitant levels of attachment security. The results suggest the transgenerational effect of maternal early life experiences on temperamental characteristics in the offspring, describing a pathway that might contribute to the familial transmission of risk stemming from the early caregiving environment.
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Volpe, Umberto; Di Maso, Virginia; Monteleone, Palmiero
Published studies suggested an implication of oxytocin in some temperament characteristics of personality. Therefore, we measured oxytocin secretion in 23 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19 healthy controls and explored the relationships between circulating oxytocin and patients' personality traits. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly reduced in AN women but not in BN ones. In healthy women, the attachment subscale scores of the reward dependence temperament and the harm avoidance (HA) scores explained 82% of the variability in circulating oxytocin. In BN patients, plasma oxytocin resulted to be negatively correlated with HA, whereas no significant correlations emerged in AN patients. These findings confirm a dysregulation of oxytocin production in AN but not in BN and show, for the first time, a disruption of the associations between hormone levels and patients' temperament traits, which may have a role in certain deranged behaviours of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Serafini, Gianluca; Berrettoni, Claudia; Angeletti, Gloria; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Tatarelli, Roberto; Lester, David; Roselli, Domenico; Primiero, Francesco M
The aim of the authors in this study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression and evaluate the association of affective temperaments with emotional disorders in a sample of 92 pregnant women consecutively admitted for delivery between March and December 2009. In the first few days postpartum, women completed the Suicidal History Self-rating Screening Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Gotland Male Depression Scale. Fifty percent of the women reported an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher, and 23% a score of 13 or higher. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament had higher mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale (p Suicidal History Self-Rating Screening Scale (p suicidality during the same period.
Peeters, Marie; Verwilghen, Denis; Serteyn, Didier
Horse handling and veterinary examination can induce hazardous stress reactions. Such reactions occur especially in young and less-trained horses, particularly stallions, and make their handling a risk for breeders, grooms, and medical staff. Moreover, these stressful situations will affect...... young stallions' temperament and its comparison with their stress reactions during a standardized veterinary examination for studbook admission. The assessment consists of a general examination, a lameness examination including flexion tests, an endoscopy of the upper airway, and a standardized...... in charge of the examination filled in a short questionnaire about the horse's temperament and the " easiness of manipulation" for the performed examinations. Breeders were asked to complete a longer questionnaire about their horse's temperament. The assessments of " aggressiveness," " sociability...
Otsuka, Ayano; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Masuya, Jiro; Ichiki, Masahiko; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi
Background Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus), and single and multiple regression analyses. Results The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were adults from the general population, the results may not be generalizable towards all patients with major depression. Conclusion This study suggests that child abuse and affective temperaments affect depressive symptoms partly through interpersonal sensitivity. Interpersonal sensitivity may
Asik, Mehmet; Altinbas, Kursat; Eroglu, Mustafa; Karaahmet, Elif; Erbag, Gokhan; Ertekin, Hulya; Sen, Hacer
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are reported to experience depressive episodes at a higher rate than healthy controls (HC). Affective temperament features are psychiatric markers that may help to predict and identify vulnerability to depression in women with PCOS. Our aim was to evaluate the affective temperaments of women with PCOS and to investigate the association with depression and anxiety levels and laboratory variables in comparison with HC. The study included 71 women with PCOS and 50 HC. Hormonal evaluations were performed for women with PCOS. Physical examination, clinical history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and TEMPS-A were performed for all subjects. Differences between groups were evaluated using Student's t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Correlations and logistic regression tests were performed. All temperament subtype scores, except hyperthymic, and HADS anxiety, depression, and total scores were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared to HC. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between BMI and irritable temperament, and insulin and HADS depression scores in patients with PCOS. Additionally, hirsutism score and menstrual irregularity were correlated with HADS depression, anxiety and total scores in PCOS patients. In logistic regression analysis, depression was not affected by PCOS, hirsutism score or menstrual irregularity. However, HADS anxiety score was associated with hirsutism score. Our study is the first to evaluate the affective temperament features of women with PCOS. Consequently, establishing affective temperament properties for women with PCOS may help clinicians predict those patients with PCOS who are at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borkowska, A; Bieliński, M; Szczęsny, W; Szwed, K; Tomaszewska, M; Kałwa, A; Lesiewska, N; Junik, R; Gołębiewski, M; Sikora, M; Tretyn, A; Akiskal, K; Akiskal, H
Many studies show high prevalence of affective disorders in obese patients. Affective temperament is a subclinical manifestation of such conditions. The 5-HTT gene encoding the serotonin transporter may be involved in both mood and eating dysregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene on affective temperament types, depressive symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI) in obese patients. This study involved 390 patients (237 females, and 153 males) with obesity. The TEMPS-A questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate affective temperaments and prevalence of depression. DNA was obtained for serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) genotyping. In obese patients S/S genotype was associated with depressive and L/L with cyclothymic temperament. Subjects with L/L genotype presented significantly higher BMI and greater intensity of depressive symptoms in BDI and HDRS. Females scored higher in anxious and depressive, while males in hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments. Females scored higher in BDI (subjective depression) while males in HDRS (objective depression). TEMPS-A, BDI and HDRS are frequently used in studies on affective disorders. However, these methods do not examine all dimensions of mood and personality. In obese patients S allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with development of depressive temperament while L allele corresponded with greater obesity and prevalence of depression. Different mechanisms may be involved in manifestation of depression in males and females with obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lockwood, S A; Kattesh, H G; Krawczel, P D; Kirkpatrick, F D; Saxton, A M; Rhinehart, J D; Wilkerson, J B
Excitable cattle are dangerous to personnel and have reduced individual performance. The aim of this study was to 1) identify objective criteria for evaluating bull temperament and 2) examine relationships among temperament, behavior, and performance of bulls during an 84-d performance test. Angus bulls ( = 60) were reared in 6 pens based on BW and age. Pen scores (PS; 1 = docile and 5 = very aggressive) were assigned on d -1, 27, 55, and 83. Exit velocity (EV), BW, time to exit the chute, and order through the chute were recorded on d 0, 28, 56, and 84. The ADG was calculated for the 84-d test period, and ultrasound data and frame score calculations were recorded on d 84. Dataloggers measured steps taken, lying time, number of lying bouts, and lying bout duration of bulls ( = 27; 3 pens) from d 3 to 28 and d 59 to 84. Bulls with a d -1 PS of 1 or 2 were categorized as calm (PScalm; = 40), whereas bulls with a PS of 3 or 4 were categorized as excitable (PSexcitable; = 20). Bulls were separated into 2 groups based on the bottom 20 EV (EVcalm) and top 20 EV (EVexcitable) on d 0. Mixed model ANOVA (SAS 9.3) was used to compare groups for the two temperament assessment methods, behavior, and growth performance. Mean EV decreased ( testing period. Additionally, the potential lack of innate temperament variation may have attributed to the little difference seen among the behavioral and performance data. Therefore, temperament should be reassessed within a novel environment with new handlers to differentiate between the bull's true temperament and its ability to habituate.
Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa
The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language
Full Text Available This study examined the effect of temperament on preferences for painted artwork. Our preferences are determined by different personality traits. The study presented here was a replication of the current study of Terror Management Theory (TMT with the structures of temperament as individual differences. The results showed significant differences in preferences for traditional and modern art, depending on the degree of harmonization of the temperamental structures. Sanguines and melancholics in the no fear condition evaluated modern art most highly, however in the fear condition they evaluated traditional art most highly. This effect confirms the importance of individual differences and the situational variability of preferences in art.
McMahon, C A; Boivin, J; Gibson, F L; Hammarberg, K; Wynter, K; Saunders, D; Fisher, J
Is anxiety focused on the pregnancy outcome, known to be particularly salient in women conceiving through assisted reproductive technology (ART), related to difficult infant temperament? While trait anxiety predicts infant temperament, pregnancy-focused anxiety is not associated with more difficult infant temperament. A large body of research has provided convincing evidence that fetal exposure to maternal anxiety and stress in pregnancy has adverse consequences for child neurodevelopmental, behavioural and cognitive development, and that pregnancy-specific anxiety (concerns related to the pregnancy outcome and birth) may be of particular significance. Women conceiving through ART are of particular interest in this regard. Research over more than 20 years has consistently demonstrated that while they do not differ from spontaneously conceiving (SC) women with respect to general (state and trait) anxiety, they typically report higher pregnancy-specific anxiety. While research suggests normal behavioural and developmental outcomes for children conceived through ART, there is some evidence of more unsettled infant behaviour during the first post-natal year. The longitudinal cohort design followed 562 nulliparous women over a 7-month period, during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4 months after birth. Approximately equal numbers of nulliparous women conceiving through ART (n = 250) and spontaneously (SC: n = 262) were recruited through ART clinics and nearby hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Participants completed three anxiety measures (state, trait, pregnancy specific) at time 1 in the third trimester of pregnancy and a measure of infant temperament at time 2, 4 months after birth. At time 1, relevant socio-demographic, pregnancy (maternal age, smoking, alcohol, medications, medical complications) information was recorded and at time 2, information regarding childbirth (gestation, infant birthweight, mode of delivery) and post-natal (concurrent
Thea Steen Skogheim
Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.
Full Text Available The research explores the role of gender and temperament in explaining direct and indirect aggression in first-grade primary school pupils. It is precisely at this age that some forms of aggression - which have been tolerated previously - become unsuitable in the school context and in peer relations. Due to the complexity of the topic, direct and indirect aggression were taken as relevant forms of aggression. Research participants were 146 first-grade primary school pupils and four class teachers. In order to assess pupils’ direct and indirect aggression we constructed the Scale for assessing aggression by the class teacher, and to assess pupils’ temperament we used a modified Scale for assessing temperament by the class teacher. Research results have revealed that at this age boys exhibit a higher level of both direct and indirect aggression. In order to determine the predictive value of temperament for pupils’ aggression, in addition to gender, the predictive model also included two types of temperament obtained based on factor analysis: active-inconsistent and passive-focused temperament. Direct aggression is best predicted by gender and both types of temperament, with the following dimensions as the most prominent: low adaptability, high level of activity and high distractibility. In the case of indirect aggression, both types of temperament proved to be significant predictors, with the following dimensions as the most prominent: high intensity of reaction and high level of activity. The results of moderation analysis have suggested that only the interaction of gender and active-inconsistent temperament is significant for explaining both types of aggression. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed further in the text.
McCreery, Michael P.
With the limited success of social skills training on particularly disruptive behaviors, researchers have begun to develop a more holistic approach grounded in "temperament" research that focuses on supporting underlying traits as they emerge during development. Based on this approach, this column provides a theoretical basis and…
This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...
Crawford, Nicole A.; Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
Research has traditionally focused on the role of genetic and environmental variables in the development and maintenance of childhood internalizing disorders. Temperament variables, such as negative affect and effortful control have gained considerable interest within the field of developmental psychopathology. Environmental factors such as…
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…
Sussman, Adrienne; Ha, James
We assessed developmental stability and context generalizability of temperament in pigtailed macaques ("Macaca nemestrina") from the University of Washington Infant Primate Research Lab. A principal components analysis condensed 6 behavioral measures into 2 components, interpreted as reactivity and boldness. Changes in these measures over the 1st…
Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.
This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…
Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia
The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…
Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.
This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…
LaBounty, Jennifer; Bosse, Lindsey; Savicki, Stephanie; King, Jaline; Eisenstat, Sophie
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament and social cognition, including theory of mind and emotion understanding, in 34 preschool-aged children (aged 3-4 years). Theory of mind was measured with a belief-desire reasoning assessment, and emotion understanding was measured with an affective…
Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.
Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…
Soskin, David P; Carl, Jenna R; Alpert, Jonathan; Fava, Maurizio
Given the limited efficacy of current pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and the historical decline in antidepressant development, there is increasing clinical urgency to develop more effective treatments. To synthesize findings from clinical psychology and affective neuroscience related to the construct of emotional temperament; to examine the effects of antidepressants on the temperament dimensions of positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA); and to propose a biobehavioral research paradigm for the treatment of MDD. We begin with an introduction to PA and NA, which emphasizes their construct development, historical context, and relevance to psychopathology. We then review studies of antidepressant effects on PA and NA, and explore two related hypotheses: (1) Cause-correction: The antidepressant response may fundamentally occur through changes in emotional temperament, with subsequent spread to syndrome or symptom changes; (2) preferential effects: Antidepressants with different mechanisms of action may have preferential effects on PA or NA. Preliminary findings appear to support the cause-correction hypothesis; there is insufficient clinical evidence to support the preferential effects hypothesis. PA and NA are biologically based temperament dimensions, which modulate emotional, motivational, and behavioral responses to positive and negative incentives. They can be altered by antidepressants, and may independently contribute to depression improvement. In addition, the distinct biobehavioral features of PA and NA suggest that combined pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting these dimensions may have specific, and perhaps, synergistic antidepressant effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; De Clercq, Barbara J.
To test the spectrum hypothesis--postulating that clinical and non-clinical samples are primarily differentiated by mean-level differences--, this study evaluates differences in parent-rated temperament, personality and maladjustment among a low-symptom (N = 81), a high-symptom (N = 94) ASD-group, and a comparison group (N = 500). These classic…
Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W
Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.
Mittal, Renu; Russell, Beth S.; Britner, Preston A.; Peake, Philip K.
Delay of gratification in young children has been linked to long-term behavioral and academic outcomes. This study explored temperament, personality, and child-parent attachment as possible associates of delay ability. The sample consisted of 50 2- and 3-year-old children and their primary caregivers. Two laboratory tasks, the Preschool Strange…
Dragan, Malgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech L.; Kononowicz, Tadeusz; Wells, Adrian
The present study examined the relations between temperamental traits distinguished in regulative theory of temperament, state anxiety, and metacognition as postulated in self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) theory of emotional disorder. Data analysis (n = 315) consisted of independent and
Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan
The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…
Trofimova, Irina N
The Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) was proposed by Rusalov in 1989 and subsequently tested in five languages. The questionnaire assesses four temperamental traits (Ergonicity, Plasticity, Tempo, and Emotionality) in three separate areas of activity: physical, verbal-social, and intellectual. The scales are all activity-specific. In 775 Canadian subjects, two temperament tests were compared, both developed on the basis of Pavlovian studies of the nervous system: the activity-specific approach (STQ) and the nonspecific Pavlovian Temperamental Survey (PTS). More significant sex differences were found on activity-specific scales of the STQ than on the nonspecific PTS scales. The pattern of correlations between the STQ scales and the time taken on an experimental task requiring a prolonged and intense word-assessment activity showed stronger correlations with the specific scales of the STQ measuring the dynamic aspects of social-verbal activity, and not with the PTS Strength of Excitation scale, which is based on a "general arousal" concept. The results supported the separation of temperament traits related to three different types of activities and opposed to "general arousal" theories of temperament.
Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women.
Chen, Nan; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann
In order to advance our understanding of the etiology of individual differences in child maladjustment (i.e., conduct and emotional problems), we tested hypotheses about the statistical interactions between child temperament and two aspects of the family environment: maternal negativity and positivity, and household chaos (e.g., crowding, noise, lack of routines). Mothers (n = 149) reported on their child's effortful control, negative affect, surgency, and behavioral/emotional problems. The age range of the children was 3 to 7 years old and half of the sample was girls. Observers rated maternal negativity and positivity based on brief structured interaction tasks in the laboratory. Child temperament moderated the association between maternal negativity/positivity and child maladjustment. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were associated only for those children who also were high in surgency or negative affectivity. Maternal positivity was associated with less child problem behavior for those high in surgency. Child effortful control interacted with both maternal negativity and chaos. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were most strongly associated for children who were low in effortful control and living in chaotic homes. The results point to distinct transactions between child temperament and maternal negativity/positivity that depend in part on the dimensions of temperament and parenting behavior in question.
Henderson, Heather A.; Wachs, Theodore D.
In this paper we review current definitions and measurement approaches used to assess individual differences in children's temperament. We review the neural bases of temperamental reactivity and self-regulation and propose that these constructs provide a framework for examining individual differences and developmental change in emotion-cognition…
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu
This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…
Patricia Susana Bárrig Jó
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament, social competence, and behavioral problems in preschool-age children. The study is based on a sample of 66 children, 40 males and 26 females, between 2 and 6 years old (M = 3.92, SD = 1.01, and their mothers. Temperament was assessed using the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, Short Version (CBQ; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006, which provides data on the dimensions of Surgency, Negative Affect, and Effortful Control. We used the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (SCBE-30, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996 to assess Social Competence as well as problems of Anxiety and Aggressive behavior in children. First, boys showed lower scores in both Negative Affectivity and Effortful Control than girls. The study’s main analysis identified a significant negative association between Surgency and Anxiety. In addition, the three dimensions of temperament were associated with aggression-behavioral problems: Surgency and Negative Affectivity in a positive direction, whereas Effortful Control was associated negatively. Finally, Effortful Control showed a moderate and positive correlation with social competence. These results are consistent with contemporary theoretical and empirical evidence on the topic. However, future studies should consider larger samples to know the scope of temperament and social competence in preschool-age children.
Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; de Winter, Andrea; Ormel, J.
Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch
Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of temperament and self-assessment characteristics in higher educational establishment students. Material: in the research 1st and 2nd year students (n=30 participated. Questioning was used, with the help of which personality’s self assessment and temperament characteristics were estimated. Results: the study of students’ temperament structure showed low demand in mastering of objective world and strive for mental and physical labor. High indicator of social activity and interpersonal skills was registered. The following indicators of self-assessment were received: 15% of students had too low self-assessment, 50% of students have adequate self-assessment and 10% have excessively high self-assessment. Conclusions: quickness of psychic processes (tem and rhythm, impressiveness and emotional sensitivity are important features of temperament. Students demonstrated feeling of anxiety and worry in respect to their studying at university. Besides the have sensitivity to failures to non coincidence of the desired and the results. студентов. With it students have adequate self assessment.
Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Randel, R D; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H
The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide(LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score. Bulls (10 months; 211±5kg BW; n = 6, 8 and 7 for Calm, Intermediate and Temperamental groups, respectively) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, epinephrine and cortisol before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg BW LPS). Feed intake was also recorded. Intermediate bulls consumed more feed than the Temperamental bulls during the challenge (p = 0.046). Pre-LPS glucose (p = 0.401) and BUN (p = 0.222) did not differ among the temperament groups. However, pre-LPS insulin (p = 0.023) was lower, whereas pre-LPS NEFA (p metabolic responses of Brahman bulls following a provocative endotoxin challenge.Specifically, Temperamental bulls may preferentially utilize an alternate energy source (i.e. NEFA) to a greater degree than do bulls of Calm and Intermediate temperaments. The use of circulating NEFA from lipolysis may reduce the negative metabolic consequences of an immune response by allowing for a prompt answer to increasing energy demands required during immunological challenge, compared with the time required for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M
Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.
Full Text Available Objective. Temperament traits like high harm avoidance (HA have been proposed as putative risk factors for the development of eating disorders (EDs. We aimed at studying the relationship between temperament and eating attitudes on a large community sample of adolescents. Method. We recruited 992 high school students aged 14–18. In addition to measuring body mass index (BMI, participants were asked to complete the temperament and character inventory and the food frequency questionnaire. Results. Sixty-two percent of the sample reported overeating, 22.8% reported normal eating, and 15.2% reported under eating. Under and normal eaters had higher BMI than that of over eaters. Harm avoidance was found to be significantly higher in those participants with lower eating intakes whilst novelty seeking was found to be higher in over eaters. Conclusion. An interesting association between temperament (high HA and food approach (under eating emerged. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether these traits represent a risk factor for the development of EDs.
Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.
The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…
Mikołajczyk, Elzbieta; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Smiarowska, Małgorzata; Syrek, Szymon
One of the factors influencing eating disorders are personality traits. The authors analyse temperament and character of healthy women. The Cloninger Temperament and character Inventory was applied to 52 eating disordered patients (33 with anorexia nervosa and 19 with bulimia nervosa). The patients were divided into subgroups of restrictive type and bulimic types of anorexia, bulimia and bulimic episodes. In all the subgroups of the patients a higher result was obtained on the harm avoidance scale (HA), cooperativeness (C) and the self transcendence ST2 subscale. Lower results were seen in self-directedness (SD) in the SD2, SD3 and SD5 subscales. The subgroups differed in temperament. Bulimia patients noted a higher need for NS stimulation and a higher reward dependence (RD). Anorectic patients had higher results in the persistance scale (P), whilst the restrictive anorectic patients had lower results in the NS1 and RD3 subscales. The TCI Inventory is a useful tool, helping for a precise measurement of the difference in temperament of anorectic and bulimia patients as compared to their healthy peers.
Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.
Guided by evolutionary game theory (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005), this study aimed to identify the genetic precursors and the psychosocial sequelae of inhibited temperament in a sociodemographically disadvantaged and racially diverse sample (N = 201) of 2-year-old children who experienced elevated levels of domestic violence.…
Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Marta; Cerutti, Rita
Research Findings: The present cross-sectional study investigated the question of whether 6 different temperament dimensions (inhibition to novelty, social orientation, motor activity, positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and attention) influenced cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in 168 children (86 three/four-year-olds and 82…
Laible, Deborah; Eye, Jessica; Carlo, Gustavo
The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspects of conscience cohere into broader dimensions and to examine how these broader dimensions of conscience relate to parenting, temperament, and social behavior. One hundred and thirteen adolescents (M age = 15.88 years, 51% female) completed measures of sympathy, guilt, empathic anger, shame,…
Kelly, Kevin R.; Jugovic, Heidi
Data from the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II online instrument and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 203 college freshmen were analyzed. Positive correlations appeared between the concurrent MBTI and Keirsey measures of psychological type, giving preliminary support to the validity of the online version of Keirsey. (Contains 28 references.)…
Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA, is associated with pain-related anxiety. METHODS: One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20. Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. RESULTS: The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. CONCLUSION: Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge
This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…
McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.
Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…
Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne
Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior
Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Elliot, Andrew J; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Ashraf
People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament, general self-efficacy, implicit theories of intelligence, and contingencies of self-worth based in others' approval, competition and academic competence. The results indicated that approach temperament, general self-efficacy and incremental theory were positively related, and entity theory was negatively related to cooperative preferences (|r| range from .11 to .41); approach temperament, general self-efficacy, competition contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related to competitive preferences (|r| range from .16 to .46); and avoidance temperament, entity theory, competitive contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related, and incremental theory was negatively related to individualistic preferences (|r| range from .09 to .15). The findings are discussed with regard to the meaning of each of the three social interdependence orientations, cultural differences among the observed relations and implications for practitioners. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Collings, Ashleigh; O'Connor, Erin; McClowry, Sandee
Previous research finds that children experience a range of school readiness challenges (e.g., Chartier, Walker, & Naimark, 2010; Zill, 1999). Such challenges vary by children's gender, temperament, and participation in school-based interventions (e.g., Mullola et al., 2011; Bramlett, Scott, Rowell, 2000). However, the examination of child…
Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah
This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…
van den Akker, Alithe L.; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Asscher, Jessica J.
This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N = 96) rated their child's (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1 year. The assessment of parenting included both…
Recent research suggests that children's heightened susceptibility to parenting may have a (poly)genetic basis, and may be grounded in children's temperament. However, much current evidence is of a preliminary—correlational—nature. Because in correlational designs alternative explanations for
Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Shrapnel, Marilyn
This exploratory study serves as a starting point to establish a psychobiological profile for rural GPs. The overall aim is to describe how individual levels and combinations of temperament (mildly heritable) and character (influenced by sociocultural learning) traits allow GPs to flourish or fail in rural medicine. In a mixed-method study, 13 rural GPs (rural and remote metropolitan areas 5-7, minimum 7 years of experience) from Central/Southern Queensland, Australia completed the Temperament and Character Inventory-R140 to identify the intensity of the seven basic dimensions of temperament and character. These are novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativenes and self-transcendence. Semistructured interviews provided in-depth information on what brought them to and kept them in rural practice. Preliminary results show that our sample of rural GPs are highly self directed, caring, cooperative, objective and persistent. Individual variations occur in the temperament dimensions of harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence. In particular, GPs who intended to leave rural practice due to dissatisfaction had significantly higher harm avoidance (F = 23.74; P career, and might provide a greater understanding of rural doctors. This information could provide a basis for counselling of students with an interest in rural medicine and for informing policy on appropriate initiatives for rural GPs and the communities they serve.
Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Przybeck, Thomas R
This study explored temperament and character traits in medical students to identify the possible predictive value of these traits to students with varying levels of intention to pursue rural medicine. This work is the precursor to a better understanding of personality traits associated with medical disciplines within specific environments such as rural medicine. The long term aim is to increase the recruitment of students who are best suited, and choose to practice in rural locations. Medical students (272) completed a demographic survey and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R 140) to identify levels of the seven basic dimensions of temperament and character. Multivariate statistics explored differences between students' TCI levels based on gender, rural origin and level of intention to pursue rural medicine. Analysis showed only main effects and confirmed significant differences in certain TCI dimensions between students with a high compared to a low or medium intention to practice rural medicine and between males and females. Preliminary findings suggest that certain temperament and character traits may be related to interest in rural medicine however the efficacy of assessing personality traits as an adjunct to medical school training and career counselling remains uncertain.
Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof
Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Kebza, V.; Jelínek, Martin
Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-70 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adult resilience * early temperament * parenting style * demandingness * responsiveness Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2016
Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam
This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious…
Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert R.; Dumenci, Levent; Ayer, Lynsay; Hudziak, James J.
The study applies latent profiles analysis to a group of children and adolescents to test temperament phenotypes in order to examine their association to wellness and psychopathology. One of the results concluded that lifetime disorder was lower in the steady class as compared to moderate class.
Center, David; Kemp, Dawn
This report examines the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) in children and adolescents from the perspective of Hans Eysenck's bio-social theory of personality. The theory views personality as a product of the interaction of temperament and socialization. Eysenck's three-factor model of personality is comprised of Extroversion (E), Neuroticism…
Majdandzic, Mirjana; van den Boom, Dymphna C.; Heesbeen, Daniella G. M.
The authors of the present study addressed the measurement of temperament by examining the convergence between observational and questionnaire measures and the occurrence of contrast effects in parental ratings of nontwin siblings on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Fathers', mothers', and observers' ratings of 94 early-school-age sibling…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.
Hall, Elisabeth O C; Wilson, Margaret E; Frankenfield, Joanne A
To test the psychometric properties of a Danish translation of the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) and to establish standards for scoring the questionnaire. The general aim was to create a translation that remained close to the original version, was meaningful for the Danish participants, and had acceptable psychometric properties. Patterns of temperament can be discerned early in life and tend to persist over time and across situations. For the past 50 years, temperament has been studied by theorists, clinicians and nurse clinicians to predict behaviour, discover interventions that prevent serious behaviour disturbances, and help parents understand the implications of their child's temperament. Thomas and Chess's conceptualization of temperament in nine categories was the framework for the development of the English-language EITQ. Research methods. The translation followed a stepwise process of translation, back translation and consensus. A convenience sample of 204 Danish mothers with 1-4-month old infants completed the translated questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire in 1999. Alpha coefficients for the nine subscales ranged from 0.59 to 0.82. All alpha coefficients were comparable to or higher than those reported on the original United States standardization study. There were statistically significant differences between reported United States mean scores and those in the Danish sample. The psychometric properties of the Danish translation are equal to or better than those reported for the United States study. Differences in mean scores or most subscales point to the need to create Danish profiles for scoring. The Danish version of the EITQ has acceptable reliability and is ready for use in Denmark.
Azorin, J M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R
Literature suggests bipolars may differ in several features according to predominant polarity, but the role of temperaments remains controversial. The EPIDEP study was designed to identify bipolar patients among a large sample of major depressives. Only bipolars were included in the current study. Patients were subtyped as predominantly depressive (PD) and predominantly manic and hypomanic (PM) according to a broad (more episodes of a given polarity) and a narrow (2/3 of episodes of one polarity over the other) definition, and compared on their characteristics. Among 278 bipolars, 182 (79.8%) could be subtyped as PD and 46 (20.2%) as PM (broad definition); the respective proportions were of 111 (81.6%) and 25 (18.4%) using narrow definition. Expanding the definition added little in detecting differences between groups. Compared to PDs, PMs showed more psychosis, rapid cycling, stressors at onset, family history of affective illness, and manic first episode polarity; they also received more antipsychotics and lithium. The PDs showed more chronic depression, comorbid anxiety, and received more antidepressants, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. The following independent variables were associated with manic/hypomanic predominant polarity: cyclothymic temperament, first hospitalization≤25 years, hyperthymic temperament, and alcohol use (only for broad definition). Cross-sectional design, recall bias. Study findings are in accord with literature except for suicidality and mixicity which were related to predominant mania, and explained by higher levels of cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments. Temperaments may play a key role in the subtyping of bipolar patients according to predominant polarity, which warrants confirmation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CONCLUSION: The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state.
Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between temperament and internalising and externalising problems among children of parents diagnosed with cancer, beyond the effects of sociodemographics, illness-related variables and life events. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty
Moran, Lyndsey; Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Klien, Melanie; Thompson, Stephanie; Kiff, Cara
Using both variable- and person-centered approaches, this study examined the role of temperament in relation to children's vulnerable or resilient responses to cumulative risk. Observed reactivity and regulation dimensions of temperament were tested as mediating and moderating the relation between family cumulative risk and teacher-reported adjustment problems in a sample of 259 preschool-age children. Further, latent profile analyses were used to examine whether profiles of temperament, accounting for multiple characteristics simultaneously, provided additional information about the role of temperament in children's responses to risk. Results support a diathesis-stress model in which high frustration, low fear, and low delay ability confer particular vulnerability for children in high-risk contexts. Benefits of multiple approaches are highlighted.
Schuehle Pfeiffer, C E; King, D A; Lucia, L M; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Acuff, G R; Randel, R D; Welsh, T H; Oliphint, R A; Curley, K O; Vann, R C; Savell, J W
To test the influence of transportation stress and temperament on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, cattle (n=150) were classified at various stages of production as Excitable, Intermediate or Calm based on a variety of disposition scores. Presence of E. coli O157:H7 was determined by rectal swabs from live animals and from colons collected postmortem. Percentage of cattle shedding E. coli O157:H7 at arrival at the feedlot was approximately equal among temperament groups. Before shipment to the processing facility, a higher (P=0.03) proportion of cattle from the Calm group shed E. coli O157:H7 compared to the other temperament groups. When pooled across all sampling periods, cattle from the Calm group had a greater percentage test positive for E. coli O157:H7. Neither the acute stressor of transportation nor a more excitable temperament led to increased shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle.
Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa, 1946-
Helsingi Ülikooli õpetajahariduse osakonnas läbi viidavast uurimusest, millega soovitakse selgitada, kas õpetajaks pürgijate temperament esindab rahvastiku keskmist või valivad selle eriala pigem teatud spetsiifiliste temperamendijoonte kandjad
Full Text Available Ayano Otsuka,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Jiro Masuya,1 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus, and single and multiple regression analyses. Results: The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations: Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were
Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Frosch, Cynthia A.
This study explored how children’s self-concepts were related to child temperament, dyadic parenting behavior, and triadic family interaction. At age 3, child temperament, mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behavior, and triadic (mother, father, and child) family interaction were observed in the homes of fifty families. At age 4, children’s self-concepts were assessed using the Children’s Self-View Questionnaire (Eder, 1990). Analyses revealed that temperamental proneness-to-distress and triadic...
Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Buss, Kristin A.
Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
Zarra-Nezhad, Maryam; Aunola, Kaisa; Kiuru, Noona; Mullola, Sari; Moazami-Goodarzi, Ali
This study investigated the associations between parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) and children’s emotional development (emotion expression) during the first grade of primary school, and the moderating role of children’s temperament (easy, difficult, and inhibited) in these associations. Mothers and fathers of 152 children responded to a questionnaire concerning their parenting styles and their child’s temperament at the beginning of their child’s fir...
Clauss, J A; Avery, S N; Blackford, J U
What makes us different from one another? Why does one person jump out of airplanes for fun while another prefers to stay home and read? Why are some babies born with a predisposition to become anxious? Questions about individual differences in temperament have engaged the minds of scientists, psychologists, and philosophers for centuries. Recent technological advances in neuroimaging and genetics provide an unprecedented opportunity to answer these questions. Here we review the literature on the neurobiology of one of the most basic individual differences-the tendency to approach or avoid novelty. This trait, called inhibited temperament, is innate, heritable, and observed across species. Importantly, inhibited temperament also confers risk for psychiatric disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of inhibited temperament, including neuroimaging and genetic studies in human and non-human primates. We conducted a meta-analysis of neuroimaging findings in inhibited humans that points to alterations in a fronto-limbic-basal ganglia circuit; these findings provide the basis of a model of inhibited temperament neurocircuitry. Lesion and neuroimaging studies in non-human primate models of inhibited temperament highlight roles for the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsal prefrontal cortex. Genetic studies highlight a role for genes that regulate neurotransmitter function, such as the serotonin transporter polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR), as well as genes that regulate stress response, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Together these studies provide a foundation of knowledge about the genetic and neural substrates of this most basic of temperament traits. Future studies using novel imaging methods and genetic approaches promise to expand upon these biological bases of inhibited temperament and inform our understanding of risk for psychiatric disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A
Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological measure of self-regulation that has been studied as a moderator of risk. The primary aim of the present study was to test if RSA baseline and RSA reactivity would moderate the link between temperament and socioemotional outcomes. Mothers reported the temperament of their infants (20 months; N = 154), RSA was collected at 24- and 42-months, and mothers reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors at kindergarten entry. RSA baseline and RSA reactivity moderated the relation between exuberant temperament and externalizing behaviors. However, these results were only significant for girls, such that high RSA baseline and greater RSA suppression predicted more externalizing behaviors when exuberance was high. Fearful temperament predicted later internalizing behaviors, but no moderation was present. These results are discussed in light of recent evidence regarding gender differences in the role of RSA as a protective factor for risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Festen, Helma; Hartman, Catharina A; Hogendoorn, Sanne; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J M; Reichart, Catrien G; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H
A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Participants were 145 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders who received a 12-session CBT program and were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment and three months follow-up. Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the following pretreatment and posttreatment variables as potential predictors of treatment response at follow-up: baseline level of anxiety symptoms, child reported maternal and paternal rearing style (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection), parent reported child temperament traits (negative affect, effortful control, and extraversion), and mothers' and fathers' self-report temperament traits. More maternal negative affect and less emotional warmth as perceived by the child before treatment were related to less favorable treatment outcome (accounting for 29% of the variance in anxiety at follow-up). Furthermore, maternal negative affect and children's extraversion measured after treatment also predicted anxiety at follow-up (together accounting for 19% of the variance). Paternal temperament and parenting style were unrelated to treatment outcome, as were children's pretreatment temperament traits. The results suggest that tailoring intervention to include strategies to reduce maternal negative affect and promote an emotional warm rearing style may improve treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andre, Kadri; Kampman, Olli; Viikki, Merja; Illi, Ari; Setälä-Soikkeli, Eija; Poutanen, Outi; Mononen, Nina; Leinonen, Esa; Lehtimäki, Terho
In major depression, one of the candidate genes possibly affecting the risk and severity of symptoms has been found to be tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1). Variation in treatment response to antidepressive agents according to TPH1 genotype has also been found in several studies. However, the relationship between temperament and TPH1 genotype in major depression is poorly understood, as only one study has been published so far. There are no earlier studies on the interaction between temperament traits, antidepressive medication response and TPH1 genotype. This interaction was studied in 97 subjects with major depression treated for six weeks with selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors. Temperament dimensions Harm Avoidance (HA), Novelty Seeking (NS), Reward Dependence (RD) and Persistence (P) scores at baseline (1) and endpoint (2) were rated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared between TPH1 A218C genotypes. Multivariate analysis of co-variance (MANCOVA) was used to analyze the interaction between the TPH1 genotype, treatment response and the different temperament dimensions at baseline and endpoint. In the analysis model, treatment response was used as a covariate and TPH1 genotype as a factor. A post hoc analysis for an interaction between remission status and TPH1 A218C genotype at endpoint HA level was also performed. The number of TPH1 A-alleles was associated with increasing levels in NS1 and NS2 scores and decreasing levels in HA1 and HA2 scores between TPH1 A218C genotypes. In the MANCOVA model, TPH1 genotype and treatment response had an interactive effect on both HA1 and HA2 scores, and to a lesser degree on NS2 scores. Additionally, an interaction between remission status and TPH1 A218C genotype was found to be associated with endpoint HA score, with a more marked effect of the interaction between CC genotype and remission status compared to A-allele carriers. Our results suggest that in acute depression TPH1 A218C polymorphism
Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...... disorder (CD/ODD) but not ADHD accounted for problems in BRIEF Emotional Control and Self-Monitor and JTCI low Cooperativeness. CONCLUSION: The two instruments only partially overlap and may complement each other....
Vivian Caroline Klein
Full Text Available International research has increasingly considered temperament as a relevant personal variable in child developmental pathways. The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology for translation to Portuguese (Brazil of three child temperament assessment instruments based on Rothbart´s theoretical approach. An original translation was modified, based on feedback by two professional translators, three bilingual psychologists, and a sample of 15 Brazilian mothers. A backtranslation by a professional translator was then assessed by the authors of the original (English language instruments. For the final version of the measure, authors of the original instrument judged that 100% of items were consistent with the original items, and a second sample of 15 Brazilian mothers identified no problems with the Portuguese items.
Carranza, José Antonio; González-Salinas, Carmen; Ato, Ester
The aim of this work was to study the continuity of temperament in a Spanish sample (n = 60), covering the developmental stages of infancy, toddlerhood and childhood. Temperamental dimensions showed, with few exceptions, as much homotypic as heterotypic continuity as was to be expected. At the level of latent superconstructs continuity, we found that Anger and Fear followed different developmental paths and showed continuity over all the periods evaluated. Positive Affect/Regulation superconstruct showed continuity from infancy to toddlerhood. From toddlerhood, Positive Affect/Regulation showed continuity with the superconstruct of Effortful Control but not with the superconstruct of Surgency/Extraversion. At an ipsative level, we found two groups of subjects, labeled 'nonexpressive/controlled' and 'noncontrolled/expressive'. Generally, these results confirm the stability of temperament in the periods analyzed and underline the importance of toddlerhood as a transitional period in the maturity of self-regulatory capabilities shown in childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Sam; Kliewer, Rachel
Examined relationships between temperament, measured via parent report at 4 months and structures laboratory observations at 12 months of age, and a school readiness battery administered at about 4 years of age (N=31). Scores on the School Readiness Assessment of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) were related to infant Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), with infants described as demonstrating higher levels of PAS at 4 months of age later demonstrating greater school readiness in the domains of color, letter, and number skills. Regulatory Capacity/Orienting (RCO) at 4 months also predicted color skills, with more regulated infants demonstrating superior pre-academic functioning in this area. Analyses involving laboratory observations of temperament provided additional information concerning the importance of infant Positive Affectivity/Surgency, predictive of overall letter skills and overall school-readiness scores later in childhood. Results are discussed in the context of implications for theory and research, as well as early education settings.
Li, Mengjiao; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann
Can detection of highly stable individual differences in temperament in early childhood be enhanced using measures of resting heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)? The current longitudinal study (N = 216, 50% female; two to four years old) tested the statistical moderating effects of longitudinal change in resting HR and RSA on stability of mother-rated temperament. Children with the smallest decreases in resting HR and smallest increases in resting RSA had the most stable individual differences in effortful control. In contrast, those with the largest increases in resting RSA had the most stable individual differences in surgency. Including information on HR and RSA can be useful, though the effects depend on the trait and physiological indicator in question.
Crawford, Nicole A; Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
Research has traditionally focused on the role of genetic and environmental variables in the development and maintenance of childhood internalizing disorders. Temperament variables, such as negative affect and effortful control have gained considerable interest within the field of developmental psychopathology. Environmental factors such as mother-child interactions and family cohesion have also been linked with internalizing disorders. The current study examines the relationship between child negative affect, effortful control, maternal negative affect, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms in a sample of preschool-aged children using a path analysis approach. Sixty-five children, aged 3-5 years and their mothers completed measures on child temperament, family environment, maternal personality, and child internalizing symptoms. Results support a complex model for the influence of both direct and indirect factors on internalizing symptoms in preschool-aged children.
Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Merwin, Stephanie M; Smith, Victoria C; Dougherty, Lea R
The biological basis of parenting has received recent attention given the profound effects of parenting on both child and parent health outcomes. This study examined the moderating role of child temperamental effortful control on the association between observed parental hostility and parents' cortisol awakening response (CAR), a critical index of stress system functioning. Participants included 149 parents and their preschool-aged children. Parents obtained salivary cortisol samples at waking, and 30 and 45 min post-waking across two consecutive days. Parental hostility was assessed during an observational parent-child interaction task, and child effortful control was assessed using parent report. Parental hostility was associated with parents' lower cortisol levels at 30 and 45 min post-waking and lower CAR. Moreover, results demonstrated an interaction between parenting and child temperament on parent CAR. The findings highlight the need to examine the interplay between parenting and child temperament on parents' stress physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Laurent, Heidemarie; Powers, Sally
Difficulty managing the stress of conflict in close relationships can lead to mental and physical health problems, possibly through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine stress response system. Temperament, an individual characteristic, and attachment, a dyadic characteristic, have both been implicated in emotion regulation processes and physiological reactivity, yet there is no clear consensus on how the two work together to influence the stress response, especially after childhood. The present study investigated the ways in which temperament and attachment together predict HPA response in emerging adult couples. Analyses using multilevel modeling (HLM) found that partners' dyadic fit on attachment avoidance impacted females' cortisol response patterns, and attachment avoidance further moderated the effect of males' emotionality on both their own and their partners' cortisol. Results are discussed in terms of emotional coregulation processes in romantic attachment. PMID:17681662
Barros, Luísa; Goes,Ana Rita; Pereira, Ana Isabel
This work presents a theoretical and integrative review about parental self-regulation and emotional regulation processes, and its connections with parental coping and temperament. Parents' adaptation requires the ability to regulate their own behavior in reaction to their perception and interpretation of the child's behavior. These self-regulation processes are often intertwined with intense emotions that need to be regulated. Parenting attitudes and behaviors cannot be fully understood with...
Burdick, N C; Banta, J P; Neuendorff, D A; White, J C; Vann, R C; Laurenz, J C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D
Interrelationships among growth, endocrine, immune, and temperament variables were assessed in neonatal Brahman calves. The velocity upon exiting a working chute (exit velocity) of an animal was measured and used as an objective indicator of temperament to classify calves as calm, intermediate, or temperamental. Calves (n = 116) were weighed weekly between d 0 and 21 to 24, and blood samples were collected for plasma and serum on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 to 24 after birth to measure concentrations of immunoglobulins, cortisol, and epinephrine (EPI). Body weight increased from d 0 through d 21 to 24 (P cortisol were greatest on d 0 before declining (P stress hormones measured (cortisol and EPI), only cortisol was associated with the early performance of the calf. Calf BW at d 21 to 24 and BW gain were positively associated with serum immunoglobulin concentrations, yet negatively associated with concentrations of cortisol. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were negatively correlated with cortisol concentrations (r = -0.28; P = 0.003), yet positively associated with EPI concentrations (r = 0.51; P = 0.003). During the neonatal period in this study, there was no relationship of temperament with passive immunity or stress hormone concentrations; however, growth was positively associated with passive immunity and negatively associated with stress hormones. Measuring exit velocity as early in life as d 21 to 24 fails to accurately predict temperament at weaning in over 40% of Brahman calves. Our conclusion is that measurement of exit velocity should be done nearer to the time of weaning than to birth. These data can be beneficial in developing best management practices for young calves.
M.A. The literature indicates that journalists who experience work related traumatic situations, are at risk for the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Teegen & Grotwinkel, 2001). Moreover, some journalists who develop this disorder do so after covering a relatively minor traumatic story (Castle, 2001). Certain temperament traits have been implicated as vulnerabilities to the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in police officers (Henning, 1999). Few resea...
Soo Hyun Park
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the biopsychological personality profiles of traditional Korean Sasang typology based on the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI in a Korean adult clinical sample. A total of 97 adults completed the Korean version of the TCI. The participants were classified as one of three traditional Korean Sasang types (31 So-Yang, 41 Tae-Eum, 25 So-Eum by three specialists in Sasang typology. The seven dimensions of TCI were compared between the different Sasang types using analysis of variance (ANOVA and profile analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender and education across the Sasang types. The TCI profile for each of the Sasang types was significantly different (profile analysis, df = 5.038, F = 3.546, P = .004. There were significant differences in the temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking (F = 3.43, P = .036 and Harm Avoidance (F = 5.43, P = .006 among the Sasang types. The Novelty Seeking score of the So-Yang type (31.90 ± 9.87 was higher than that of the So-Eum type (25.24 ± 9.21; P = .019 while the So-Eum type (44.64 ± 8.47 scored higher on the Harm Avoidance score compared to the So-Yang type (35.16 ± 11.50; P = .003. There were no significant differences in the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence and Persistence, and the three character dimensions of Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further study, the Sasang typology may lead to enhanced clinical safety and efficacy as part of personalized medicine with traditional medicine.
Gibbons, Jennifer M.
Increased rates of involuntary culling as a consequence of poorer health and fertility had led to the conclusion that dairy cows appear to be less “robust” or adaptable than in the past. A way to address these concerns in breeding programs could be to select for health and welfare by including appropriate traits in a broader breeding index. However, it is important to consider any consequences that such breeding goals may have on dairy cow temperament and welfare. There were tw...
Chen, Nan; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann
In order to advance our understanding of the etiology of individual differences in child maladjustment (i.e., conduct and emotional problems), we tested hypotheses about the statistical interactions between child temperament and two aspects of the family environment: maternal negativity and positivity, and household chaos (e.g., crowding, noise, lack of routines). Mothers (n = 149) reported on their child’s effortful control, negative affect, surgency, and behavioral/emotional problems. The a...
Higier, Rachel G; Jimenez, Amy M; Hultman, Christina M; Borg, Jacqueline; Roman, Cristina; Kizling, Isabelle; Larsson, Henrik; Cannon, Tyrone D
Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls. Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores. Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts. These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.
Pavan, Chiara; Azzi, Mariafrancesca; Lancerotto, Luca; Marini, Massimo; Busetto, Luca; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo
Correlations between psychiatric disorders and overweight/obesity are reported in the literature. However, temperament/personality traits have been less frequently studied even though the correlation with Axis-1 diseases is well defined. The present study aims to detect correlations between psychiatric disorders, temperament traits and body image perception in overweight and obese patients who seek surgical lipostructuring treatment. Seventy overweight/obese patients (age 18-60 years, BMI 25-34.9 at recruitment) referring to the outpatient service for obesity-related lipodystrophism were enrolled in the period March 2008-March 2012. Psychiatric disorders, temperament traits, and body image perception were evaluated and compared with a control group (N = 33) from the general population sharing clinical/demographic features. Patients had higher scores in lifetime depression, with moderate/mild concern with body shape. Regarding personality traits, tests revealed higher scores on subscale RD4 (dependence/independence) in patients, whereas controls scored higher on the "openness to experience" NEO Five Factory Inventory sub-scale. Obese patients had a higher prevalence of obsessive characteristics. The affective sphere is an important feature in obese patients, as are obsessive traits, since negative body shape perception and temperament and personality characteristics appear to be involved in leading patients to seek surgical advice. These aspects should be involved in medical/surgical outcomes and compliance with treatment. The future possibility of identifying patients who show alterations in these traits or psychic characteristics may represent a possible instrument to avoid early post-treatment relapse and to implement the service offered to patients, with appropriate psychiatric care before and after surgery.
Russo, Vincenzo; AlTurki, Ahmed; Rago, Anna; Proietti, Riccardo; Chaussé, Guillaume; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nigro, Gerardo
Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone that are due to a temporary, spontaneously self-terminating global cerebral hypoperfusion. It is known that personality modulates the individual's sensitivity to stressors and that emotional arousal and psychologic uncertainty are conditions that contribute to vasodepressor syncope. Therefore, it is postulated that the personality characteristics of VVS patients could play a role in the pathophysiology of VVS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with VVS as confirmed by nitrate-induced tilt testing. From the 450 consecutive patients referred to our Syncope Unit for transient loss of consciousness, we enrolled 162 patients who had positive results from the head up tilt test for VVS and 162 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. All patients underwent a structured clinical interview with a psychologist to exclude the presence of current psychiatric comorbidities and were asked to complete the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) questionnaire for psychological assessment. Compared to healthy subjects, both male and female patients with VVS were found to have higher scores of the persistence temperament and self-transcendence character traits. Moreover, male VVS patients had lower scores in "novelty seeking", while female VVS patients scored significantly higher in "reward dependence". Our data show that VVS patients significantly differ from matched healthy controls in some temperament and character personality dimensions. Cardiologists should consider referral for psychological assessment when treating patients with refractory VVS. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Cardiological Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Checa, Purificaci?n; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control...
Hughes Sheryl O; Shewchuk Richard M
Abstract Background Associations between parent and child characteristics and how they influence the approach parents take toward children in the feeding environment have not been examined extensively, especially in low-income minority families who are at a higher risk for obesity. The primary aim of the study was to examine positive and negative parent emotions as potential mediators of the relationship between child temperament and parents’ perceptions of strategy effectiveness and problems...
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...
Jengić, Vesna Sendula; Jonovska, Suzana; Bosković, Gordan; Pavelić, Martina Sendula
Cloninger's theoretical biosocial model of personality represents the personality as a hierarchical organisational system consisting of 4 temperament dimensions and 3 character dimensions as 3 aspects of self-concept. It attempts to define behavioural and bio-genetic aspects of temperament, and the neuroanatomical and biochemical brain network responsible for activation, maintenance and inhibition of behaviour. The basic objective of this research is to establish whether temperament and character act as measures of personalities in psychotic persons on the possibility of committing criminal offences. This study is part of wider prospective clinical research on criminogenetic specificities of psychotic patients treated in the Psychiatric Hospital Rab, Croatia, in the period 2005.-2007. It encompasses 122 patients of male gender, up to 60 years of age, treated with the diagnosis paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0; MKB-10), of which half (n = 61; test group) with committed criminal offence and in forensic treatment, while the other (n = 61; control group) without committed criminal offence. The methods encompassed a socio-demographic questionnaire (for processing of general patient data with an emphasis on the characteristics of the committed criminal offence) and Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI) which was filled out once. The Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) especially the chi2 test, t-test, analysis of variances (ANOVA), matrices for intercorrelation and graded logistical regression analysis for construction of predictor models were used for statistical analysis. According to the results obtained, the tested groups significantly statistically differ with the average results on all scales of the TCI survey (Self-Directedness (SD): F = 34.32; p staunch facts which should be further researched on a larger sample.
Full Text Available According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, brain white matter (WM abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and MDD/suicidal behavior. Microstructural WM abnormalities may be located in neural circuits critically implicated in emotional processes and mood regulation resulting in enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric morbidity. WM abnormalities detected using DTI may contribute to functional deficits and help to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD as well as suicidal behavior. By a clinical point of view, research also suggested that affective temperaments may play a relevant role in the psychopathological characteristics of mood disorders, clinical trajectory of episodes and polarity, long-term outcome and suicidality. Unfortunately, only few studies investigated the association between affective temperaments and WM abnormalities and discussed their possible implications in patients with MDD and suicidal behavior. Using a comprehensive search of Medline database, the aim of the present study was to critically review the current literature on the association between WM alterations as assessed by MRI and DTI techniques, affective temperaments, MDD and suicidal behavior.
Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E
This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV.
Full Text Available The features of communication psychological characteristics of temperament types of crimes. The analysis of scientific views on the role of temperament in the predisposition of the individual to the crime. With the help of empirical study confirmed the hypothesis that the subjects who had committed certain type of crime have specific personal psychological characteristics that reveal the determinants of their offences. The personality questionnaires EPI and MMPI used methods of analysis of personal files of prisoners; observation of their behaviour and discussions with them; drawing up of psychological portraits. Also developed and used an original questionnaire. The results showed that among criminals-murderers is dominated by people with a tendency to choleric expression of properties of temperament, expressed the need for self-affirmation, affective behavior, impulsivity, and disregard for social demands. The perpetrators of the theft inherent in the assertion of his personality not only in the eyes of the environment, but above all in its own. The perpetrators of rape there is usually no clear idea of traditionally male and female traits in behaviour, the relationship between a man and a woman are limited to sexual function. Criminals convicted of fraud and hooliganism, unable to establish contact with others not able to take the point of view of another, there is a disregard for moral and ethical standards.
Full Text Available Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.
Milivojevic, Dragan; Milovanovic, Srdjan D; Jovanovic, Minja; Svrakic, Dragan M; Svrakic, Nenad M; Svrakic, Slobodan M; Cloninger, C Robert
Drug addiction and alcoholism involve a complex etiopathogenesis with a variable degree of risk contributions from the host (person), environment, and addictive substances. In this work, temperament and character features of individuals addicted to opiates or alcohol are compared with normal controls to study personality factors in the overall risk for drug addiction. The study was done in a permissive environment, with easy access to alcohol and heroin, which facilitated analyses of personality factors in drug choice. Participants included 412 consecutive patients (312 opiate addicts, 100 alcohol addicts) treated at the Specialized Hospital for Chemical Dependency in Belgrade, Serbia, and a community sample of 346 controls. Opiate addicts manifested antisocial temperament configuration (high Novelty Seeking, low Reward Dependence) coupled with high Self-transcendence (ie, susceptibility to fantasy and imagination). Alcohol addicts manifested sensitive temperament configuration (high Novelty Seeking coexisting with high Harm Avoidance). Immature personality was observed far more frequently in opiate addicts than in alcoholics or normals. Novelty Seeking appears to be a general risk factor for drug addiction. High Harm Avoidance appears to channel individuals with high Novelty Seeking towards alcoholism. Immature character traits and probable Personality Disorder increase the risk of illegal drugs. Based on equivalent research in nonpermissive environments, at least a portion of our opiate addicts could have developed alcoholism instead in environments with more limited access to opiates. Personality factors provide useful guidelines for preventive work with young individuals with personality risk factors for drug addiction. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L; Foster, Alison B; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P
The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother's milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother's milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother's milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother's milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be "programming" through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype.
Moreira, Paulo A S; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Rocha, Maria José; Oliveira, João Tiago; Ferreira, Noémia; Gonçalves, Daniel Maffasioli; Rózsa, Sándor
Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality integrates contributions from behavioral genetics, neurobiology, and psychology in the description of the human personality. The temperament and character inventory (TCI) is its assessment instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the TCI has shown good psychometric properties. However, Portuguese spoken in Brazil presents marked and substantial differences to that spoken in Portugal, and no study has yet described the psychometrics of the European Portuguese version. The objective of this study was thus to describe the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese adult version of the TCI (the temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R)). This study involved 1400 Portuguese adult participants. The factorial structure of the European Portuguese version was tested using four methods: exploratory factor analysis, orthogonal procrustes rotation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and exploratory structural equation modeling. The integration of data coming from these methods suggested that the Portuguese version of the TCI-R presented good structural validity (as revealed by the emergence of the temperament and character structures predicted by theory) and high levels of congruence between the American and the Portuguese versions. An improvement in the goodness of fit of the models for the Portuguese population was achieved by using exploratory structural equation modeling over confirmatory factor analysis. Although some facets registered questionable consistency, all dimensions had acceptable to good consistency (all ≥ .79). These results confirm the validity of the Portuguese TCI-R and its adequacy for use in European Portuguese samples.
Soo Jin Lee
Full Text Available Purpose. Parents have important roles in child rearing, but the influence of their personality on rearing practices and their impact on the behavior of children has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between parents’ personality and children’s problem behaviors.Materials and Methods. Participants consisted of 190 preschool outpatients (104 boys, 86 girls and their parents who visited traditional Korean pediatric clinics with minor physical symptoms as chief complaints. The personality profiles of the both parents were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and children’s behavior problems by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis were employed for the statistical analyses.Results. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance and the character traits of Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence of the parents were significantly correlated with children’s problem behaviors. Character as well as temperament, played an important role in explaining children’s problem behaviors after age and gender of children were taken into account.Conclusion. The maturity of parents’ character appears to have a key role in reducing the risk of behavior problems in their children. Suggestions are made for parental education and future research.
Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi
This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Ppermissive subscale and negative behaviors (Pauthoritative parenting style on the effortful control trait (Ppermissive parent style on the child negative affectivity (PParenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.
Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Stülb, Kerstin; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Arhab, Amar; Zysset, Annina E; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Meyer, Andrea H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Garcia-Burgos, David; Kriemler, Susi; Jenni, Oskar G; Puder, Jardena J; Munsch, Simone
Emotional eating (EE) corresponds to a change in eating behavior in response to distress and results in an increase of food intake (overeating (EOE)) or in food avoidance (undereating (EUE)). EE has been related to temperament (i.e. negative emotionality) and dysregulated stress biomarkers in school-aged children; parenting has been understood to influence this relationship in older children. The aim of the study was to investigate to which extent stress biomarkers and negative emotionality are related to EE and to understand the role of parenting in this relationship. The sample consisted of 271 children aged 2-6 years of the Swiss cohort study SPLASHY. We assessed the child's EE, negative emotionality and parenting by parent based reports. Salivary samples were collected over two days to analyze cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels. From the whole sample of children, 1.1% showed EOE and 32.9% EUE. Negative emotionality was related to EOE and EUE (0.13 (CI 0.06, 021), p parenting had any moderating role (all p > 0.05). Similar to a Danish study, parents reported more often EUE than EOE of their child. Both are related to the temperament. Even though the course of EE has not yet been well documented, we conclude that a certain subgroup of children with difficult temperament could be at-risk for eat and weight regulation problems in later childhood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hoffmann, Marianela; Pérez, J. Carola; García, Catalina; Rojas, Graciela; Martínez, Vania
The aim of this study was to develop an adapted version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) that would be valid and reliable for assessing temperament and its components in Chileans between 12 and 18 years of age. Originally, Ellis and Rothbart (2001) developed this questionnaire (EATQ-R) to be used in North American adolescents. For the study in Chile, a translation protocol was developed, to maintain the original instrument's cultural and linguistic equivalence in the adapted version. Psychometric properties of the EATQ-R, such as factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity, were also assessed. The adaption and validation was carried out in two stages, with two different studies. The first study, which included 612 adolescent students from educational establishments in the cities of Santiago and Concepcion, Chile, developed the Chilean version of the 83-item EATQ-R, which has 13 dimensions, belonging to 4 theoretical factors with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79–0.82). The second study assessed the questionnaire's convergent validity, through its application to 973 adolescent students in Santiago. Results show that the effortful control subscale was significantly inversely related to indicators of adolescent maladjustment, such as substance abuse and behavioral problems. In addition, it was directly associated with indicators of self-concept, including self-esteem and self-efficacy. The opposite pattern was observed when considering negative affect. These findings coincide with current knowledge on the relationship between temperament and adjustment in adolescents. PMID:29326616
Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith L; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena; Bretherton, Lesley; Wake, Melissa; Eadie, Patricia
Within a longitudinal study using a large representative, community sample of infants recruited at mean age 8 months, we examined influences on infant communication development at 24 months, including child gender, shy temperament, behavioural and emotional problems, and several variables relating to maternal psychosocial health. On most developmental measures girls were in advance of boys and they also showed shyer temperament. Child gender, shy temperament and maternal psychosocial indices were associated with both vocabulary development as measured by the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), and communication and symbolic development assessed via the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS) at 24 months. No prediction was found using scores at 8 or 12 months, although moderate stability between measures between 12 and 24 months was evident. Predictors of 24 month outcomes were all concurrently measured variables, and included temperamental shyness, but very little variance in communication outcomes was explained. Children whose mothers were experiencing clinical levels of depression and life difficulties reported more child behavioural problems.
Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.
Carless, David; Douglas, Kitrina; Fox, Kenneth; McKenna, Jim
Research suggests that personality is related to recovery from cardiac events, yet few conceptions of personality provide hope or possibility of improvement for patients with the least adaptive personality types. Psychobiological theory of personality has potential in this regard, but, to date, no research has investigated temperament and character in cardiac settings. To explore relationships between temperament, character and psychological well-being among cardiac patients. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 81 cardiac patients to obtain data on personality (TCI [Cloninger CR, Przybeck T, Svrakic D, & Wetzel RD. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St Louis (MO), Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University;1994]), anxiety and depression (HADS [Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67(6): 361-70]) and satisfaction with life [Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess 1985;49(1):71-5]. The interaction of two personality dimensions (harm avoidance and self-directedness) was significantly related to measures of psychological well-being. Patients with low self-directedness combined with high harm avoidance reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and lower levels of satisfaction with life. This exploratory study suggests that psychobiological theory of personality may be useful for practitioners in cardiac rehabilitation seeking to identify patients at risk of poor psychological well-being.
Fatemeh Sadeghi Pouya
Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problems has a high prevalence, especially among youth. The aim of the present study was to compare personality traits based on the temperament and character inventory in opiate and stimulant addicts in Tehran. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 60 male addicts (30 opiate and 30 stimulant addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers in the suburbs of Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method and were studied using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. The participants were sorted according to their age and education. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence traits. Thus, opiate addicts had higher levels of harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness, and stimulant addicts had higher levels of self-transcendence. The significance level was set at P<0.01. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts. Opiate addicts gained higher scores, compared with stimulant addicts, in Temperament and Character Inventory variables. The obtained results also showed that stimulant addicts were suffering from more severe disorders than opiate addicts. Based on the means of the values of the TCI, personality traits reﬂecting personality disorders are detectable and predictable in substance abusers. This new understanding is important in the prevention and treatment of addiction.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to identify temperament patterns in the Finnish population, and to determine the relationship between these profiles and life habits, socioeconomic status, and health. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cluster analysis of the Temperament and Character Inventory subscales was performed on 3,761 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 and replicated on 2,097 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Clusters were formed using the k-means method and their relationship with 115 variables from the areas of life habits, socioeconomic status and health was examined. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified for both genders. Individuals from Cluster I are characterized by high persistence, low extravagance and disorderliness. They have healthy life habits, and lowest scores in most of the measures for psychiatric disorders. Cluster II individuals are characterized by low harm avoidance and high novelty seeking. They report the best physical capacity and highest level of income, but also high rate of divorce, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Individuals from Cluster III are not characterized by any extreme characteristic. Individuals from Cluster IV are characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, low levels of exploratory excitability and attachment, and score the lowest in most measures of health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the temperament subscales do not distribute randomly but have an endogenous structure, and that these patterns have strong associations to health, life events, and well-being.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an adapted version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R that would be valid and reliable for assessing temperament and its components in Chileans between 12 and 18 years of age. Originally, Ellis and Rothbart (2001 developed this questionnaire (EATQ-R to be used in North American adolescents. For the study in Chile, a translation protocol was developed, to maintain the original instrument's cultural and linguistic equivalence in the adapted version. Psychometric properties of the EATQ-R, such as factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity, were also assessed. The adaption and validation was carried out in two stages, with two different studies. The first study, which included 612 adolescent students from educational establishments in the cities of Santiago and Concepcion, Chile, developed the Chilean version of the 83-item EATQ-R, which has 13 dimensions, belonging to 4 theoretical factors with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79–0.82. The second study assessed the questionnaire's convergent validity, through its application to 973 adolescent students in Santiago. Results show that the effortful control subscale was significantly inversely related to indicators of adolescent maladjustment, such as substance abuse and behavioral problems. In addition, it was directly associated with indicators of self-concept, including self-esteem and self-efficacy. The opposite pattern was observed when considering negative affect. These findings coincide with current knowledge on the relationship between temperament and adjustment in adolescents.
Miyoshi, Ryoei; Matsuo, Hisae; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi
High risk of burnout in healthcare workers has long been recognized. However, there are no methods to predict vulnerability to burnout. We examined whether temperament and character are associated with burnout and depressive state in residents by using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The TCI was used for residents at the beginning of clinical training and then the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were administered at the beginning of clinical training and after four and ten months. Participants were 85 residents who started clinical training after graduating from the University of Miyazaki Hospital in April 2012 and 2013. After ten months, 23.5% of participants were newly identified with burnout using the MBI-GS and 15.3% of participants were newly diagnosed with depressive state using the SDS. We found that residents with high Cooperativeness were significantly more prone to burnout and that residents with high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness were significantly more prone to depressive states. Our results suggest that the TCI can predict not only the risk for future depressive state but also the risk for future burnout. We feel it is important for the resident education system to identify residents with these temperament and character traits and to help high-risk residents avoid burnout and depressive state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.
Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637
Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G
Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.
Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Sauchelli, Sarah; Pastor, Antoni; Gonzalez, Marcela L.; de la Torre, Rafael; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Fernández-García, Jose C.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B.; Agüera, Zaida; Miró, Jordi; Casanueva, Felipe F.
Background Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Methods Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Results Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = −0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, pObese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity. PMID:25101961
Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1 examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2 explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA.Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039 and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA levels (b = 0.16, p = .049 and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA levels (b = 0.22, p = .004, as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001 and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001.Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.
Alm, Per A
Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation
İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan; Cayköylü, Ali
Mood disorders are one of the significant mental disorders that decrease the quality of human life and disrupt the psychosocial functionality and interpersonal relationships. Recently, studies have suggested that affective temperaments are factors that determine the emergence and characteristics of mood disorders. 150 patients total were enrolled in the study, which aimed to compare the temperament, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of 50 BD-I, 46 BD-II and 54 MDD patients. In order to determine clinical and sociodemographic features, we administered the SKIP-TURK structured follow-up questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the TEMPS-A temperament rating scale for all patients. The following clinical, sociodemographic and temperament characteristics were evaluated: such as history of psychiatric disorder of first and second degree relatives, comorbid hypothyroidism, age of onset of the mood disorder symptoms, the nature of the first episode of the mood disorder, seasonal course, mean duration of the episode, total number of episodes, severity of the mood episodes, and total number of hospitalizations. Our results demonstrated that some sociodemographic, clinical and affective temperament characteristics may be good predictors for early diagnoses and treatment of BD and MDD.
Rietema, S E; Blackberry, M A; Maloney, S K; Martin, G B; Hawken, P A R; Blache, D
Even in the absence of stressors, temperament is associated with changes in the concentration of stress-responsive hormones and, possibly because of such changes, temperament can affect metabolism. We tested whether, in sheep bred for temperament for 14 generations, "nervous" females have greater concentrations of stress-responsive hormones in the absence of stressors than "calm" females, and whether these differences are associated with changes in the concentrations of metabolic hormones. In resting "calm" (n = 8) and "nervous" (n = 8) sheep, concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, leptin, and insulin were measured in blood plasma sampled via jugular catheter every 20 min for 24 h. The animals were individually penned, habituated to their housing and human handling over 7 wk, and fed before sampling began. Diurnal variation was evident for all hormones, but a 24-h cortisol pattern was detected in only 7 individuals. There was no effect of temperament on any aspect of concentrations of cortisol or prolactin, but "calm" animals had greater concentrations of insulin in the early afternoon than "nervous" animals (14.5 ± 1.1 vs 10.0 ± 1.6 μU/mL; P = 0.038), and a similar tendency was seen for leptin (P = 0.092). We conclude that selection for temperament affects the concentration of metabolic hormones in the absence of stressors, but this effect is independent of stress-responsive hormones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria; van der Waerden, Judith
Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011), were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, pemotional difficulties (β = 0.30, pemotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics. An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.
Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena
Relationships between child language development and temperament have been little studied in young children, although it is known that children with language impairment are at risk in a number of domains of psychosocial development involving temperamental influences. To investigate the relationships between temperament and language development, along with child behavioural adjustment and maternal psychosocial factors. A sample of 4-year-old children with language impairment was compared with typically developing children, from a large community cohort in a longitudinal study, on three temperament dimensions, behavioural and emotional problems, and maternal factors. Participants were part of a large community cohort involved in a longitudinal study. While the groups did not differ significantly on temperamental shyness/sociability, children with language impairment showed more negative dispositions on the persistence/self-regulation factor, and on overall temperamental difficultness. Behavioural problems were elevated in the language impairment group and were associated with temperament in both groups. Maternal measures of education level, reading and vocabulary skills were significantly lower in the language impairment group. Generally the language impairment group showed a constellation of developmental disadvantages which add to the existing developmental vulnerability conferred by the presence of language impairment. Poorer child temperament self-regulation and behavioural adjustment are strong risk factors for school learning, while lower mother education and literacy contribute further disadvantage. Clinicians managing language impairment in children need to be aware of the whole package of risk factors which are common in this population. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Susman, E J; Schmeelk, K H; Ponirakis, A; Gariepy, J L
The study was based on the assumption that stressors in the lives of pregnant and parenting women are processes that affect prenatal, postpartum, and concurrent maternal hormones and emotions and that these processes affect child temperament. The hypotheses were tested in a group of 67 young mothers and their 3-year-old children. Mothers were clustered into groups based on longitudinal patterns of hormones and emotions at prenatal, postpartum. and 3-year follow-up assessments. The analyses focused on relating maternal patterns of hormones and emotions to the child's temperament at age 3 years. Temperament was assessed by questionnaire and observation of behavior during a challenging situation. Illustrative findings included the following. Verbal aggression and nonverbal aggression were significantly higher in children of mothers in the low prenatal hormone cluster than children of mothers in the high prenatal hormone cluster. Children of mothers in the postpartum low testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and androstenedione (delta4-A) and medium cortisol (Cort) cluster (mainly low hormone cluster) exhibited significantly more physical aggression than children of mothers in the medium T and A4-A, high E2 and low Cort cluster. Maternal patterns of hormones, emotions, and parenting attitudes and practices were related to multiple aspects of temperament when the children were age 3 years. The findings support the important role of maternal biological and psychological processes in the development of child temperament.
Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline
This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…
Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin
While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…
Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Hohm, Erika; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred
Child temperament as well as parenting behaviors have been linked to adolescent depression. Beyond their main effects, the interplay between these factors is of interest. For example, in an interactive model, a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants to parenting has been suggested. However, so far, the differential susceptibility hypothesis has mostly been studied with a focus on externalizing disorders. On the other hand, parenting may shape the child's temperament and vice versa in a transactional process. In a prospective, longitudinal at-risk sample (163 boys, 176 girls), we assessed emotional (easy-difficult) and regulative (self-control) temperament at ages 4.5, and 8 years, respectively, as well as parenting quality at age 4.5 years using the HOME inventory. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to investigate the prediction of depressive symptoms at age 11, measured by the Child Depression Inventory, including interaction terms between the temperament variable and parenting. We additionally tested whether parenting was mediated by child temperament. As previously reported, both self-control and parenting were longitudinally associated with preadolescent depressive symptoms. There were no interactive effects between temperament and parenting. However, the effects of parenting were partly mediated by self-control. Our data do not support a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants in the development of preadolescent depression. However, our results are in line with the assumption that parenting may shape young children's temperament, with positive parenting in the early childhood fostering the development of regulative temperament.
Helzer, Erik G; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K; Reed, Marjorie A
This study investigated the influence of situational and dispositional factors on attentional biases toward social threat, and the impact of these attentional biases on distress in a sample of adolescents. The results suggest greater biases for personally relevant threat cues, as individuals reporting high social stress were vigilant to subliminal social threat cues, but not physical threat cues, and those reporting low social stress showed no attentional biases. Individual differences in fearful temperament and attentional control interacted to influence attentional biases, with fearful temperament predicting biases to supraliminal social threat only for individuals with poor attentional control. Multivariate analyses exploring relations between attentional biases for social threat and symptoms of anxiety and depression revealed that attentional biases alone were rarely related to symptoms. However, biases did interact with social stress, fearful temperament, and attentional control to predict distress. The results are discussed in terms of automatic and effortful cognitive mechanisms underlying threat cue processing.
Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the changes in cognitive appraisal and coping strategies related to initiation of insulin treatment onset mediate the effect of temperament on changes in positivity ratio among diabetic patients. Temperament, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies and positivity ratio (ratio of positive to negative affect were assessed among 278 patients: just before conversion to insulin therapy and then one month later. Mediation analysis indicated that endurance and briskness were directly connected to changes in positivity ratio, whilst the effect of perseveration on positivity ratio was indirect via changes in negative appraisal, emotion- and problem-focused coping. The results confirm the stressful nature of the initiation of insulin treatment, and the assumptions of Lazarus’ model of stress and regulative role of temperament.
Dinovo, Salvatore A; Vasey, Michael W
Converging evidence indicates that shared temperamental diatheses partly underlie the covariance between anxiety and depression. Although developmental psychopathology research suggests that self-regulatory temperament (e.g., effortful control or EC) mitigates reactive risks associated with negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA), and their respective counterparts, behavioral inhibition- and activation sensitivity (BIS and BAS), no studies have established EC's protective effects in adulthood. This study examined concurrent relations between temperament and distress symptoms shared by anxiety and depression, and anhedonic symptoms unique to depression, in young adults. Anticipated two- and three-way interactions emerged supporting EC's moderating effect between reactive temperament (i.e., high BIS and low BAS) and both symptom dimensions. However, no interactive relations emerged between symptoms and NA, PA, and EC.
Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G
Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.
Cooke, R F
Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, Ptaurus, Ptaurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma cortisol (Ptaurus and B. indicus-influenced cattle.
Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.
Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Gallagher, Matthew W; Brown, Timothy A
A large body of research has found robust associations between dimensions of temperament (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion) and the mood and anxiety disorders. However, mood-state distortion (i.e., the tendency for current mood state to bias ratings of temperament) likely confounds these associations, rendering their interpretation and validity unclear. This issue is of particular relevance to clinical populations who experience elevated levels of general distress. The current study used the "trait-state-occasion" latent variable model (D. A. Cole, N. C. Martin, & J. H. Steiger, 2005) to separate the stable components of temperament from transient, situational influences such as current mood state. We examined the predictive power of the time-invariant components of temperament on the course of depression and social phobia in a large, treatment-seeking sample with mood and/or anxiety disorders (N = 826). Participants were assessed 3 times over the course of 1 year, using interview and self-report measures; most participants received treatment during this time. Results indicated that both neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and behavioral activation/positive affect (BA/P) consisted largely of stable, time-invariant variance (57% to 78% of total variance). Furthermore, the time-invariant components of N/BI and BA/P were uniquely and incrementally predictive of change in depression and social phobia, adjusting for initial symptom levels. These results suggest that the removal of state variance bolsters the effect of temperament on psychopathology among clinically distressed individuals. Implications for temperament-psychopathology models, psychopathology assessment, and the stability of traits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Alvik, Astrid; Torgersen, Anne Mari; Aalen, Odd O; Lindemann, Rolf
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause several cognitive and behavioral difficulties. Few studies have investigated the associations with infant temperament or sleeping patterns. Our aim was to study potential associations between early prenatal binge exposure and infant temperament and sleeping pattern. In a population based longitudinal study, representative of pregnant women in Oslo, questionnaires were answered at 17 and 30weeks of pregnancy and 6months after term. Two factors, difficult temperament and sleeping problems, were identified using Principal Component Analysis and dichotomized at the least optimal 14-15%. Logistic regression analyses identified predictive factors. Maternal binge drinking (≥5 drinks per occasion) once a week during pregnancy week 0-6 significantly predicted both difficult temperament (Odds Ratio OR 3.3**; 95% Confidence interval CI 1.4-7.9) and sleeping problems (OR 5.3**; 95% CI 2.1-13.7) in the infant, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Including binge drinking more often than once a week, further increased the OR of sleeping problems (6.0***; 2.7-13.7). Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms also predicted both outcomes. Reduced birth weight predicted difficult temperament. Maternal satisfaction with life reduced the probability of sleeping problems. Maternal smoking, and work stress, during pregnancy had no predictive power. The results were not explained by binge drinking later during pregnancy or higher consumption per occasion. Binge drinking once a week during pregnancy week 0-6 had stronger predictive power of difficult temperament and sleeping problems during infancy, than other covariates. The findings support advising women to avoid binge drinking when planning pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dolenc, B; Dernovšek, M Z; Sprah, L; Tavcar, R; Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S
So far there is a scarce of studies dealing with the relationship between different aspects of aggressive behaviour and affective temperaments among various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore in a group of patients with affective mood disorders the relationship between affective temperaments and aggression. 100 consecutive outpatients in euthymic phase of mood disorders (46 with bipolar disorder-type I, 18 with bipolar disorder-type II and 36 with major depressive disorder) were self-assessed with the Aggression Questionnaire and the short version of Slovenian Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The factorial analysis of the TEMPS-A subscales revealed 2 main factors: Factor 1 (prominent cyclothymic profile) consisted of cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, and anxious temperaments and Factor 2 (prominent hyperthymic profile) which was represented by the hyperthymic temperament, and by depressive and anxious temperaments as negative components. Patients with prominent cyclothymic profile got their diagnosis later in their life and had significantly higher mean scores on anger and hostility (non-motor aggressive behaviour) compared with patients with prominent hyperthymic profile. We included patients with different mood disorders, therefore the sample selection may influence temperamental and aggression profiles. We used self-report questionnaires which can elicit sociable desirable answers. Anger and hostility could represent stable personality characteristics of prominent cyclothymic profile that endure even in remission. It seems that distinct temperamental profile could serve as a good diagnostic and prognostic value for non-motor aspects of aggressive behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gierski, Fabien; Benzerouk, Farid; De Wever, Elodie; Duka, Theodora; Kaladjian, Arthur; Quaglino, Véronique; Naassila, Mickaël
Temperament and character dimensions of personality remain largely unexplored in young adults exhibiting binge drinking (BD) patterns. Moreover, the available studies do not consider gender differences and dismiss possible personality heterogeneity among binge drinkers. In this study, we aimed to compare temperament and character dimensions between young binge drinkers and age- and sex-matched social drinkers. We further applied cluster analysis to investigate the potential heterogeneity of personality patterns among BD college students. This study included 200 university students of 18 to 24 years of age, who were recruited via an invitation to take an alcohol use survey. These participants included 100 individuals (50 females and 50 males) with a BD pattern, and 100 participants (50 females and 50 males) with a social drinking (SD) pattern. These subjects were evaluated with regard to their use of alcohol and other substances, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, mood, and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Between-group comparisons revealed that both male and female binge drinkers were characterized by high levels of novelty seeking, and low levels of persistence and self-directedness. However, cluster analyses within the binge drinker group revealed 2 distinct groups that differed between males and females. These groups shared similarities with Cloninger's type I (high harm-avoidance) and II (high novelty-seeking) alcoholism typology. The present findings support the subdivision of binge drinkers according to gender and personality dimensions. Male and female binge drinkers should not be considered a unitary group, but rather a population of individuals that encompasses at least 2 distinct personality patterns. These findings have major implications for prevention and treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Kim, Hyo-Won; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yeo, Jin-Young
Most studies on temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) did not rule out the effect of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main objective of this study was to identify the temperamental and psychopathological patterns of ODD independent of comorbid ADHD. We also aimed to compare the patterns of temperament and psychopathology between ODD with and without ADHD. Parents of 2673 students, randomly selected from 19 representative schools in Seoul, Korea, completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Among 118 children and adolescents with ODD diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, the parents of 94 subjects (mean age, 10.4 +/- 3.0 years) and the parents of a random sample of 94 age- and gender-matched non-ODD/non-ADHD children and adolescents completed the parent's version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Subjects with ODD showed temperament and character profiles of high Novelty Seeking, low Self-directedness, and low Cooperativeness, a distinct pattern on the CBCL, and were at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders compared to the controls after controlling for the effect of comorbid ADHD. The children and adolescents with both ODD and ADHD showed decreased levels of Persistence and Self-directedness and higher scores on 4 subscales of the CBCL (Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, Delinquent Behaviors, and Aggressive Behaviors) compared to those with ODD only. Oppositional defiant disorder is associated with specific temperamental and behavioral/emotional characteristics, independent of ADHD. Moreover, the results of this study support that co-occurring ADHD and ODD have differentially higher levels of behavioral and emotional difficulties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Rozsa, Sandor; Siamouli, Melina; Moutou, Katerina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Cloninger, Claude Robert
Robert Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character is a dimensional approach to personality assessment and gave birth to the temperament and character inventory (TCI). The aim of the present report is to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI, and to replicate its postulated structure and provide preliminary normative data for the Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4 % and 298 males; 40.6 %). Their mean age was 40.80 ± 11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The mean age for females was 39.43 ± 10.87 years (range 25-65 years), while the mean age for males was 42.82 ± 12.06 years (range 25-67 years). Descriptive statistics tables concerning age, gender and occupational status distribution in the sample were created. The analysis included the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis with promax rotation and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the subscales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and t test and Cohen's d as post hoc tests was used to search for differences in subscales scores between males and females. The overall psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI proved to be satisfactory, with acceptable consistencies of the subscales. The factor analysis of temperament identified four factors which together explained 58.56 % of total variance, while the factor analysis of the three-factor solution of the character explained 52.24 % of total variance. The TCI scales correlate significantly but weakly between each other and with age. The Greek version of the TCI exhibits psychometric properties similar to its original English counterpart and to other national translations and it is suitable for use in research and clinical practice.
Perretta, P; Akiskal, H S; Nisita, C; Lorenzetti, C; Zaccagnini, E; Della Santa, M; Cassano, G B
Although recent studies have shown high rates of current and lifetime depression in HIV-infected patients, there is little systematic data on the occurrence of bipolarity in these patients. We compared 46 HIV patients with index major depressive episode (MDE) to an equal number of age- and sex-matched seronegative MDE patients, and systematically examined rates of DSM-III-R bipolar subtypes (enriched in accordance with Akiskal's system of classifying soft bipolar disorders). Although HIV and psychiatric clinic patients had comparable background in terms of familial affective loading, HIV patients had significantly higher familial rates for alcohol and substance use. The more important finding was the significantly higher proportion of HIV patients with lifetime bipolar II disorder (78%), and associated cyclothymic (52%) and hyperthymic (35%) temperaments; the findings were the same irrespective of HIV risk status (intravenous drug user vs. homosexual and other risk groups combined). The major methodologic limitation of our study is that clinicians evaluating temperament were not blind to affective diagnoses and family history. The comparison affective group was a sample of convenience drawn from the same tertiary care university facility. The finding of a high rate of bipolar II disorder in HIV patients has treatment implications for seropositive patients presenting with depression. More provocatively, we submit that premorbid impulsive risk-taking traits associated with cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments may have played an important role in needle-sharing drug use and/or unprotected sexual behavior, leading ultimately to infection with HIV. Given their public health importance, these clinical findings and insights merit further investigation. In particular, systematic case-control studies, as well as other large scale studies with prospective methodology need to be conducted.
Basoglu, Cengiz; Oner, Ozgur; Ates, Alpay; Algul, Ayhan; Bez, Yasin; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut
The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) have been used extensively in research of personality disorders; however, no previous study has investigated the relation between psychopathy factors and temperament and character traits in patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Our aim was to fill this gap in the literature. The PCL-R Factor scores and the TCI temperament and character scores were evaluated in 68 men with ASPD and 65 healthy male controls. The ASPD cases had significantly higher PCL-R Factor 1, Factor 2, and Total scores, as well as significantly higher TCI Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance scores, whereas the control group had higher TCI Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, and Cooperativeness scores. Correlation analysis revealed that, in the whole study group, PCL-R Factor 1, Factor 2, and Total scores were positively correlated with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance scores and negatively correlated with Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, and Cooperativeness scores. When each group was analyzed separately, the correlations were not significant. Regression analysis supported the main findings. Our results showed that both PCL-R Factor 1 score, which is claimed to reflect "core psychopathy," and PCL-R Factor 2 score, which reflects criminal behaviors, were positively correlated with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and were negatively correlated with Reward Dependence in the whole sample. The reduced variance of PCL-R in each group might lead to nonsignificant associations within groups. Without the subjects with severe psychopathy in the present study, it might not be possible to show the association. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M
Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.
Celikel, Feryal Cam; Kose, Samet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Sayar, Kemal; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Cloninger, C Robert
Alexithymia is thought to be a stable personality trait and a predisposing risk factor for depression. In this study, we aimed to identify the prevalence of alexithymia in a depressed and nondepressed sample and examined the relationship between Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality with alexithymia. The Turkish version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 81 depressed patients and 51 controls. The mean age of the groups was 30.5 +/- 7.7 and 32.75 +/- 8.73, respectively. Depression severity was evaluated with the BDI. In the depressed group, 33.3% were alexithymic, and alexithymic subjects had significantly higher BDI scores. Depressed individuals were significantly more alexithymic than the controls on the total and all the 3 subscales of TAS-20. The TAS-20 total score was negatively correlated with the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence (RD) and the character dimension of Self-Directedness (SD). In the TAS-20 subscale, difficulties in identifying feelings was positively correlated with Self-Transcendence and negatively correlated with SD. The difficulties in expressing feelings subscale was negatively correlated with RD and SD. In the depressed patient group, the temperament dimension of RD was significantly lower in the alexithymic group. The rate of alexithymia is found high among this sample of Turkish depressed patients, and the results suggested a strong connection between alexithymia and depression. Alexithymia is explained by specific dimensions and subscale within Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality in this sample of depressed Turkish patients.
Fornaro, Michele; Ventriglio, Antonio; De Pasquale, Concetta; Pistorio, Maria Luisa; De Berardis, Domenico; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Favaretto, Ettore; Martinotti, Giovanni; Tomasetti, Carmine; Elassy, Mai; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mungo, Sergio; Del Debbio, Alessandro; Romano, Anna; Ciampa, Giovanni; Colicchio, Salvatore
High levels of sensation seeking (SS) have been traditionally reported for lifetime bipolar disorder (BD) and/or substance use disorder (SUD) rather than major depressive disorder (MDD). Nonetheless, a renewed clinical attention toward the burden of sub-threshold bipolarity in MDD, solicits for a better assessment of "unipolar" major depressive episodes (MDEs) via characterization of putative differential psychopathological patterns, including SS and predominant affective temperament. Two hundred and eighty currently depressed cases of MDD and 87 healthy controls were screened using the Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale-Form-V, the Hypomania Check List-32-item (HCL-32), the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire-110-item, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11-item, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory modules and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis-I disorders. Cases were divided into HCL-32(+)(sub-threshold bipolar)/HCL-32(-)("true" unipolar depressed) depending on the HCL-32 total score. Upon correlation and multivariate regression analyses, the HCL-32(+) patients showed the highest levels of SS, higher prevalence of cyclothymic temperament, and higher rates of multiple lifetime axis-I co-morbidities, including SUD. Recall bias on some diagnoses, including BD, grossly matched healthy control group, lack of ad-hoc validated measures for ADHD, SUD, or axis-II disorders. In our sample, the occurrence of higher levels of SS in "sub-threshold" bipolar cases outlined a differential psychopathological profile compared to DSM-defined "true unipolar" cases of MDE. If confirmed by replication studies, these findings may aid clinicians in delivering a more accurate diagnosis and a safer use of antidepressants in some MDD cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Schizotypy is conceptualized as a latent personality construct that confers liability for schizophrenia, while it is also suggested that schizotypy can relate to certain favorable aspects. Investigating individual-level interactions between schizotypy and broader personality characteristics might give a clue to this question. We aimed to identify homogeneous classes of individuals based on schizotypy, temperament and character and to validate this classification using comprehensive neurocognitive data. We studied 455 nonclinical adults using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and an array of neuropsychological tests. A latent profile analysis (LPA) of schizotypy, temperament and character was conducted, and cognitive performance was compared as a function of latent class membership. LPA provided a 3-class solution. Of the sample, 15% was classified into a "high-positive-schizotypy/adaptive" group characterized by high cognitive-perceptual but low interpersonal schizotypy, together with low harm avoidance and high self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence; 18% was classified into a "high-schizotypy/maladaptive" group characterized by overall high schizotypy, together with high harm avoidance and low self-directedness and cooperativeness; and 67% was classified into a "low-schizotypy/adaptive" group characterized by overall low schizotypy, together with intermediate-to-low harm avoidance, high self-directedness and intermediate-to-high cooperativeness. Overall cognitive performance of the high-positive-schizotypy/adaptive group was comparable to that of the low-schizotypy/adaptive group and superior to that of the high-schizotypy/maladaptive group. The present LPA clearly defines a group of individuals who have adaptive personality traits and intact neuropsychological functions despite high positive schizotypy, suggesting that there may be complex, nonlinear relationships between schizotypal traits and
Jylhä, Pekka J; Rosenström, Tom; Mantere, Outi; Suominen, Kirsi; Melartin, Tarja K; Vuorilehto, Maria S; Holma, Mikael K; Riihimäki, Kirsi A; Oquendo, Maria A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Isometsä, Erkki T
Personality features may indicate risk for both mood disorders and suicidal acts. How dimensions of temperament and character predispose to suicide attempts remains unclear. Patients (n = 597) from 3 prospective cohort studies (Vantaa Depression Study [VDS], Jorvi Bipolar Study [JoBS], and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study [PC-VDS]) were interviewed at baseline, at 18 months, and, in VDS and PC-VDS, at 5 years (1997-2003). Personality was measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and follow-up time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) as well as lifetime (total) and prospectively ascertained suicide attempts during the follow-up were documented. Overall, 219 patients had 718 lifetime suicide attempts; 88 patients had 242 suicide attempts during the prospective follow-up. The numbers of both the total and prospective suicide attempts were associated with low self-directedness (β = -0.266, P = .004, and β = -0.294, P attempts were linked to high novelty seeking (β = 0.195, P = .05). Prospective, but not total, suicide attempts were associated with high harm avoidance (β = 0.322, P attempts during MDEs were included. After adjustment was made for total time spent in MDEs, only high persistence predicted suicide attempts (β = 0.190, P attempts indicated significant mediated effect through time at risk in MDEs, but no significant direct effect. Among mood disorder patients, suicide attempt risk is associated with temperament and character dimensions. However, their influence on predisposition to suicide attempts is likely to be mainly indirect, mediated by more time spent in depressive episodes. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Lucy L Brown
Full Text Available Four suites of behavioral traits have been associated with four broad neural systems: the 1 dopamine and related norepinephrine system; 2 serotonin; 3 testosterone; 4 and estrogen and oxytocin system. A 56-item questionnaire, the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI, was developed to define four temperament dimensions associated with these behavioral traits and neural systems. The questionnaire has been used to suggest romantic partner compatibility. The dimensions were named: Curious/Energetic; Cautious/Social Norm Compliant; Analytical/Tough-minded; and Prosocial/Empathetic. For the present study, the FTI was administered to participants in two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that elicited feelings of love and attachment, near-universal human experiences. Scores for the Curious/Energetic dimension co-varied with activation in a region of the substantia nigra, consistent with the prediction that this dimension reflects activity in the dopamine system. Scores for the Cautious/Social Norm Compliant dimension correlated with activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in regions associated with social norm compliance, a trait linked with the serotonin system. Scores on the Analytical/Tough-minded scale co-varied with activity in regions of the occipital and parietal cortices associated with visual acuity and mathematical thinking, traits linked with testosterone. Also, testosterone contributes to brain architecture in these areas. Scores on the Prosocial/Empathetic scale correlated with activity in regions of the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus. These are regions associated with mirror neurons or empathy, a trait linked with the estrogen/oxytocin system, and where estrogen contributes to brain architecture. These findings, replicated across two studies, suggest that the FTI measures influences of four broad neural systems, and that these temperament dimensions and neural systems could constitute
Patrícia do Carmo Pereira Ito
Full Text Available Este estudo investigou características temperamentais de uma amostra de crianças de 7 a 14 anos, verificando inclusive a influência exercida pela genética na determinação do temperamento. Uma amostra de 26 pais forneceu dados sobre o temperamento de 26 pares de gêmeos (15 monozigóticos, 11 dizigóticos, os quais totalizavam 52 sujeitos. Para coleta de dados foi utilizada a Escala Pavlovian Temperament Survey, versão infantil, que investiga três fatores de temperamento: Força de Excitação (FE, Força de Inibição (FI e Mobilidade (MO. Resultados obtidos indicaram que a partir da percepção dos pais, esta amostra de sujeitos possuía como característica predominante de temperamento a mobilidade. Análise de variância (MANOVA indicou que as características temperamentais variavam quando consideradas as variáveis sexo e faixa etária. Considerando-se a gemealidade, correlações obtidas entre pares de gêmeos monozigóticos e dizigóticos evidenciaram a influência exercida pela genética na determinação dos três fatores de temperamento.This study investigated the temperament characteristics of a sample of children from 7 to 14 years old, verifying the influence of genetics in the determination of temperament. A sample of 26 parents provided data about temperament of 26 pairs of twins (15 monozigotic, 11 dizigotic, totalizing 52 subjects. For the data gathering, the Pavlovian Temperament Survey - PTS, child version was used, which investigates three temperament factors: Strength of Excitation (SE, Strength of Inhibition (SI and Mobility (MO. The results showed that, from parents' perception, this sample had mobility as the predominant temperament characteristic. Analysis of variance (MANOVA indicated that temperament characteristics varied when considering variables such as sex and age group. The correlation obtained from pairs of monozigotic and dizigotic twins made evident the influence of genetic determination on the three
Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.
Lee, Kounseok; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seok Hyeon
Suicide is a major cause of death in university students. Personality traits have been suggested as possible risk factors for suicidal behaviors. This study looked at the relationship between the personality dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and suicidal behaviors. A total of 5644 college students took the TCI test and the suicidality module of the M.I.N.I. The students were divided into the suicidal ideation group (n = 302; 5.4%) and the suicide attempt group (n = 301; 5.3%). Each group's TCI dimension and sub-dimension scores were compared with one another. To find out which TCI dimension affects suicide risk when depressed, regression analysis and mediation analysis were conducted. First, we adjusted for age, sex and depressive mood and compared the TCI scores of the participants based on their suicide risk. After the adjustment, self-directedness decreased in the suicidal ideation group while novelty seeking and persistence increased in the suicide attempt group. It turned out that self-directedness has a partial mediating effect between depressive symptom and suicide risk (β = -0.068 P suicidal ideation group is affected by character whereas the suicide attempt group is affected by temperament. Among the character dimensions, self-directedness was found to reduce the effect of depressive mood on suicide risk. Therefore, when evaluating suicide risk, assessing character dimensions, especially self-directedness along with depressive mood, a risk factor, will be helpful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ávila Escribano, José Juan; Sánchez Barba, Mercedes; Álvarez Pedrero, Aida; López Villarreal, Ana; Recio Pérez, Joaquina; Rodríguez Rodilla, Manuela; Fraile García, Eulalia
to investigate the ability to predict the outcome of alcohol use disorders through Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R). this is a prospective study consisting of 237 outpatients with alcohol use disorders who underwent follow-up treatment for 6 months and whose personality traits were studied using TCI-R. At the end of that period, the scores of each TCI-R trait were analyzed in terms of those who remained in treatment and those who dropped out. The whole group scored highly in novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) and produced low scores in self-directedness (SD), these last traits are considered prominent. The drop-out group scored significantly (p=.004) higher in novelty seeking (NS) than the follow-up group. Also, when the score was higher than the 67 percentile the likelihood of abandoning the treatment was 1.07 times higher. Cloninger's temperament and character inventory is a good instrument to predict the outcome of treatment of patients with alcohol use disorders and the novelty seeking (NS) dimension is strongly related to therapeutic drop-out.
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383
Bernard F. Fuemmeler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158. RESULTS MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing ( β = 0.15, P = 0.044 and surgency ( β = 0.19, P = 0.018 behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression. Higher methylation levels at the intergenic MEG3-IG methylation regions were associated with surgency ( β = 0.28, P = 0.0003 and PEG3 was positively related to externalizing ( β = 0.20, P = 0.01 and negative affectivity ( β = 0.18, P = 0.02. CONCLUSION While the small sample size limits inference, these pilot data support gene-specific associations between epigenetic differences in regulatory regions of imprinted domains at birth and later infant temperament.
Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Faron-Lasyk, Aneta; Borecki, Lukasz
It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey. The major findings were that emotional intelligence, rather than temperament, is strongly associated with the expression of altruistic behavior in both young and senior subjects, despite a general decrease in the characteristics of emotional intelligence in advanced age. We also failed to substantiate the presence of an appreciable difference in the level of declared altruism between the senior and young subjects. High emotional intelligence, often underling social engagement and bonding, seems thus a good predictor of altruistic aptitude to be displayed by a person. The independence of this association of age-changes in emotional agility is suggestive of causal relationship. The study is relevant for an understanding of the enigmatic origins of important social behaviors like altruism.
Doucette, S; Horrocks, J; Grof, P; Keown-Stoneman, C; Duffy, A
Attachment is associated both with the risk of developing a mood disorder and temperamental profile. Relatively little is known about these associations in children of a parent with bipolar disorder (BD). The present study is a preliminary analysis of the association between attachment, temperament and psychopathology among high-risk offspring. As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study, offspring from families with one parent with BD (HR) and offspring from families with unaffected parents (C) were clinically assessed using KSADS-PL format interviews annually. Validated self-report measures of perceived attachment and temperament were completed. Perceived attachment did not differentiate HR from C offspring and did not predict psychopathology or mood disorder in particular. However, high emotionality significantly predicted the risk of psychopathology in HR offspring, where 1 standard deviation increase in emotionality significantly increased the hazard of psychopathology by a factor of 1.36 (p=0.0009) and mood disorder by a factor of 1.24 (p=0.02). Use of retrospective measures and low sample size for some models. There may be no gross abnormalities in attachment among HR compared to C offspring. It remains unclear if emotionality is a barometer of illness or a true risk factor in this population. More longitudinal research is needed to advance understanding of the influential pathways by which psychosocial risk factors impact the development of BD. This research has implications for targeted early interventions in HR youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fassino, Secondo; Garzaro, Lorenzo; Peris, Clementina; Amianto, Federico; Pierò, Andrea; Abbate Daga, Giovanni
To evaluate the personality features of infertile patients. A double-blind, controlled study. An outpatient facility for diagnosis and care of infertility. We assessed 142 infertile couples with obstetric-gynecologic clinical and instrumental examinations. The couples were divided into three groups: organic infertility, functional infertility, and infertility of uncertain origin. The third group was excluded. Organic infertility and functional infertility were ascertained with gynecologic and andrologic clinical examinations, seminal liquid examination, postcoital testing, progesterone assay, hysterosalpingography, biopsy of endometrium, and laparoscopy. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Infertile women showed lower Cooperativeness than control women. Women with functional infertility had lower scores in Cooperativeness and Self-Directedness than women with organic infertility. Men belonging to the functional infertility group had a lower Novelty Seeking score than did those of the organic infertility group. Men and women in the functional infertility group showed higher Harm Avoidance than those in the organic infertility and control groups. The results emphasize that the study of personality in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of infertility might provide useful predictive elements for functional infertility.
Bray, Emily E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Serpell, James A.; Seyfarth, Robert M.
A continuing debate in studies of social development in both humans and other animals is the extent to which early life experiences affect adult behavior. Also unclear are the relative contributions of cognitive skills (“intelligence”) and temperament for successful outcomes. Guide dogs are particularly suited to research on these questions. To succeed as a guide dog, individuals must accomplish complex navigation and decision making without succumbing to distractions and unforeseen obstacles. Faced with these rigorous demands, only ∼70% of dogs that enter training ultimately achieve success. What predicts success as a guide dog? To address these questions, we followed 98 puppies from birth to adulthood. We found that high levels of overall maternal behavior were linked with a higher likelihood of program failure. Furthermore, mothers whose nursing style required greater effort by puppies were more likely to produce successful offspring, whereas mothers whose nursing style required less effort were more likely to produce offspring that failed. In young adults, an inability to solve a multistep task quickly, compounded with high levels of perseveration during the task, was associated with failure. Young adults that were released from the program also appeared more anxious, as indicated by a short latency to vocalize when faced with a novel object task. Our results suggest that both maternal nursing behavior and individual traits of cognition and temperament are associated with guide dog success. PMID:28784785
Serpell, J A.; Hsu, Y
Most guide and service dog organizations would benefit from the development of accurate methods for the early evaluation of canine temperament traits. This paper describes the development and validation of a novel questionnaire method for assessing behavior and temperament in 1-year-old guide dogs. Volunteer puppy-raisers scored a total of 1097 prospective guide dogs on a series of 40 semantic differential-type, behavioral rating scales. Principle components factor analysis of these scores extracted eight stable and interpretable common factors: stranger-directed fear/aggression, non-social fear, energy level, owner-directed aggression, chasing, trainability, attachment, and dog-directed fear/aggression. Three of these eight factors exhibited moderate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha>/=0.72), while the reliabilities of the remaining factors were relatively low (Cronbach's alpha=0.53-0.61). The eight factors were then validated against the guide dog school's own criteria for rejecting dogs for behavioral reasons. The results of this analysis confirmed the construct validity of the puppy raisers' questionnaire assessments of their dogs, and suggested that such methods can provide a useful and accurate means of predicting the suitability of dogs for guiding work. Various modifications to the original questionnaire are proposed in order to enhance its overall reliability.
Mian, Nicholas D; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms, violence exposure, and sociodemographic risk factors predict school-aged anxiety symptoms. This longitudinal, prospective study was conducted in a representative birth cohort (n = 1109). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized associations between risk factors measured in toddlerhood/preschool (age = 3.0 years) and anxiety symptoms measured in kindergarten (age = 6.0 years) and second grade (age = 8.0 years). Early child risk factors (anxiety symptoms and temperament) emerged as the most robust predictor for both parent-and child-reported anxiety outcomes and mediated the effects of maternal and family risk factors. Implications for early intervention and prevention studies are discussed.
Dadds, Mark R; Salmon, Karen
We review ideas about individual differences in sensitivity or responsiveness to common disciplinary behaviors parents use to correct aggressive and antisocial behavior in children. At extremes, children may be seen as "punishment-insensitive," an heuristic with some value relevant to models of the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior disorders. Literature from diverse fields, such as psychopathy, child temperament, socialization and the development of moral conscience, conditioning theory, and personality theory, have all utilized the idea that humans differ in their sensitivity to aversive stimuli and the cues that signal their occurrence, as well as their ability to inhibit reward-driven behavior, in the presence of punishment cues. Contemporary thinking places these dispositions squarely as basic biological aspects of temperament that moderate the effects of the environment (e.g., parenting) on outcomes (e.g., mental health). We review a largely forgotten literature that shows clearly that sensitivity to punishment is also reliably influenced by the environment itself. An attempt is then made to model the interactional processes by which parenting and punishment sensitivities in children magnify or diminish each other's progress toward healthy or antisocial development. Implications for parenting of children with low responsiveness to punishment strategies are discussed.
Full Text Available Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.
Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Kryski, Katie R; Jordan, Patricia L; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P
Children's cortisol reactivity to stress is an important mediator of depression risk, making the search for predictors of such reactivity an important goal for psychopathologists. Multiple studies have linked maternal depression and childhood behavioral inhibition (BI) independently to child cortisol reactivity, yet few have tested multivariate models of these risks. Further, paternal depression and other child temperament traits, such as positive emotionality (PE), have been largely ignored despite their potential relevance. We therefore examined longitudinal associations between child fear/BI and PE and parental depression, and children's cortisol stress reactivity, in 205 7-year-olds. Paternal depression and child fear/BI predicted greater cortisol stress reactivity at a follow-up of 164 9-year-olds, and maternal depression and child PE interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity, such that higher child PE predicted lower cortisol reactivity in the context of maternal depression. Results highlight the importance of both parents' depression, as well as multiple facets of child temperament, in developing more comprehensive models of childhood cortisol reactivity to stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Jiang, Nan; Sato, Takeshi; Hara, Tomihide; Takedomi, Yaeko; Ozaki, Iwata; Yamada, Shigeto
In our study, we explored the associations among anxiety, the dimensions of Cloninger's theoretically based and empirically validated psychobiological model of personality (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) and fatigue in order to clarify the personality risk factors for fatigue. Fifth-year students (n=89) and freshmen (n=162) at Saga Medical School and psychiatric outpatients of Saga Medical School Hospital (n=101) were investigated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Japanese version), the TCI (Japanese version), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the self-rating Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC), which describe fatigue along three subscales (general, physical and psychological fatigue). Correlation and ANOVA analyses were performed in this study. The analysis identified a significant relation (Ptrait anxiety and fatigue. The TCI dimension of harm avoidance (HA) is positively correlated with both trait anxiety and fatigue (general fatigue, psychological fatigue and physical fatigue). The character dimension of self-directedness is negatively correlated with both trait anxiety and fatigue. There is an inherent relationship among trait anxiety, the temperament dimension of harm avoidance, character dimension of self-directedness and fatigue. The TCI dimensions, harm avoidance and self-directedness, might be considered as predictors for fatigue-related disorders.
Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J
The aims were to see which temperament and character dimensions were associated with depression, mainly with its outcome at two-year follow up in eating disorders (EDs). Participants (N=151) were 44 Anorexia nervosa (AN), 55 Bulimia nervosa (BN) and 52 Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rosenberg Self Esteem Questionnaire (RSE), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were administered. Depression at the beginning (t0) was severe in 22% of the cases. Harm Avoidance and Novelty Seeking had an effect on depressed mood at t0, mediated by Ineffectiveness. Responsibility (SD1) was associated with scores on the BDI at two-year follow up (β=-0.37, 95% CI -2.6, -0.6, pdimension in EDs has therapeutic and prognostic implications: To enhance self-efficacy and self-directness is crucial for good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Cheney, Dorothy L; Serpell, James A; Seyfarth, Robert M
A continuing debate in studies of social development in both humans and other animals is the extent to which early life experiences affect adult behavior. Also unclear are the relative contributions of cognitive skills ("intelligence") and temperament for successful outcomes. Guide dogs are particularly suited to research on these questions. To succeed as a guide dog, individuals must accomplish complex navigation and decision making without succumbing to distractions and unforeseen obstacles. Faced with these rigorous demands, only ∼70% of dogs that enter training ultimately achieve success. What predicts success as a guide dog? To address these questions, we followed 98 puppies from birth to adulthood. We found that high levels of overall maternal behavior were linked with a higher likelihood of program failure. Furthermore, mothers whose nursing style required greater effort by puppies were more likely to produce successful offspring, whereas mothers whose nursing style required less effort were more likely to produce offspring that failed. In young adults, an inability to solve a multistep task quickly, compounded with high levels of perseveration during the task, was associated with failure. Young adults that were released from the program also appeared more anxious, as indicated by a short latency to vocalize when faced with a novel object task. Our results suggest that both maternal nursing behavior and individual traits of cognition and temperament are associated with guide dog success.
Wills, T A; Sandy, J M; Yaeger, A; Shinar, O
This research tested for moderation in the relation of family risk factors (parent-child conflict, family life events, and parental substance use) to adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana). A sample of 1,810 participants was surveyed at the mean age of 11.5 years and followed with 2 yearly assessments. Temperament dimensions were assessed with the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey and the Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability Inventory. Multiple-group latent growth analyses indicated moderation occurred through (a) alteration of effects of parental variables on the adolescent substance use intercept and on the peer substance use intercept and slope and (b) alteration of the effect of the peer substance use intercept on the adolescent substance use slope. The impact of parental risk factors was decreased among participants with higher task attentional orientation and positive emotionality (resilience effect) and was increased among participants with higher activity level and negative emotionality (vulnerability effect). Results from self-report data were corroborated by independent teacher reports.
Full Text Available Studies on leadership have focused either on physiological state as the key predictor (i.e. "leading according to need", or else on temperamental asymmetries among group members (i.e. intrinsic leadership. In this paper, we explore how both factors interact in determining the emergence of leaders. We observed pairs of sticklebacks with varying degrees of temperamental difference, and recorded their movements back and forth between a safe covered area and a risky foraging area, both before and after satiating one of the two pair members (but not the other. Before satiation, when the fish had similar hunger levels, temperament was a good predictor of social roles, with the bolder member of a pair leading and the shyer member following. The effect of satiation depended on which fish received the additional food. When the shyer member of a pair was fed, and consequently became less active, the bolder fish did not change its behaviour but continued to lead. By contrast, when the bolder member of a pair was fed, and consequently initiated fewer trips out of cover, the shyer partner compensated by initiating trips more frequently itself. In pairs that differed only a little in temperament, feeding the bolder fish actually led to a role reversal, with the shyer fish emerging as a leader in the majority of joint trips out of cover. Our results show that leadership emerges as the consequence of multiple factors, and that their interaction can be complex.
Jaap G. Goekoop
Full Text Available Background. Support has been found for high harm avoidance as general vulnerability trait for depression and decreased self-directedness (SD as central state-related personality change. Additional personality characteristics could be present in psychotic depression (PD. Increased noradrenergic activation in PD predicts the involvement of reward dependence (RD. Methods. The data during the acute episode and after full remission from the same subjects, that we used before, were reanalyzed. The dependence of the 7 dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory version 9 on PD, three other subcategories of depression, and a group of normal controls was tested by MANCOVA. Results. Low RD at both time points, and low Cooperativeness during the acute episode, were found as additional characteristics of PD. Conclusion. The combination of two premorbid temperaments, high HA and low RD, and the development of a state-related reduction of two character functions, SD and CO, may be the precondition for the development of combined depressive and psychotic psychopathology.
Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D
This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS by determining the relationship between three Strelau's dimensions of temperament (strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, mobility and basic dimensions of personality as were defined by Eysenck and in the five-factor model of personality. It was expected that strength of excitation and mobility would have significant positive correlations with extraversion and negative correlations with neuroticism, while strength of inhibition would show significant negative correlations with neuroticism. Within two studies (N1 = 74 female students, Mage = 22; N2 = 54 female students, Mage = 20, Croatian version of PTS, Five−Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire FF−NPQ, and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire EPQ R/A were used. The reliability coefficients for all three instruments were satisfactory, although not very high. Coefficients of correlation determined in the first study were not entirely in agreement with either theoretical expectations or empirical results of other authors, probably due to small sample size. However, the results of the second study were in accord with the expected pattern of significant correlations and that could be considered an indicator of good construct validity of PTS. Since this was a preliminary study the results provide only a general insight into the research aim, and represent a good starting point for future validation studies of the Croatian version of PTS.
Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel
The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.
Lee, Young Sik; Son, Ji Hyun; Park, Jeong Ha; Kim, Sun Mi; Kee, Baik Seok; Han, Doug Hyun
The differences in prevalence, natural history, and disease progression between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and substance use disorder contribute to the controversy over IGD as a diagnosis under substance-related and addictive disorders. The purpose of the current study was to assess the temperament and character of subjects with IGD in comparison with those with alcohol dependence (AD). Temperament and character were assessed using Cloningernt temperament and character inventory (TCI). The severity of IGD or AD, depressed mood, anxiety, attention and impulsiveness were assessed using each of the six scales. Among patients with AD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of AD was positively correlated with harm avoidance (HA) score and depressed mood. Among patients with IGD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of IGD was positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) score, impulsiveness and attention. There were significant differences in temperament and character between the IGD and AD groups as measured using the TCI. These results suggest that IGD and AD need to be categorized separately in a diagnostic classification system and benefit from different treatment approaches.
This study examined the main and interactive effects of cumulative risk and child temperament on teacher ratings of social competence and observer ratings of peer play in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. A cumulative risk index (CRI) was computed by summing the total number of risk factors for each family. There was a difference in the…
Hoff, Larry A.
This study was a cross-sectional study of leadership and staff of a public school system in Georgia concerning their temperament type, emergency management motivation and emergency management knowledge in relation to Emergency Management/Crisis performance (ERCM). The study consisted of an inclusive questionnaire that contains questions on four…
Fox, Nathan A.; Barker, Tyson V.; White, Lauren K.; Suway, Jenna G.; Pine, Daniel S.
In the current issue of this journal, Rapee (2013) reports that the incidence of internalizing disorders was reduced as a result of a brief parent centered intervention amongst adolescents who as young children were characterized with the temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). The intervention was administered when children were 3 to 5 years…
Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun
The relations of parents' and teachers' reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children's externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both…
Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.
Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059
The objective of this research was to evaluate circulating concentrations of plasma cortisol and measures of temperament at weaning in calves (steers and heifers) and transport in steers. Calves (n = 938) were produced from a 3-breed diallel mating design that included calves from 3 consecutive yea...
Full Text Available Background Women with gynaecological pathology are affected by diseases associated with their femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Diseases like these can potentially be sources of trauma for women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate temperament traits, self-esteem and mental health dimensions that may contribute to the intensity of trauma in hospitalized women. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on 136 women aged from 18 to 60, hospitalized for a variety of gynaecological diseases. The level of trauma symptoms was assessed with the PTSD-Factorial Version inventory. Temperament traits were assessed with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI, self-esteem was measured using the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, and mental health was diagnosed with the General Health Questionnaire – 28 items. Results Emotional reactivity and anxiety symptoms increase trauma symptom intensity in gynaecological patients, whereas briskness, endurance and lovability as a dimension of self-esteem may serve as protective buffers against intensification of trauma symptoms. Together, emotional reactivity, anxiety symptoms and lovability account for 48% of the variance of trauma intensity symptoms. Conclusions Emotional reactivity and anxiety symptoms increase trauma symptom intensity in gynaecological patients, whereas lovability as a dimension of self-esteem (and to a lesser extent briskness and endurance as temperament traits may serve as protective buffers against intensification of trauma symptoms. The findings may have implications for the social support programmes that may be arranged for gynaecological patients.
Vázquez, Gustavo H; Akiskal, Hagop
One of the major points of interest in the study of affective temperaments is the possibility of exploring the clinical significance of sub-affective traits as predictors of the development and inter-episodic manifestation of recurrent mood disorders within the bipolar illness spectrum. The TEMPS-A scale is a self-evaluation questionnaire used worldwide to assess the four basic affective temperaments (hyperthymic, depressive, cyclothymic, and irritable), and the anxious temperament. The TEMPS-A questionnaire version that includes 110 items has been locally adapted from the version used in Spain, which in turn was produced by following the translation / retro-translation method. A locally-adapted version was produced from the version used in Spain. This local version was subsequently translated into English by a bilingual translator. A satisfactory adaptation of the version used in Spain was achieved, as confirmed by the retro-translation into English, and its subsequent approval by the authors of the scale. The Argentine version of the TEMPS-A self-evaluation questionnaire for the assessment of affective temperaments can be considered equivalent to the original version, and used as an important instrument for the clinical investigation of affective disorders in our country.
Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, René; Mills, Melinda
This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey
The forced-choice and a questionnaire format of the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament were administered under regular and desirability directions to college students. The forced-choice format produced low scale intercorrelations under the regular directions, but under the desirability directions a common factor appeared. The same factor appeared…
Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Kao, Karen; Swann, Gregory; Goldsmith, H Hill
Biological parents pass on genotypes to their children, as well as provide home environments that correlate with their genotypes; thus, the association between the home environment and children's temperament can be genetically (i.e., passive gene-environment correlation) or environmentally mediated. Furthermore, family environments may suppress or facilitate the heritability of children's temperament (i.e., gene-environment interaction). The sample comprised 807 twin pairs (mean age = 7.93 years) from the longitudinal Wisconsin Twin Project. Important passive gene-environment correlations emerged, such that home environments were less chaotic for children with high effortful control, and this association was genetically mediated. Children with high extraversion/surgency experienced more chaotic home environments, and this correlation was also genetically mediated. In addition, heritability of children's temperament was moderated by home environments, such that effortful control and extraversion/surgency were more heritable in chaotic homes, and negative affectivity was more heritable under crowded or unsafe home conditions. Modeling multiple types of gene-environment interplay uncovered the complex role of genetic factors and the hidden importance of the family environment for children's temperament and development more generally.
Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa
The present study investigated the influence of temperament on long-term recall and extinction of 2 instrumental tasks in 26 horses. In the first task (backward task), horses learned to walk backward, using commands given by an experimenter, in order to obtain a food reward. In the second task (active avoidance task), horses had to cross an obstacle after a bell rang in order to avoid emission of an air puff. Twenty-two months after acquisition, horses exhibited perfect recall performance in both tasks. Accordingly, no influence of temperament on recall performance could be observed for either task. In contrast, in the absence of positive or negative outcomes, the horses' ability to extinguish their response to either task was highly variable. Resistance to extinction was related to some indicators of temperament: The most fearful horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the backward task, while the least sensitive horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the active avoidance task. These findings reveal extensive long-term memory abilities in horses and suggest an influence of temperament on learning processes other than acquisition.
McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.
Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E.
This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 41/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N = 1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E
This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ambrose, Nicoline G; Yairi, Ehud; Loucks, Torrey M; Seery, Carol Hubbard; Throneburg, Rebecca
The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of any patterns reflecting underlying subtypes of persistence and recovery across epidemiologic, motor, language, and temperament domains in the same group of children beginning to stutter and followed for several years. Participants were 58 2-4-year-old CWS and 40 age and gender matched NFC from four different sites in the Midwest. At the end of the multi-year study, stuttering children were classified as Persistent or Recovered. The same protocol obtaining data to measure stuttering, motor, language and temperament characteristics was used at each site. They have not been included in previous reports. The Persistent group performed consistently differently from the Recovered and Control groups. They performed lower on standardized language tests and in phonological accuracy, had greater kinematic variability, and were judged by their parents to be more negative in temperament. The present study provides data supporting the hypothesis that subtypes of stuttering can be identified along persistency/recovery lines, but results were not definitive. Readers will be able to (a) describe the current state of subtypes of stuttering research; (b) summarize possible contributions of epidemiologic, motoric, linguistic and temperament to such subtyping with regard to persistency and recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.
This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that examined Hans Eysenck's antisocial behavioral hypothesis (ASB). Eysenck's theory of personality has three temperament-based traits: Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E), and Neuroticism (N). His ASB hypothesis predicts that individuals high on P, E, and N with poor socialization are at the greatest…
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Affective temperament, social support and work-related stresors belong to the group of life and job satisfaction indicators. The aim of this research was to examine predictive roles of the basic affective temperament traits, social support and work-related stressors in the feeling of job and life satisfaction among doctors and psychologists. Methods. The sample consisted of 203 individuals out of whom there were 28% male and 72% female doctors (61% and psychologists (39%, 25–65 years old (39.08 ± 9.29, from the two university towns in Serbia. The set of questionnaires included Serbian version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A, Satisfaction with Life scale, Job Satisfaction Survey, short Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and Source of Stress at Work Scale (IRSa for estimating the frequency of stressors at work. Results. According to the existing norms our examinees are satisfied with their life, but considerably less satisfied with their work, specially with pay and benefits, while they are most satisfied with nature of work itself and social relations with co-workers and supervisors. Our results show that depressive and hyperthymic, and to some extent cyclothymic temperament traits of the affective temperament significantly predict 21% of life satisfaction variance. Situational factors, such as stressors at work and social support, are important in predicting job satisfaction (58% of variance with no significant contribution of temperament traits. The analysis did not point out any significant relation of sex, occupation, and age with life and job satisfaction. Conclusions. Affective temperaments can be regarded as predictors of life satisfaction, but in order to better predict satisfaction the aspects of wider social surrounding and sources of stressors at work must be taken in consideration. Future studies should consider other indicators of life
Full Text Available Background: Rhinoplasty is the most common cosmetic surgery which has been dramatically increasing in Iran. Currently, Iran is ranked the first in the world in rhinoplasty. In the present study, we aimed to assess the character and temperament traits of the applicants referred to rhinoplasty surgeons in Shiraz, southwest Iran in 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 500 participants among rhinoplasty applicants for case and among students and clerks residing in Shiraz by convenience sampling method in 2015. The two groups were matched regarding the gender, age and educational level. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and temperament and character inventory to assess the four dimensions of temperament (including novelty seeking; harm avoidance; reward dependence; persistence and the three dimensions of character (including self-directedness; cooperativeness; self-transcendence. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 20. Chi- square and t-test were used as appropriated. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 27.43±6.6. The results showed a significant difference between the case and control groups with respect to the temperaments of novelty (9.47±2.80, harm avoidance (9.12±3.3, persistence (2.69±1.04,the characters of cooperativeness (15.38±4.02, and self-transcendence (9.48±3.41. Conclusion: Evaluating character and temperament traits in rhinoplasty applicants will be so helpful in identifying and predicting good candidates for such cosmetic surgery. Selecting the ideal patients can not only reduce the costs resulting from rhinoplasty imposed on families and society but also enhance the satisfaction of the patients and the surgeons.
Nyman, Emma; Miettunen, Jouko; Freimer, Nelson; Joukamaa, Matti; Mäki, Pirjo; Ekelund, Jesper; Peltonen, Leena; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina
The aim of this study was to characterize at the population level how innate features of temperament relate to experience of depressive mood and anxiety, and whether these symptoms have separable temperamental backgrounds. The study subjects were 4773 members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, a culturally and genetically homogeneous study sample. Temperament was measured at age 31 using the temperament items of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a separate Pessimism score. Depressive mood was assessed based on a previous diagnosis of depressive disorder or symptoms of depression according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List - 25. Anxiety was assessed analogously. High levels of Harm avoidance and Pessimism were related to both depressive mood (effect sizes; d=0.84 and d=1.25, respectively) and depressive disorder (d=0.68 and d=0.68, respectively). Of the dimensions of Harm avoidance, Anticipatory worry and Fatigability had the strongest effects. Symptoms of depression and anxiety showed very similar underlying temperament patterns. Although Harm avoidance and Pessimism appear to be important endophenotype candidates for depression and anxiety, their potential usefulness as endophenotypes, and whether they meet all the suggested criteria for endophenotypes will remain to be confirmed in future studies. Personality characteristics of Pessimism and Harm avoidance, in particular its dimensions Anticipatory worry and Fatigability, are strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as to depressive disorder in this population. These temperamental features may be used as dimensional susceptibility factors in etiological studies of depression, which may aid in the development of improved clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Temperament and character dimensions of personality result in somatization disorder when the insecure internal models which are set according to the framework of mother-neonate attachment relationships had been formed.
Baibazarova, E.; de Beek, C.V.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Buitelaarc, J.; Shelton, K.H.; van Goozen, S.H.M.
This prospective, longitudinal study aimed to investigate relationships between indicators of maternal prenatal stress, infant birth outcomes and early temperament. We examined the pattern of associations and postulated pathways between physiological (cortisol plasma concentrations) and self-report
Sánchez-Moreno, J; Barrantes-Vidal, N; Vieta, E; Martínez-Arán, A; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Montes, J M; Akiskal, K; Akiskal, H S
Investigation of the predisposing factors for affective disorders has shown that measures to assess affective temperament are necessary. The TEMPS-A is a self-evaluation measure to assess four affective temperaments (hyperthymic, depressive, cyclothymic and irritable) and anxious temperament. The TEMPS-A questionnaire version that includes 110 questions has been adapted following the translation-backtranslation methodology, including two translations to Spanish and the classification of equivalence to English by an independent author. The study results indicated that a satisfactory translation was obtained, as indicated by the validation of equivalence by the bilingual consultant. All the items showed a perfect (A) or satisfactory equivalence (B). The TEMPS-A, Spanish version, is an understandable questionnaire that is equivalent to the original version in English, that allows for the evaluation of affective temperaments.
van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Stolk, Mirjam N; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M
This study investigated the interaction of child temperament and maternal discipline in the prediction of externalizing problems in early childhood. Interaction effects were evaluated in a sample of 227 one- to three-year-old children with relatively high externalizing problems scores on the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5. Child temperament was reported by the mothers, maternal discipline was observed in a laboratory session, and child outcome measures included both mother-reported externalizing problems and observed physical aggression. Results indicate that children with difficult temperaments are more susceptible to negative discipline (i.e., they showed more externalizing problems) as well as more susceptible to positive discipline (i.e., they showed fewer externalizing problems and less physical aggression), as compared with children with relatively easy temperaments. These findings provide empirical evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis and suggest directions for enhancing the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing early childhood externalizing problems.
PTS - Pavlovian Temperament Survey, versão adolescente/adulto: consistência interna e normatização para a realidade brasileira PTS - Pavlovian Temperament Survey, adolescent/adult version: internal consistency and normatization for Brazilian reality
Raquel Souza Lobo Guzzo
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou verificar a consistência interna da Escala Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS, versão adolescente/adulto, descrever e estabelecer normas para avaliação do temperamento de adolescentes. A Escala PTS, versão adolescente/adulto, investiga três fatores de temperamento: Força de Excitação (FE, Força de Inibição (FI e Mobilidade (MO. Participaram da pesquisa 952 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos. Os índices de consistência interna obtidos apresentaram-se satisfatórios (FE = 0,71; FI = 0,69; MO = 0,74. Na caracterização do temperamento, os adolescentes apresentaram pontuações médias maiores nos fatores MO e FI e acentuadamente menores em FE. Diferenças significativas nas médias de MO e FE foram constatadas, quando considerado o sexo dos adolescentes. Os resultados obtidos asseguram a importância da PTS para avaliação do temperamento, sendo aconselhável a ampliação da amostra e delineamentos diferenciados em estudos futuros.This study aimed to verify the internal consistency of Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS adolescent/ adult version, to describe and to establish norms for assessment of adolescents temperament. The PTS investigates three temperament factors: Strength of Excitation (SE, Strength of Inhibition (SI and Mobility (MO. 952 adolescents participated in the research, from both gender, with ages between 14 and 18 years. The indexes of internal consistency obtained were considered satisfactory (SE = 0,71; SI = 0,69; MO = 0,74. In the characterization of the temperament, the adolescents presented mean scores higher in the factors MO and SI, and strongly smaller in SE. Significant differences in the means of MO and SE were verified when sex was considered. The results assure the importance of PTS for assessment of temperament, and suggestions are presented regarding sample enlargement and design differentiation in future studies.
Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Nakato, Yasuya; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro
Background Previous studies have shown the interaction between heredity and childhood stress or life events on the pathogenesis of a major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we tested our hypothesis that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult stressful life events interact and influence the diagnosis of MDD. Patients and methods A total of 170 healthy controls and 98 MDD patients were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Life Experiences Survey, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results The neglect scores of the CATS indirectly predicted the diagnosis of MDD through cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire in the structural equation modeling. Two temperaments – cyclothymic and anxious – directly predicted the diagnosis of MDD. The validity of this result was supported by the results of the stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis as follows: three factors – neglect, cyclothymic, and anxious temperaments – were significant predictors of MDD. Neglect and the total CATS scores were also predictors of remission vs treatment-resistance in MDD patients independently of depressive symptoms. Limitations The sample size was small for the comparison between the remission and treatment-resistant groups in MDD patients in multivariable analysis. Conclusion This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly predicted the diagnosis of MDD through increased affective temperaments. The important role as a mediator of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on MDD was suggested. PMID:26316754
Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio
Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.
Full Text Available Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ, the Sensory Profile (SP-J, and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ, this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control through path analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.
Neppl, Tricia K; Donnellan, M Brent; Scaramella, Laura V; Widaman, Keith F; Spilman, Sarah K; Ontai, Lenna L; Conger, Rand D
This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined differential consistency of three core dimensions of individuality from toddlerhood through middle childhood. Data came from 273 families who participated with their child at least once during three developmental periods: toddlerhood (2 years), early childhood (3 to 5 years), and middle childhood (6 to 10 years). Both mothers and fathers reported on attributes of their child using subscales from the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire, the Child Behavior Questionnaire, and the Iowa Personality Questionnaire. Reports were used as indicators of the latent "Big Three" dimensions of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint at each of the three developmental periods. Results pointed to consistency in these broad dimensions of temperament and personality from toddlerhood to middle childhood.
Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V
Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research.
Parker, G; Cheah, Y-C; Parker, K
To determine the influence of language and culture on the temperament and character (TCI) measure in a Chinese sample. We translated the TCI into Mandarin and had a non-psychiatric sample of Malaysian Chinese subjects complete the TCI at baseline and at a 1-month retest, with subsets completing English or Mandarin versions alternatively or on both occasions. Analyses examine the TCI factor structure and any impact of language and culture on TCI scoring. We identified age, gender, occupation and language effects on TCI scale scores. Test-retest reliability was high and not compromised by language. Scale internal consistency was also high. Factor analyses of separate sets of TCI scales corresponded strongly to the structure identified in the TCI development studies. The results indicate that TCI is likely to have applicability to Chinese subjects, and argue against properties being constrained by the English language or by western culture.
Laible, Deborah J; Kumru, Asiye; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; Selcuk, Bilge; Sayil, Melike
In Turkey, responsive behaviors toward kin are expected from children. Despite this, we know little about the factors that influence young Turkish children's prosocial behaviors. The goal was to explore how temperament and parenting are related to children's prosocial development in Turkey. A total of 293 Turkish children (Mage = 49 months; 48.12% females) were followed up for 3 years. Mothers completed measures of their child's prosocial behaviors, as well as measures of their warmth, inductive reasoning, and the child's approach and reactivity. Maternal warmth predicted children's reactivity, and maternal induction predicted children's sociability. Children's reactivity was inversely related to children's helping behavior and sociability was related to more prosocial behavior. Maternal warmth had indirect links with helping through lessening children's reactivity. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hansen, Steffen W.; Jeppesen, Leif Lau
A farm mink population of 290 1-year-old wild-coloured females was scanned for stereotyped behaviour in October 2003. At the same time the temperament of the individuals was established with a stick test. Some of the females performed no stereotypies in 54 scans and this fraction of the population......, 73 individuals, included significantly more fearful animals (38.4%) as opposed to the stereotyping part of the population (22.6% fearful animals). Since fear observed under farming conditions directs to reduced welfare, the results suggest that stereotypy should not unconditionally be used...... as a measure of poor welfare. On this basis, it was interesting to see if the sensitivity to a reward as expressed by the level of anticipatory behaviour of high and low stereotyping mink would clarify the discrepancy between the two classical measures of welfare. Twenty-four of the most stereotyping animals...
Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Ugurlu, Hilal; Yildirim, Fatma Gul
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) severity with alexithymia, temperament, and character dimensions of personality in university students while controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. A total of 319 university students from two conservative universities in Ankara volunteered for the study. Students were investigated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Internet Addiction Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the university students enrolled in the study, 12.2 percent (n=39) were categorized into the moderate/high IA group (IA 7.2 percent, high risk 5.0 percent), 25.7 percent (n=82) were categorized into the mild IA group, and 62.1 percent (n=198) were categorized into the group without IA. Results revealed that the rate of moderate/high IA group membership was higher in men (20.0 percent) than women (9.4 percent). Alexithymia, depression, anxiety, and novelty seeking (NS) scores were higher; whereas self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were lower in the moderate/high IA group. The severity of IA was positively correlated with alexithymia, whereas it was negatively correlated with SD. The "difficulty in identifying feelings" and "difficulty in describing feelings" factors of alexithymia, the low C and high NS dimensions of personality were associated with the severity of IA. The direction of this relationship between alexithymia and IA, and the factors that may mediate this relationship are unclear. Nevertheless, university students exhibiting high alexithymia and NS scores, along with low character scores (SD and C) should be closely monitored for IA.
Capriola, Nicole N; Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H
Specific phobias (SPs) are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety regarding an object or situation. SPs often result in a host of negative outcomes in childhood and beyond. Children with SPs are broadly assumed to show dispositional over-regulation and fearfulness relative to children without SPs, but there are few attempts to distinguish dispositional patterns among children with SPs. In the present study, we examined trajectories of differing temperamental profiles for youth receiving a CBT-based treatment for their SP. Participants were 117 treatment seeking youth (M Age = 8.77 years, Age Range = 6-15 years; 54.7% girls) who met criteria for a SP and their mothers. Three temperament profiles emerged and were conceptually similar to previously supported profiles: well-adjusted; inhibited; and under-controlled. While all groups showed similarly robust reductions in SP severity following treatment, differences among the three groups emerged in terms of broader internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and global outlook. The well-adjusted group was higher in functioning initially than the other two groups. The inhibited group had initial disadvantages in initial internalizing symptoms. The under-controlled group showed greatest comorbidity risks and had initial disadvantages in both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These distinct clusters represent considerable heterogeneity within a clinical sample of youth with SP who are often assumed to have homogenous behavior tendencies of inhibition and fearfulness. Findings suggest that considering patterns of temperament among children with phobias could assist treatment planning and inform ongoing refinements to improve treatment response.
Godefroy, Valérie; Trinchera, Laura; Darcel, Nicolas; Rigal, Natalie
Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children and their families. The etiology and developmental course of sensory over-responsivity is still largely unknown. We measured tactile and auditory over-responsivity in a population-based, typically developing sample of twins (N=978) at age two years via a caregiver report temperament questionnaire and again at age seven years via a sensory over-responsivity symptom inventory. Participating twins were treated as singletons although all analyses controlled for clustering within families. Children were divided into four trajectory groups based on risk status at both ages: low symptom (N=768), remitted (N=75), late-onset (N=112), and chronic (N=24). A subset of children who screened positive for SOR in toddlerhood (N = 102) took part in a pilot study focused on sensory over-responsivity at four years of age. Children in the chronic group had more severe symptoms of sensory sensitivity at age four years, including more motion sensitivity, than the other trajectory groups. Children in the chronic group had a younger gestational age and were more likely to be low birth-weight than the low symptom group. Differences between remitted and late-onset groups and the low-symptoms group were inconsistent across measures. Sensory over-responsivity was modestly correlated across ages (r = .22 for tactile over-responsivity and r = .11 for auditory over-responsivity), but symptoms were more stable among children born prematurely or who had more fearful and less soothable temperaments. A clear implication is that assessment over development may be necessary for a valid sensory processing disorder diagnosis, and a speculative implication is that sensory over-responsivity symptoms may be etiologically heterogeneous, with different causes of transient and
M Poor Naseh
Full Text Available Background: This Study aimed to validate the temperament and character inventory (TCI in an Iranian sample of men and women with different ages. TCI contains subscales designed to measure seven different personality traits and characteristics. Materials and Methods: In the first step, subjects (n=1212 completed the questionnaire. In the second step, to examine the reliability of the questionnaire, 101 randomly chosen subjects were re-tested one to two months after the first test. Also, in order to examine the validity of the questionnaire, 100 subjects were interviewed by two psychologists using a checklist based on the Cloninger's biological theory of personality. The interviewers, who were blind to the subjects scores on the seven subscales, rated each subject for the seven traits and characteristics on a 10-point rating scale (from 1 to 10. Results & Conclusion: The results showed normative data for the subscales novelty seeking (NS, harm avoidance (HA, reward dependence (RD, persistence (Per, self directiveness (SD, cooperation (Co and self transcendence (ST for different gender and age classes. Correlations between the scores and ratings of the test and re-test revealed significant coefficients, confirming reliability for all subscales. A good internal consistency was found for each subscale. The results also showed no significant correlations higher than 0.40 among NS, HA, Per and RD; the temperament subscales were independent from each other. The only significant correlation, higher than 0.40, among the character subscales was between SD and Co. Applied and clinical implication of the present findings will be discussed.
Vellante, Marcello; Zucca, Giulia; Preti, Antonio; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
Manic-depression/bipolar disorder was linked to creativity, with affective temperaments allegedly favoring creative expression and achievement, but a few studies only empirically tested the link. 152 undergraduate students attending preparatory courses for creative artistic professions and 152 students in areas expected to lead to a profession mostly requiring the application of the learned rules were invited to fill in the TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to investigate the links between creativity scores and measures of psychopathology. Creative participants and controls did not differ in terms of sex (males=47%), age (24.5 years, SD=3.8), or socioeconomic status. Creative people scored higher than controls on the CAQ and on the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable subscales of the TEMPS-A, but not on the GHQ. Greater involvement in creative activities rather than being a creative achiever best differentiated those into the "risk for bipolar spectrum" class from the other two classes extracted by the LCA from the TEMPS-A. The use of self-report measures to evaluate both creative involvement and the risk of psychopathology, and the exclusive focus on artistic creativity limit the generalizability of the findings. This study confirms that the cyclothymic dimension of the bipolar spectrum is linked to creativity, and this link is likely to result from increased involvement into pleasurable activities, including creative ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akiskal, H S
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined as an uncontrollable disposition to worry about one's welfare and that of one's immediate kin. Associated manifestations include arousal, vigilance, tension, irritability, unrestful sleep and gastrointestinal distress. There is growing evidence for the lifelong nature of this condition among many of its sufferers. This and other evidence reviewed in the present paper provide further support for the thesis that the chronic disposition to worry should probably be classified under constitutional or trait anxiety. GAD is best considered an exaggeration of a normal personality disposition that can be named 'Generalized anxious temperament' (GAT). Despite some overlap with anxious-phobic, inhibited and avoidant-sensitive temperaments, GAT seems to have a distinct profile with altruistic overtones; on the other hand, GAT is less easily distinguished from harm-avoidant and obsessive traits. That worrying would increase upon relaxation is not a paradox at all, and is understandable in an ethological perspective as subserving the defensive function of being vigilant of ever present yet uncertain external dangers--to oneself and one's kin--in day-to-day living. GAT can thus be considered as 'altruistic anxiety', subserving hypothetically the survival of one's extended phenotype in a 'kin selection' paradigm. Only when extreme does worrying manifest in a clinical context, impairing one's interpersonal life and functioning at work, and increasing use of general health care resources. Furthermore, generalized anxiety appears to predispose to and is often associated with depression, and a spectrum of phobic disorders, as well as alcohol and sedative use. These considerations place GAD (and the putative GAT) in the limelight and underscore the need for more research into its fundamental characteristics. Towards this aim, a self-rated GAT measure under development in our center is provided in an appendix to this paper.
Belvederi Murri, Martino; Mamberto, Sara; Briatore, Lucia; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Amore, Mario; Cordera, Renzo
Diabetes and depression are reciprocally linked, but few studies modeled their interplay considering the influence of affective temperaments (AT) and demographic factors. Participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM, n=279) recruited from Diabetes Units were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A), Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) and Cumulative Illness Rating Scales (CIRS). Glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HBA1C) was used as index of glycemic control. The bi-directional association between glycemic control, depression and candidate mediators was examined with Structural Equation Modeling, testing the impact of moderator variables (AT, diabetes type, age and gender) with multigroup comparison. The association between HBA1C and depressive symptoms was mediated by diabetes-related distress,, while there was no definite evidence of depression influencing HBA1C through changes of adherence, tiredness, appetite, alcohol intake or smoking. Among individuals with AT, distress was unrelated to HBA1C and had a higher impact on depression; adherence was inversely association with HBA1C. Moreover, physical comorbidities impacted on depression. While diabetes type had a moderation role, age and gender did not affect the model. Cross sectional design, lack of objective measures of diet and physical activity. Glycemic control seem to influence the severity of depressive symptoms, but the reciprocal association seems non-significant. AT and diabetes type may shape this relationship influencing distress and adherence to medications. Findings may aid interventions aimed at improving patients' care and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mechri, Anwar; Kerkeni, Neila; Touati, Imen; Bacha, Miloud; Gassab, Leila
Recent studies have suggested that clinicians may under diagnose bipolarity in a substantial proportion of depressive patients, and proposed that affective temperaments particularly cyclothymic temperament (CT), may predict bipolarity in these patients. The objectives of this study were to assess CT in patients with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) and to explore its associations with clinical predictors of bipolarity. 98 patients (43 men and 55 women, mean age=46.8±9.9years), followed for RDD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, were recruited. CT was assessed using the Tunisian version of the TEMPS cyclothymic subscale with the threshold score of 10/21. The mean score of CT was 6.5±5.2. One-third of patients (33.7%) had a CT score ≥10. These patients with high CT scores had significantly early age at onset of first depressive episode and high number of previous depressive episodes, and had more psychotic and melancholic features and suicidal ideations and attempts during the last depressive episode compared to patients with low CT scores. The multiple regression analysis showed an association between CT scores and psychotic, melancholic and atypical features and suicide attempts during the last depressive episode. This is a cross-sectional study with a relatively small number of patients. The Tunisian version of the CT subscale was not yet validated. CT was associated with some clinical predictive factors of bipolarity. These results suggest the relevance of the CT screening in RDD, considering the change of polarity risk and misdiagnosis of unipolar depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kosif, R; Konuk, N
Career psychologists have argued that the career choice and personality interfere with each other. There have been lots of investigations aimed at seeking the relationships between career interests and personality characteristics. There is limited knowledge on personality profiles of the anatomists and on how they are related with their specialty choices. In this research we aimed to explore the relationship between personality and career interests of anatomists. Out of 279 anatomists who had been asked to complete the survey via e-mail including three questionnaires, 79 (53 male, 26 female) responded in the present study. Personality was assessed using the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The career interest was determined by Holland's Theme Codes. The order of high frequency Holland's Codes was as follows: social (44.3%), realistic (35.4%), investigative (27.8%), conventional (19.0%), artistic (7.6%), and enterprising (5.1%). With regard to temperament components of TCI was as follows: novelty seeking (mean=17.7±4.7), harm avoidance (mean=13.9±6.1), reward dependence (mean=13.2±3.4), and persistence (mean=5.4±2.1). Character profiles are as follows: self-directedness (mean=33.1±6.3), self-transcendence (mean=17.9±7.6), and cooperativeness (mean=30.6±5.9). According to the last questionnaire, the most important cause for choosing anatomy is the interest in anatomy since medical study time. These results in part support Holland's theory, which takes the career as a function of personality and the personality profiles of anatomists have affected the motivation to select their specialty choice partially (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 10).
Mechri, Anwar; Kerkeni, Neila; Hassine, Rym; Khalfaoui, Sana; Touati, Imen; Bacha, Miloud
Suicidal behaviour is a major health problem, particularly among patients with depressive disorders. To determine the frequency of suicidal behavior among sample of patients with recurrent depressive disorder and to explore the relationship between suicidal behavior and cyclothymic temperament in these patients. This was a cross-sectional study bearing on 98 patients (43 men and 55 women, mean age of 46.8 ± 9.9 years) followed for recurrent depressive disorder according to the criteria of DSM-IV recruited during partial or complete recovery interval. Information about suicidal behavior was collected from medical records. Cyclothymic temperament (CT) was assessed using the cyclothymic subscale (21 items). Patients who had scores above the threshold score of 10 and were considered as cyclothymic (CT+ group) and other patients were considered non-cyclothymic (CT- group). History of suicide attempts were reported in 22.4% of patients. The mean number of previous suicide attempts was significantly higher among patients in the TC+ group (0.7 ± 1.4) versus 0.2 ± 0.6 for patients in the TC- group (p=0.01). Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide attempts in the last depressive episode, were significantly higher in the CT+ group, with a 57.5% versus 24.6% in the CT- group, (p=0.001) and 33.3% versus 10.7% in the TC- group (p=0.006). A multivariate analysis retained the TC as an independent factor associated with suicidal behavior, with two other factors: the young age of patients and the frequency of previous hospitalizations. Our findings the frequency of suicidal behavior and suggest the involvement of CT in the increased risk of suicide among patients with recurrent depressive disorder.
Eory, Ajandek; Gonda, Xenia; Lang, Zsolt; Torzsa, Peter; Kalman, Janos; Kalabay, Laszlo; Rihmer, Zoltan
Affective temperaments can be considered the subclinical manifestations of affective disorders, which have a bidirectional relationship with cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this study was to assess the role of affective temperaments in primary hypertension, which is the leading risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In total, 251 consecutive patients, including 179 patients being treated for primary hypertension with anti-hypertensives, with chronic disorders without diagnosed depression were enrolled in a primary care setting. Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). Lifestyle-related risk factors, chronic diseases including cardiovascular complications were also recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship of affective temperaments and lifestyle-related risk factors on hypertension. Dominant cyclothymic temperament-with instability and rapid mood swings as main characteristics-had a significant association with hypertension (P = 0.006) even after the adjustment of correlation for known risk factors such as age, diabetes mellitus and obesity (OR: 11.88, 95%CI: 1.27-111.17). This association remained significant after controlling for the family wise error rate. The obtained adjusted P value was 0.024 at a 0.05 error rate. RESULTS indicate that dominant cyclothymic affective temperament may be an additional risk factor in cardiovascular morbidity, and it may be worthy of further assessment to identify patients at risk and formulate a more individualized treatment approach.
Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke
The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Chong, Shang-Chee; Broekman, Birit Fp; Qiu, Anqi; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Law, Evelyn; Chee, Cornelia Yin Ing; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen
Maternal antenatal mood is associated with negative infant temperament. This link has not been substantiated in Asian populations. We evaluated the association between antenatal maternal mood and infant temperament among Asian mother-infant pairs. Antenatal maternal depression and anxiety were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J. Cox, J. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, R. Gorsuch, R. Lushene, P. Vagg, & G. Jacobs, 1983), respectively, at 26 weeks of pregnancy and 3 months' postnatally. Infant temperament was evaluated with the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (B. Medoff-Cooper, W.B. Carey, & S.C. McDevitt, 1993) at 3 months. Factor analysis was performed to extract culturally relevant categories of temperamental traits. Linear regression was performed to examine the influences of antenatal maternal mood on the factor-model-derived infant temperament. Of the 609 mothers, 11% met risk criteria for depression, 17% for state-anxiety, and 19% for trait-anxiety during pregnancy. Factor analysis yielded three infant temperament factors: Emotionality and Attentional Regulation, Sensory Reactivity, and Regularity and Motor Expression, Cronbach's αs = 0.613, 0.712, and 0.752, respectively. Maternal antenatal state-anxiety, p < .001, and trait anxiety, p = .005, were associated with negative emotionality and poor attentional regulation, especially among Chinese, whereas depression was not, p = .090. There was an association between maternal antenatal anxiety and negative infant temperamental traits in this Asian sample. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Long, Derle Ray
Coincidence theory states that when the components of harmony are in enhanced alignment the sound will be more consonant to the human auditory system. An objective method of examining the components of harmony is by investigating alignment of the mathematics of a particular sound or harmony. The study examined preference responses to excerpts tuned in just intonation, Pythagorean intonation, and equal temperament. Musical excerpts were presented in pairs and study subjects simply picked one version from the pair that they perceived as the most consonant. Results of the study revealed an overall preference for equal temperament in contradiction to coincidence theory. Several additional areas for research are suggested to further investigate the results of this study.
Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Makarevskaya Yu.E.; Familnov A.O.
We present the results of a research attempt to empirically determine the nature of the influence of personal temperament traits (extra- and introversion), on subject’s success in hiding information during surveys using the polygraph, and to expand the capacities to identify the hidden information in different situations of communication and interaction. In the theoretical part of the paper, we reveal the concept of “lie”, as well as psychological and psychophysiological phenomenology of lies...
Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S
The dominance behavioral system has been conceptualized as a biologically based system comprising motivation to achieve social power and self-perceptions of power. Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of dominance motivation and self-perceived power have been related to a range of psychopathological tendencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that mania and risk for mania (manic temperament) relate to the dominance system. Four studies examine whether manic temperament, measured with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), is related to elevations in dominance motivation, self-perceptions of power, and engagement in socially dominant behavior across multiple measures. In Study 1, the HPS correlated with measures of dominance motivation and the pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions for fame and wealth among 454 undergraduates. In Study 2, the HPS correlated with perceptions of power and extrinsically-oriented lifetime ambitions among 780 undergraduates. In Study 3, the HPS was related to trait-like tendencies to experience hubristic (dominance-related) pride, as well as dominance motivation and pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions. In Study 4, we developed the Socially Dominant Behavior Scale to capture behaviors reflecting high power. The scale correlated highly with the HPS among 514 undergraduates. The studies rely on self-ratings of manic temperament and dominance constructs, and findings have not yet been generalized to a clinical sample. Taken together, results support the hypothesis that manic temperament is related to a focus on achieving social dominance, ambitions related to achieving social recognition, perceptions of having achieved power, tendencies to experience dominance-related pride, and engagement in social behaviors consistent with this elevated sense of power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farkhondeh Sharif; Behnaz Anooshehpoor; Arash Mani; Ladan Zarshenas; Najaf Zare; Ali Haghighatian
Background: Rhinoplasty is the most common cosmetic surgery which has been dramatically increasing in Iran. Currently, Iran is ranked the first in the world in rhinoplasty. In the present study, we aimed to assess the character and temperament traits of the applicants referred to rhinoplasty surgeons in Shiraz, southwest Iran in 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 500 participants among rhinoplasty applicants for case and among students and clerks residing in Shiraz...
Włodzimierz Oniszczenko; Joanna Szulc; Marek Bulsa; Dariusz Żebiełowicz
Background Women with gynaecological pathology are affected by diseases associated with their femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Diseases like these can potentially be sources of trauma for women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate temperament traits, self-esteem and mental health dimensions that may contribute to the intensity of trauma in hospitalized women. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on 136 women aged from 18 to 60, h...
Brunst, Kelly J.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kannan, Srimathi; Carroll, Kecia N.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.
Background Infant temperament predicts a range of developmental and behavioral outcomes throughout childhood. Both maternal fatty acid intake and psychosocial stress exposures during pregnancy may influence infant temperament. Furthermore, maternal race may modify prenatal diet and stress effects. The goals of this study are to examine the joint effects of prenatal diet and stress and the modifying effects of race on infant behavior. Methods Analyses included N=255 mother-infant dyads, primarily minorities (21% Blacks; 42% Hispanics), enrolled in an urban pregnancy cohort. Maternal prenatal stress was indexed by a negative life events (NLEs) score on the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey. Prenatal total daily intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (n3, n6) were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire; n3:n6 ratios were calculated. Mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a measure of infant temperament, when the children were 6 months old. Three commonly used dimensions were derived: Orienting & Regulation, Extraversion, and Negative Affectivity. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal n3:n6 ratio, and race/ethnicity on infant temperament, controlling for maternal education and age and child sex, were examined. Results Among Blacks, prenatal stress effects on infant Orienting & Regulation scores were modified by maternal n3:n6 ratios (p=0.03): As NLEs increased, lower n3:n6 ratios predicted lower infant Orienting & Regulation scores, whereas higher n3:n6 ratios attenuated the effect of prenatal stress. There were no main or interaction effects predicting Extraversion or Negative Affectivity. Conclusions An optimal PUFA ratio may protect the fetus from stress effects on infant behavior, particularly among Blacks. These findings may have implications for later neurodevelopment and social functioning predicted by early temperamental characteristics. PMID:25328835
Henry, Belinda A; Blache, Dominique; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Maloney, Shane K
In addition to homeostatic regulation of body mass, nonhomeostatic factors impact on energy balance. Herein we describe effects of temperament on adipose and core body temperatures in sheep. Animals were genetically selected for Nervous or Calm traits. We characterized the effects of 1) high- and low-energy intake and maintenance feeding, 2) meal anticipation, and 3) adrenocorticotropin challenge on core body and adipose temperatures. Temperature measurements (5 min) were made using a thermistor inserted into the carotid artery (core body) and a probe in the retroperitoneal fat. An imposed feeding window was used to establish postprandial elevations in temperature. Fat tissue was taken from retroperitoneal and subcutaneous regions for real-time PCR analyses. We demonstrate that innate differences in temperament impact on adipose and core body temperatures in response to various dietary and evocative stimuli. In response to homeostatic cues (low-energy intake and maintenance feeding) core body temperature tended to be higher in Calm compared with Nervous animals. In contrast, in response to nonhomeostatic cues, Nervous animals had higher anticipatory thermogenic responses than Calm animals. Expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and -2 mRNA were higher in retroperitoneal tissue than in subcutaneous tissue, but UCP3 and leptin mRNA levels were similar at both sites; expression of these genes was similar in Nervous and Calm animals. There were no differences in stress responsiveness. We conclude that temperament differentially influences adipose thermogenesis and the regulation of core body temperature in responses to both homeostatic and nonhomeostatic stimuli.
Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man
Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.
Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako
'Infant shyness', in which infants react shyly to adult strangers, presents during the third quarter of the first year. Researchers claim that shy children over the age of three years are experiencing approach-avoidance conflicts. Counter-intuitively, shy children do not avoid the eyes when scanning faces; rather, they spend more time looking at the eye region than non-shy children do. It is currently unknown whether young infants show this conflicted shyness and its corresponding characteristic pattern of face scanning. Here, using infant behavioral questionnaires and an eye-tracking system, we found that highly shy infants had high scores for both approach and fear temperaments (i.e., approach-avoidance conflict) and that they showed longer dwell times in the eye regions than less shy infants during their initial fixations to facial stimuli. This initial hypersensitivity to the eyes was independent of whether the viewed faces were of their mothers or strangers. Moreover, highly shy infants preferred strangers with an averted gaze and face to strangers with a directed gaze and face. This initial scanning of the eye region and the overall preference for averted gaze faces were not explained solely by the infants' age or temperament (i.e., approach or fear). We suggest that infant shyness involves a conflict in temperament between the desire to approach and the fear of strangers, and this conflict is the psychological mechanism underlying infants' characteristic behavior in face scanning.
Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S
The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.
Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Servatius, Richard J.; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E.
Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was specifically associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263
Danzig, Allison P.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Klein, Daniel N.
This study examined the effects of parents’ positive and negative affect and behavior while interacting with their preschool child and the moderating role of child temperament in predicting children’s subsequent difficulty with socially appropriate behavior around school-entry. Independent observational measures were used to assess child temperament (dysphoria; exuberance) and parenting at age 3, and multi-informant reports of child socially appropriate behavior were collected at age 6 (N = 219). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that children’s temperamental dysphoria moderated the relationship between positive parenting and later socially appropriate behavior. High- and low-dysphoric children trended in opposite directions; highly dysphoric children experienced greater difficulty with socially appropriate behavior as levels of positive parenting increased, whereas low-dysphoric children experienced less difficulty with socially appropriate behavior with higher levels of positive parenting. There was also an interaction between positive and negative parenting, whereby the combination of elevated positive and negative parenting predicted children’s later difficulty with socially appropriate behavior. The findings suggest that positive parenting interacts with early child temperament and negative parenting to impact the development of children’s socially appropriate behavior. PMID:28824223
Clark, D Angus; Listro, Caitlin J; Lo, Sharon L; Durbin, C Emily; Donnellan, M Brent; Neppl, Tricia K
Parent reports of temperament are used to study many important topics in child development, such as whether boys and girls differ in their levels of emotional reactivity and self-regulation. However, questions regarding measurement equivalence in parental reports of temperament are largely unexplored, despite the fact that this issue is critical for drawing the correct conclusions from mean-level comparisons. In the current study, measurement invariance across boys and girls (as targets), and mothers and fathers (as informants), was investigated in the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart et al., 2001) using a sample of children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years (N = 605). Several instances of noninvariance were identified across both girls and boys, and mothers and fathers. An evaluation of effect size indices suggests that the practical impact of this noninvariance ranges from negligible to moderate. All told, this study illustrates the importance of taking a psychometrically informed approach to the use of parent reports of child temperament. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Moragrega, Ines; Van Strien, Tatjana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Agüera, Zaida; de la Torre, Rafael; Casanueva, Felipe F; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, Jose C; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Botella, Cristina
Eating styles have been studied in both Obesity (OB) and Eating Disorders (ED), but they have not been examined in these two weight conditions together. The present study explores differences in eating styles in an Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and OB sample, compared to Healthy Controls (HC), and it analyses their relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI) and personality traits. The total sample consisted of 291 female participants (66 AN, 79 OB and 146 HC). Assessment measures included the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire-DEBQ- and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-TCI-R-. The MANCOVA test showed significant differences among the three groups for all eating styles, with emotional eating being more typical in the OB group and restrained eating more typical in the AN group. Partial correlation analyses showed relationships between emotional and external eating and BMI, as well as relationships with different temperament and character traits. The stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that the DEBQ correctly classified 65.6% of the sample into the three weight categories; when combined with the TCI-R, correct classification increased to 72.6%. Weight conditions showed different eating behaviour patterns. Temperament and character traits were related to eating behaviours. DEBQ and TCI-R were able to discriminate between groups. Differences in eating styles in the weight groups can have implications for understanding the development and maintenance of OB and ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miranda M Ravicz
Full Text Available Accurate decoding of facial expressions is critical for human communication, particularly during infancy, before formal language has developed. Different facial emotions elicit distinct neural responses within the first months of life. However, there are broad individual differences in such responses, such that the same emotion can elicit different brain responses in different infants. In this study we sought to investigate such differences in the processing of emotional faces by analyzing infants’ cortical metabolic responses to face stimuli and examining whether individual differences in these responses might vary as a function of infant temperament.Seven-month-old infants (N = 24 were shown photographs of women portraying happy expressions, and neural activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Temperament data were collected using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, which assesses the broad temperament factors of Surgency/Extraversion (S/E, Negative Emotionality (NE, and Orienting/Regulation (O/R. We observed that oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb responses to happy face stimuli were negatively correlated with infant temperament factors in channels over the left prefrontal cortex (uncorrected for multiple comparisons. To investigate the brain activity underlying this association, and to explore the use of fNIRS in measuring cortical asymmetry, we analyzed hemispheric asymmetry with respect to temperament groups. Results showed preferential activation of the left hemisphere in low-NE infants in response to smiling faces.These results suggest that individual differences in temperament are associated with differential prefrontal oxyHb responses to faces. Overall, these analyses contribute to our current understanding of face processing during infancy, demonstrate the use of fNIRS in measuring prefrontal asymmetry, and illuminate the neural correlates of face processing as modulated by temperament.
Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Manes, Facundo
To investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms and the influence of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in comparison with bipolar disorder (BD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Sixty patients with ADHD, 50 patients with BD, and 30 HCs were assessed with instruments for measuring depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and affective temperaments (Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version; TEMPS-A). In addition, participants were evaluated with scales for measuring ADHD symptoms, impulsiveness, anxiety, executive dysfunction, and quality of life. ADHD patients showed levels of depressive symptoms similar to BD patients and higher than HCs. Only neurovegetative symptoms of depression differentiated ADHD and BD groups (BD > ADHD). Depressive symptoms in ADHD patients correlated positively with core ADHD, impulsivity, anxiety, and dysexecutive symptoms and negatively with quality of life. Thirty-eight percent of patients with ADHD scored above the cutoff for at least one affective temperament. Cyclothymic was the more common affective temperament (25%). ADHD patients with affective temperamental traits were more depressed and impulsive than patients without those traits and showed a symptomatic profile analogous to BD patients. The small size of resultant samples when ADHD group was stratified by the presence of affective temperament. In addition, results may not generalize to less severe ADHD patients from the community. Concomitant depressive symptoms constitute a common occurrence in adults with ADHD that carries significant psychopathological and functional consequences. The concept of affective temperaments may be an interesting link for explaining depressive symptomatology and emotional impulsivity in a subgroup of patients with ADHD, beyond the classic idea of comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goto, Shinjiro; Terao, Takeshi; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Wang, Yumei
The concept of soft bipolar spectrum has not been fully confirmed. The aim of the present study is to investigate the validity of bipolar II1/2 and IV concept. The subjects were 46 consecutive outpatients. The individual temperament of each patient was recorded using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The operational definition of bipolar II1/2 was those who had depression with cyclothymic temperament and that of bipolar IV was those who had depression with hyperthymic temperament. Finally, drug responses were investigated. DSM-IV-TR diagnoses were bipolar I (N=1), bipolar II (N=9), major depressive disorder (N=34) and depressive disorder not otherwise specified (N=2). Excluding one bipolar I patient, who had both cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments, patients with bipolar II1/2 (N=32) and IV (N=13) as well as bipolar II (N=9) were classified into the soft bipolar spectrum, although there was considerable overlap. The categorization of soft bipolar spectrum and unipolar depression significantly predicted depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments. Moreover, soft bipolar spectrum patients with lithium treatment were significantly more in remission than those without lithium treatment. In addition, more of those with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had a significant tendency to lower remission than those without SSRIs. This is a cross-sectional study with a relatively small number of subjects. The present findings suggest that cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments may predict bipolarity, and the validity of bipolar II1/2 and IV concept is supported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kasimanickam, R K; Hall, J B; Estill, C T; Kastelic, J P; Joseph, C; Abdel Aziz, R L; Nak, D
Objectives were to determine effects of: 1) handling temperament and administration of flunixin meglumine, an inhibitor of prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) synthesis, given at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer recipients; 2) handling temperament and flunixin meglumine on peripheral concentrations of progesterone, cortisol, substance-P, prostaglandin F metabolites (PGFM, (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a) and isoprostane 8-epi PGF2a; and 3) flunixin meglumine treatment on proportion of non-pregnant recipient cows returning to estrus within an expected interval. Angus cross beef cows (n = 710) at 7 locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese) and a temperament score [0, calm, slow chute exit; walk (n = 352), 1, excited, fast chute exit; jump, trot or run (n = 358)] and were synchronized with Select-Synch with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol. Estrus detection aids were applied at CIDR removal and cows were observed thrice daily for estrus until 72 h. Recipient cows that expressed estrus and had a corpus luteum received a frozen-thawed embryo on Day 7 after estrus. At the time of transfer, recipient cows were randomly allocated to receive 10 mL of flunixin meglumine im, immediately after transfer (n = 365) or served as an untreated control (n = 345). In a subset of cows (n = 80), ovarian ultrasonography was performed on the day of embryo transfer to determine corpus luteum volume and blood samples were collected twice, at the time of embryo transfer and 7 d later. All cows received estrus detection aids again on Day 14 (7 d after embryo transfer) and were observed for estrus twice daily until Day 24. Accounting for treatment (P > 0.1), embryo transfer difficulty score (P flunixin meglumine was lower (46.3% 81/175) compared to excitable cows that did received flunixin meglumine [56.8% (104/183)], and calm cows that did [59.3% (108/182)] or did not [59.4% (104
Patrick H. Roseboom
Full Text Available Rationale/statement of the problem : In the central nervous system, the serotonin (5HT neurotransmitter system plays a key role in the regulation of mood and emotion. Alterations in the 5HT system are thought to contribute to psychopathologies. In addition, drugs targeting the 5HT system are effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Children with anxious temperament (AT are characterized by excessive shyness, worrying, and avoidant behavior. This temperament, when stable across development, increases the risk of later developing depression and anxiety disorders. Using a well-established, nonhuman primate model of AT, we tested whether variations in the 5HT system predict individual differences in AT. We focused on the central nucleus region of the amygdala (CeA because we have established that metabolic activity in this region is predictive of AT. Methods : Using Affymetrix GeneChip® rhesus macaque genome arrays, we assessed gene expression from CeA tissue in 24 young male rhesus monkeys phenotyped for AT. Robust regression analysis was performed with correction for multiple comparisons across all annotated transcripts that are part of the neuroactive ligand pathway (KO04080 in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. Results : As hypothesized, variation in gene expression predicted individual differences in AT. Specifically, of the thirteen 5HT receptors assessed, only the 5HT2C receptor (5HT2C; r= − 0.57, p<0.01 was identified in the microarray analysis as significantly negatively correlated with AT. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis using the same CeA RNA samples confirmed this association (r = −0.65, p<0.001. Underscoring the anatomical specificity of this effect, the significant relationship between 5HT2C receptor mRNA levels and AT was not observed in the motor cortex, a brain region not associated with AT (r=0.10, p=0.64. Conclusions : Previous work by others
Bréjard, V; Bonnet, A; Pedinielli, J-L
Risk-taking behaviors among adolescents are now considered as a real public health issue. To investigate for potential vulnerability factors, adolescent risk-taking behavior can be analyzed from several different perspectives, based on biological, social or psychological variables. Risk-taking theories based on temperamental dimensions examine individual differences in propensity for engaging in such behaviors, whereas others focused on emotional processing disorder such as alexithymia or anhedonia with diverse conclusions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between risk taking and two levels of psychological functioning: personality with reference to Cloninger's model of personality, and emotion with reference to Lane and Schwartz's level of emotional awareness theory. The sample consisted in 488 adolescents (m(age)=14.93, SD=1.44) with 257 boys (m(age)=15, SD=1.51) and 231 girls (m(age)=14.52, SD=1.23) who completed a set of three inventories: the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Scale (YRBSS), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale. Risk-taking behaviors were also assessed indirectly with regards to teachers or school educators' evaluation. Moderate to weak significant correlations were found between temperament dimensions and risk-taking, and between level of emotional awareness and risk-taking. A positive moderate correlation was observed between novelty and risk-taking, whereas a negative weak correlation was observed between harm avoidance and risk-taking. Level of emotional awareness shows moderate negative correlations with risk-taking, as the two self and others dimensions. Finally, a model including the four temperament and the two emotional awareness dimensions was tested with risk-taking as the outcome variable. It accounted for 33% of the total variance (R(2)=0.33; F=30.78, pawareness as significant criteria. As hypothesized, temperamental dispositions of novelty seeking and harm
Full Text Available Yuka Kudo,1,2 Atsuo Nakagawa,1,3 Taisei Wake,1 Natsumi Ishikawa,1 Chika Kurata,1 Mizuki Nakahara,4 Teruo Nojima,2 Masaru Mimura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gunma Hospital, Gunma, 3Clinical and Translational Research Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 4Graduate School, Tokyo University of Social Welfare, Gunma, Japan Background: Despite available treatments, major depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder, which leads to problems in classification and treatment specificity. Previous studies have reported that personality traits predict and influence the course and treatment response of depression. The Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P assesses eight major constructs of personality traits observed in those who develop depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of T&P’s eight constructs on the treatment outcome of depressed patients.Patients and methods: A preliminary 6-month prospective study was conducted with a sample of 51 adult patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD without remarkable psychomotor disturbance using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All patients received comprehensive assessment including the T&P at baseline. We compared each T&P construct score between patients who achieved remission and those who did not achieve remission after 6 months of treatment for depression using both subjective and objective measures. All 51 (100% patients received the 6-month follow-up assessment.Results: This study demonstrated that higher scores on T&P personal reserve predicted poorer treatment outcome in patients with MDD. Higher levels of personal reserve, rejection sensitivity, and self-criticism correlated with higher levels of depression. Higher levels of rejection sensitivity and self-criticism were associated with non-remitters; however, when we
Parvinroo, Shirin; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh
Hot and cold temperaments are the basic concepts of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). Nevertheless, studies on the functional mechanisms of medicinal herbs based on hot and cold temperaments are not very extensive. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing hot or cold temperament seeds according to ITM on some hormonal and neuromediator parameters with a regulatory role in thermogenesis and energy metabolism in acute (24 hr) and subacute (7-day) experiments that were performed on rats. Each experiment was performed on 42 male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into 7 groups. while 1 group received usual diet (controls), 6 other groups were fed with a diet containing 10% seeds, namely, anise, fennel, or ajowan (hot temperament groups) or cucumber, pumpkin, or watermelon (cold temperament groups), respectively. The levels of the rats׳ serum free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3), triiodothyronin (T3), thyroxin (T4), corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were analyzed. After 24 hours, a significant decrease in FT3 was observed in groups that were fed anise or fennel seeds. However, a significant increase in T3 was observed in the ajowan seed-fed group, and no changes in other parameters were observed in this group. On the 7th day, FT4 was significantly increased in fennel seed-fed group; T3 was significantly increased in the anise, fennel, ajowan and watermelon seed-fed groups; corticosterone was significantly increased in the watermelon and pumpkin seed-fed groups; and VMA was significantly increased in the fennel seed-fed group and significantly decreased in the cucumber seed-fed group. Alterations induced by hot and cold temperament seeds in measured hormonal and neuromediator levels that have a regulatory role in thermogenesis and the body׳s energy metabolism revealed that hot and cold temperament characteristics of studied seeds may most likely be related to their intervention in the body׳s energy metabolism
Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kanai,1,2 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,3 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Jun Ishikawa,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Hajime Tanabe,4 Ichiro Kusumi,3 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 2Department of Palliative Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, 4Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect and ill-being (negative affect. We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods: A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI; Life Experiences Survey (LES; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS. The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus. Results: Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations: The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not
Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyake, Yuko; Sakai, Yoshie
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between temperament, job stress, and overcommitment using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) and a scale of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. In July 2004, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all employees in a Japanese IT service company through the company postal system. Total response rate was 63% (N=874), with 730 completed questionnaires. Information collected included individual attributes, employment and organizational characteristics. The TEMPS-A and the Japanese version of the ERI questionnaire were self-administered. The completed data of 637 personal computer technical support staff (87%) were used in a hierarchical regression analysis. Our results showed that depressive and anxious temperaments attenuate the influence of working hours and influence effort and rewards independently. While actual working hours had more impact on perceived high effort, our findings regarding rewards suggest that understanding anxious and depressive temperaments has a significant role in stress self-management. Temperaments explained 36% of the variance of overcommitment, and the variance was more than that of mean working hours. Our research has provided meaningful insights into occupational health, which could assist employees in self-management of job stress and contribute to better adaptation at the workplace.