WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperament profiles stability

  1. Toddlers' temperament profiles: stability and relations to negative and positive parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Asscher, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N  = 96) rated their child’s (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1

  2. Temperament profiles of Sasang typology in a child clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types in children using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further investigation into the biopsychological profiles of the children, the longitudinal stability of the Sasang typology can be examined.

  3. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  4. Temperament and character profile of eating disorders: a controlled study with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Amianto, Federico; Leombruni, Paolo; Boggio, Sonia; Rovera, Gian Giacomo

    2002-12-01

    The question whether anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are different disorders or the extremes of a psychopathologic spectrum still has no definite answer. A way to face this problem is to examine the personality traits underlying these disorders. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 141 anorectics (70 Restrictor and 71 Binge-purging), to 102 bulimics, and to 100 controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory main scales are Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence. The personality profiles that emerged are characterized by low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, high Persistence, and low Self-Directedness in AN, and by high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, and low Self-Directedness in BN. Binge-purging anorectics showed a personality profile midway between anorectics and bulimics. The dimensional study of personality through the TCI and its facets seems effective in discriminating the personality traits underlying the different subtypes of Eating Disorders. The hypothesis of an Eating Disorders spectrum and its clinical implications are discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 412-425, 2002.

  5. Developmental Profiles and Temperament Patterns in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Relationships With Subtypes and Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chen

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: The subtype and severity of sCP were associated with developmental profiles in children with sCP Temperament patterns were different between SD and SQ groups, but only weakly related to motor deficit. These data could allow clinicians to anticipate the developmental profiles and temperament patterns and plan appropriate therapeutic strategies for children with sCP.

  6. Temperament type specific metabolite profiles of the prefrontal cortex and serum in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Brand

    Full Text Available In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the

  7. The Development of Early Profiles of Temperament: Characterization, Continuity, and Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Charles; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Buss, Kristin A.; Loken, Eric; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study used a data-driven, person-centered approach to examine the characterization, continuity, and etiology of child temperament from infancy to toddlerhood. Data from 561 families who participated in an ongoing prospective adoption study, the Early Growth and Development Study, were used to estimate latent profiles of temperament at 9, 18, and 27 months. Results indicated that four profiles of temperament best fit the data at all three points of assessment. The characterization of profiles was stable over time while membership in profiles changed across age. Facets of adoptive parent and birth mother personality were predictive of children’s profile membership at each age, providing preliminary evidence for specific environmental and genetic influences on patterns of temperament development from infancy to toddlerhood. PMID:26332208

  8. Irritable temperament profile prevails among patients with boxer fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkesen, A; Demirkale, I; Taşkesen, N; Okumuş, M; Can, D Ö

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the temperament dimensions of the patients with boxer fracture and compare them with age- and sex-matched controls. We performed a prospective analysis investigating affective temperaments of the 102 patients with boxer fractures and compared them with 100 sex- and age-matched controls that were referred to the emergency department due to incidental soft-tissue trauma. Affective temperament of the patients was evaluated by Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Both incidences of dominant affective temperaments of boxer fracture cases with previously validated normal Turkish population and controls and differences between mean values of temperament scores were analyzed. The mean age of the patients with boxer fractures was 25.6 (range 17-47) and 27.7 years (range 17-49) for controls. We found that dominant irritable temperament (n = 10; 9.7%) had significantly higher incidence from both control group and normal Turkish population (p boxer fractures will help us to enhance treatment plan and may prevent further intentional injuries by providing an insight into better controlling physical health of the patients.

  9. Developmental profiles and temperament patterns in children with spastic cerebral palsy: relationships with subtypes and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Keh Chung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hui; Liu, Wen-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2011-08-01

    Elucidating developmental profiles and temperament patterns in children with cerebral palsy (CP) could help clinicians elaborate more flexible strategies for treating these children. This study investigated the developmental profiles and temperament patterns in children with spastic CP (sCP) of different subtypes and severities. One hundred and five children, aged 3-6 years, with sCP and 66 children with typical development (TD) were analyzed. Children with sCP were classified into spastic diplegia (SD; n = 60), and spastic quadriplegia (SQ; n = 45) groups. Motor severity was classified via the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Development quotients (DQs) of eight domains and temperament scores of nine dimensions were evaluated. The SQ group had lower DQs in all developmental functions than the SD group (p < 0.01). The DQ distributions of developmental profiles showed the same trend in SD and SQ groups, and both groups displayed lowest DQs in the gross motor domain. The SQ group was less adaptable and approachable than the TD group (p < 0.05), and both sCP groups had lower attention span and persistence and a higher threshold of responsiveness than the TD group (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that GMFCS levels were highly related to all developmental functions (r < -0.54, p<0.01) and weakly related to some temperament dimensions in children with sCP. The subtype and severity of sCP were associated with developmental profiles in children with sCP Temperament patterns were different between SD and SQ groups, but only weakly related to motor deficit. These data could allow clinicians to anticipate the developmental profiles and temperament patterns and plan appropriate therapeutic strategies for children with sCP. Copyright © 2011 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal Associations of Explosive and Adventurous Temperament Profiles With Character Development: The Modifying Effects of Social Support and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Aino I L; Rosenström, Tom H; Hakulinen, Christian A; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Hintsanen, Mirka H M; Pulkki-Råback, Laura M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether adventurous and explosive temperament profiles (presumed precursors of antisocial and borderline personality) are associated with character traits over a 15-year follow-up and (b) whether social support and attachment security modify the relationship between temperament profiles and character development. 2,028 subjects of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Relationship Questionnaire at 3 assessment points between 1997 and 2012. Both explosive and adventurous temperament profiles seemed to predispose individuals to have less mature personalities; that is, these profiles were consistently associated with lower cooperativeness (P attachment was found to decrease the likelihood that explosive temperament would lead to an immature adulthood character (P attachment. From the point of view of the therapy process, this knowledge might be of importance. In contrast, individuals with the adventurous temperament were able to direct their behavior better in social environments that were not likely to support their basic temperaments. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyeva E.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.

  12. Temperament and Character Profiles of Sasang Typology in an Adult Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the biopsychological personality profiles of traditional Korean Sasang typology based on the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI in a Korean adult clinical sample. A total of 97 adults completed the Korean version of the TCI. The participants were classified as one of three traditional Korean Sasang types (31 So-Yang, 41 Tae-Eum, 25 So-Eum by three specialists in Sasang typology. The seven dimensions of TCI were compared between the different Sasang types using analysis of variance (ANOVA and profile analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender and education across the Sasang types. The TCI profile for each of the Sasang types was significantly different (profile analysis, df = 5.038, F = 3.546, P = .004. There were significant differences in the temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking (F = 3.43, P = .036 and Harm Avoidance (F = 5.43, P = .006 among the Sasang types. The Novelty Seeking score of the So-Yang type (31.90 ± 9.87 was higher than that of the So-Eum type (25.24 ± 9.21; P = .019 while the So-Eum type (44.64 ± 8.47 scored higher on the Harm Avoidance score compared to the So-Yang type (35.16 ± 11.50; P = .003. There were no significant differences in the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence and Persistence, and the three character dimensions of Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further study, the Sasang typology may lead to enhanced clinical safety and efficacy as part of personalized medicine with traditional medicine.

  13. Temperament subtypes in treatment seeking obese individuals: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Wilderjans, Tom F; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate temperament subtypes in obese patients. Ninety-three bariatric surgery candidates and 63 obese inpatients from a psychotherapy unit answered the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS), the Effortful Control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form (ATQ-EC), and questionnaires for eating disorder, depressive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and completed neurocognitive testing for executive functions. Binge eating disorder and impulse control disorders were diagnosed using interviews. A latent profile analysis using BIS/BAS and ATQ-EC scores revealed a 'resilient/high functioning' cluster (n = 88) showing high ATQ-EC and low BIS/BAS scores and an 'emotionally dysregulated/undercontrolled' cluster (n = 68) with low ATQ-EC and high BIS/BAS scores. Patients from the 'emotionally dysregulated/undercontrolled' cluster showed more eating disorder, depressive and ADHD symptoms, and poorer performance in the labyrinth task. The findings support the assumptions regarding the heterogeneity of obesity and the association between temperament subtypes and psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. [Temperament and character profiles of female adolescent patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueg, Anne; Resch, Franz; Haffner, Johann; Poustka, Luise; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald

    2006-03-01

    Based on the personality model outlined by Robert C. Cloninger, studies in adult patient samples demonstrated that according to distinct personality profiles patients with anorexia nervosa could be differentiated from those with bulimia nervosa, as well as from healthy controls. The current study examines whether these personality-related differences also exist in adolescent patients with eating disorders and a short duration of illness. The sample studied consists of 73 consecutively admitted female patients aged 12 to 18 years, with eating disorders. The German version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) was administered to 29 patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R), to 16 patients with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type (AN-B), and to 28 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Different temperamental factors were most pronounced between AN-R and BN patients, whereas AN-B patients exhibited a personality profile between those of AN-R and BN. BN patients scored higher on Novelty Seeking but lower on Persistence than AN-R patients. In contrast to AN-R patients, both BN and AN-B patients scored lower on Self-Directedness. The current results of differential temperamental dimensions in adolescent patients with eating disorders tended to be similar to findings for adult patients, which strengthens the assumption that distinct personality factors underlie the different subtypes of eating disorders.

  15. Temperament and character personality profile in relation to suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Okan; Cayköylü, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide, and suicide still remains one of the main causes of death in schizophrenic patients. Beside classic risk factors for suicidality, temperament and character traits have been researched and considered as risk factors for suicidal behavior in recent years. Subjects were 94 patients with schizophrenia who were under treatment. All patients were in a stable phase of the illness. Patients with lifetime suicide attempt (n = 46) and without suicidal attempt (n = 48) were compared with each other in terms of temperament and character traits by using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Harm avoidance and persistence scores were higher in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. The scores of self-directedness and cooperativeness were lower in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. These 4 variables remained significant predictors of lifetime suicidal attempts in a logistic regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first that specifically compares schizophrenic patients with and without suicidal behavior by the Cloninger temperament and character model. Our data indicate that schizophrenic patients will show a greater risk for suicide according to certain personality configurations. However, to establish causal relationships between personality and suicidality in schizophrenia, longitudinal studies are warranted within a multifactorial interactive framework of biologic and clinical variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperament and character personality profile and illness-related stress in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rupert; Geiser, Franziska; Kleiman, Alexandra; Zur, Berndt; Karpawitz-Godt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life) were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.

  17. Temperament and Character Personality Profile and Illness-Related Stress in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.

  18. The influence of temperament and character profiles on specialty choice and well-being in medical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sievert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple factors influence the decision to enter a career in medicine and choose a specialty. Previous studies have looked at personality differences in medicine but often were unable to describe the heterogeneity that exists within each specialty. Our study used a person-centered approach to characterize the complex relations between the personality profiles of resident physicians and their choice of specialty. Methods 169 resident physicians at a large Midwestern US training hospital completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Clusters of personality profiles were identified without regard to medical specialty, and then the personality clusters were tested for association with their choice of specialty by co-clustering analysis. Life satisfaction was tested for association with personality traits and medical specialty by linear regression and analysis of variance. Results We identified five clusters of people with distinct personality profiles, and found that these were associated with particular medical specialties Physicians with an “investigative” personality profile often chose pathology or internal medicine, those with a “commanding” personality often chose general surgery, “rescuers” often chose emergency medicine, the “dependable” often chose pediatrics, and the “compassionate” often chose psychiatry. Life satisfaction scores were not enhanced by personality-specialty congruence, but were related strongly to self-directedness regardless of specialty. Conclusions The personality profiles of physicians were strongly associated with their medical specialty choices. Nevertheless, the relationships were complex: physicians with each personality profile went into a variety of medical specialties, and physicians in each medical specialty had variable personality profiles. The plasticity and resilience of physicians were more important for their life

  19. The influence of temperament and character profiles on specialty choice and well-being in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Martin; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, Kevin M; Lester, Nigel; Rozsa, Sandor; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors influence the decision to enter a career in medicine and choose a specialty. Previous studies have looked at personality differences in medicine but often were unable to describe the heterogeneity that exists within each specialty. Our study used a person-centered approach to characterize the complex relations between the personality profiles of resident physicians and their choice of specialty. 169 resident physicians at a large Midwestern US training hospital completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Clusters of personality profiles were identified without regard to medical specialty, and then the personality clusters were tested for association with their choice of specialty by co-clustering analysis. Life satisfaction was tested for association with personality traits and medical specialty by linear regression and analysis of variance. We identified five clusters of people with distinct personality profiles, and found that these were associated with particular medical specialties Physicians with an "investigative" personality profile often chose pathology or internal medicine, those with a "commanding" personality often chose general surgery, "rescuers" often chose emergency medicine, the "dependable" often chose pediatrics, and the "compassionate" often chose psychiatry. Life satisfaction scores were not enhanced by personality-specialty congruence, but were related strongly to self-directedness regardless of specialty. The personality profiles of physicians were strongly associated with their medical specialty choices. Nevertheless, the relationships were complex: physicians with each personality profile went into a variety of medical specialties, and physicians in each medical specialty had variable personality profiles. The plasticity and resilience of physicians were more important for their life satisfaction than was matching personality to the prototype of a particular specialty.

  20. Asperger syndrome in childhood - personality dimensions in adult life: temperament, character and outcome trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helles, Adam; Wallinius, Märta; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades. Temperament and character were assessed in 40 adult males with a childhood diagnosis of ASD. Results were analysed by the stability of ASD diagnosis over time and current psychiatric comorbidity. Three distinct temperament and character profiles emerged from the data. Those no longer meeting criteria for ASD had high reward dependence while those with a stable ASD diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity showed elevated harm avoidance and low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Finally, those with a stable ASD and no comorbidity showed low novelty seeking and somewhat elevated harm avoidance. Temperament and character are important factors correlated with long-term diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity in males diagnosed with ASD in childhood. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  1. Effects of Temperament and Character Profiles on State and Trait Depression and Anxiety: A Prospective Study of a Japanese Youth Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2, separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1 only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2 trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3 trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety.

  2. Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Leonardo; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Di Nicola, Marco; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Mendlewicz, Julien; Robert Cloninger, C; Serretti, Alessandro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-09-15

    Studies comparing temperament and character traits between patients with mood disorders and healthy individuals have yielded variable results. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 101 bipolar I (BP-I), 96 bipolar II (BP-II), 123 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, and 125 HS. A series of generalized linear models were performed in order to: (a) compare the TCI dimensions across groups; (b) test any effect of the TCI dimensions on clinical features of mood disorders; and (c) detect any association between TCI dimensions and the psychopathological features of a major depressive episode. Demographic and clinical variables were also included in the models as independent variables. Higher Harm Avoidance was found in BP-II and MDD, but not in BP-I. Higher Self-Transcendence was found in BP-I. Our models also showed higher Self-Directedness in HS, either vs MDD or BP-II. No association was found between any TCI dimension and the severity of symptoms. Conversely, a positive association was found between Harm Avoidance and the overall burden of depressive episodes during lifetime. The cross-sectional design and the heterogeneity of the sample may be the main limitations of our study. In general, our sample seems to support the view of a similar profile of temperament and character between MDD and BP-II, characterized by high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness. In contrast, patients with BP-I only exhibit high Self-Transcendence, having a near-normal profile in terms of Harm Avoidance or Self-Directedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperament and character profiles of Japanese university students with depressive episodes and ideas of suicide or self-harm: a PHQ-9 screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Yutaka; Kako, Yuki; Tanaka, Teruaki; Oba, Koji; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-11-01

    The aim of our study was to reveal the personality traits of individuals with major and other depressive episodes among the young adult population. Furthermore, character traits of individuals with ideas of suicide or self-harm were also investigated in this study. The subjects of this study were 1421 university students who completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The subjects were divided into three separate groups: the major depressive episode group (N = 41), the other depressive episode group (N = 97), and the non-depressive controls (N = 1283). This separation was achieved using the PHQ-9 algorithm diagnosis. We compared the TCI scores using an analysis of variance. Moreover, the Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine the diagnosis, ideas of suicide or self-harm, and analysis of character profiles. The major depressive episode group had significantly higher HA (P depressive controls. The other depressive episode group had significantly higher HA scores (P depressive controls. The Cochran-Armitage trend test revealed that the prevalence of depressive episodes decreased as the character profiles matured (χ(2)(trend) = 57.2, P depressive episodes. Furthermore, the immaturity of character profiles was clearly associated with depressive episodes and ideas of suicide or self-harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anorectic family dynamics: temperament and character data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Svrakic, Dragan; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Leombruni, Paolo; Amianto, Federico; Stanic, Stana; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo

    2002-01-01

    Modern psychobiologic research conceptualizes personality as a complex adaptive system involving a bidirectional interaction between heritable neurobiologic dispositions (temperament) and social learning (character). In this study, we evaluated temperament and character traits of patients with anorexia nervosa and their mothers and fathers, and we analyzed the correlation of temperament and character traits among family members in anorectic families. Finally, we tested the ability of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to discriminate between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and their families. Temperament and character features of 50 restricter anorectic patients and their parents (23 fathers and 25 mothers) were analyzed and then compared with a control group of 60 women and their 20 fathers and 20 mothers using the TCI. Data suggest that both temperament and character factors are involved in anorexia nervosa (AN). Anorectic individuals were high in harm avoidance (HA), low in novelty seeking (NS), and high in persistence (P) ("obsessive temperament type"). Their character was remarkable for low self-directedness (SD). Their mothers were distinguished by low SD. The fathers were high in HA, but also low in P, and high in reward dependence (RD). Again, they were low in SD. The anorectic family had low SD as a common denominator observed in all family members. This finding indicates that the psychopathology of AN extends beyond obsessiveness, but combines obsessiveness with low character development. None of the above temperament and character profiles is pathognomic of restricter anorectics. The observation that both temperament and character have an important role in the etiopathogenesis of AN has important treatment ramifications. The TCI was useful in discriminating between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and the whole anorectic family.

  5. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  6. Impulsive and rigid temperament subtypes and executive functioning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore differences between the executive performance profiles in second order temperament trait configurations consisted of levels of harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS). These trait configurations yield the impulsive temperament subtype (high NS and low HA) and the rigid ...

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability : Unraveling the normativeness problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleidorn, W.; Kandler, C.; Riemann, R.; Angleitner, A.; Spinath, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability. Spanning a period of 10 years, we analyzed the etiology of 3 aspects of profile stability (overall profile stability, distinctive profile stability, and profile normativeness)

  8. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  9. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-21 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * temperament * well-being * social functioning * prediction * longitudinal study * life -span psychology * childhood * adolescence * adulthood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  10. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-21 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * temperament * well-being * social functioning * prediction * longitudinal study * life-span psychology * childhood * adolescence * adulthood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  11. Radial stability of density profiles for obliquely incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Montry, G.R.; Tanner, D.J.; Berger, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Self-consistent steady-state plasma density profiles including the effects of the ponderomotive force for obliquely incident light have been obtained for the case of supersonic upstream flow velocity. The radial stability of these density profiles is studied in one-dimensional spherical geometry. Above a modest threshold laser field, these density profiles are found to be unstable and exhibit unsteady flow. The absorption for unstable profiles is found to vary markedly in time. Radiation and plasma waves can be trapped in density troughs which may be unstable to kink or sausage instabilities in two dimensions. (author)

  12. Temperament in Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, K. M.; Stallone, K.; AbdulSabur, N.; Shprintzen, R.; Roizen, N.; Higgins, A. M.; Kates, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a microdeletion syndrome caused by a 22q11.2 chromosomal deletion. Methods: In this study, parents reported on their own temperament as well as the temperament of their child. Sixty-seven children with VCFS (mean age = 10.8, SD = 2.8; range 6-15), and age-, race- and gender-ratio matched samples of…

  13. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both...... the alkaloid and the residual solvent impurity profiles of cocaine were evaluated over a period of 12 months under different storage conditions (temperature, purity and weight) using GC-MS and HS-GC-MS, respectively. The sample purity (p ... profile. The most significant change was observed in low purity samples stored at 37 °C. In contrast, no changes were observed in the residual solvent profile at all storage conditions for the entire 12-month study period. This finding indicates...

  14. Atmospheric stability index using radio occultation refractivity profiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new stability index based on atmospheric refractivity at ∼500 hPa level and surface measurements of temperature, pressure and humidity is formulated. The new index named here as refractivity based lifted index (RLI) is designed to give similar results as traditionally used lifted index derived from radiosonde profiles of ...

  15. TEMPERAMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT AND CONVERSION DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY In a comparative study of temperament profiles of groups of 30 children each diagnosed as conduct disorders, conversion disorder, emotional disorders (according to DSM-III) and normal control, it was found that the children diagnosed as conduct disorders showed high activity and intensity of emotional response as well as negative mood, those diagnosed as conversion disorder exhibited low distractibility. The significance of various temperament variables in differing clinical outcomes ...

  16. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  17. Validity of Yin-Yang temperament in Sasang Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo Kyung; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Han, Sang Yun; Lee, Soo Jin; Chae, Han

    2018-03-01

    The Yin-Yang is a pivotal concept of traditional East-Asian medicine, however the stability of Yin-Yang temperament in Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) over time has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest validity of SPQ with a large number of participants. SPQ test was conducted two times with three months interval in 247 Korean university students. The structural validity of first SPQ data was examined with Factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, and the correlation between first and second measure of SPQ was attested with Pearson's correlation. Yang, Uncertain and Yin temperament groups were determined with SPQ total scores, and agreement of temperament group clustering between first and second measures were analyzed with Cohen's Kappa. Three subscales of SPQ explained 55.25% of total variances, and internal consistency of SPQ total score was 0.772. The correlation coefficient between first and second measures of SPQ were 0.851 and 0.888 in male and female, respectively, and the agreement of first and second Yin-Yang temperament group clustering as Cohen's Kappa was 0.536 for male and 0.637 for female. The repeatability of SPQ measuring Yin-Yang temperament at three months of interval was found to be satisfactory. The SPQ would be a reliable clinical measure for the biopsychological studies of traditional East-Asian medicine.

  18. Affective temperaments in tango dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolich, María; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Zapata, Stephanie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2015-03-01

    Links between affective temperaments and folk culture have been infrequently explored systematically. Creativity and personality and temperament studies, conversely, have reported several associations. Tango is one of the most typical Argentinean folk dance-musical repertoires. The main purpose of this study is to compare affective temperaments between Argentinean professional tango dancers and the general population. TEMPS-A was administered to a sample of 63 professional tango dancers and 63 comparison subjects from the general population who did not practice tango. Subscale median scores and total median scores with non-parametric statistics were analyzed. Median scores on hyperthymic subscale (p ≤ 0.001), irritable subscale (p=0.05) and total median score were significantly higher among tango dancers compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001). Self-report measures were used. A larger sample size would have provided greater statistical power for data analysis. Besides, the naturalistic study design did not allow controlling for other clinical variables and limited the generalization of results to broader populations. Our data adds new evidence for the hypothesis that artistic performance is related to one's temperament. Tango passionata, which has both melancholic and vigorous (including "upbeat") features, seems to impart tango dancers' hyperthymic and irritable temperament features. Our study supports the increasing literature on the validity of utilizing temperament as a sub-affective traits in relation to artistic creativity and performing arts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Personality Heterogeneity in PTSD: Distinct Temperament and Interpersonal Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Sanislow, Charles A.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Markowitz, John C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. PMID:24015858

  20. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA

  1. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  2. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Blatný

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  3. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reale, Denis; Reader, Simon M.; Sol, Daniel; McDougall, Peter T.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is

  4. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réale, D.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; McDougall, P.T.; Dingemanse, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is

  5. Temperament and personality in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, three main different personality domains have been investigated in the field of eating disorders: personality traits, temperament, and personality disorders. The use of a wide range of instruments and the presence of many different approaches in the definition of personality dimensions make it difficult to summarize the emerging results from different studies. The aim of this narrative review is to critically highlight and discuss all interesting developments in this field, as reflected in the recent literature. The study of personality and temperament in eating disorders seems to be in line with the recently suggested dimensional approach, which highlights the importance of symptoms aggregation, rather than the categorical diagnoses. Recent literature seems to confirm that specific personality and temperamental profiles can be drawn for patients with eating disorders, which can discriminate different eating disorders' diagnoses/symptoms. These observations have relevant clinical implications as treatment of eating disorders is largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions. However, large longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify the suggested relationships and to identify more defined therapeutic strategies.

  6. Character and Temperament Dimensions in Subjects with Depressive Disorder: Impact of the Affective State on Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bajraktarov

    2017-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state.

  7. Phase stabilization in cinnarizine complexes using X-ray profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Characterization of cobalt(II), cadmium(II), copper(II) and tin(II) cinnarizine complexes have been carried out using conductivity, electronic spectra, infrared, nmr, thermogravimetric and X- ray analyses to establish the nature of phase stabilization in these materials. Also, the intrinsic strain components present in ...

  8. Dual language profiles of Latino children of immigrants: Stability and change over the early school years

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.

    2013-01-01

    Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925

  9. Human morality and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  10. EFFECT OF PROFILES AND SHAPE ON IDEAL STABILITY OF ADVANCED TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKOWSKI,MA; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/

    {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (> 2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  11. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-07-07

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/{l_angle}P{r_brace} {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  12. Stabilization of a magnetic island by localized heating in a tokamak with stiff temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Patrick; Widmer, Fabien; Février, Olivier; Garbet, Xavier; Lütjens, Hinrich

    2018-02-01

    In tokamaks plasmas, turbulent transport is triggered above a threshold in the temperature gradient and leads to stiff profiles. This particularity, neglected so far in the problem of magnetic island stabilization by a localized heat source, is investigated analytically in this paper. We show that the efficiency of the stabilization is deeply modified compared to the previous estimates due to the strong dependence of the turbulence level on the additional heat source amplitude inside the island.

  13. Evaluation of extracts of Piper sarmentosum for accelerated stability by metabolomic fingerprint profiling

    OpenAIRE

    K Hussain; Z Ismail; A Sadikun; P Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Unlike pharmaceuticals, precise stability assessment of herbal products is challenging because of their complex nature. A new trend in natural products is that the extract is considered active as a whole whether active constituents are known or not. Hence, the stability of all the constituents must be taken into account, which is possible by analyzing metabolomic fingerprint profiles. Therefore, present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extracts of fruit of Piper sarmentosum, an important medic...

  14. Cluster Analysis of Properties of Temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A I Krupnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the cluster analysis of various properties of temperament, based on the systematic structure of its main components. On the basis of the received data the qualitative psychological characteristic of the four types of temperament is given.

  15. The relationship between temperament, gender, and behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education; 2014; 34(2). 1. Art. # 818, 18 pages, ... between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural ... Numerous researchers have conducted studies on the influence of temperament on the behaviour of children ...

  16. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    on learning variables, and these were proposed to reflect feed motivation and working speed. A single correlation was found between temperament and learning PC scores: high activity was associated with low feed motivation. This preliminary exploratory study suggests that temperament, as assessed during...

  17. Stability of Language and Literacy Profiles of Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study focused on the identification and stability of language and literacy profiles of primary school children receiving school-based language therapy over the course of one academic year. Method: Participants included 272 early elementary school-age children (144 boys, 128 girls) who had been clinically identified as having a…

  18. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  19. Optimized profiles for improved confinement and stability in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.S.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    Simultaneous achievement of high energy confinement, τ E , and high plasma beta, β, leads to an economically attractive compact tokamak fusion reactor. High confinement enhancement, H = τ E /τ E-ITER89P = 4, and high normalized beta β N = β/(I/aB) = 6%-m-T/MA, have been obtained in DIII-D experimental discharges. These improved confinement and/or improved stability limits are observed in several DIII-D high performance operational regimes: VH-mode, high ell i H-mode, second stable core, and high beta poloidal. The authors have identified several important features of the improved performance in these discharges: details of the plasma shape, toroidal rotation or ExB flow profile, q profile and current density profile, and pressure profile. From the improved physics understanding of these enhanced performance regimes, they have developed operational scenarios which maintain the essential features of the improved confinement and which increase the stability limits using localized current profile control. The stability limit is increased by modifying the interior safety factor profile to be nonmonotonic with high central q, while maintaining the edge current density consistent with the improved transport regimes and the high edge bootstrap current. They have calculated high beta equilibria with β N = 6.5, stable to ideal n = 1 kinks and stable to ideal ballooning modes. The safety factor at the 95% flux surface is 6, the central q value is 3.9 and the minimum in q is 2.6. The current density profile is maintained by the natural profile of the bootstrap current, and a modest amount of electron cyclotron current drive

  20. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  1. Temperament and character in eating disorders: ten years of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Gramaglia, C; Facchini, F; Abbate Daga, G

    2004-06-01

    In recent years a number of studies of personality have been performed in subjects with Eating Disorders (EDs) to investigate the clinical differences between controls and ED patients and among EDs subtypes, and its role in the development and course of symptoms. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) have been widely used at this purpose, allowing the description of specific temperament and character profiles for EDs. High Harm Avoidance (HA) and low Self-Directedness (SD) are shared by all EDs. Slight differences on some facets have been found among ED subgroups. Nevertheless, HA is influenced by mood and both high HA and low SD are personality traits shared by many mental disorders, whose specificity is rather low. Restrictor anorectics are characterized by high Persistence (P) and a relatively higher SD, and bulimics by higher Novelty Seeking (NS) and the lowest SD, while binge/purging and purging anorectics share some traits with anorexia and some with bulimia. Though current data justify the discrimination among anorexia subtypes, they are not in contrast with the thesis of a continuum in ED personality traits. Since some personality traits display a prognostic value with regard to therapy and clinical outcome, further studies are needed on treatments and prognostic factors in EDs. Moreover, studies attempting to define the neurobiological and genetic correlates of temperament should be supported by clinical pharmacological trials.

  2. Stabilizing Effects of Bacterial Biofilms: EPS Penetration and Redistribution of Bed Stability Down the Sediment Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. D.; Zhang, C. K.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Z.; Zhou, J. J.; Tao, J. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Feng, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms, consisting of microorganisms and their secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), serve as "ecosystem engineers" stabilizing sedimentary environments. Natural sediment bed provides an excellent substratum for biofilm growth. The porous structure and rich nutrients allow the EPS matrix to spread deeper into the bed. A series of laboratory-controlled experiments were conducted to investigate sediment colonization of Bacillus subtilis and the penetration of EPS into the sediment bed with incubation time. In addition to EPS accumulation on the bed surface, EPS also penetrated downward. However, EPS distribution developed strong vertical heterogeneity with a much higher content in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. Scanning electron microscope images of vertical layers also displayed different micromorphological properties of sediment-EPS matrix. In addition, colloidal and bound EPSs exhibited distinctive distribution patterns. After the full incubation, the biosedimentary beds were eroded to test the variation of bed stability induced by biological effects. This research provides an important reference for the prediction of sediment transport and hence deepens the understanding of the biologically mediated sediment system and broadens the scope of the burgeoning research field of "biomorphodynamics."

  3. Temperament of Children and Adolescents Presenting with Unexplained Physcial Symtoms

    OpenAIRE

    Raghutaman, G.; Cherian, Alice

    2003-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) To analyse the temperament of children and adolescents presenting with Somatoform disorder and Dissociative (conversion) disorder and (2) To evaluate the nosological status of conversion disorder from the angle of temperament. Temperament of 30 children and adolescents having the diagnosis of either Dissociative (Conversion) disorder or Somatoform disorder were compared with temperament of 30 matched normal control groupTemperament was assessed by using Temperam...

  4. he role of the affective temperament in the treatment adherence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: adherence to psychotropic medications is affected by factors related to the treatment, to the physician, to the environment and to the patient himself. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of affective temperaments on treatment adherence. Methods: thirty six stabilized outpatients were ...

  5. Assertive toddler, self-efficacious adult: Child temperament predicts personality over 40 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2007), s. 2127-2136 ISSN 0191-8869 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/06/1408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Personality stability and change * early child temperament * adult personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2007

  6. Temperament and Personality as Potential Factors in the Development and Treatment of Conduct Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David; Kemp, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the development of conduct disorder (CD) in children and adolescents using Hans Eysenck's biosocial theory of personality. Eysenck's antisocial behavior hypothesis is discussed and intervention suggestions based on this theory are presented. The interactions of temperament-based personality profiles with interventions for CD…

  7. Spectral stability of undercompressive shock profile solutions of a modified KdV-Burgers equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Dodd

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that certain undercompressive shock profile solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation $$ partial_t u + partial_x(u^3 = partial_x^3 u + alpha partial_x^2 u, quad alpha geq 0 $$ are spectrally stable when $alpha$ is sufficiently small, in the sense that their linearized perturbation equations admit no eigenvalues having positive real part except a simple eigenvalue of zero (due to the translation invariance of the linearized perturbation equations. This spectral stability makes it possible to apply a theory of Howard and Zumbrun to immediately deduce the asymptotic orbital stability of these undercompressive shock profiles when $alpha$ is sufficiently small and positive.

  8. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...

  9. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Relationship between the color stability and impurity profile of cefotaxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Cui, Xuejun; Liu, Baoshu; Zhang, Junli

    2017-09-15

    The color grade, mainly introduced in the processes of semisynthesis and storage, is an important index used to evaluate the quality of cefotaxime sodium. Because the drug itself is prone to degradation under susceptible conditions, including those involving moisture, heat, ultraviolet light, acids, alkalis, and oxidants, and a series of degradation products as impurities are generated. In this study, the factors affecting color grade stability and the degradation mechanisms of cefotaxime sodium were investigated by designing different accelerated stability tests under the aforementioned conditions. The degradation extent was studied by using analytical methods, such as a solution color comparison method, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and HPLC. The relationship between the color grade stability of cefotaxime sodium and its impurity profile has been explored, and a reasonable degradation mechanism has been proposed. The manufacturing conditions of inspection have been optimized, and a scientific basis for drug packaging, storage, and transportation conditions has been established. The results show that the color grade stability of cefotaxime sodium is related to the impurity profile to some degree, and the difference between the actual color and the standard color can reflect the levels of impurities to some extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An analytic study of the magnetohydrodynamic stability of inverse shear profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C.G.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak field profiles that have a non-monotonic safety factor q(r). An analytic criterion is obtained for these open-quote open-quote inverse shear close-quote close-quote profiles by expanding in inverse aspect ratio and assuming that the minimum in q is slightly less than the m/n value of the mode under examination (m and n being the principal poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the instability). Three terms are identified as controlling the stability of this open-quote open-quote double kink close-quote close-quote; two of them are stabilizing and due, respectively, to field line bending and the interaction of average favorable curvature with the pressure gradient. The possibility of instability comes from the third term which is due to toroidal coupling and is ballooning in character. The analytic results are compared with those from a fully toroidal stability code

  12. Who Has an Artistic Temperament? Relationships between Creativity and Temperament among Artists and Bank Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Edward; Hlawacz, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to vast literature devoted to the relationships between creativity and personality, relatively few studies addressed the question of the creativity-temperament link. Temperament is conceptualized as the biologically rooted, mostly inborn, foundations for personality and other individual traits. Sixty artists and 60 bank officers…

  13. Applications of Temperament: A Review of Caregiver-Focused Temperament-Driven Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Sydney L.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Temperament, often defined in terms of reactive and regulatory tendencies, has been shown to predict child outcomes over and above other risk factors and represents a critical aspect of social-emotional development. The present article is a systematic review of temperament-based interventions targeting caregivers, wherein the…

  14. Reactive and Regulative Temperament in Youths: Psychometric Evaluation of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R), which is a scale for measuring reactive and regulative temperament traits, in a large sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,055). The

  15. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (pensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451

  16. Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J

    2016-02-01

    Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective.

  17. A test of the vulnerability model : Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders - The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place

  18. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M. E.; Freuler, A.; Baranek, G. T.; Watson, L. R.; Poe, M. D.; Sabatino, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations…

  19. Computational inference of mRNA stability from histone modification and transcriptome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyang; Tian, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Han; Meyer, Clifford A; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, X Shirley

    2012-08-01

    Histone modifications play important roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and have been used to model expression levels. Here, we present a regression model to systematically infer mRNA stability by comparing transcriptome profiles with ChIP-seq of H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3. The results from multiple human and mouse cell lines show that the inferred unstable mRNAs have significantly longer 3'Untranslated Regions (UTRs) and more microRNA binding sites within 3'UTR than the inferred stable mRNAs. Regression residuals derived from RNA-seq, but not from GRO-seq, are highly correlated with the half-lives measured by pulse-labeling experiments, supporting the rationale of our inference. Whereas, the functions enriched in the inferred stable and unstable mRNAs are consistent with those from pulse-labeling experiments, we found the unstable mRNAs have higher cell-type specificity under functional constraint. We conclude that the systematical use of histone modifications can differentiate non-expressed mRNAs from unstable mRNAs, and distinguish stable mRNAs from highly expressed ones. In summary, we represent the first computational model of mRNA stability inference that compares transcriptome and epigenome profiles, and provides an alternative strategy for directing experimental measurements.

  20. Temperament and reproductive performance in farmed sable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KORHOHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to evaluate the relationship between temperament and reproductive success in farmed sable (Martes zibellina. Experimental material comprised altogether 58 males and 236 females. Temperament was measured by using a stick test. About 85% of matings occurred in July. Most whelpings were in April. Over 80% of young and old males were classified as curious. Number of fearful and aggressive males was small. Among females, the amount of curious animals was much lower compared to males. Every third female was fearful. Temperament did not affect length of the gestation period which averaged 268 ± 14 days. Gestation period was longer for early breeding females (r = -0.629

  1. Development, stability and in vitro delivery profile of new loratadine-loaded nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Loratadine is used as antihistaminic without side effects in nervous systems. This drug is a weak base and it is absorbed from the intestine. The nitrogen of the pyridine ring is protonated in the stomach affecting the oral bioavailability. The aim of this paper was obtaining, characterize and evaluate the release profiles and the stability of a gastroresistant loratadine nanosuspension. Methods: The nanosuspension was prepared by the solvent displacement evaporation method, using three different polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, Kollicoat® MAE 100P and PEG 4000 and Polysorbate 80. Dynamic Light Scattering was used for evaluating the particle size (PS, zeta potential, and conductivity of the nanosuspension. Loratadine release profiles were evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The shelf and accelerated stability were assessed during three months. Results: Nanosuspension particle size was 45.94 ± 0.50 nm, with a low polydispersion index (PdI, 0.300. Kollicoat® MAE 100P produced a hard and flexible coating layer. In simulated intestinal fluids, the 100 percent of loratadine was released in 40 min, while in simulated stomach fluids the release was lesser than 5%. Nanosuspension presented a good physicochemical stability showing a reduction in PS and PdI after three months (43.29 ± 0.16 and 0.250; respectively. Conclusions: A promissory loratadine nanosuspension for loratadine intestinal delivery was obtained, by using a low energy method, which is an advantage for a possible scale up for practical purpose.

  2. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Miller, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n∼2-9 and a fast growth time γ -1 =20-150μs are often observed prior to the first giant type I ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n>1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region. (author)

  3. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Chan, V.S.; Chen, L.

    1998-12-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n ∼ 2--9 and a fast growth time γ -1 = 20--150 micros are often observed prior to the first giant type 1 ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n > 1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region

  4. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  5. Revisiting internal gravity waves analysis using GPS RO density profiles: comparison with temperature profiles and application for wave field stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoft, Petr; Sacha, Petr; Miksovsky, Jiri; Huszar, Peter; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    We revise selected findings regarding the utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) density profiles for the analysis of internal gravity waves (IGW), introduced by Sacha et al. (2014). Using various GPS RO datasets, we show that the differences in the IGW spectra between the dry-temperature and dry-density profiles that were described in the previous study as a general issue are in fact present in one specific data version only. The differences between perturbations in the temperature and density GPS RO profiles do not have any physical origin, and there is not the information loss of IGW activity that was suggested in Sacha et al. (2014). We investigate the previously discussed question of the temperature perturbations character when utilizing GPS RO dry-temperature profiles, derived by integration of the hydrostatic balance. Using radiosonde profiles as a proxy for GPS RO, we provide strong evidence that the differences in IGW perturbations between the real and retrieved temperature profiles (which are based on the assumption of hydrostatic balance) include a significant nonhydrostatic component that is present sporadically and might be either positive or negative. The detected differences in related spectra of IGW temperature perturbations are found to be mostly about ±10 %. The paper also presents a detailed study on the utilization of GPS RO density profiles for the characterization of the wave field stability. We have analyzed selected stability parameters derived from the density profiles together with a study of the vertical rotation of the wind direction. Regarding the Northern Hemisphere the results point to the western border of the Aleutian high, where potential IGW breaking is detected. These findings are also supported by an analysis of temperature and wind velocity profiles. Our results confirm advantages of the utilization of the density profiles for IGW analysis.

  6. Revisiting internal gravity waves analysis using GPS RO density profiles: comparison with temperature profiles and application for wave field stability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We revise selected findings regarding the utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO density profiles for the analysis of internal gravity waves (IGW, introduced by Sacha et al. (2014. Using various GPS RO datasets, we show that the differences in the IGW spectra between the dry-temperature and dry-density profiles that were described in the previous study as a general issue are in fact present in one specific data version only. The differences between perturbations in the temperature and density GPS RO profiles do not have any physical origin, and there is not the information loss of IGW activity that was suggested in Sacha et al. (2014. We investigate the previously discussed question of the temperature perturbations character when utilizing GPS RO dry-temperature profiles, derived by integration of the hydrostatic balance. Using radiosonde profiles as a proxy for GPS RO, we provide strong evidence that the differences in IGW perturbations between the real and retrieved temperature profiles (which are based on the assumption of hydrostatic balance include a significant nonhydrostatic component that is present sporadically and might be either positive or negative. The detected differences in related spectra of IGW temperature perturbations are found to be mostly about ±10 %. The paper also presents a detailed study on the utilization of GPS RO density profiles for the characterization of the wave field stability. We have analyzed selected stability parameters derived from the density profiles together with a study of the vertical rotation of the wind direction. Regarding the Northern Hemisphere the results point to the western border of the Aleutian high, where potential IGW breaking is detected. These findings are also supported by an analysis of temperature and wind velocity profiles. Our results confirm advantages of the utilization of the density profiles for IGW analysis.

  7. Eye scanning activity influenced by temperament traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 121 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception 2005. 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Eye movements * scanning * temperament * TCI-R * Rorschach test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  9. Temperament Styles of Greek and US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2010-01-01

    Age, gender and cross-national differences of children ages 8 through 16 in Greece (n = 400) and the United States (n = 5,400) are examined on four temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…

  10. Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1 examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2 explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA.Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039 and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA levels (b = 0.16, p = .049 and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA levels (b = 0.22, p = .004, as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001 and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001.Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.

  11. Stability and in vitro release profile of enalapril maleate from different commercially available tablets: possible therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Dione Marçal; dos Santos, Leandro Dias; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2008-08-05

    Stability of enalapril maleate formulations can be affected when the product is exposed to higher temperature and humidity, with the formation of two main degradation products: enalaprilat and a diketopiperazine derivative. In this work, stability and drug release profiles of 20 mg enalapril maleate tablets (reference, generic and similar products) were evaluated. After 180 days of the accelerated stability testing, most products did not exhibit the specified amount of drug. Additionally, drug release profiles were markedly different from that of the reference product, mainly due to drug degradation. Changes in drug concentration and drug release profile of enalapril formulations are strong indicators of a compromised bioavailability, with possible interferences on the therapeutic response for this drug.

  12. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  13. Norovirus-like VP1 particles exhibit isolate dependent stability profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogan, Ronja; Schneider, Carola; Reimer, Rudolph; Hansman, Grant; Uetrecht, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Noroviruses are the main cause of viral gastroenteritis with new variants emerging frequently. There are three norovirus genogroups infecting humans. These genogroups are divided based on the sequence of their major capsid protein, which is able to form virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed recombinantly. VLPs of the prototypical GI.1 Norwalk virus are known to disassemble into specific capsid protein oligomers upon alkaline treatment. Here, native mass spectrometry and electron microscopy on variants of GI.1 and of GII.17 were performed, revealing differences in terms of stability between these groups. Beyond that, these experiments indicate differences even between variants within a genotype. The capsid stability was monitored in different ammonium acetate solutions varying both in ionic strength and pH. The investigated GI.1 West Chester isolate showed comparable disassembly profiles to the previously studied GI.1 Norwalk virus isolate. However, differences were observed with the West Chester being more sensitive to alkaline pH. In stark contrast to that, capsids of the variant belonging to the currently prevalent genogroup GII were stable in all tested conditions. Both variants formed smaller capsid particles already at neutral pH. Certain amino acid substitutions in the S domain of West Chester relative to the Norwalk virus potentially result in the formation of these T  =  1 capsids.

  14. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 ± 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 ± 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses

  15. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  16. Development and Validation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Prediction of incidence and stability of alcohol use disorders by latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Silke; Bühringer, Gerhard; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid internalizing mental disorders in alcohol use disorders (AUD) can be understood as putative independent risk factors for AUD or as expressions of underlying shared psychopathology vulnerabilities. However, it remains unclear whether: 1) specific latent internalizing psychopathology risk-profiles predict AUD-incidence and 2) specific latent internalizing comorbidity-profiles in AUD predict AUD-stability. To investigate baseline latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles as predictors of subsequent AUD-incidence and -stability in adolescents and young adults. Data from the prospective-longitudinal EDSP study (baseline age 14-24 years) were used. The study-design included up to three follow-up assessments in up to ten years. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI. To investigate risk-profiles and their associations with AUD-outcomes, latent class analysis with auxiliary outcome variables was applied. AUD-incidence: a 4-class model (N=1683) was identified (classes: normative-male [45.9%], normative-female [44.2%], internalizing [5.3%], nicotine dependence [4.5%]). Compared to the normative-female class, all other classes were associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident alcohol dependence (p<0.05). AUD-stability: a 3-class model (N=1940) was identified with only one class (11.6%) with high probabilities for baseline AUD. This class was further characterized by elevated substance use disorder (SUD) probabilities and predicted any subsequent AUD (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.4-13.3). An internalizing vulnerability may constitute a pathway to AUD incidence in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, no indication for a role of internalizing comorbidity profiles in AUD-stability was found, which may indicate a limited importance of such profiles - in contrast to SUD-related profiles - in AUD stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Marginal stability effects and pressure profile evolution in an Extrap Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1985-12-01

    Non-circular Z-pinch discharges, generated in the Extrap experiments, exhibit improved stability against global fluid instabilities. In this paper we discuss how marginally stable equilibria can develop in the Extrap configuration. During the build-up of the discharge, unstable equilibria are initially produced. Fluctuations associated with these instabilities lead to increased mass transport which alters the equilibrium. In the Extrap configuration marginally stable profiles can evolve because of the boundary conditions in this configuration. An Extrap Z-pinch is a pinch discharge where the current channel has a characteristic non-circular cross-section achieved by bounding the discharge by a magnetic separatrix produced when vacuum octupole magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The pinch boundary is changed from a free (plasma-vacuum) boundary to an interface between a high-beta pinch plasma and a low-beta plasma contained in the vacuum magnetic field. The presence of the warm, low-beta plasma scrape-off layer, which provides a boundary condition on the pinch, makes it possible for equilibrium profiles to evolve that are marginally stable against global fluid modes. (author)

  19. Assessing the Stability and Robustness of Semantic Web Services Recommendation Algorithms Under Profile Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDIN, P. H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation systems based on collaborative filtering are open by nature, what makes them vulnerable to profile injection attacks that insert biased evaluations in the system database in order to manipulate recommendations. In this paper we evaluate the stability and robustness of collaborative filtering algorithms applied to semantic web services recommendation when submitted to random and segment profile injection attacks. We evaluated four algorithms: (1 IMEAN, that makes predictions using the average of the evaluations received by the target item; (2 UMEAN, that makes predictions using the average of the evaluation made by the target user; (3 an algorithm based on the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN method and (4, an algorithm based on the k-means clustering method.The experiments showed that the UMEAN algorithm is not affected by the attacks and that IMEAN is the most vulnerable of all algorithms tested. Nevertheless, both UMEAN and IMEAN have little practical application due to the low precision of their predictions. Among the algorithms with intermediate tolerance to attacks but with good prediction performance, the algorithm based on k-nn proved to be more robust and stable than the algorithm based on k-means.

  20. 3D Surface Profile and Color Stability of Tooth Colored Filling Materials after Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Bryant Anthony; Irawan, Stacey Natalie; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Sukminingrum, Ninin; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide home bleaching and in-office bleaching on the color stability and 3D surface profile of dental restorative filling materials. Thirty discs (n = 30) measure 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick for each of three restorative materials. These are nanofilled composite Filtek Z350 XT, the submicron composite Estelite Σ Quick, and nanofilled glass ionomer Ketac N100 nanoionomer and were fabricated in shade A2. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n = 10): subgroup A (Opalescence PF), subgroup B (Opalescence Boost in-office bleaching), and subgroup C (distilled water) serving as control. Samples were bleached according to the manufacturer's instructions for a period of two weeks. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE L(*), a(*), b(*)) system was chosen for image processing, while 3D surface profile was tested with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Statistical analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney tests and Krusal-Wallis with a P value of ≤ 0.05. The three restorative materials showed significant color changes (ΔE); P ≤ 0.05. In diminishing order, the mean color changes recorded were Estelite Σ (3.82 ± 1.6) > Ketac Nano (2.97 ± 1.2) > Filtek Z350 XT (2.25 ± 1.0). However, none of the tested materials showed statistically significant changes in surface roughness; P > 0.05.

  1. Stability of volatile profile and sensory properties of passion fruit juice during storage in glass bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Matos de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the stability of passion fruit juice in glass bottles during a 120-day storage period, regarding its volatile compounds profile and sensory properties (aroma and flavor. Samples were obtained from a Brazilian tropical juice industry (Fortaleza, Brazil and submitted to sensory and chromatographic analyses. The characteristic aroma and flavor of passion fruit were evaluated by a trained panel with a non-structured scale of 9 cm. The headspace volatile compounds were isolated from the product by suction and trapped in Porapak Q, analyzed through high-resolution gas chromatography and identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twelve odoriferous compounds were monitored: ethyl butanoate, ethyl propanoate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butenol, (E-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenol, 3-methylbutyl acetate, benzaldehyde, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, limonene and furfural. The slight variations observed in the volatile profile were not enough to provoke significant changes in the characteristic aroma and flavor of the passion fruit juice.

  2. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, D.J.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests.

  3. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  4. Commentary: role of temperament in developmental models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2004-03-01

    The articles in this special section provide exciting and useful perspectives on the role of temperament in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. These articles are valuable both in summarizing what is known and in highlighting issues that must be addressed before further progress can be made. In the future, it will be essential to distinguish between the constructs of temperament and psychopathology in ways that are both scientifically valid and useful to the study of developmental psychopathology. In particular, because existing measures of temperament were not designed to study relations between temperament and psychopathology, new measures are needed that focus on relevant aspects of temperament and are not confounded by the inclusion of items that are close synonyms and antonyms of psychopathology. If circular and mentalistic thinking can be avoided, important advances can be expected from studies of temperament and psychopathology in the context of development.

  5. Temperament and chronotype among academic athletes – perspective of the regulative theory of temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to evaluate the relationship between chronotype and temperamental traits and temperament structure specified in the Regulative Theory of Temperament among physical education students who are actively engaged in sport. The analyses were performed separately in groups of men, women, and individual and team sports representatives. Participants and procedure The study included 157 participants (women n = 35, men n = 122; individual sports n = 88 and team sports n = 69. Measures used in the study were the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ. Results Among women and men chronotype was positively correlated with Briskness (BR and Endurance (EN. In women chronotype was negatively related to Emotional Reactivity (ER. Sensory Sensitivity (SS was positively associated with chronotype in men. In the individual sport group chronotype was associated with four temperamental traits: BR, EN, ER (negatively and SS. Activity (AC significantly correlated with chronotype in the team sport group. Two out of three indicators of temperament structure – potential for stimulation processing (MPS and structure harmony parameter (Zh1 – were related to chronotype in both genders. Conclusions The results obtained in the present research indicate that temperament is significantly related to chronotype. Evening chronotype men and women might be overstimulated and morning types might be understimulated. These data might be useful for coaches and provide a guide for further individualization of the training process.

  6. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia G Monteiro

    Full Text Available Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%, pasta with 6% (PTF6%, 12% (PTF12%, 17% (PTF17%, and 23% (PTF23% of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values, pH, water activity (aw, and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p < 0.05 protein, lipid, ash, total essential amino acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids contents. In addition, supplementation of pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p < 0.05 lightness and water activity while redness, yellowness, pH values, and lipid oxidation were increased (p < 0.05 in a level-dependent manner. Nevertheless, all formulations were exhibited storage stability at 25°C. In general, protein oxidation was greater (p < 0.05 in the pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p < 0.05 on the carbonyl content in all formulations. Thus, pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  7. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage. After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05 decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001, ammonia N (p = 0.018 and non-protein N (p<0.001, while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001 and peptide N (p<0.001. It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg.

  8. 3D Surface Profile and Color Stability of Tooth Colored Filling Materials after Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Anthony Irawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide home bleaching and in-office bleaching on the color stability and 3D surface profile of dental restorative filling materials. Thirty discs (n=30 measure 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick for each of three restorative materials. These are nanofilled composite Filtek Z350 XT, the submicron composite Estelite Σ Quick, and nanofilled glass ionomer Ketac N100 nanoionomer and were fabricated in shade A2. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10: subgroup A (Opalescence PF, subgroup B (Opalescence Boost in-office bleaching, and subgroup C (distilled water serving as control. Samples were bleached according to the manufacturer’s instructions for a period of two weeks. The Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE L*, a*, b* system was chosen for image processing, while 3D surface profile was tested with atomic force microscopy (AFM. Statistical analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney tests and Krusal-Wallis with a P value of ≤0.05. The three restorative materials showed significant color changes (ΔE; P≤0.05. In diminishing order, the mean color changes recorded were Estelite Σ (3.82 ± 1.6 > Ketac Nano (2.97 ± 1.2 > Filtek Z350 XT (2.25 ± 1.0. However, none of the tested materials showed statistically significant changes in surface roughness; P>0.05.

  9. A longitudinal study of temperament continuity through IBQ, TBAQ and CBQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, José Antonio; González-Salinas, Carmen; Ato, Ester

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the continuity of temperament in a Spanish sample (n = 60), covering the developmental stages of infancy, toddlerhood and childhood. Temperamental dimensions showed, with few exceptions, as much homotypic as heterotypic continuity as was to be expected. At the level of latent superconstructs continuity, we found that Anger and Fear followed different developmental paths and showed continuity over all the periods evaluated. Positive Affect/Regulation superconstruct showed continuity from infancy to toddlerhood. From toddlerhood, Positive Affect/Regulation showed continuity with the superconstruct of Effortful Control but not with the superconstruct of Surgency/Extraversion. At an ipsative level, we found two groups of subjects, labeled 'nonexpressive/controlled' and 'noncontrolled/expressive'. Generally, these results confirm the stability of temperament in the periods analyzed and underline the importance of toddlerhood as a transitional period in the maturity of self-regulatory capabilities shown in childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphorylation of DGCR8 Increases Its Intracellular Stability and Induces a Progrowth miRNA Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Herbert

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During miRNA biogenesis, the microprocessor complex (MC, which is composed minimally of Drosha, an RNase III enzyme, and DGCR8, a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, cleaves the primary miRNA (pri-miRNA in order to release the pre-miRNA stem-loop structure. Using phosphoproteomics, we mapped 23 phosphorylation sites on full-length human DGCR8 expressed in insect or mammalian cells. DGCR8 can be phosphorylated by mitogenic ERK/MAPK, indicating that DGCR8 phosphorylation may respond to and integrate extracellular cues. The expression of phosphomimetic DGCR8 or inhibition of phosphatases increased the cellular levels of DGCR8 and Drosha proteins. Increased levels of phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not due to higher mRNA levels, altered DGCR8 localization, or DGCR8’s ability to self-associate, but rather to an increase in protein stability. MCs incorporating phosphomutant or phosphomimetic DGCR8 were not altered in specific processing activity. However, HeLa cells expressing phosphomimetic DGCR8 exhibited a progrowth miRNA expression profile and increased proliferation and scratch closure rates relative to cells expressing phosphomutant DGCR8.

  11. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkala Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG and papaya. Aloe gel (30%, papaya pulp (15%, spice extract (5%, and citric acid (0.1% were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB. Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  12. Defect production in ion-implanted yttria-stabilized zirconia investigated by positron depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saude, S.; Grynszpan, R.I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G

    2004-11-17

    The presence and evolution of free-volume defects induced during ion-implantation in solids can be a critical issue in micro- and nano-technology processes. Using a slow positron beam and measuring the energy-line Doppler broadening (DB) of the annihilation radiation, sub-surface investigations were carried out on single crystals of yttria-fully stabilized zirconia (Y-FSZ), following implantation of 210 keV oxygen-ions at fluences ranging from 1.0 x 10{sup 13} to 2.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Depth profiles of the DB-lineshape S reveal a defect peak at 60 % of the oxygen-ion projected range R{sub p}, i.e., closer to the surface than the vacancy distribution derived from Monte-Carlo calculations. The S-dependence on the fluence exhibits three defect-production stages already identified after implantation with noble gas ions. The intermediate stage (0.1-1 displacements per atom (dpa)) displays a trapping saturation plateau, which rises with increasing ion mass, suggesting a specific critical size for the relevant dominant defect. A slight drop in defect concentration that follows indicates that defects of the last stage (above 2 dpa), are formed at the expense of former ones. No particular effect due to the self-ion is found.

  13. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p tilapia flour decreased (p tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  14. Membrane Protein Stability Analyses by Means of Protein Energy Profiles in Case of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus (DI is a rare endocrine, inheritable disorder with low incidences in an estimated one per 25,000–30,000 live births. This disease is characterized by polyuria and compensatory polydypsia. The diverse underlying causes of DI can be central defects, in which no functional arginine vasopressin (AVP is released from the pituitary or can be a result of defects in the kidney (nephrogenic DI, NDI. NDI is a disorder in which patients are unable to concentrate their urine despite the presence of AVP. This antidiuretic hormone regulates the process of water reabsorption from the prourine that is formed in the kidney. It binds to its type-2 receptor (V2R in the kidney induces a cAMP-driven cascade, which leads to the insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the apical membrane. Mutations in the genes of V2R and aquaporin-2 often lead to NDI. We investigated a structure model of V2R in its bound and unbound state regarding protein stability using a novel protein energy profile approach. Furthermore, these techniques were applied to the wild-type and selected mutations of aquaporin-2. We show that our results correspond well to experimental water ux analysis, which confirms the applicability of our theoretical approach to equivalent problems.

  15. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... were diagnosed with ADHD and half with other or no diagnoses, completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Cloninger Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). RESULTS: Factor analysis of both instruments resulted in three common factors representing aspects...... disorder (CD/ODD) but not ADHD accounted for problems in BRIEF Emotional Control and Self-Monitor and JTCI low Cooperativeness. CONCLUSION: The two instruments only partially overlap and may complement each other....

  16. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Exploring Stability and Change in Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Verbal Language Profiles across One Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Mary K. Cockburn

    2013-01-01

    This study explored preschool teachers' verbal language profiles during shared book reading sessions. The verbal language profiles were comprised of a combination of instructional and management strategies both at the fall and winter time points. Latent profile and transition analyses were used to explore the profiles identified in the study's…

  18. Biotransformation and in vivo stability of protein biotherapeutics: impact on candidate selection and pharmacokinetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Historically, since the metabolism of administered peptide/protein drugs ("biotherapeutics") has been expected to undergo predictable pathways similar to endogenous proteins, comprehensive biotherapeutic metabolism studies have not been widely reported in the literature. However, since biotherapeutics have rapidly evolved into an impressive array of eclectic modalities, there has been a shift toward understanding the impact of metabolism on biotherapeutic development. For biotherapeutics containing non-native chemical linkers and other moieties besides natural amino acids, metabolism studies are critical as these moieties may impart undesired toxicology. For biotherapeutics that are composed solely of natural amino acids, where end-stage peptide and amino acid catabolites do not generally pose toxicity concerns, the understanding of biotherapeutic biotransformation, defined as in vivo modifications such as peripherally generated intermediate circulating catabolites prior to end-stage degradation or elimination, may impact in vivo stability and potency/clearance. As of yet, there are no harmonized methodologies for understanding biotherapeutic biotransformation and its impact on drug development, nor is there clear guidance from regulatory agencies on how and when these studies should be conducted. This review provides an update on biotherapeutic biotransformation studies and an overview of lessons learned, tools that have been developed, and suggestions of approaches to address issues. Biotherapeutic biotransformation studies, especially for certain modalities, should be implemented at an early stage of development to 1) understand the impact on potency/clearance, 2) select the most stable candidates or direct protein re-engineering efforts, and 3) select the best bioanalytical technique(s) for proper drug quantification and subsequent pharmacokinetic profiling and exposure/response assessment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  19. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  20. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Palestinian and US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…

  1. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  2. The expression of affective temperaments in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Molly A; Brown, Leslie H; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-02-20

    Numerous validation studies have examined the TEMPS-A in both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, the majority of these studies utilized cross-sectional assessments in laboratory or clinical settings. The present study is the first to examine the expression of affective temperaments in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM). 138 participants completed the TEMPS-A and received a personalized digital assistant that signaled them eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires that assessed affect, cognition, behavior, sense of self, and social interaction. As expected, cyclothymic/irritable temperament was positively associated with negative affect, risky behavior, and restlessness, and was negatively associated with positive affect and preference to be with others in daily life. In contrast, hyperthymic temperament was associated with positive affect, fullness of thought, doing many and exciting things, grandiosity, and preference to be with others in daily life. Dysthymic temperament was modestly associated with worry, and was positively associated with trouble concentrating, fullness of thought, and a preference for social contact. Cross-level interactions indicated that cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with elevated stress reactivity in daily life. ESM data collection was limited to one week. Longer assessment periods might better capture the cyclical nature of affective temperaments. This was the first study to examine affective temperaments in daily life. The findings offer further validation of the TEMPS-A, as well as the maladaptive nature of the cyclothymic/irritable temperament. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Experimental manipulation of infant temperament affects amygdala functional connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; Van Ijzendoorn, M.H.; Parsons, C.E.; Young, K.S.; De Carli, P.; Kringelbach, M.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task,

  4. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  6. Temperament and perception of tooth bleaching results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mehr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The neurophysiological process of perceiving the results of tooth bleaching requires the correct interaction between the central nervous system and the organs of sight. Exaggerated beliefs concerning defective facial features may enhance inner attitudes about one’s own color of dentition, as well as a feeling of dissatisfaction with the degree of leaching. Objectives. The study aimed to assess the degree of the patient satisfaction with the results of tooth bleaching in relation to their temperament. Material and methods. There were 68 generally healthy volunteers, aged 28–38 years, with external discolorations of the teeth. They had never undergone dental bleaching and their frontal teeth did not have any fillings. After clinical evaluation and the completion of formalities, the patients were asked to fill in Strelau’s temperament questionnaire. Questionnaires and visual status were assessed three times by three doctors: before bleaching, and then 24 hours and two weeks after the home-bleaching operation, which was done with the use of Opalescence (Ultradent in uniform sequence. Results . There were practically no adverse side results, except a periodic dentin hypersensitivity that occurred periodically in 44 patients. The results of the visual assessment performed by the physicians did not differ. The questionnaire data showed that women were more critical of the results in relation to the expectations. Among elancholics, full satisfaction was declared by 41%, whereas among sanguine people, full satisfaction was obtained by 85%. Satisfaction with the aesthetic results was associated with bleaching by at least 4 degrees. Conclusions . Patients’ temperament affects their subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, which should be taken into consideration in the patient’s individual dental treatment plan.

  7. The association of parental temperament and character on their children’s behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parents have important roles in child rearing, but the influence of their personality on rearing practices and their impact on the behavior of children has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between parents’ personality and children’s problem behaviors.Materials and Methods. Participants consisted of 190 preschool outpatients (104 boys, 86 girls and their parents who visited traditional Korean pediatric clinics with minor physical symptoms as chief complaints. The personality profiles of the both parents were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and children’s behavior problems by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis were employed for the statistical analyses.Results. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance and the character traits of Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence of the parents were significantly correlated with children’s problem behaviors. Character as well as temperament, played an important role in explaining children’s problem behaviors after age and gender of children were taken into account.Conclusion. The maturity of parents’ character appears to have a key role in reducing the risk of behavior problems in their children. Suggestions are made for parental education and future research.

  8. Temperament clusters in a normal population: implications for health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Wessman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to identify temperament patterns in the Finnish population, and to determine the relationship between these profiles and life habits, socioeconomic status, and health. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cluster analysis of the Temperament and Character Inventory subscales was performed on 3,761 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 and replicated on 2,097 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Clusters were formed using the k-means method and their relationship with 115 variables from the areas of life habits, socioeconomic status and health was examined. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified for both genders. Individuals from Cluster I are characterized by high persistence, low extravagance and disorderliness. They have healthy life habits, and lowest scores in most of the measures for psychiatric disorders. Cluster II individuals are characterized by low harm avoidance and high novelty seeking. They report the best physical capacity and highest level of income, but also high rate of divorce, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Individuals from Cluster III are not characterized by any extreme characteristic. Individuals from Cluster IV are characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, low levels of exploratory excitability and attachment, and score the lowest in most measures of health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the temperament subscales do not distribute randomly but have an endogenous structure, and that these patterns have strong associations to health, life events, and well-being.

  9. Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Robert A; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Blokland, Willem

    2011-02-14

    A high peak-power Q-switched laser has been used to monitor the ion beam profiles in the superconducting linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The laser beam suffers from position drift due to movement, vibration, or thermal effects on the optical components in the 250-meter long laser beam transport line. We have designed, bench-tested, and implemented a beam position stabilization system by using an Ethernet CMOS camera, computer image processing and analysis, and a piezo-driven mirror platform. The system can respond at frequencies up to 30 Hz with a high position detection accuracy. With the beam stabilization system, we have achieved a laser beam pointing stability within a range of 2 μrad (horizontal) to 4 μrad (vertical), corresponding to beam drifts of only 0.5 mm × 1 mm at the furthest measurement station located 250 meters away from the light source.

  10. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample ( n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  11. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  12. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  13. Depressive symptoms and the role of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Manes, Facundo

    2017-10-15

    To investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms and the influence of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in comparison with bipolar disorder (BD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Sixty patients with ADHD, 50 patients with BD, and 30 HCs were assessed with instruments for measuring depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and affective temperaments (Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version; TEMPS-A). In addition, participants were evaluated with scales for measuring ADHD symptoms, impulsiveness, anxiety, executive dysfunction, and quality of life. ADHD patients showed levels of depressive symptoms similar to BD patients and higher than HCs. Only neurovegetative symptoms of depression differentiated ADHD and BD groups (BD > ADHD). Depressive symptoms in ADHD patients correlated positively with core ADHD, impulsivity, anxiety, and dysexecutive symptoms and negatively with quality of life. Thirty-eight percent of patients with ADHD scored above the cutoff for at least one affective temperament. Cyclothymic was the more common affective temperament (25%). ADHD patients with affective temperamental traits were more depressed and impulsive than patients without those traits and showed a symptomatic profile analogous to BD patients. The small size of resultant samples when ADHD group was stratified by the presence of affective temperament. In addition, results may not generalize to less severe ADHD patients from the community. Concomitant depressive symptoms constitute a common occurrence in adults with ADHD that carries significant psychopathological and functional consequences. The concept of affective temperaments may be an interesting link for explaining depressive symptomatology and emotional impulsivity in a subgroup of patients with ADHD, beyond the classic idea of comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal stability of pre-reading skill profiles of kindergarten children: implications for early screening and theories of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Norton, Elizabeth S; Sideridis, Georgios; Beach, Sara D; Wolf, Maryanne; Gabrieli, John D E; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability. Furthermore, the stability of identification of risk based on these measures varies widely across studies, due in part to the different cut-offs employed to designate risk. We applied a latent profile analysis technique with a diverse sample of 1215 kindergarten and pre-kindergarten students from 20 schools, to investigate whether PA, RAN, letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory measures differentiated between homogenous profiles of performance on these measures. Six profiles of performance emerged from the data: average performers, below average performers, high performers, PA risk, RAN risk, and double-deficit risk (both PA and RAN). A latent class regression model was employed to investigate the longitudinal stability of these groups in a representative subset of children (n = 95) nearly two years later, at the end of 1st grade. Profile membership in the spring semester of pre-kindergarten or fall semester of kindergarten was significantly predictive of later reading performance, with the specific patterns of performance on the different constructs remaining stable across the years. There was a higher frequency of PA and RAN deficits in children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. There was no evidence for the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion traditionally used to diagnose dyslexia. Our results support the feasibility of early identification of dyslexia risk and point to the heterogeneity of risk profiles

  15. Temperament and Personality in Bariatric Surgery-Resisting Temptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Temperament and personality traits can serve as both risk factors as well as protective factors in the development of morbid obesity. In the present review, we present an overview of studies focusing on the relationship between temperament/personality and morbid obesity in pre-operative and postoperative bariatric surgery patients. We consider studies that focus on both a categorical and dimensional point of view on temperament/personality, as well as studies based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Finally, we will integrate the research findings, discuss the implications for assessment and treatment and formulate suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Features of children temperament with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kornetov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperament characteristics were studied in 86 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at the age of 3–16 years. Research was conducted using standardized and adapted to the Russian-speaking population of parental questionnaires for children of different age groups (Kolpakov V.G. et al., 1993. Statistically significant differences in temperament ALL patients from healthy children installed and feature of temperament, which is most often seen in children with conduct disorder are installed. The need for psychological and/or psychiatric counseling this category of patients is substantiated.

  17. Associations among somatotype, temperament and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catell, P; Metzner, R

    1993-06-01

    Based on a sample of 45 subjects, 28 men and 17 women, examination was made of the relationships among body type according to Sheldon's methodology, temperament as measured by Cortes and Gatti, and self-actualization as assessed by the Personal Orientation Inventory developed by Shostrom. No significant associations between somatotype and temperament but some significant results were found by examining the self-actualization scores and the body type/temperament match or mismatch. Significant findings were seen on the Spontaneity, Self-regard, Inner-directed, and Feeling Reactivity scales.

  18. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  19. Serotonin Transporter Gene ("SLC6A4") Methylation Associates with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay and 3-month-old Temperament in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay are early adverse stressful experiences, which may result in an altered temperamental profile. The serotonin transporter gene ("SLC6A4"), which has been linked to infant temperament, is susceptible to epigenetic regulation associated with early stressful experience. This study…

  20. Stability and activity profile of alkaline protease produced from bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, S.; Mukhtar, H.; Nawaz, A.; Haq, I.U.

    2015-01-01

    The present study gives an insight into the effect of different activators and inhibitors on the activity and stability of alkaline proteases produced by Bacillus subtilis IH-72. The alkaline protease was strongly activated both by bivalent and monovalent cations such as Mg/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/. The enzyme activity was considerably enhanced in the presence of fructose, galactose, glucose and mannitol. The enzyme was stabilized up to 10 days by immobilization on activated charcoal and was efficiently stabilized up to 2 months by lyophilization. The enzyme remained stable up to 19 days both at 4 degree C and 30 degree C in the presence of Mn/sup 2+/. However, it exhibited significant stability up to 22 days at 4 degree C and 30 degree C in the presence of fructose, galactose and polyethylene glycol. (author)

  1. Temperament types: midlife death concerns, demographics, and intensity of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskel, S A

    1995-03-01

    Individuals (N = 331) between the ages 35 and 55 completed a death concern scale and a temperament type sorter and provided information relative to the intensity of and their ability to identify a midlife crisis event. Participants were classified within temperament types by gender, education level, crisis intensity, and ability to identify the crisis event. Five temperament types (ESTJ [extrovert, sensing, thinking, judging], ESFJ [extrovert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISFJ [introvert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISTJ [introvert, sensing, thinking, judging], and ENFP [extrovert, intuitive, feeling, perceiving]) significantly correlated with thinking about and anxiety about death. Gender and education level, as well as crisis intensity, also correlated significantly with death concerns. Temperament type characteristics that may have relevancy to the findings are discussed.

  2. Personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.); S. Wessels (Sylvia); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

  3. Exploring the Physics of Music with Temperament Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin; Colton, John

    2016-03-01

    The physics of waves, resonance, harmonics, and beats has determined how musical instruments are tuned, and has even affected the kinds of music written in different time periods. The laws of physics make it impossible for any fixed scale to have perfect consonance for all chords in all keys, and as a result, various musical scales, or temperaments, have been developed and used throughout history. The study of musical temperament is a rich application of wave physics. It ties several principles together in a context which can be very motivating for students. Furthermore, the topic is accessible to students in introductory classes. We have developed an open source application called Temperament Studio which allows students to explore musical temperament and to hear and measure the effects predicted by wave physics.

  4. Atmospheric Stability & Turbulence from Temperature Profiles over Sicily During Summer 2002 & 2003 HASI Balloon Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results and interpretation of the temperature measurements data retrieved during the balloon campaigns (in 2002 and in 2003) for testing HASI (Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument), launched from the Italian Space Agency Base in Trapani (Sicily), are presented. Both ascending and descending phases are analysed; data reveal interesting features near the tropopause (present in the region between 11km-14km), where temperature cooling can be related to layers with strong winds (2002 flight); in the troposphere a multistratified structure of the temperature field is observed and discussed (particularly in the 2003 flight) Finally, stability and turbulence of the atmosphere are analysed; the buoyancy N2 parameters for both the flights show lowers value respect to standard tropospheric values corresponding to a lower stability of the atmosphere; still there is a higher stability above the tropopause. The energy spectrum of temperature data is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory: the characteristic k(sup -5/3) behaviour is reproduced.

  5. Temperament as biologiese basis vir salutogenese in adolessente

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between psychological strengths, temperament and choice of coping strategy. The study was based on the assumption that a positive life orientation possibly has biological roots. Temperament was defined as a biological factor that influences a positive life orientation and psychological strength. Psychological strength was conceptualised as the presence of a sense of coherence and locus of control. Coping was defined as the choice...

  6. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  7. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  8. Child temperament, maternal adjustment, and changes in family life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, L B; Johnson, J H

    1992-04-01

    Child temperament has been implicated as a relevant factor in understanding parental adjustment. In a study of 77 mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children, difficult child temperament was found to be directly related to maternal distress, discomfort in the role of parent, poor spousal relationships, and negative changes in way of life. Quality and intensity of the child's mood were most predictive of these difficulties.

  9. Cross Validated Temperament Scale Validities Computed Using Profile Similarity Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    L.S. (2010). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for behavioral sciences. New York: Taylor & Francis. Cronbach, L. J., & Gleser, G...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH Street (Bldg. 1464 / Mail...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6TH

  10. Temperament and Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders ( n  = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.

  11. Maternal characteristics and toddler temperament in infantile anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, I; Ganiban, J; Hirsch, R; Borman-Spurrell, E; Mrazek, D A

    2000-06-01

    To explore the association between specific maternal characteristics, maternal perceptions of toddler temperament, and infantile anorexia. Three groups of toddlers (aged 12-37 months) participated in this study: toddlers with infantile anorexia (n = 34), picky eaters (n = 34), and healthy eaters (n = 34). Mothers completed questionnaires that assessed their own eating attitudes, marital satisfaction, and their toddlers' temperament, and an interview that explored their attachment representations. Mothers and toddlers were videotaped during a feeding session, and toddlers were weighed and measured. Temperament ratings differentiated between infantile anorexics and healthy eaters (p unstoppable ratings. Mothers of anorexics showed greater attachment insecurity than mothers of healthy eaters (p < .05), but they demonstrated neither overt eating pathology nor less marital satisfaction than the other groups. Thirty-nine percent of variance in feeding conflict was explained by toddlers' diagnoses, temperament ratings, and maternal characteristics. Twenty-one percent of variance in toddlers' weights was explained by temperament ratings and feeding conflict. Maternal characteristics and perceptions of their toddlers' temperament characteristics should be addressed in treatment for infantile anorexia.

  12. Stability and Heterogeneity of Expression Profiles in Lung Cancer Specimens Harvested Following Surgical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona H. Blackhall

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns in microarray profiling studies of clinical samples is the effect of tissue sampling and RNA extraction on data. We analyzed gene expression in lung cancer specimens that were serially harvested from tumor mass and snap-frozen at several intervals up to 120 minutes after surgical resection. Global gene expression was profiled on cDNA microarrays, and selected stress and hypoxia-activated genes were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Remarkably, similar gene expression profiles were obtained for the majority of samples regardless of the time that had elapsed between resection and freezing. Real-time RT-PCR studies showed significant heterogeneity in the expression levels of stress and hypoxia-activated genes in samples obtained from different areas of a tumor specimen at one time point after resection. The variations between multiple samplings were significantly greater than those of elapsed time between sampling/freezing. Overall samples snap-frozen within 30 to 60 minutes of surgical resection are acceptable for gene expression studies, thus making sampling and snap-freezing of tumor samples in a routine surgical pathology laboratory setting feasible. However, sampling and pooling from multiple sites of each tumor may be necessary for expression profiling studies to overcome the molecular heterogeneity present in tumor specimens.

  13. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  14. Stress-sensitivity and reciprocal associations between stressful events and adolescent temperament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia; van Aken, Marcel; Ormel, Johan; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the longitudinal, bidirectional associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and adolescent temperament. Subsequently, the study investigated whether the effects of SLEs on future temperament were moderated by (a) a cumulative sensitivity gene index (b) the

  15. Stress-sensitivity and reciprocal associations between stressful events and adolescent temperament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan; Nederhof, Esther

    This study aimed to elucidate the longitudinal, bidirectional associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and adolescent temperament. Subsequently, the study investigated whether the effects of SLEs on future temperament were moderated by (a) a cumulative sensitivity gene index (b) the

  16. Stress-sensitivity and reciprocal associations between stressful events and adolescent temperament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan; Nederhof, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the longitudinal, bidirectional associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and adolescent temperament. Subsequently, the study investigated whether the effects of SLEs on future temperament were moderated by (a) a cumulative sensitivity gene index (b) the

  17. Self-regulation underlies temperament and personality : An integrative developmental framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denissen, J.J.A.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Penke, L.; Wood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an integrative perspective on temperament and personality development. Personality and temperament are conceptualized as regulatory systems that start as physiological reactivity to environmental features early in life, but are increasingly supplemented by regulation

  18. Individual Temperament and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Lauren; Nichols, Shana; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Bregman, Joel; Ponzio, Christine A.; Carr, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament is important for considering differences among diagnostic groups and for understanding individual differences that predict problematic behavior. Temperament characteristics, such as negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency (highly active and impulsive), are predictive of externalizing behavior in typically developing…

  19. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Frank; Akiskal, Hagop S; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2017-01-01

    Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available. Dimension reduction across two inventories identified 18 factors explaining 39% of the variance. The two largest factors reflected affective instability and general anxiety/worry, respectively. Subsequent analyses of the clinical features associated with bipolar disorder revealed specificity for the factors in a predictable pattern. Cluster analysis of the factors identified a subgroup defined by a strong lack of general anxiety and low affective instability represented by the first two factors. The remaining subjects could be distinguished into two clusters by the presence of either more positive characteristics, including persistence/drive, spirituality, expressivity, and humor, or more negative characteristics of depression and anxiety. These analyses involved bipolar I subjects only and must be extended to other bipolar spectrum diagnoses, unaffected relatives, and individuals at risk. These results suggest that temperament and personality measures access latent traits associated with important clinical features of bipolar disorder. By translating clinical variables into quantitative traits, we may identify subgroups of bipolar patients with distinct clinical profiles, thereby facilitating both individual treatment strategies and genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the power-law wind-profile exponent under near-neutral stability conditions at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. A.; Meindl, Eric A.; Gilhousen, David B.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of 30 samples from near-simultaneous overwater measurements by pairs of anemometers located at different heights in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, the mean and standard deviation for the exponent of the power-law wind profile over the ocean under near-neutral atmospheric stability conditions were determined to be 0.11 +/- 0.03. Because this mean value is obtained from both deep and shallow water environments, it is recommended for use at sea to adjust the wind speed measurements at different heights to the standard height of 10 m above the mean sea surface. An example to apply this P value to estimate the momentum flux or wind stress is provided.

  1. Temperament, Personality and Developmental Psychopathology: A Review Based on the Conceptual Dimensions Underlying Childhood Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The numerous temperament and personality constructs in childhood impede the systematic integration of findings on how these individual differences relate to developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews the main temperament and personality theories and proposes a theoretical taxonomy representing the common structure of both temperament and…

  2. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  3. The Psychobiological Theory of Temperament and Character: Comment on Farmer and Goldberg (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C. Robert

    2008-01-01

    The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) is the third stage of development of a widely used multiscale personality inventory that began with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and then the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The author describes the third stage of the psychobiological theory of temperament and…

  4. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  5. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  6. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  7. Cross-National Study of Children's Temperament: Structural Validity of the Student Styles Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callueng, Carmelo M.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…

  8. Stability and Change in Adjustment Profiles Among Chinese American Adolescents: The Role of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time.

  9. Temperament and character as determinants of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Vierck, Esther; Pearson, John F; Joyce, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality measures on well-being scores in a sample of 49-51 year old New Zealanders. Previous research has linked high self-directedness (SD) and low harm avoidance (HA) with well-being. We hypothesised that SD and HA would have predictive power for Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) well-being. We anticipated that character profiles with high SD and cooperativeness (CO) would be associated with higher well-being scores while high self transcendence (ST) scores would have less of an influence on well-being in a secular population such as New Zealand. Additionally we aimed to describe and assess the performance of a well-being measure, the WEMWBS and we intended to clarify the factors that underlie the questionnaire. A cohort of 404 randomly selected participants in a study of ageing had WEMWBS means calculated and with principal component analysis used to investigate the factors that underlie the WEMWBS. Multiple hierarchical regression was used to predict WEMWBS scores from socio-demographic and TCI personality variables. ANOVA were used to explore the non-linear effects of personality profiles on well-being. Principal components analysis revealed one significant factor which explained 54.34% of the variance. After initial univariate analysis current depression, marital status and standard of living were entered at the first step of the multivariate regression. They explained 20% of the variance. In step two the seven TCI personality variables were added to the model, explaining a total of 49% (R(2) change=0.29). Low HA, high SD and the absence of current depression were the main predictors of WEMWBS scores. Character profiles featuring high SD produced significantly higher scores on the WEMWBS. Total WEMWBS scores were normally distributed, and the mean was 52.83 (95% CI 51.96-53.70). The key determinants of well-being were absence of current depression and

  10. Current profile control and magnetohydrodynamic stability in Tore Supra discharges with edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.; Friant, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1999-01-01

    Although ergodic divertors are primarily designed to control particle and heat fluxes at the plasma edge, they also happen to affect the MHD stability of tokamak discharges. On Tore Supra, the ergodic divertor has long been known to stabilize the m/n=2/1 tearing mode induced, for instance, by edge radiation and detachment processes, thus allowing safe high-current and high-density operations. More recently, though, in discharges where ergodic divertor operations were optimised relative to the control of the edge-plasma (i.e., with large divertor perturbation), a detrimental increase in the disruptiveness has been observed. The action that the ergodic divertor has on the MHD activity is interpreted in terms of a redistribution of the current profile. The latter results from a large increase in the edge resistivity, primarily induced by the degradation of the electron energy confinement in the ergodic layer. The possibility that a transport barrier develops in the vicinity of the separatrix strongly affects the considered modelling. (authors)

  11. Effect of Quillaja saponaria dietary administration on colour, oxidative stability and volatile profile of muscle longissimus dorsi of Barbarine lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, S; Luciano, G; Vasta, V; Aouadi, D; Priolo, A; Makkar, H P S; Ben Salem, H

    2012-12-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs were assigned during 77 days to three dietary treatments (n=6): control, oat hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate; QS60 and the QS90 control diet supplemented with 60 mg and 90 mg Quillaja saponaria (QS) bark extract/kg dry matter, respectively. The analysis of pre-frozen longissimus dorsi muscle showed that the QS90 treatment reduced meat redness (a*) and saturation (C*) measured after 2h of blooming. It also reduced the rate of decrease in a* values (P=0.02) during 14 days of refrigerated storage. Supplementation with QS extended meat colour stability by reducing (P<0.05) the rate of increase in hue angle (H*) values. Neither the rate of metmyoglobin accumulation at the meat surface nor lipid peroxidation over storage duration differed between treatments. The overall meat volatile compound profile was similar between the groups. We conclude that supplementing QS affects meat colour development at the meat surface and extends its stability without producing detrimental effects on meat volatile compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Temperament and character traits measured by temperament and character inventory (TCI) by Cloninger in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetkiewicz-Lewandowicz, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Alina; Sobów, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. This situation stimulates research of its ethiopathogenesis. The role of psychosocial factors like depression, stress is underlined. Also personality traits play an important role in this process. The aim of study was to assess temperament and character traits in a group of patients with IHD. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to determine temperament and character dimensions. Temperament traits: harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), novelty seeking (NS), persistence (P), character traits: cooperativeness (C), self-directedness (SD), self-transcendence (ST). Each of these traits has a varying number of subscales. The dimensions are determined from a 240-item questionnaire. Patients with IHD obtained higher scores in HA dimension of the TCI questionnaire. The study group achieved lower score in a subscale of NS called extravagance (NS3), and higher score of C dimension called compassion (C4). The intensity of temperament and character traits are different in a group of patients with IHD in comparison with the control group especially in dimensions of HA, NS3 and C4. Variables that differentiated the study group were also sex, age and years of education.

  13. Transcriptional Profiling Confirms the Therapeutic Effects of Mast Cell Stabilization in a Dengue Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Juliet; Rathore, Abhay P S; Mantri, Chinmay K; Aman, Siti A B; Nishida, Andrew; St John, Ashley L

    2017-09-15

    There are no approved therapeutics for the treatment of dengue disease despite the global prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) and its mosquito vectors. DENV infections can lead to vascular complications, hemorrhage, and shock due to the ability of DENV to infect a variety of immune and nonimmune cell populations. Increasingly, studies have implicated the host response as a major contributor to severe disease. Inflammatory products of various cell types, including responding T cells, mast cells (MCs), and infected monocytes, can contribute to immune pathology. In this study, we show that the host response to DENV infection in immunocompetent mice recapitulates transcriptional changes that have been described in human studies. We found that DENV infection strongly induced metabolic dysregulation, complement signaling, and inflammation. DENV also affected the immune cell content of the spleen and liver, enhancing NK, NKT, and CD8 + T cell activation. The MC-stabilizing drug ketotifen reversed many of these responses without suppressing memory T cell formation and induced additional changes in the transcriptome and immune cell composition of the spleen, consistent with reduced inflammation. This study provides a global transcriptional map of immune activation in DENV target organs of an immunocompetent host and supports the further development of targeted immunomodulatory strategies to treat DENV disease. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), which causes febrile illness, is transmitted by mosquito vectors throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Symptoms of DENV infection involve damage to blood vessels and, in rare cases, hemorrhage and shock. Currently, there are no targeted therapies to treat DENV infection, but it is thought that drugs that target the host immune response may be effective in limiting symptoms that result from excessive inflammation. In this study, we measured the host transcriptional response to infection in multiple DENV target organs

  14. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....

  15. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499

  16. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  17. Regenerative potential, metabolic profile, and genetic stability of Brachypodium distachyon embryogenic calli as affected by successive subcultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedes-Rodrigues, T C; Batista, D S; Vieira, N M; Matos, E M; Fernandes, D; Nunes-Nesi, A; Cruz, C D; Viccini, L F; Nogueira, F T S; Otoni, W C

    2018-03-01

    Brachypodium distachyon, a model species for forage grasses and cereal crops, has been used in studies seeking improved biomass production and increased crop yield for biofuel production purposes. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the morphogenetic pathway that supports in vitro regeneration of such species. However, there are gaps in terms of studies on the metabolic profile and genetic stability along successive subcultures. The physiological variables and the metabolic profile of embryogenic callus (EC) and embryogenic structures (ES) from successive subcultures (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 360-day-old subcultures) were analyzed. Canonical discriminant analysis separated EC into three groups: 60, 90, and 120 to 240 days. EC with 60 and 90 days showed the highest regenerative potential. EC grown for 90 days and submitted to SE induction in 2 mg L -1 of kinetin-supplemented medium was the highest ES producer. The metabolite profiles of non-embryogenic callus (NEC), EC, and ES submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) separated into two groups: 30 to 240- and 360-day-old calli. The most abundant metabolites for these groups were malonic acid, tryptophan, asparagine, and erythrose. PCA of ES also separated ages into groups and ranked 60- and 90-day-old calli as the best for use due to their high levels of various metabolites. The key metabolites that distinguished the ES groups were galactinol, oxaloacetate, tryptophan, and valine. In addition, significant secondary metabolites (e.g., caffeoylquinic, cinnamic, and ferulic acids) were important in the EC phase. Ferulic, cinnamic, and phenylacetic acids marked the decreases in the regenerative capacity of ES in B. distachyon. Decreased accumulations of the amino acids aspartic acid, asparagine, tryptophan, and glycine characterized NEC, suggesting that these metabolites are indispensable for the embryogenic competence in B. distachyon. The genetic stability of the regenerated plants was evaluated

  18. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  19. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT......-existing Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores. A total of 22 subjects free of psychiatric and somatic disorders were included in the matched high- and low-HA groups. The main outcome measure was regional 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) in high- and low-HA groups estimated with PET and [11C]N,N-dimethyl-2...

  20. Temperament and Mood Detection Using Case-Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo Kolawole John; Adekoya Adewale M.; Ekwonna Chinnasa

    2014-01-01

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a branch of AI that is employed to solving problems which emphasizes the use of previous solutions in solving similar new problems. This work presents TAMDS, a Temperament and Mood Detection system which employs Case-Based Reasoning technique. The proposed system is adapted to the field of psychology to help psychologists solve part of the problems in their complex domain. We have designed TAMDS to detect temperament and moods of individuals. A major aim of our s...

  1. Cloninger's temperament and character traits in medical students of Korea with problem eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Cloninger, C Robert; Chae, Han

    2015-05-01

    The personality profiles of patients with eating disorder have been extensively investigated, but those of people in the general population with eating behavior problems need to be evaluated to assess the relationship between personality, health behavior and level of overall well-being in non-clinical samples. Temperament and character traits, reasons for over-eating, and the negative influence of functional dyspepsia on quality of life were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and Functional Dyspepsia Quality of Life (FDQOL) inventory, respectively, in 199 Korean medical students. The associations among TCI, FDQOL, DEBQ and body mass index (BMI) were examined by correlational analysis. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to measure how well personality (TCI) accounted for patterns of overeating (DEBQ) and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia (FDQOL). Individual differences in personality (especially harm-avoidance, self-transcendence, and self-directedness) were weakly associated with overeating and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia. Gender, social desirability and body mass index also played important roles in predicting eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population. We found that the personality traits observed in clinical patients with eating disorders are also found in people with eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population of Korea. The ways that personality traits affect eating behaviors were discussed along with recommendations for future studies in light of the limitations of available data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  3. Profile changes and stability following distraction osteogenesis with rigid external distraction in adult cleft lip and palate deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeson M Painatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1, postdistraction (T2, and 1 year after distractor removal (T3. The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2 and the stability (T2 vs. T3 were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3. The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 73.54 ± 10.38 to a T2 value of 88.2 ± 10.49. The lower facial height and the incisor exposure were significantly increased. The nasolabial angle had a significant improvement of 24.5° (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 56.6 ± 21.03 to a T2 value of 81.18 ± 14.4.The upper airway was significantly improved by 3.7 mm (P < 0.01 with a T1 value of 13.5 ± 3.8 to a T2 value of 17.2 ± 3.66. After 1-year follow-up, there was a significant maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P < 0.05 from a T2 value of 8.29 ± 6.84 to a T3 value of 5.09 ± 5.59. However, the soft-tissue profile and upper airway remained stable. Conclusion: The clinician should have an understanding of the related hard and soft tissues as well as airway changes which may assist him when planning for maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was

  4. Integrated community profiling indicates long-term temporal stability of the predominant faecal microbiota in captive cheetahs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A M J Becker

    Full Text Available Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (P<0.05, and by Lactobacillaceae. Moving window analysis of DGGE profiles revealed 23.3-25.6% change between consecutive samples for four of the cheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%. This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal's compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five

  5. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.

    2010-05-01

    albitization. Biotites are not or weakly chloritized. However, these "unaltered" (or primary) granites are strongly weathered into granite boulders embedded in grus by the present-day climatic conditions. The maturest paleoprofiles occur at the northern part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (i.e. the Montseny-Guilleries High) where the Variscan basement remained exposed during Triassic times. Towards the South the profiles progressively disappear and Triassic sediments acquire their maximum thickness here. The alteration profiles are related with the Permo-Triassic paleosurface still outcroping on wide areas [Gómez-Gras and Ferrer, 1999]. They are partially covered by Triassic fluvial sandstones (Buntsandstein facies) in the South [Gómez-Gras, 1993] and by Palaeocene alluvial conglomerates in the West [Anadón et al., 1979]. The Triassic paleosurface shows a remarkable stability successively outcropping during Mesozoic and Tertiary times, the pre-Tertiary exhumation and even the present day weathering affected very little these albitized profiles. The hardness and thus preservation of the Triassic paleosurface is mainly related to the albitization. The albitized granites are entirely lacking anorthitic plagioclase, which is much more sensitive to chemo-mechanical weathering. Development of albite and additional chloritization of the primary biotite crystals render the rocks much more resistant to weathering and erosion. This stability is particularly well expressed in case of the Montseny-Guilleries High, which is limited by a high fault scarp at the south-eastern margin. The albitized top of the scarp shows remarkably hard fresh rocks, whereas the base of the scarp (formed of primary, non-albitized facies) is deeply weathered into gruss. This is causing much smother landscape reliefs in the valleys and thalwegs. Since a long time the remarkable persistence of the Triassic paleosurface expressed in the Paleozoic massifs has been highlighted by geomorphologists. Only recently we

  6. Effect of family structure and TPH2 G-703T on the stability of dysregulation profile throughout adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria; Bianchi, Valentina; Monzani, Dario; Beri, Silvana; Bellina, Monica; Greco, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Tesei, Alessandra; Caldirola, Daniela; Giorda, Roberto; Perna, Giampaolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-01-15

    Two different polymorphisms (TPH2 G-703T and 5-HTTLPR) involved in the serotonergic pathway have been reported to play a role, both alone and in interaction with the environment, in early and adult emotion regulation. As most of these studies are cross-sectional, we know little about the impact of these polymorphisms over time, particularly during adolescence. Because we were interested in the effects of these polymorphisms and environment (i.e., family structure) at different time-points on the emotional dysregulation profile, we performed a path analysis model in a general adolescent population sample of a five-year follow-up study. We found a high stability of Dysregulation Profile problems independently from the examined allelic variants. We also found that early family structure directly influences the levels of dysregulation problems in early adolescence, both alone and in interaction with TPH2, suggesting the presence of a gene-environment interaction effect. Furthermore, we found that in adolescents homozygous for the TPH2 G allele, the effect of the early family structure remains active during late adolescence, albeit mediated by earlier emotional problems. The high attrition rate, the use of only one source on behavioral problems of adolescents, and the focus on a single polymorphism in the investigated genes could limit the generalizability of the present results. These results suggest that early family structure could play a significant role in the development and maintenance of emotional and behavioral problems not only in early adolescence but also in late-adolescence, although this effect was mediated and moderated by behavioral and genetic variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality and Temperament Correlates of Pain Catastrophizing in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van den Hout, Anja; Wessels, Sylvia; Franken, Ingmar; Rassin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, as well as scales for measuring sensitivity of…

  8. Using Latent Class Analysis to Model Temperament Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Mixture models are appropriate for data that arise from a set of qualitatively different subpopulations. In this study, latent class analysis was applied to observational data from a laboratory assessment of infant temperament at four months of age. The EM algorithm was used to fit the models, and the Bayesian method of posterior predictive checks…

  9. Temperament in the School Context: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vilar, Ma Angeles; Carranza, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The majority of studies on temperament in the educational context originate from the Anglo-Saxon culture, where there has been an increase in research in this field over the last four decades. The objective of this paper is to contribute towards systematizing of relevant findings that have been carried out in the educational context from the field…

  10. Temperament determination for melatonin: A bridge from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History acknowledged Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, the author of the highly skilled textbook of medicine "Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb" or "The Canon of Medicine", as one of the greatest physicians in medicine. According to this medical textbook, the explanation of the existence of a cold temperament for sleep was that during sleep hours, ...

  11. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  12. The body type/temperament mismatch and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, R

    1993-12-01

    The Catell and Metzner (1993) finding of higher self-actualization among people with body type/temperament mismatch is important and could be viewed as support for a link of creativity with deviance. Also, there is an error in one of their statements, which is corrected here.

  13. Temperament and psychopathological syndromes specific susceptibility for rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kállai, János; Hegedüs, Gábor; Feldmann, Ádám; Rózsa, Sándor; Darnai, Gergely; Herold, Róbert; Dorn, Krisztina; Kincses, Péter; Csathó, Árpád; Szolcsányi, Tibor

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study is to explore individual capacity for self-integration, susceptibility to the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and the role of temperament factors in the emergence of body schema and body image dissociation. The RHI factors, proprioceptive drift, body ownership and body disownership were assessed in 48 university students. Personality and psychiatric vulnerability were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). Our study pointed to the fact that the extent of behaviourally defined proprioceptive drift was associated with temperament factors, especially with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance. Further, the ownership was associated with Symptom Checklist factors, especially with elevated Interpersonal Sensitivity and vulnerability to Schizotypy and Paranoid Ideation and elevated disownership score was found in the case of elevated Schizotypy, including a depersonalisation feeling when the RHI was induced. The RHI may be considered as a conflicting situation, in which a way to cope with incongruent multimodal, visual, haptic and proprioceptive stimulation provides an opportunity to test body integration and embodiment processes in healthy participants and patients without disadvantageous outcomes. The results support and replenish the two opposite processing models of the RHI with a third, temperament-based procedural mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Leader’s Temperament on Work Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej BUZETI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show how the temperament of leaders has an effect on temporary absence from work in public administration and may potentially be one of the causes of temporary absence from work. Research on Slovenian public administration was conducted in February 2015 and involved 3,220 respondents. A quantitative research method (survey was used to collect the data which were then analyzed with the SPSS statistical program and Microsoft Excel. The results of the research reveal that leaders’ temperaments have a statistically signifi cant effect on temporary absence from work in public administration. The effect is evident both in the number of days as well as in the number of occurrences of absence from work. The survey results show that public administration is dominated by leaders with choleric (45% and phlegmatic temperaments (41%. Employees with a leader with a melancholic temperament were absent from work the most (11.7 days, followed by those working under a sanguine leader (10.6 days; the greatest frequency of absence were reported for employees with a sanguine leader (1.9 times, and the fewest for those with a melancholic leader (1.5 times.

  15. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  16. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  17. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  18. Temperament and the risk of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance use is rising among young people in developing countries, especially in schools and universities. Empirical studies on factors associated with substance abuse are required to identify protective and risk factors and to inform interventions. We report on the extent to which temperament and other demographic and ...

  19. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    an improved thermal stability of the polystyrene (PS) composite film much above its glass transition tempera- ture. Keywords. Thermal stability; polymer nanocomposites; low temperature .... The color of the solution changed immediately from pale yellow to black upon the addition. The reaction mix- ture was stirred for 2 h ...

  20. Suicidal ideation and temperament: an investigation among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, K; Kapusta, N D; Schlaff, G; Unseld, M; Erfurth, A; Lesch, O M; Walter, H; Akiskal, K K; Akiskal, H S

    2012-12-10

    Suicide is a major health problem accounting for up to 1.5 percent of all deaths worldwide and represents one of the most common causes of death in adolescents and young adults. A number of studies has been performed to establish risk factors for suicide in patients with psychiatric disorders including temperamental features. This study set out to assess the relationship between suicidal ideation and temperament in young adults. A cross-sectional sample of healthy college students (n=1381) was examined using a self-rating questionnaire. Suicidal ideation, social background, educational status, substance abuse, and affective temperament according to TEMPS-M were assessed. Predictors of lifetime suicidal ideation were examined in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Suicidal ideation was reported by 12.5% of all subjects at some point in their life and was higher in nicotine dependents, youth with alcohol related problems and users of illicit substances as well as in youth with lower educational status. Lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with the anxious, depressive and cyclothymic temperament in both sexes and the irritable temperament in males. These results remained significant after adjustment for smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, drug experience and educational status in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The use of self-rating instruments always reduces objectivity and introduces the possibility of misreporting. Considering the fact that many subjects completing suicide have never been diagnosed with mental disorders it might be reasonable to include an investigation of temperament in screenings for risk of suicide. This might be especially useful for health care professionals without mental health care background. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80 and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17 participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases.

  2. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C; Wagner, T; Archard, G A; Ferguson, B; Braithwaite, V A

    2014-11-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration-collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  3. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  4. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  5. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  6. Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Schranz, Franziska; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Haefele, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this work the stratospheric performance of a relatively new microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) has been evaluated. With this goal in mind, almost 3 years of temperature measurements (January 2014-September 2016) from the TEMPERA radiometer were intercompared with simultaneous measurements from other techniques: radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar. This intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland). In addition, the temperature profiles from TEMPERA were used to validate the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed in general a very good agreement between TEMPERA and the different instruments and the model, with a high correlation (higher than 0.9) in the temperature evolution at different altitudes between TEMPERA and the different data sets. An annual pattern was observed in the stratospheric temperature with generally higher temperatures in summer than in winter and with a higher variability during winter. A clear change in the tendency of the temperature deviations was detected in summer 2015, which was due to the repair of an attenuator in the TEMPERA spectrometer. The mean and the standard deviations of the temperature differences between TEMPERA and the different measurements were calculated for two periods (before and after the repair) in order to quantify the accuracy and precision of this radiometer over the campaign period. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes. In addition, comparisons proved the good performance of TEMPERA in measuring the temperature in the stratosphere.

  7. Relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination in three-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko eNakagawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ, the Sensory Profile (SP-J, and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ, this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control through path analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  8. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  9. Comparison of cytological parameters of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in different temperament groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zendehboodi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temperament (Mizaj forms the basic concept of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM, and greatly influences the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as maintains the ideal healthy state of an individual. In particular, temperament is presumed to affect the morphological, physiological, and psychological features of a person; however, its influence on biological features remains unclear in practical ITM. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the temperament and the cytological features of buccal mucosa in healthy people. Methods: The study sample included 75 healthy individuals from Fars province, southern Iran. The temperament was determined using a self-reported temperament identification scale. Based on the questionnaire, volunteers were classified in nine temperaments including one equilibrium, four simple temperaments (warm, cold, moist, and dry, and four combined temperaments (warm–moist, warm–dry, cold–moist, cold–dry. Smears collected from the buccal mucosa of participants were analyzed for biomarkers of DNA damage, cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential, and cell death using micronucleus (MN assay. Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test was applied to identify the differences between groups. Results: DNA damage (nuclear buds and cell death biomarkers (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexic, pyknotic, and karyolitic cells reported significant differences between certain temperament groups. Conclusions: The present study reported that the aforementioned cytological parameters could be affected by the temperament; however, more studies with greater sample sizes are warranted.

  10. Relative drifts and stability of satellite and ground-based stratospheric ozone profiles at NDACC lidar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of stratospheric ozone at different stations in the low and mid-latitudes is investigated. The analysis is performed by comparing the collocated profiles of ozone lidars, at the northern mid-latitudes (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg, Haute-Provence Observatory, Tsukuba and Table Mountain Facility, tropics (Mauna Loa Observatory and southern mid-latitudes (Lauder, with ozonesondes and space-borne sensors (SBUV(/2, SAGE II, HALOE, UARS MLS and Aura MLS, extracted around the stations. Relative differences are calculated to find biases and temporal drifts in the measurements. All measurement techniques show their best agreement with respect to the lidar at 20–40 km, where the differences and drifts are generally within ±5% and ±0.5% yr−1, respectively, at most stations. In addition, the stability of the long-term ozone observations (lidar, SBUV(/2, SAGE II and HALOE is evaluated by the cross-comparison of each data set. In general, all lidars and SBUV(/2 exhibit near-zero drifts and the comparison between SAGE II and HALOE shows larger, but insignificant drifts. The RMS of the drifts of lidar and SBUV(/2 is 0.22 and 0.27% yr−1, respectively at 20–40 km. The average drifts of the long-term data sets, derived from various comparisons, are less than ±0.3% yr−1 in the 20–40 km altitude at all stations. A combined time series of the relative differences between SAGE II, HALOE and Aura MLS with respect to lidar data at six sites is constructed, to obtain long-term data sets lasting up to 27 years. The relative drifts derived from these combined data are very small, within ±0.2% yr−1.

  11. Temperament and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Canadian Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer D. Irwin; Andrew M. Johnson; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Shauna M. Burke; Patricia Tucker

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess the influence of preschoolers' temperament on their objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Actical? accelerometers were used to measure preschoolers' from London, Canada's (n?=?216; 2.5?5?years) physical activity and sedentary levels during childcare hours (5 consecutive days; 15?s epoch). The Child Temperament Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess child temperament via parent/guardian report. The six subscales of the CTQ (i.e., reaction to foo...

  12. Comparison of temperaments of children with and without baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, F; Wilson, S; Coury, D L; Preisch, J W

    1998-01-01

    Several demographic studies have been done to identify children at risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD). Discussions have described these children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay as strong tempered, cranky, restless, and fussy. The parents of these children have acknowledged these behaviors. To determine whether there were differences in temperament, children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay were compared with children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay by assessing the nine temperament components described by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) questionnaire. Parents completed the temperament questionnaire and ninety-two children between twelve and thirty-six months old were studied. Scores for the nine temperament components were tabulated and temperament difficulty was determined as defined by the authors of the toddler Temperament Scale. At-test comparison between the two groups revealed no significant difference for the nine temperament components. There was also no difference when comparing clusters of the nine components. The conclusion is that there is no difference in the temperaments between the group of children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and the comparison group of children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay.

  13. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis; Bates, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph based records. The findings that parent reported and actigraph recorded sleep characteri...

  14. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681

  15. A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N = 14 studies; N = 3315 cases, N = 3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Temperament and character in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Arash; Rostami, Anahita; Aflaki, Elham; Ravanfar, Parsa

    2018-01-01

    In addition to identified neuropsychiatric characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), changes in personality seem to occur in patients with SLE. Even in absence of an axis I psychiatric diagnosis, personality variations play important role in general wellbeing of these patients. This study investigated personality features in patients with SLE using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In this case-control study personality features of 59 patients with confirmed diagnosis of SLE were evaluated using Persian version of TCI-125 questionnaire. Collected data from patients with SLE were statistically compared with normative data for Iranian population. Among four subscales of temperament, reward dependence (RD) and harm-avoidance (HA) were significantly lower than general population. Self-directedness (SD) character dimension was significantly lower in SLE patients compared to normative data. No significant difference was noted in novelty-seeking (NS) and persistence (PS) temperament scales and cooperativeness (CO) and self-transcendence (ST) character scales. Personality changes in SLE is characterized by higher HA and RD along with low SD. These features are associated with higher anxiety, social withdrawal and lower resourcefulness and purposefulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability-indicating assay method for determination of actarit, its process related impurities and degradation products: Insight into stability profile and degradation pathways☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abiramasundari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of the drug actarit was studied under different stress conditions like hydrolysis (acid, alkaline and neutral, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation as recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. Drug was found to be unstable in acidic, basic and photolytic conditions and produced a common degradation product while oxidative stress condition produced three additional degradation products. Drug was impassive to neutral hydrolysis, dry thermal and accelerated stability conditions. Degradation products were identified, isolated and characterized by different spectroscopic analyses. Drug and the degradation products were synthesized by a new route using green chemistry. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its impurities was achieved in a phenomenex luna C18 column employing a step gradient elution by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC–PDA–MS. A specific and sensitive stability-indicating assay method for the simultaneous determination of the drug actarit, its process related impurities and degradation products was developed and validated. Keywords: Actarit, Forced degradation, Stability-indicating assay method

  18. Temperament and character in italian men with anorexia nervosa: a controlled study with the temperament and character inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Abbate-Daga, G; Leombruni, P; Amianto, F; Rovera, G; Rovera, G G

    2001-11-01

    This study compares personality traits of men and women with anorexia nervosa and matched controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory was used to assess personality traits of 15 male and 50 female anorectics and 28 male and 58 female controls matched for age and education. Male anorectic patients displayed overall lower reward dependence and cooperativeness. Male and female anorectics displayed higher persistence and lower self-directedness than controls. Anorectic men had lower harm avoidance than anorectic women. Discriminating analysis revealed the anorectic male group as the most clearly defined. Anorectic men shared more traits with anorectic women than with male controls. Temperament and character of anorectic men reflect features partly similar to those of women with anorexia. Personal history and discriminating analysis led to interesting inferences about the gender identity of anorectic men. These results should be helpful in directing pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic approaches that consider the specific personality traits of these patients.

  19. The effects of temperament, psychopathy, and childhood trauma among delinquent youth: A test of DeLisi and Vaughn's temperament-based theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Fox, Bryanna H; Fully, Matthew; Vaughn, Michael G

    Recent interest among criminologists on the construct of temperament has been fueled by DeLisi and Vaughn's (2014) temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior. Their theory suggests that core self-regulation capacity and negative emotionality are the most salient temperament features for understanding the emergence and maintenance of antisocial and violent behavior, even among offending populations. The present study tests the relative effects of these temperamental features along with psychopathic traits and trauma in their association with violent and non-violent delinquency in a sample of 252 juvenile offenders. Results from a series of negative binomial regression models indicate that temperament was uniformly more strongly associated with violent and non-violent delinquency than psychopathic traits and childhood traumatic events. Exploratory classification models suggested that temperament and psychopathy possessed similar predictive capacity, but neither surpassed prior history of violence and delinquency as a predictor of future offending. Overall, findings are supportive of DeLisi and Vaughn's temperament-based theory and suggest temperament as conceptualized and measured in the present study may play an important role as a risk factor for violent and non-violent delinquency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy : The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants

  2. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants

  3. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comorbid Depression and Suicide Ideation in Patients with Combat-Related PTSD: The Role of Temperament, Character, and Trait Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Marčinko, Darko

    2017-03-01

    War veterans with PTSD have a high chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) at some point, while they can also exhibit increased suicidal tendencies. The primary goal of this research was to investigate whether personality dimensions, including temperament, character, and trait impulsivity, were associated with comorbid MDD, as well as with suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients suffering from combat-related PTSD. The sample consisted of 148 Croatian male war veterans (mean age 49.53 years) treated for PTSD at the National Center for Psychotrauma, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center Zagreb. Fifty-one (34%) of them met ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for current or lifetime MDD, while 97 (66%) were diagnosed with PTSD alone. All the participants were assessed with the M.I.N.I. diagnostic interview and they completed the following battery of self-report instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Comparisons between the two clinical groups showed that PTSD+MDD patients were more suicidal and differed with regard to temperament dimensions Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence, character dimension Self-Directedness, and trait impulsivity. In three multivariate regression analyses, it was revealed that character dimension Cooperativeness as well as trait impulsivity were unique predictors of suicidal ideation, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographics, length of treatment and comorbid depression. Combat-related PTSD patients with comorbid depression exhibit increased suicide thoughts and different personality profiles in comparison with those suffering from PTSD alone. Character dimension Cooperativeness and trait impulsivity seem to be uniquely predictive of suicide ideation in this population. Elucidation of individual psychological

  5. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  6. Evaluating the Stability of RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles and Drug-Induced Immune-Related Expression Changes in Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bowyer

    Full Text Available Methods were developed to evaluate the stability of rat whole blood expression obtained from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and assess changes in whole blood transcriptome profiles in experiments replicated over time. Expression was measured in globin-depleted RNA extracted from the whole blood of Sprague-Dawley rats, given either saline (control or neurotoxic doses of amphetamine (AMPH. The experiment was repeated four times (paired control and AMPH groups over a 2-year span. The transcriptome of the control and AMPH-treated groups was evaluated on: 1 transcript levels for ribosomal protein subunits; 2 relative expression of immune-related genes; 3 stability of the control transcriptome over 2 years; and 4 stability of the effects of AMPH on immune-related genes over 2 years. All, except one, of the 70 genes that encode the 80s ribosome had levels that ranked in the top 5% of all mean expression levels. Deviations in sequencing performance led to significant changes in the ribosomal transcripts. The overall expression profile of immune-related genes and genes specific to monocytes, T-cells or B-cells were well represented and consistent within treatment groups. There were no differences between the levels of ribosomal transcripts in time-matched control and AMPH groups but significant differences in the expression of immune-related genes between control and AMPH groups. AMPH significantly increased expression of some genes related to monocytes but down-regulated those specific to T-cells. These changes were partially due to changes in the two types of leukocytes present in blood, which indicate an activation of the innate immune system by AMPH. Thus, the stability of RNA-seq whole blood transcriptome can be verified by assessing ribosomal protein subunits and immune-related gene expression. Such stability enables the pooling of samples from replicate experiments to carry out differential expression analysis with acceptable power.

  7. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  8. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  9. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Deguchi

    Full Text Available The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  10. The Role of Child Temperament on Low-Income Preschool Children's Relationships with Their Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Torquati, Julia C.; Encinger, Amy; Colgrove, Amy

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between low-income preschool children's temperament (reactive and regulatory) and their relationships with parents and teachers. In particular, we focused on the moderating role of regulatory temperament on reactive temperament in the prediction of closeness and conflict with parents and teachers. Two…

  11. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable,

  12. Temperament and character traits of women admitted for breast reduction and comparison with body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan-Haktanir, Nurten; Geçici, Omer; Murat Emül, H; Aşik, Ahmet; Demir, Yavuz; Ozbulut, Omer

    2010-06-01

    Reduction mammaplasty improves self-esteem and low body perception. Previous reports comprise either retrospective data or sectional analysis in which women were evaluated postoperatively. Furthermore, temperament and character properties of women applying for breast reduction have not been investigated. This study aimed to compare the temperament and character traits of women admitted for breast reduction surgery with those of healthy volunteers and to investigate the interaction of body perception with temperament and character. The study enrolled 24 patients admitted for reduction mammaplasty and 24 healthy women. The study participants received the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) questionnaires. The RSE questionnaire was completed again by the patients 6 months after the operation. Of the temperament scales, the persistence scale was significantly lower for the patients. Only the reward dependence subscale of the temperament scale was significantly higher for the patients. Self-esteem (RSE) was significantly lower for the patients than for the control subjects preoperatively, whereas, it rose significantly after the operation. The RSE showed a negative correlation with self-directedness and its subscales of being responsible and resourceful. A significant negative correlation also was found between RSE and empathy. Women with large breasts try to develop adaptable character properties against chronic troubles. However, the temperament scale of persistence decreases in this process. Similar temperament and character traits of women with and those without large breasts suggest that patients desire breast reduction for functional rather than cosmetic purposes.

  13. Temperament Styles of Children in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Oakland, Thomas; Ahn, Changgu

    2010-01-01

    Temperament styles of 4,628 South Korean children, ages 9-17, are described in reference to possible gender and age differences and compared with those of 3,200 US age peers in the light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs, one that highlights four bipolar qualities: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative,…

  14. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  15. Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…

  16. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  17. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others. High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  18. Affective temperaments in subjects with female-to-male gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-05-01

    Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Factorial Structure of Four Temperament Styles and Measurement Invariance across Gender and Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowinski, Tomasz; Cieciuch, Jan; Oakland, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Polish Temperament Styles Questionnaire (PTSQ), derived from Student Style Questionnaire (SSQ) was developed to measure four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted versus introverted, practical versus imaginative, thinking versus feeling, and organized versus flexible. The study focuses on factorial validity and measurement invariance…

  20. Temperament Differences among Children with Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Diana; Oakland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Temperament-based learning style preferences of 80 children, ages 8 to 17, 40 with conduct disorder (CD) and 40 with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were examined using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures four dimensions of learning style preferences based on temperament theory (Extroverted-Introverted, Thinking-Feeling,…

  1. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  2. Maternal Accuracy in Predicting Toddlers' Behaviors and Associations with Toddlers' Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…

  3. Infant Temperament Moderates Relations between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…

  4. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  5. Pre-adolescent gender differences in associations between temperament, coping and mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, G.M.; Spiering, M.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between temperament, coping, depressive and aggressive mood in 8-12-year-old boys (n = 185) and girls (n = 219) were investigated, with a focus on gender differences. Children completed two self-report questionnaires: the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and

  6. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Boer, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether

  7. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  8. Stressful Events and Temperament Change during Early and Middle Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O. M.; Nederhof, E.; Karreman, A.; Ormel, J.; Van Aken, M. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates how stressful events are related to deviations from normative temperament development during adolescence. Temperament traits were assessed at ages 11 and 16?years. Life-event data was captured using an interview (total n?=?1197). Normative changes were found in all traits.

  9. Associations between infant temperament, maternal stress, and infants' sleep across the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, Barbara M; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C

    2015-05-01

    Effects of temperament and maternal stress on infant sleep behaviors were explored longitudinally. Negative temperament was associated with sleep problems, and with longer sleep latency and night wakefulness, whereas maternal stress was associated with day sleep duration, suggesting infant and maternal characteristics affect sleep differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  11. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  12. Early childhood temperament in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amy E; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2008-04-01

    Recent theories suggest that children with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) may exhibit more difficult temperaments premorbidly, including traits such as behavioral disinhibition and difficulty with emotion regulation. We investigated temperament characteristics retrospectively during infancy and toddlerhood in subjects with PBD (n=25), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). Children with PBD were reported to experience increased difficult temperament in both infancy and toddlerhood compared to children with ADHD. Several characteristics of difficult temperament were associated with residual symptoms of mania and depression. Difficult premorbid temperament characteristics may be a specific indicator of a bipolar diathesis, or might signal underlying dysfunction in affective processes that significantly increase risk for a mood disorder.

  13. Relationship between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contri­bute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.

  14. Affective temperament, job stress and professional burnout in nurses and civil servants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jaracz

    Full Text Available The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses.100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions.Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant.Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance.

  15. Gut microbiome composition is associated with temperament during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M; Galley, Jeffrey D; Hade, Erinn M; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Kamp Dush, Claire; Bailey, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the gut-brain axis has clinical implications for physical and mental health conditions, including obesity and anxiety. As such disorders have early life antecedents, it is of value to determine if associations between the gut microbiome and behavior are present in early life in humans. We used next generation pyrosequencing to examine associations between the community structure of the gut microbiome and maternal ratings of child temperament in 77 children at 18-27months of age. It was hypothesized that children would differ in their gut microbial structure, as indicated by measures of alpha and beta diversity, based on their temperamental characteristics. Among both boys and girls, greater Surgency/Extraversion was associated greater phylogenetic diversity. In addition, among boys only, subscales loading on this composite scale were associated with differences in phylogenetic diversity, the Shannon Diversity index (SDI), beta diversity, and differences in abundances of Dialister, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Parabacteroides. In girls only, higher Effortful Control was associated with a lower SDI score and differences in both beta diversity and Rikenellaceae were observed in relation to Fear. Some differences in dietary patterns were observed in relation to temperament, but these did not account for the observed differences in the microbiome. Differences in gut microbiome composition, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and abundances of specific bacterial species, were observed in association with temperament in toddlers. This study was cross-sectional and observational and, therefore, does not permit determination of the causal direction of effects. However, if bidirectional brain-gut relationships are present in humans in early life, this may represent an opportunity for intervention relevant to physical as well as mental health disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures to reduce the electron–beam-induced radiation damage. The results showed a marginal increase in Au nanoparticle diameter (2⋅3 nm–3⋅6 nm) and more importantly, an improved thermal stability of the polystyrene (PS) composite film much above its glass transition tempera- ture.

  17. HRTEM investigation of phase stability in alumina–zirconia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stabilized in tetragonal and cubic phases, is a technologically important material and is used for most high tempera- ... zirconia thin-film multilayers in the as deposited state and annealed up to 1473 K at 2 × 10−5 mbar. Conventional techniques .... On the basis of the above equations it can be clearly stated that in the nm ...

  18. The Temperament Types of Nursing Administrators in Hospital Nursing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    ADMINISTRATORS SURVEYED IN THE STATE OF TEXAS (N = 192) Temperament Type Frequency Percentage ESTJ 66 34.37 ISTJ 20 10.41 ENTJ 15 7.81 ESFJ 12 6.25 INFJ 1 0.52...Stated Administrative Position* Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ESTJ 30 12 12 1 6 2 2 1 ISTJ 6 4 6 1 1 2 ENTJ 6 2 5 1 1 ESFJ 1 5 6 * INFJ I INTJ 1 1 ENFP 4 1 3 1...possibilities. INFJ - People-oriented innovator of ideas; serious, quietly forceful and persevering; concerned with the common good, with helping

  19. Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Chwalibóg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB S. Retowski, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Questionnaire (FCZ-KT B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau, Personality Inventory NEO-PI-Costa Jr. and Mc'Crae Polish Adaptation and Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel – K. Durniat Adaptation. The study revealed a clear positive correlation with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a component of Agreeableness - Trust (A1, with Extraversion (E and its components: Warmth (E1, Excitement Seeking (E5 Activity (E4 and Gregariousness (E2 and the component of Conscientiousness – Self-Discipline (C5, component of Openness to Experience – Actions (O4, and also negative correlations with Neuroticism (N and its components: Vulnerability (N6, Self-Consciousness (N4 and Anxiety (N1. The study also revealed a clear positive correlations Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with Activity (AK, Endurance (WT and Briskness (ŻW and a clear negative correlation with Perseveration (PE, Emotional Reactivity (RE. In the group of volunteers there were also showed positive correlations of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a Career (Assessment and Promotion (OA and the Communication and Information (KI. Regression model developed using multiple regression (stepwise regression method takes into account the following variables: Activity (AK - Temperament, Agreeableness component of the Personality - Straightforwardness (A2, and the component of Neuroticism – Self

  20. Character and Temperament Dimensions in Subjects with Depressive Disorder: Impact of the Affective State on Their Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktarov, Stojan; Novotni, Antoni; Arsova, Slavica; Gudeva-Nikovska, Dance; Vujovik, Viktorija

    2017-03-15

    The depression is a cross-cultural condition that occurs in all cultures and within all nations with certain specificities, even though there are some differences in its manifestation. The hereditary load is of major importance, but also the individual personality factors, in the form of risk factors, are associated with the occurrence of depression. Personality characteristics have a significant impact on the occurrence of the recurrent depressive disorder and the outcome of the treatment as well. To identify the specific personality traits in people with the recurrent depressive disorder and the impact of the affective state on them. Three questionnaires were used: a general questionnaire, Beck's scale of depressive symptoms, and TCI-R (inventory for temperament and character). The most indicative differences in the dimensions are found in the Harm avoidance and the Self-direction dimensions, and most variable dimensions dependent on effective state are Novelty seeking and Reward dependence. The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character) compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state.

  1. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N

    2017-01-01

    The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related

  3. Temperamental profiles and language development: a replication and an extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garello, Valentina; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen

    2012-02-01

    Individual differences in child temperament are associated with individual differences in language development. The present study examined the relationship between temperament and language ability in 109 twenty-four- to 30-month-old children. Parents and day-care teachers completed two questionnaires: the Primo Vocabolario del Bambino (Caselli & Casadio, 1995) and the Questionari Italiani del Temperamento (Axia, 2002). Researchers administered the First Language Test (Axia, 1993) to assess productive and receptive language in each child. Replicating previous research (Usai, Garello, & Viterbori, 2009), day-care teachers identified three temperamental profiles: most of the children fit into the first profile, typical of the Italian population; another profile was made up of easily distractible and not very persistent children, with a poor capacity to modulate motor activity; and the third profile of children were inhibited in new situations. A relationship was found between temperament assessed by day-care teachers and different levels of linguistic competence. In particular, the groups of "inattentive" and "inhibited" children showed poorer lexical and morphological abilities and a more immature vocabulary, characterised by the presence of more primitive components of the lexical repertory compared to the group of "typical" children. Unlike the results from day-care teachers, temperament questionnaires completed by parents revealed a 4-cluster-solution. Also, for parents, the "typical" profile is characterised by the largest vocabulary (productive and receptive) and the most mature semantic production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ground-Based Assessment of the Bias and Long-Term Stability of Fourteen Limb and Occultation Ozone Profile Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Keppens, A.; Baray, J.-L.; Cortesi, U.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The ozone profile records of a large number of limb and occultation satellite instruments are widely used to address several key questions in ozone research. Further progress in some domains depends on a more detailed understanding of these data sets, especially of their long-term stability and their mutual consistency. To this end, we made a systematic assessment of fourteen limb and occultation sounders that, together, provide more than three decades of global ozone profile measurements. In particular, we considered the latest operational Level-2 records by SAGE II, SAGE III, HALOE, UARS MLS, Aura MLS, POAM II, POAM III, OSIRIS, SMR, GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO. Central to our work is a consistent and robust analysis of the comparisons against the ground-based ozonesonde and stratospheric ozone lidar networks. It allowed us to investigate, from the troposphere up to the stratopause, the following main aspects of satellite data quality: long-term stability, overall bias, and short-term variability, together with their dependence on geophysical parameters and profile representation. In addition, it permitted us to quantify the overall consistency between the ozone profilers. Generally, we found that between 20-40 kilometers the satellite ozone measurement biases are smaller than plus or minus 5 percent, the short-term variabilities are less than 5-12 percent and the drifts are at most plus or minus 5 percent per decade (or even plus or minus 3 percent per decade for a few records). The agreement with ground-based data degrades somewhat towards the stratopause and especially towards the tropopause where natural variability and low ozone abundances impede a more precise analysis. In part of the stratosphere a few records deviate from the preceding general conclusions; we identified biases of 10 percent and more (POAM II and SCIAMACHY), markedly higher single-profile variability (SMR and SCIAMACHY), and significant long-term drifts (SCIAMACHY, OSIRIS

  5. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Rha Hong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  6. Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: a test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H; Corwyn, Robert F

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the differential susceptibility hypothesis as it pertains to relations between infant temperament, parenting, and behavior problems in first grade. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used in a series of hierarchical regression analyses focused on interactions between three aspects of parenting (harshness, sensitivity, productive activity) and temperament as they affect teacher-reported externalizing behavior in first grade. Step #1 included family income-to-needs, maternal education, gender, life events, and amount of child care as control variables, plus infant temperament and the three parenting variables. Step #2 included a single interaction term, the interaction between one of the key parenting variables and child temperament. Results showed stronger relations between maternal sensitivity and behavior problems for children with difficult temperaments. Likewise, relations between opportunities for productivity and behavior problems were stronger for children with difficult temperaments. Trends were in the same direction for harsh parenting but did not quite reach statistical significance. Having access to experiences that promote coping and build self-regulatory capacities seems particularly valuable for children with difficult temperaments.

  7. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Neonatal Pain and Temperament on Attention Problems in Toddlers Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspardo, Claudia M; Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gracioli, Sofia M A; Furini, Guilherme C B; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2017-11-17

    To examine the effects of individual characteristics of neonates and neonatal pain-related stress on attention problems and externalizing behavior problems of toddlers born preterm, analyzing the moderating effects of the dispositional traits of temperament. The sample included 62 toddlers aged 18-36 months and their mothers. The mothers were interviewed using the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 for toddlers' attention and externalizing behavior problems assessment, the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for toddlers' temperament assessment, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire for their temperament assessment. The Neonatal Infant Stressor Scale analyzed the number of pain-related stress events during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization recorded in the medical charts. Statistical descriptive, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. High neonatal pain-related stress total index, associated with toddler's temperament with less Effortful Control, and mother's temperament with high Surgency explained 23% variability of the attention problems. Otherwise, the externalizing behavior problems were explained by temperament, but not by neonatal pain-related stress. The findings support the impact of neonatal pain experiences, and current toddlers' and mothers' temperament characterized by poorer self-regulation on attention problems in toddlers born preterm. Developmental care in the NICU and follow-up programs after discharge are recommended to promote regulated temperament of the mother-child dyads, aiming to prevent attentional problems in toddlers born preterm. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. [Temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in the judiciary staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlak, Katarzyna; Tylka, Jan

    2017-05-16

    The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28) adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model). The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain) and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3):375-390. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in the judiciary staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Orlak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. Material and Methods: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28 adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model. Results: The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Conclusions: Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3:375–390

  12. Influence of stability on the flux-profile relationships for wind speed, Φm, and temperature, Φh, for the stable atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yagüe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from SABLES98 experimental campaign have been used in order to study the influence of stability (from weak to strong stratification on the flux-profile relationships for momentum, Φm, and heat, Φh. Measurements from 14 thermocouples and 3 sonic anemometers at three levels (5.8, 13.5 and 32 m for the period from 10 to 28 September 1998 were analysed using the framework of the local-scaling approach (Nieuwstadt, 1984a; 1984b, which can be interpreted as an extension of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (Obukhov, 1946. The results show increasing values of Φm and Φh with increasing stability parameter ζ=z/Λ, up to a value of ζ≈1–2, above which the values remain constant. As a consequence of this levelling off in Φm and Φh for strong stability, the turbulent mixing is underestimated when linear similarity functions (Businger et al., 1971 are used to calculate surface fluxes of momentum and heat. On the other hand when Φm and Φh are related to the gradient Richardson number, Ri, a different behaviour is found, which could indicate that the transfer of momentum is greater than that of heat for high Ri. The range of validity of these linear functions is discussed in terms of the physical aspects of turbulent intermittent mixing.

  13. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels o...

  14. Gradient Correlation Method for the Stabilization of Inversion Results of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Retrieved from Profiles of Optical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolgotin Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation relationships between aerosol microphysical parameters and optical data are investigated. The results show that surface-area concentrations and extinction coefficients are linearly correlated with a correlation coefficient above 0.99 for arbitrary particle size distribution. The correlation relationships that we obtained can be used as constraints in our inversion of optical lidar data. Simulation studies demonstrate a significant stabilization of aerosol microphysical data products if we apply the gradient correlation method in our traditional regularization technique.

  15. [Analysis of interdependence of temperament, neuroendocrine control and psychophysiological status during dry immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporuk, I A

    2008-01-01

    Interdependence of temperament, hormonal and psychophysiological status was investigated in 8 young volunteers for 7-d dry immersion (DI). Blood levels of insulin, sex, steroid, thyroid hormones and psychomotor parameters were determined on DI days 3 and 7, and on day 7 of recovery. Before DI, the volunteers filled in the Kettelle personality questionnaire. During DI, anxious subjects spent less time to compare visual patterns demonstrating high and stable speed of reactions but made a bit more errors. Extraverts showed high speed of reactions and stability of psychomotor parameters and did not increase the number of errors. Easy-tempered and introvert subjects preserved inherently high insulin concentrations in DI. Support deprivation was attended by drop of the levels of triiodothyronine and cortisol and rise of prolactin and thyroxin. Results of multiple correlation analysis led to the conclusion that DI accentuates the role of original extra-introversion and dampens origin anxiety. Successfulness can be attained by adequate alteration of the levels of steroid and thyroid hormones with effectively balanced vagoinsulin-sympathoadrenal neuroendocrine control and monoaminergic CNV activity.

  16. Temperament and character in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Amianto, Federico; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a serious disorder and its treatment involves dietitians, psychologists, and psychiatrists, often with a poor outcome. The role of psychiatric issues in obesity is equivocal, and so is the fact whether emotional and behavioral disturbances are causes or consequences of an individual's overweight condition. We performed a study that included 120 obese women (59 with binge eating disorder [BED] and 61 with non-BED) according to specific selection criteria, and compared to 80 healthy controls. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients and they were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Despite the fact that obese patients with BED and without BED display a similar personality profile, those with BED show lower scores in Self-Directedness (SD). Both groups of obese patients differ from nonobese controls in Novelty Seeking (NS), Harm Avoidance (HA), Cooperativeness (C), and SD. SD seems to be the strongest predictor for the development of BED. The idea that two distinct groups of obese patients exist is supported. Moreover, as regards personality, a lower SD and a higher risk of Personality Disorders were found in obese BED patients. Different severities of overweight do not seem to relate to a specific personality susceptibility. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of Locking Compression Plate versus Positive Profile Pins and Polymethylmethacrylate for Stabilization of the Canine Lumbar Vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Beverly K; Kapatkin, Amy S; Garcia, Tanya C; Anwer, Cona; Fukuda, Shimpei; Hitchens, Peta L; Wisner, Tristan; Hayashi, Kei; Stover, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    To compare the stiffness, angular deformation, and mode of failure of lumbar vertebral column constructs stabilized with bilateral pins and polymethylmethacrylate (Pin-PMMA) or with a unilateral (left) locking compression plate (LCP) with monocortical screws. Ex vivo biomechanical, non-randomized. Cadaveric canine thoracolumbar specimens (n=16). Thoracolumbar (T13-L3) vertebral specimens had the L1-L2 vertebral motion unit stabilized with either Pin-PMMA or LCP. Stiffness in flexion, extension, and right and left lateral bending after nondestructive testing were compared between intact (pretreated) specimens and Pin-PMMA, and LCP constructs. The Pin-PMMA and LCP constructs were then tested to failure in flexion and left lateral bending. Both the Pin-PMMA and LCP constructs had reduced range of motion at the stabilized L1-L2 vertebral motion unit compared to intact specimens. The Pin-PMMA constructs had less range of motion for the flexion elastic zone than LCP constructs. The Pin-PMMA constructs were stiffer than intact specimens in flexion, extension, and lateral bending, and stiffer than LCP constructs in flexion and left lateral bending. The Pin-PMMA constructs had less angular deformation at construct yield and lower residual deformation at L1-L2 than LCP constructs after destructive testing to failure in flexion. The Pin-PMMA constructs were stiffer, stronger, and had less deformation at yield than LCP constructs after destructive testing to failure in lateral bending. Most constructs failed distant to the implant and fixation site. Pin-PMMA constructs had greater lumbar vertebral stiffness and reduced ROM than LCP constructs; however, both Pin-PMMA and LCP constructs were stronger than intact specimens. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Optimization of Culture Conditions for Some Identified Fungal Species and Stability Profile of α-Galactosidase Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial α-galactosidase preparations have implications in medicine and in the modification of various agricultural products as well. In this paper, four isolated fungal strains such as AL-3, WF-3, WP-4 and CL-4 from rhizospheric soil identified as Penicillium glabrum (AL-3, Trichoderma evansii (WF-3, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (WP-4 and Penicillium flavus (CL-4 based on their morphology and microscopic examinations, are screened for their potential towards α-galactosidases production. The culture conditions have been optimized and supplemented with specific carbon substrates (1%, w/v by using galactose-containing polysaccharides like guar gum (GG, soya casein (SC and wheat straw (WS. All strains significantly released galactose from GG, showing maximum production of enzyme at 7th day of incubation in rotary shaker (120 rpm that is 190.3, 174.5, 93.9 and 28.8 U/mL, respectively, followed by SC and WS. The enzyme activity was stable up to 7days at −20°C, then after it declines. This investigation reveals that AL-3 show optimum enzyme activity in guar gum media, whereas WF-3 exhibited greater enzyme stability. Results indicated that the secretion of proteins, enzyme and the stability of enzyme activity varied not only from one strain to another but also differed in their preferences of utilization of different substrates.

  19. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  20. Temperament and loving-styles in college women: associations with eating attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of temperament and love attitudes with eating behaviors in 190 college-aged nonclinical women who completed a survey that included measures of temperament, loving-style, and eating attitudes. Certain temperament and loving-style variables showed significant statistical association with scores on eating attitudes. Specifically, both obsessive and game-playing love-styles were related to the Dieting and Bulimia-Food Preoccupation dimensions of the eating scales, while temperamental fear and anger were related to bulimia and oral control. The role of interpersonal relationships and self-perceptions of temperament may provide a useful perspective for understanding the etiology of eating disorders.

  1. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.

  3. Bidirectional Pathways between Relational Aggression and Temperament from Late Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Olivia E; Tackett, Jennifer L; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W

    2017-04-01

    Relational aggression is linked to numerous adverse consequences. However, we know little about how temperament leads individuals to become perpetrators/victims of relational aggression, or how being a perpetrator/victim influences the development of temperament. We used longitudinal data from 674 Mexican-origin youth to examine relations between relational aggression and mother- and child-reported temperament from 5 th grade ( M age =10.8; SD =0.60) through 11 th grade ( M age =16.8; SD =0.50). Results show that: (a) high Negative Emotionality and low Effortful Control predicted increases in victimization; (b) low Effortful Control predicted increases in perpetration; (c) victims increased in Negative Emotionality and decreased in Effortful Control; and (d) perpetrators increased in Negative Emotionality and Surgency. Thus, temperament serves as both an antecedent to and a consequence of relational aggression.

  4. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of

  6. Sweet babies: chocolate consumption during pregnancy and infant temperament at six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo E

    2004-02-01

    Chocolate contains several biologically active components potentially having behavioral and psychological consequences. We tested whether chocolate consumption and stress experiences during pregnancy predict mother-rated infant temperament at 6 months. Prenatal frequency of chocolate consumption and intensity of psychological stress experience of the mothers, and temperament characteristics of the infants 6 months postpartum were evaluated in 305 consecutive, healthy mother-infant dyads. Mothers who reported daily consumption of chocolate rated more positively the temperament of their infants at 6 months. Maternal prenatal stress predicted more negatively tuned ratings of the infant temperament, particularly among those who reported never/seldom chocolate consumption. However, this effect was not observed among the mothers reporting weekly or daily chocolate consumption. In addition to producing subjective feelings of psychological well being, chocolate may have effects at multiple environmental and psychological levels.

  7. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.

  8. Temperament determination for melatonin: a bridge from Iranian traditional to modern sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minae, Mohammad B; Soltani, Seyedshahin; Besharat, Mehdi; Karimi, Foruzan; Nazem, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    History acknowledged Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, the author of the highly skilled textbook of medicine "Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb" or "The Canon of Medicine", as one of the greatest physicians in medicine. According to this medical textbook, the explanation of the existence of a cold temperament for sleep was that during sleep hours, people tended to have a movement of the nature of the body toward the inside, which caused the body to become cold during sleep. Temperament determination for molecules, including drugs, has proved several applications. The present study tried to demonstrate that the multitasking melatonin molecule, as a sleep related hormone, had a cold temperament. The consideration of this temperament for melatonin had the potential to connect and integrate Iranian traditional medicine to current medicine, and also opened new frontiers for the physiopathology of modern sleep medicine, based on traditional medicine.

  9. State anxiety change after a parachute jump and its determinants: gender, experience, and temperament features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bołdak Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: To determine the role of gender and experience level as factors differentiating state anxiety before and after a parachute jump, and to ascertain relationships between state anxiety and temperament features.

  10. An affective computing algorithm based on temperament type in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Biyun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E-Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.

  11. Specificity of Psychological Structure of Temperament in Students of Military University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Bespalova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research of the peculiarities and temperament structure as a psychophysiological basis of the development of military university students' personality features.

  12. Temperament, parenting, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.

    Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of

  13. Effect of temperament on cortisol response to a single exercise bout in Thoroughbred racehorses - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohák, Zsófia; Szenci, Ottó; Harnos, Andrea; Kutasi, Orsolya; Kovács, Levente

    2017-12-01

    Temperament has not been taken into account in previous studies evaluating the stress response to exercise in horses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortisol response in Thoroughbred racehorses to a single exercise bout, and to analyse the results based on the basic personality of the horse examined. Twenty healthy Thoroughbred horses were selected for the study based on a 25-item rating questionnaire survey used for characterising equine temperament. Eight temperamental and twelve calm horses took part in the experiment. The horses trotted as a warm-up activity, and then galloped on a rounded sand track. Blood sampling was conducted four times for each horse. Horses with a more excitable temperament showed a higher cortisol response to the test (P = 0.036). In conclusion, cortisol levels in response to a mild intensive exercise can be affected by temperament in horses. Serum cortisol may be a relevant marker to quantify individual temperamental differences in racehorses.

  14. The validity of three tests of temperament in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, James G

    2008-11-01

    Differences in temperament (consistent differences among individuals in behavior) can have important effects on fitness-related activities such as dispersal and competition. However, evolutionary ecologists have put limited effort into validating their tests of temperament. This article attempts to validate three standard tests of temperament in guppies: the open-field test, emergence test, and novel-object test. Through multiple reliability trials, and comparison of results between different types of test, this study establishes the confidence that can be placed in these temperament tests. The open-field test is shown to be a good test of boldness and exploratory behavior; the open-field test was reliable when tested in multiple ways. There were problems with the emergence test and novel-object test, which leads one to conclude that the protocols used in this study should not be considered valid tests for this species. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cognitive and Affective Correlates of Temperament in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Brown, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display low novelty seeking scores on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), which may reflect the low dopamine function that characterises the disease. People with PD also display raised harm avoidance scores. Due to these and other observations, a “parkinsonian personality” has been suggested. However, little is known about how these features relate to cognitive and affective disorders, which are also common in PD. We examined links between TPQ scores and performance on an attentional orienting task in a sample of 20 people with PD. In addition, associations between TPQ and depression and anxiety scores were explored. It was found that novelty seeking scores were significantly correlated with a reaction time measure of attentional orienting to visual novelty. Harm avoidance scores were significantly correlated with anxiety, but not depression scores. These findings extend our understanding of how temperament interacts with cognitive and affective features of the disorder. PMID:21869930

  16. Cognitive and Affective Correlates of Temperament in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pluck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients display low novelty seeking scores on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ, which may reflect the low dopamine function that characterises the disease. People with PD also display raised harm avoidance scores. Due to these and other observations, a “parkinsonian personality” has been suggested. However, little is known about how these features relate to cognitive and affective disorders, which are also common in PD. We examined links between TPQ scores and performance on an attentional orienting task in a sample of 20 people with PD. In addition, associations between TPQ and depression and anxiety scores were explored. It was found that novelty seeking scores were significantly correlated with a reaction time measure of attentional orienting to visual novelty. Harm avoidance scores were significantly correlated with anxiety, but not depression scores. These findings extend our understanding of how temperament interacts with cognitive and affective features of the disorder.

  17. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  18. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  19. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Aaron L.; Schwebel, David C.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach ...

  20. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  1. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  2. Affective temperaments and ego defense mechanisms associated with somatic symptom severity in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Taunay, Tauily C; Macedo, Danielle S; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Bisol, Luísa W; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Lara, Diogo R; Carvalho, André F

    2013-09-05

    Several complex mechanisms including biological, psychological and social factors may contribute to the development of bodily symptoms. Affective temperaments may represent heritable subclinical manifestations of mood disorders, and the concept of ego defense mechanisms has also provided a model for the comprehension of psychopathology. The relationship between affective temperaments, defensive functioning and somatic symptom severity remains unknown. We obtained data from a subsample of the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP). Participants completed the Affective and Emotional Temperament Composite Scale (AFECTS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). SCL-90-R Somatization scale was used as outcome variable. Among 9937 participants (4472 male; 45%), individuals with dysphoric, cyclothymic and depressive temperaments and those who adopted displacement, somatisation and passive aggression as their predominant defense mechanisms presented high somatic symptom severity. Participants with dysphoric temperament and those with higher displacement scores were more likely to endorse numerous bodily symptoms after controlling for age, gender, education and depressive symptoms. Moderator analysis showed that the relationship of dysphoric temperament with somatic symptom severity was much more powerful in people who adopted displacement as their predominant defense. The data was collected from a convenience web-based sample. The study was cross-sectional. There was no information on the presence of established physical illness. Affective temperaments and defense mechanisms are associated with somatic symptom severity independently of depressive symptoms. These two personality theories provide distinct but interacting views for comprehension of somatic symptom formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  4. Environmental Stability of Seed Carbohydrate Profiles in Soybeans Containing Different Alleles of the Raffinose Synthase 2 (RS2) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Kristin D; Wiebold, William J

    2016-02-10

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is important for the high protein meal used for livestock feed formulations. Carbohydrates contribute positively or negatively to the potential metabolizable energy in soybean meal. The positive carbohydrate present in soybean meal consists primarily of sucrose, whereas the negative carbohydrate components are the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), raffinose and stachyose. Increasing sucrose and decreasing raffinose and stachyose are critical targets to improve soybean. In three recently characterized lines, variant alleles of the soybean raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) gene were associated with increased sucrose and decreased RFOs. The objective of this research was to compare the environmental stability of seed carbohydrates in soybean lines containing wild-type or variant alleles of RS2 utilizing a field location study and a date of planting study. The results define the carbohydrate variation in distinct regional and temporal environments using soybean lines with different alleles of the RS2 gene.

  5. Integrated Community Profiling Indicates Long-Term Temporal Stability of the Predominant Faecal Microbiota in Captive Cheetahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne A. M. J.; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Snauwaert, Cindy; Hesta, Myriam; Huys, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (Pcheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%). This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal’s compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five animals under study that may typify the core phylogenetic microbiome of cheetahs. PMID:25905625

  6. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperament and problem solving in a population of adolescent guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Seyfarth, Robert M; Serpell, James A; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2017-09-01

    It is often assumed that measures of temperament within individuals are more correlated to one another than to measures of problem solving. However, the exact relationship between temperament and problem-solving tasks remains unclear because large-scale studies have typically focused on each independently. To explore this relationship, we tested 119 prospective adolescent guide dogs on a battery of 11 temperament and problem-solving tasks. We then summarized the data using both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory principal components analysis. Results of confirmatory analysis revealed that a priori separation of tests as measuring either temperament or problem solving led to weak results, poor model fit, some construct validity, and no predictive validity. In contrast, results of exploratory analysis were best summarized by principal components that mixed temperament and problem-solving traits. These components had both construct and predictive validity (i.e., association with success in the guide dog training program). We conclude that there is complex interplay between tasks of "temperament" and "problem solving" and that the study of both together will be more informative than approaches that consider either in isolation.

  9. Evaluation of the release profile, stability and antioxidant activity of a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol by spray chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulini, Fabrício L; Souza, Volnei B; Thomazini, Marcelo; Silva, Marluci P; Massarioli, Adna P; Alencar, Severino M; Pallone, Eliria M J A; Genovese, Maria I; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2017-05-01

    Cinnamon has many health improving compounds such as proanthocyanidins, which also have potential for the prevention of damages caused by diabetes. Similarly, α-tocopherol is a natural antioxidant with important role on protection of fatty acids in membranes and lipoproteins. However, the addition of antioxidants in food may result in interaction with food matrix, low stability and unpleasant taste. In the present study, a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE) (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) was co-encapsulated with α-tocopherol into solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by spray chilling. The microparticles were characterized with regard to the physical and chemical properties, morphology, proanthocyanidin stability and release profile. SLMs were spherical with an average diameter of ca. 80μm. Proanthocyanidins were highly stable in SLMs stored for up to 90days at 5, 25 and 37°C. Moreover, SLMs gradually released proanthocyanidins in simulated gastrointestinal fluids by a diffusional process, following a Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic. Analyses of the antioxidant compounds indicated that PRCE components exhibited a higher scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Thus, the SLMs produced in the present study have potential for application in the development of new functional foods and nutraceuticals, also providing an alternative for the controlled release of proanthocyanidins and α-tocopherol into the intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Characterization and Oxidative Stability of Medium- and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles in Tree-Borne Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Som Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils. A total of 15 different fatty acids were identified in six tree-borne seed oils, which included seven types of saturated fatty acids, four types of monounsaturated fatty acids, and four types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Japanese camphor tree (JCT had a high content of medium-chain fatty acids (97.94 ± 0.04%, in which fatty acid composition was distinct from those of the other five plant seed oils. Overall, contents of tocopherols, a type of fat-soluble vitamin, ranged between 3.82 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 101.98 ± 1.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Phytosterol contents ranged from 117.77 ± 1.32 mg/100 g to 479.45 ± 4.27 mg/100 g, respectively. Of all tree-borne seed oils, β-sitosterol was the phytosterol at the highest concentration. Contents of unsaponifiables were between 0.13 ± 0.08 and 2.01 ± 0.02, and values of acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine were between 0.79 ± 0.01 and 38.94 ± 0.24 mg KOH/g, 3.53 ± 0.21 and 127.67 ± 1.79 meq/kg, and 2.07 ± 0.51 and 9.67 ± 0.25, respectively. Oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils was assessed through measurement of oxidation-induction periods. These results should serve as a foundation to identify the potential of tree-borne seed oils in industrial application as well as in providing fundamental data.

  12. A study of affective temperaments in Hungary: internal consistency and concurrent validity of the TEMPS-A against the TCI and NEO-PI-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Sándor; Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Szili, Ilona; Rihmer, Annamária; Ko, Natasa; Németh, Attila; Pestality, Péter; Bagdy, György; Alhassoon, Omar; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2008-02-01

    TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire) is a new self-assessed temperament 110-item scale with depressive (D), cyclothymic (C), hyperthymic (H), irritable (I) and anxious (A) subscales. To date, it has been translated into 25 languages, and validated in 10. The present Hungarian version provides the most complete external validation across the Beck Depression Scale (BDI), Profile of Mood States (POMS), the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-i), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R). We were particularly interested in concurrent validation against the TCI and the NEO-PI-R, the most important of the new personality instruments. 1132 clinically-well subjects (27% male) from the general population and university students (16-81 years) were administered the above scales and instruments. The data were tested with standard psychometric batteries. Factor analysis revealed 5 factors approximating the original D, C, I, H, and A subscales, which in their superfactor confirmed an Emotional (D, C, I, A) vs. Hyperthymic structure. Except for the D (a=0.65), the Cronbach alpha for the remainder temperaments ranged from 0.75-0.81. Dominant temperaments ranged from the I (2.7%) to the C (4.2%); the highest prevalence was observed among men with C=6% and H=5.4%. The BDI and POMS correlated significantly with the relevant subscales, as did the BarOn. Of the many significant possible correlations with the TCI, the most noteworthy were novelty seeking and harm avoidance with D, A, C, as well as C, and persistence with H. As for the NEO-PI-R, we were struck by the positive correlation of openness with C, and conscientiousness negatively with C; most other positive correlations such as neuroticism with all temperaments but the hyperthymic were expected and strongly supportive of concurrent validity. Higher educational background of the subjects studied relative to

  13. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH (up to 190 MPa on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities, and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure. Although the proteolytic activity (PA was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy. These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  14. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  15. Four broad temperament dimensions: Description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eFisher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI. Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: 1 Curious/Energetic, 2 Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, 3 Analytical/Tough-minded, and 4 Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: 1 gender; 2 level of education; 3 religious preference; 4 political orientation; 5 the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the Fisher Temperament Inventory and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n=215, which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.

  16. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  17. Temperament and personality in bipolar I patients with and without mixed episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Dörthe; Röttig, Stephan; Brieger, Peter; Marneros, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Personality and temperament are supposed to have an impact on the clinical expression and course of an affective disorder. There is some indication, that mixed episodes result from an admixture of inverse temperamental factors to a manic syndrome. In a preliminary report [Brieger, P., Roettig, S., Ehrt, U., Wenzel, A., Bloink, R., Marneros, A., 2003. TEMPS-a scale in 'mixed' and 'pure' manic episodes: new data and methodological considerations on the relevance of joint anxious-depressive temperament traits. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 99-104] we reported support for this assumption. The present study completes the preliminary results and compares patients with and without mixed episodes with respect to personality and personality disorders in addition. Patients who had been hospitalized for bipolar I disorder were reassessed after 4.8 years. We examined temperament (TEMPS-A), personality (NEO-FFI) and frequency of personality disorders (SCID-II). Furthermore, illness-related parameters like age at first treatment, depressive and manic symptomatology, frequency and type of episodes and level of functioning were obtained and patients with and without mixed episodes were compared. Patients with (n=49) and without mixed episodes (n=86) did not differ significantly with regard to the illness-related parameters and personality dimensions. The frequency of personality disorders was significantly higher in patients with prior mixed episodes. With respect to temperament, scores of the depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament were significantly higher in patients with mixed episodes. We were not able to assess premorbid temperament and premorbid personality. The findings of the present study support the assumption of Akiskal [Akiskal, H.S., 1992b. The distinctive mixed states of bipolar I, II, and III. Clin. Neuropharmacol. 15 Suppl 1 Pt A, 632-633.] that mixed episodes are more frequent in subjects with inverse temperament.

  18. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  19. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  20. Cognitive, Emotional, Temperament, and Personality Trait Correlates of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.

  1. [Tattoos and piercings in adolescents: family conflicts and temperament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosello, Romina; Favaro, Angela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Soave, Manuela; Vidotto, Giulio; Huon, Gail; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of body art, such as tattoos and piercings, has ancient roots, rediscovered in Western society during the '70s. The aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence and the characteristics of tattoos and piercings among Italian adolescents of high school in Padua, with particular attention to family context and temperament. Some questionnaires about the presence or the wish of tattoos/piercings, smoke and alcohol use, familiar conflicts, and some temperamental features, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence, have been administered to a sample of 829 students. Tattoo and piercing's prevalence among adolescents was respectively 4% and 24%; 2.5% of the sample had both. Respectively 62% and 35% of the subjects expressed the desire of having a tattoo or piercing. A significant association has been found between tattoo/piercing's presence and smoke and alcohol use (p tattoos and piercings, are more likely to have familiar conflicts and minor perceived support and they have higher scores on the novelty seeking scale. Those who wish a tattoo/piercing showed higher reward dependence. This study confirms that tattoos/piercings are common among young people and it stresses the relevance of familiar and temperamental features, and the association between tattoos/piercings and some maladaptive behaviors, like smoke and alcohol use.

  2. Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective

  3. Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Trofimova

    Full Text Available The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the

  4. Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study

  5. The relationship between temperament, gender, and behavioural problems in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yoleri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.

  6. Temperament and character traits in patients with tinnitus: a prospective case series with comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J H; Byun, H; Lee, S H; Park, C W; Jang, E Y

    2017-04-01

    To describe the personality traits of temperament and character in patients with tinnitus and to identify differences in these traits associated with the severity of tinnitus. Case series with comparisons. Tertiary referral centre. From January to December 2014, one hundred and thirty-four adult patients with chronic subjective tinnitus completed psychoacoustic measurements of tinnitus and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Personality traits were assessed by the TCI. The TCI assesses seven dimensions of personality traits and four temperaments 'novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence', as well as three characters 'self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence'. The values of the TCI parameters in the tinnitus patients were compared with reference data from a non-institutional adult population, and associations between TCI parameter values and tinnitus severity were evaluated. In terms of temperament, tinnitus patients had higher scores for 'harm avoidance', whereas scores for 'novelty seeking', 'reward dependence' and 'persistence' were significantly lower than the reference. In terms of character, lower 'cooperativeness' and 'self-transcendence' were identified in the subjects with tinnitus. The 'novelty seeking' score was inversely related to tinnitus severity (r = -0.285, P = 0.001), while other temperament and character traits did not show significant correlations. There may be a connection between tinnitus and personality traits, especially in the case of 'novelty seeking', which is relatively constant over a lifetime. The TCI questionnaire may be useful in facilitating the application of personality traits to tailored counselling for tinnitus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Temperament and Social-Emotional Difficulties: The Dark Side of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomo, Ilaria; Fiorilli, Caterina; Geraci, Maria Angela; Pepe, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The authors compared the relations between general psychological difficulties and dimensions of temperament in children with and without learning disability (LD). The main aim was to analyze whether and to what extent children's temperament dimensions contribute to their general psychological difficulties when LD diagnosis, age, and gender are taken into account. Participants were 52 elementary school children 7-11 years old (M age = 8.61 years, SD = 1.21 years). Twenty-six of them had been diagnosed with LD. Six teachers rated their pupils with and without LD in relation to their general psychological difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and temperament dimensions (Italian Questionnaires of Temperament). In children with LD, the main dimensions of temperament with the power to predict general psychological difficulties (i.e., emotionality and social orientation) concern these students' relationships with others (teachers and peers). The findings of the current study draw educators' and practitioners' attention to the fact that children's temperamental characteristics may affect how they experience their LD, with significant implications for their later social adjustment.

  8. Toddler inhibited temperament, maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment, and intrusive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Temperament as a moderator of the effects of parenting on children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the role of child temperament as moderator of the effect of parenting style on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A series of structural equation models were fit to a representative sample of 2,631 Canadian children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In addition to testing for the presence of Temperament × Parenting interactions, these models also examined the direct and indirect effects of a number of additional contextual factors such as neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, social support, and maternal depression. The results indicate that exposure to more positive parenting reduces behavior problems in children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. No moderating effects of temperament on hostile parenting were found. Such results serve to highlight the pivotal role of positive features of the rearing environment as catalysts for the successful adaptation of children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. The results of this modeling work also serve to emphasize the importance of considering the ways in which more distal factors can affect children's behavioral adaptation by contributing to changes in proximal family processes.

  10. The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry in patients with bipolar disorder: correlation with affective temperaments and schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopierala, Ewa; Chrobak, Adrian A; Kapczinski, Flavio; Michalak, Michal; Tereszko, Anna; Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Dudek, Dominika; Dembinska-Krajewska, Daria; Siwek, Marcin; Jaracz, Jan; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-10-20

    To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects. The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.

  11. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  12. The Impact of Malnutrition on Intelligence at 3 and 11 Years of Age: The Mediating Role of Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Peter H.; Raine, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of…

  13. Maternal Accuracy and Behavior in Anticipating Children's Responses to Novelty: Relations to Fearful Temperament and Implications for Anxiety Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that mothers' behaviors may serve as a mechanism in the development from toddler fearful temperament to childhood anxiety. The current study examined the maternal characteristic of accuracy in predicting toddlers' distress reactions to novelty in relation to temperament, parenting, and anxiety development.…

  14. Identification of the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament using an esthetic judgment for paintings task in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Kodama, Kensuke; Kohno, Kentaro; Makino, Mayu; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Araki, Yasuo; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-12-01

    There is a well-known association between artistic creativity and cyclothymic temperament but the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament have not yet been fully identified. Recently, we showed that the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus may be associated with esthetic judgment of representational paintings, we therefore sought to investigate brain activity during esthetic judgment of paintings in relation to measures of cyclothymic temperament. Regions of interest (ROI) were set at the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus using automated anatomical labeling, and percent signal changes of the ROIs were measured by marsbar toolbox. The associations between percent signal changes of the ROIs during esthetic judgments of paintings and cyclothymic temperament scores were investigated by Pearson׳s coefficient. Moreover, the associations were further analyzed using multiple regression analysis whereby cyclothymic temperament scores were a dependent factor and percent signal changes of the 3 ROIs and the other 4 temperament scores were independent factors. There was a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with the percent signal changes of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, but not with those of bilateral cuneus. Even after adjustment using multiple regression analysis, this finding remained unchanged. The number of subjects was relatively small and the task was limited to appreciation of paintings. The present findings suggest that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: the role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, Helma; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hogendoorn, Sanne; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J. M.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Participants were 145 children

  16. Goodness of Fit between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…

  17. Effect of starter culture addition on fatty acid profile, oxidative and sensory stability of traditional fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, produced with the addition of commercial starter culture (SC. Fatty acids profile, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS values and sensory properties of odor and taste have been determined at the end of drying and after 2 and 5 months of storage. The sum of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was not significantly different (P>0.05 in SC and control sausage at the end of storage. After 5 months of storage TBARS value of SC sausage amounted to 0.57 mg MDA/kg, and it was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to control (0.84 mg MDA/kg. Also, sensory properties of odor and taste of SC sausage (3.66 were better in comparison to control (3.55. This study demonstrated that the addition of starter culture can hinder lipid oxidation and contribute to the preservation of desirable sensory characteristics of fermented sausages during a long storage period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31032

  18. Quantitative proteomic profiling identifies DPYSL3 as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-associated molecule that regulates cell adhesion and migration by stabilization of focal adhesion complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kawahara

    Full Text Available Elucidation of how pancreatic cancer cells give rise to distant metastasis is urgently needed in order to provide not only a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, but also to identify novel targets for greatly improved molecular diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. We employed combined proteomic technologies including mass spectrometry and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification peptide tagging to analyze protein profiles of surgically resected human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues. We identified a protein, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3, as highly expressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues as well as pancreatic cancer cell lines. Characterization of the roles of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 in relation to cancer cell adhesion and migration in vitro, and metastasis in vivo was performed using a series of functional analyses, including those employing multiple reaction monitoring proteomic analysis. Furthermore, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 was found to interact with Ezrin, which has important roles in cell adhesion, motility, and invasion, while that interaction promoted stabilization of an adhesion complex consisting of Ezrin, c-Src, focal adhesion kinase, and Talin1. We also found that exogenous expression of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 induced activating phosphorylation of Ezrin and c-Src, leading to up-regulation of the signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results indicate successful application of combined proteomic approaches to identify a novel key player, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis, which may serve as an important biomarker and/or drug target to improve therapeutic strategies.

  19. Quantitative proteomic profiling identifies DPYSL3 as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-associated molecule that regulates cell adhesion and migration by stabilization of focal adhesion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takeo; Hotta, Naoe; Ozawa, Yukiko; Kato, Seiichi; Kano, Keiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato; Takahashi, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of how pancreatic cancer cells give rise to distant metastasis is urgently needed in order to provide not only a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, but also to identify novel targets for greatly improved molecular diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. We employed combined proteomic technologies including mass spectrometry and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification peptide tagging to analyze protein profiles of surgically resected human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues. We identified a protein, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3, as highly expressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues as well as pancreatic cancer cell lines. Characterization of the roles of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 in relation to cancer cell adhesion and migration in vitro, and metastasis in vivo was performed using a series of functional analyses, including those employing multiple reaction monitoring proteomic analysis. Furthermore, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 was found to interact with Ezrin, which has important roles in cell adhesion, motility, and invasion, while that interaction promoted stabilization of an adhesion complex consisting of Ezrin, c-Src, focal adhesion kinase, and Talin1. We also found that exogenous expression of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 induced activating phosphorylation of Ezrin and c-Src, leading to up-regulation of the signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results indicate successful application of combined proteomic approaches to identify a novel key player, dihydropyrimidinase-like 3, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis, which may serve as an important biomarker and/or drug target to improve therapeutic strategies.

  20. Production, Composition, Fatty Acids Profile and Stability of Milk and Blood Composition of Dairy Cows Fed High Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Diets and Sticky Coffee Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding sticky coffee hull (SCH as a source of antioxidants on dairy cows fed with high PUFA diets. The treatments (on DM basis were control diet, diet with 30 g/kg of soybean oil, diet with 30 g/kg of soybean oil and 100 g/kg of SCH, and diet with 30 g/kg of soybean oil and 150 g/kg of SCH. Inclusion of 150 g/kg of SCH decreased the crude protein digestibility. Lower values of NDF digestibility were also observed when cows were fed with 100 g/kg and 150g/kg of SCH. The digestibility of NDT was lower in the control and 150 g/kg of SCH diets. Milk production and composition did not differ among the treatments. Inclusion of SCH increased the total polyphenols and flavonoids in the milk and reducing power as well. Soybean oil and SCH supplementation increased the LDL and total cholesterol concentration in the plasma. Milk fatty acid profile was barely altered by the treatments. In conclusion, the results confirmed that SCH added up to 15% in the diet did not alter milk production, improved its stability, and incorporated antioxidants substances in the milk, improving its quality for human health.

  1. Temperament traits, coping style and trauma symptoms in HIV+ men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study of relations between temperament traits and coping style, and intensity of trauma symptoms in HIV+ men and women. The study was run on 310 HIV + individuals (157 men and 153 women) in or not in the AIDS phase. Temperament traits were assessed with the Formal characteristics of behaviour - temperament inventory. Coping styles were assessed with the Coping inventory for stressful situations. Intensity of trauma symptoms was assessed with the Factorial version of the post-traumatic stress disorder inventory. Coping style had the greatest effect on intensity of trauma symptoms. Emotion-focused coping accounted for 13% of the variance of trauma symptom intensity in HIV + participants. Together, sensory sensibility, emotional reactivity and emotion-focused coping accounted for 26% of the variance of trauma intensity symptoms. Emotion-focused coping and emotional reactivity were conducive to increased trauma symptom intensity in HIV+ participants whereas sensory sensibility tended to reduce symptom intensity.

  2. Temperament and adolescent substance use: a transactional analysis of emerging self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas Ashby; Dishion, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    Presented is a conceptual framework linking the construct of temperament with environmental factors that covary with the onset and escalation of substance use. We propose that transactions between temperament characteristics of the child in family and peer contexts influence the development of self-control ability, a mediating factor for onset and possible transition to abuse in later adolescence. Risk-promoting dimensions may influence the emergence of self-control by amplifying relationship processes that detract from competence development. Emergence of good self-control can serve as a resilience factor and is linked with health-promoting cognitions. We also suggest that temperament and self-control moderate links between parenting, peer associations, and substance use. Implications of the transactional model for clinical intervention and research are discussed.

  3. The effect of inpatient cognitive-behavioral therapy for eating disorders on temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Brambilla, Francesca; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-06-01

    Personality traits seem to have an important role in the development, clinical expression, course, and treatment response in eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the effects of an inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the measures of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)) in 149 consecutive patients with EDs. Baseline assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the TCI. Treatment was based on the transdiagnostic cognitive behavior theory and treatment of ED, adapted for an inpatient setting. Treatment effects were tested by paired ANOVA, adjusted for covariates. No effects were found on Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, and Cooperativeness. Harm Avoidance (F=18.17, pbehavior and of BMI changes. We conclude that in ED, a few scales of both temperament and character are significantly modified by CBT, in relation to changes in psychopathology and depression, independently of nutrition. These results are relevant for future studies based on TCI.

  4. Gender Moderates the Progression from Fearful Temperament to Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Premo, Julie E.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi-method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal. Thus, studying only main-effect gender differences may obscure important differences in how boys and girls develop from fearful temperament to later social withdrawal. PMID:27231411

  5. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  6. Investigation of Oxytocin Secretion in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Relationships to Temperament Personality Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Volpe, Umberto; Di Maso, Virginia; Monteleone, Palmiero

    2016-01-01

    Published studies suggested an implication of oxytocin in some temperament characteristics of personality. Therefore, we measured oxytocin secretion in 23 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19 healthy controls and explored the relationships between circulating oxytocin and patients' personality traits. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly reduced in AN women but not in BN ones. In healthy women, the attachment subscale scores of the reward dependence temperament and the harm avoidance (HA) scores explained 82% of the variability in circulating oxytocin. In BN patients, plasma oxytocin resulted to be negatively correlated with HA, whereas no significant correlations emerged in AN patients. These findings confirm a dysregulation of oxytocin production in AN but not in BN and show, for the first time, a disruption of the associations between hormone levels and patients' temperament traits, which may have a role in certain deranged behaviours of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Dimensions of adult attachment are significantly associated with specific affective temperament constellations in a Hungarian university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-02-01

    Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Affective temperaments in anorexia nervosa: The relevance of depressive and anxious traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2017-08-15

    Affective temperaments have been so far understudied in anorexia nervosa (AN) despite the relevance of personality and both affective and anxious comorbidity with regard to vulnerability, course, and outcome of this deadly disorder. Ninety-eight female inpatients diagnosed with AN and 131 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study and completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in addition to assessments of eating psychopathology, depression, and anxiety. AN patients and HCs differed in all affective temperaments. The diagnostic subtypes of AN differed as well with binge-purging individuals being more cyclothymic and anxious than those with restricting-type AN. TEMPS-A scores correlated with body mass index and eating psychopathology but not with duration of illness. Concerning comorbidity, grater scores on the depressive and lower scores on the hyperthymic temperaments were found in depressed patients. Those who had either an anxious or irritable temperament were significantly more diagnosed with an anxious disorder than those who did not show this temperament. When logistic regression was performed, high depressive/low hyperthymic and high irritable/anxious traits resulted to be associated with depressive and anxious comorbidity, respectively, independently of confounding factors. Cross-sectional design, some patients on medications, few baseline clinical differences between diagnostic subtypes, no other personality assessments. An affective continuum strongly associated with mood and anxious comorbidity emerged in AN. Such an evaluation could have several research and clinical implications given the need of improving treatment individualization and early interventions for such a complex disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on affective temperament, depression and body mass index in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, A; Bieliński, M; Szczęsny, W; Szwed, K; Tomaszewska, M; Kałwa, A; Lesiewska, N; Junik, R; Gołębiewski, M; Sikora, M; Tretyn, A; Akiskal, K; Akiskal, H

    2015-09-15

    Many studies show high prevalence of affective disorders in obese patients. Affective temperament is a subclinical manifestation of such conditions. The 5-HTT gene encoding the serotonin transporter may be involved in both mood and eating dysregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene on affective temperament types, depressive symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI) in obese patients. This study involved 390 patients (237 females, and 153 males) with obesity. The TEMPS-A questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate affective temperaments and prevalence of depression. DNA was obtained for serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) genotyping. In obese patients S/S genotype was associated with depressive and L/L with cyclothymic temperament. Subjects with L/L genotype presented significantly higher BMI and greater intensity of depressive symptoms in BDI and HDRS. Females scored higher in anxious and depressive, while males in hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments. Females scored higher in BDI (subjective depression) while males in HDRS (objective depression). TEMPS-A, BDI and HDRS are frequently used in studies on affective disorders. However, these methods do not examine all dimensions of mood and personality. In obese patients S allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with development of depressive temperament while L allele corresponded with greater obesity and prevalence of depression. Different mechanisms may be involved in manifestation of depression in males and females with obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attachment, affective temperament, and personality disorders: a study of their relationships in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kai; Berlow, Rustin; Thomas, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    As the result of extensive translational and cross-disciplinary research, attachment theory is now a construct with significant neuropsychiatric traction. The correlation of attachment with other influential conceptual models (i.e. temperament and personality) is therefore of interest. Consequently, we explored how two attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) correlated with measures of temperament and personality in 357 psychiatric outpatients. We performed a retrospective review of four questionnaires (the Experiences in Close Relationship scale (ECR-R), Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Personality Self-Portrait Questionnaire (PSQ)). Frequency measures and correlations were examined, as was the predictive value of attachment security for a personality disorder (PD). Significant, robust correlations were found between attachment anxiety and (1) several negative affective temperaments (dysthymic and cyclothymic); (2) several indices of personality pathology (low self-directedness (TCI), DSM-IV paranoid, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and dependent personality traits). Attachment avoidance had fewer large correlations. In an exploratory model, the negative predictive value of attachment security for a PD was 86%. Subjects were a relatively homogeneous subset of ambulatory psychiatric outpatients. PD diagnoses were via self-report. Clinically, these findings highlight the significant overlap between attachment, affective temperament, and personality and support the value of attachment as a screen for PDs. More broadly, given our growing understanding of the neurobiology of attachment (i.e. links with the oxytocin system), these results raise interesting questions about underlying biological systems and psychiatric treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and their relations with dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarisoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ö Mer Faruk; Öztürk, Arif; Yilman, Tuba; Mor, Sema; Özturan, Deniz Deniz; Yazici, Neslihan; Gümüş, Kübra

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and the relation of these traits with dissociative symptoms. Sixty patients (60) diagnosed with conversion disorder according to DSM-IV-TR and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All participants' temperament and character traits were determined using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Patients with conversion disorder were divided into two subgroups using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), dissociative (n=30, 50%) and non-dissociative (n=30, 50%). The two conversion disorder subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of temperament and character traits. Correlation analysis was also performed between TCI and DES scores in the entire conversion group. Novelty seeking (NS) scores were lower in both the dissociative and non-dissociative groups compared to the control group. Harm avoidance (HA) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the control group. Reward dependence (RD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative and control group. Self-directedness (SD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the control group. Self-transcendence (ST) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative group. DES scores were negatively correlated with RD and SD scores in the entire conversion group and positively correlated with ST scores. Low NS temperament traits may be associated with conversion disorder. High HA and low RD temperament traits and low SD and high ST character traits may be associated with pathological dissociation in patients with conversion disorder.

  12. The concept of temperament in psychoactive substance use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unseld, Matthias; Dworschak, Giselle; Tran, Ulrich S; Plener, Paul L; Erfurth, Andreas; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto-Michael; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2012-12-10

    Substance abuse is among the leading causes of preventable diseases and premature death but reasons and conditions leading to substance abuse are complex and multifaceted. Different models of abuse and dependence assume an underlying emotional vulnerability. Individual behavioral and emotional reactivity patterns of personality are considered in the concept of temperament but studies linking different types of temperament with substance use are rare. In this study we investigated 1380 inhabitants (59.7% females; 40.3% males) of residential student homes in Austria, using Akiskals TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire. Further, we administered the CAGE- and the HSI-questionnaire and assessed other psychoactive substance use to examine associations between traits of temperament and substance abuse using ordered logistic regression. Temperaments follow different distributions in both genders: Women have higher scores on the depressive, cyclothymic, and anxious subscales and lower scores on the hyperthymic scale than men. The cyclothymic and particularly irritable temperament serve as predictors of self-reported nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse and cannabis use. Interestingly, the depressive temperament seems to be protective against self-reported cannabis use. Substance abuse assessment is based on self-reports only and urine drug and blood tests were not performed. Also, the history of substance abuse is not documented thus temperamental factors could have been influenced by substance abuse if the time of onset was in early adolescence. The study design was cross-sectional, thus limiting causal interpretations. It might be important to consider temperamental traits as protective- and risk factors in the etiology, prevention and therapy of substance abuse in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperament Is Associated With Outdoor Free Play in Young Children: A TARGet Kids! Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2017-08-24

    Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Full syndrome and subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a Korean community sample: comorbidity and temperament findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hwang, Jun-Won; Chungh, Dong-Seon; Shin, Min-Sup; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Go, Bock-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the comorbid disorders and temperamental profiles of full syndrome and subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A sample of 2,493 students was randomly selected from six representative elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Among 245 children with full syndrome and subthreshold ADHD diagnosed by the diagnostic interview schedule for children-4th version, parents of 185 subjects (mean age 9.0 +/- 1.7 years) and of a random sample of 185 age- and gender-matched non-ADHD children have completed the parent's version of the children behavior checklist (CBCL) and the juvenile temperament and character inventory (JTCI). The prevalence rates of full syndrome and subthreshold ADHD were, respectively, 5.90% (95% confidence interval = 4.74-7.06) and 9.00% (95% confidence interval = 7.58-10.41). Subthreshold ADHD cases did not differ from full syndrome ADHD in any JTCI profile, showing high novelty seeking/low persistence/low self-directedness than controls. Subthreshold ADHD also showed increased risk for externalizing disorders and higher scores in eight CBCL scales (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, externalizing problems and total behavioral problems) compared to the controls. These results support the clinical relevance of subthreshold ADHD in Asian culture. Increased clinical awareness for children with subthreshold ADHD is needed.

  15. The temperament types of lecturers and students at a pharmacy school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Basson

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality preferences and resulting temperament types of lecturers and students play an important role in their teaching and learning respectively. The objective of this research was to compare the temperament types of pharmacy lecturers and students at a tertiary education institution. Opsomming Die pcrsoonlikheidsvoorkeure en gevolglike temperamcnt tipes van studente en dosente sped onderskeidelik 'n belangrike rol in hulle leer en onderrig. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die temperamenttipes van aptekertudente en -dosente aan 'n tersiere inrigting te vergelyk.

  16. Temperament, Character, and Depressive Symptoms during Pregnancy: A Study of a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Minatani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine the effects of temperament and character domains on depression during pregnancy. Methods. We examined 601 pregnant women using a questionnaire that included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and demographic variables. Results. In a hierarchical regression analysis, severity of depression during pregnancy was predicted by the women’s negative response towards the current pregnancy, low self-directedness, and high harm avoidance, persistence, and self-transcendence. Conclusion. Depression during pregnancy is predicted by personality traits as well as women’s negative attitudes towards the current pregnancy.

  17. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  18. Antidepressant effects on emotional temperament: toward a biobehavioral research paradigm for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskin, David P; Carl, Jenna R; Alpert, Jonathan; Fava, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Given the limited efficacy of current pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and the historical decline in antidepressant development, there is increasing clinical urgency to develop more effective treatments. To synthesize findings from clinical psychology and affective neuroscience related to the construct of emotional temperament; to examine the effects of antidepressants on the temperament dimensions of positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA); and to propose a biobehavioral research paradigm for the treatment of MDD. We begin with an introduction to PA and NA, which emphasizes their construct development, historical context, and relevance to psychopathology. We then review studies of antidepressant effects on PA and NA, and explore two related hypotheses: (1) Cause-correction: The antidepressant response may fundamentally occur through changes in emotional temperament, with subsequent spread to syndrome or symptom changes; (2) preferential effects: Antidepressants with different mechanisms of action may have preferential effects on PA or NA. Preliminary findings appear to support the cause-correction hypothesis; there is insufficient clinical evidence to support the preferential effects hypothesis. PA and NA are biologically based temperament dimensions, which modulate emotional, motivational, and behavioral responses to positive and negative incentives. They can be altered by antidepressants, and may independently contribute to depression improvement. In addition, the distinct biobehavioral features of PA and NA suggest that combined pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting these dimensions may have specific, and perhaps, synergistic antidepressant effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Temperament and social competence in preschool children from San Juan de Lurigancho: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Susana Bárrig Jó

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament, social competence, and behavioral problems in preschool-age children. The study is based on a sample of 66 children, 40 males and 26 females, between 2 and 6 years old (M = 3.92, SD = 1.01, and their mothers. Temperament was assessed using the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, Short Version (CBQ; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006, which provides data on the dimensions of Surgency, Negative Affect, and Effortful Control. We used the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (SCBE-30, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996 to assess Social Competence as well as problems of Anxiety and Aggressive behavior in children. First, boys showed lower scores in both Negative Affectivity and Effortful Control than girls. The study’s main analysis identified a significant negative association between Surgency and Anxiety. In addition, the three dimensions of temperament were associated with aggression-behavioral problems: Surgency and Negative Affectivity in a positive direction, whereas Effortful Control was associated negatively. Finally, Effortful Control showed a moderate and positive correlation with social competence. These results are consistent with contemporary theoretical and empirical evidence on the topic. However, future studies should consider larger samples to know the scope of temperament and social competence in preschool-age children.

  20. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  1. Identifying Early Links between Temperament, Short-Term and Working Memory in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Câmpan, Maria; Scutelnicu, Ioana; Benga, Oana

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate early interrelationships between temperament, short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), while also relating them to incipient anxious traits in a sample of 4-7-year-olds. Preschoolers were evaluated using verbal and visuospatial STM and WM tasks, while parental reports were used to assess children's…

  2. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIOUX, CHARLIE; CASTELLANOS-RYAN, NATALIE; PARENT, SOPHIE; VITARO, FRANK; TREMBLAY, RICHARD E.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis–stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more “vulnerable” to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a “vulnerability” for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply. PMID:26030853

  3. Combining the Rorschach test and the Temperament Character Inventory: a new perspective on personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Levi, M; Rovera, G G

    2003-01-01

    The numerous reports on research involving the clinical assessment of personality in axis I disorders highlight the importance of temperament features in the current approach to all mental disorders. However, the available instruments of personality assessment have many limits. Self-administered questionnaires depend on the patient's insight, and projective instruments (i.e. the Rorschach test) often lack objectivity. This study compared the results of personality assessment with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Rorschach test to verify their validity. TCI and Rorschach tests were administered to a wide sample of patients (n = 180) in a short period. The most common Rorschach siglatures were correlated with the TCI raw scores using the Pearson correlation test. All TCI temperament dimensions and facets displayed at least two correlations with Rorschach siglatures. The description of each dimension and facet of the TCI obtained with the interpretation of Rorschach siglatures was consistent with its original meaning. The TCI and Rorschach tests adequately validated each other. In the future, the administration and integration of these tests will overcome the biases of both. Further, the theoretical bases of the TCI could facilitate the study of psychological functions, whereas the psychodynamic bases of the Rorschach test provide an in-depth insight into temperament traits. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…

  5. Relation of toddler temperament and perceived parenting styles to adult resilience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Kebza, V.; Jelínek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-70 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adult resilience * early temperament * parenting style * demandingness * responsiveness Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2016

  6. Temperament, environment and antisocial behavior in a population sample of preadolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; de Winter, Andrea; Ormel, J.

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch

  7. Autobiographical memories of childhood and sources of subjectivity in parents' perceptions of infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; McAdams, Dan P; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined whether autobiographical memories from parents' own childhoods, prebirth expectations, and personality traits contributed to their perceptions of their infants' temperament. It also investigated whether mothers and fathers differed in the extent to which these three sources of subjectivity predicted their perceptions. During the third trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers and fathers in 96 families completed assessments of their personality traits and expectations for their children's temperament, as well as provided characteristic memories of their relationships with their own caregivers as children. Memories were then coded for themes of growth versus safety and compared to parents' ratings of perceived child temperament 15 months later. Analyses revealed that, for both parents, prebirth expectations predicted perceptions of positive temperament behaviors. Moreover, fathers who described childhoods characterized by exploration and opportunities for growth also perceived their children as displaying more positive temperamental behaviors, whereas those who described greater safety focus in memories and who had higher levels of negative affectivity reported more negative temperamental behaviors. These findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their children are differently related to psychological variables, including autobiographical memories. In turn, it is possible that these subjective perceptions may affect the parenting environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep Characteristics and Temperament in Preterm Children at Two Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravale, Barbara; Sette, Stefania; Cannoni, Eleonora; Marano, Assunta; Riolo, Erika; Devescovi, Antonella; De Curtis, Mario; Bruni, Oliviero

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to compare 2-year-old children born preterm with children born full term regarding: (1) sleep characteristics, (2) temperament, and (3) relations between sleep pattern and habits and temperament. The study included 51 preterm children with normal cognitive, language, and motor development (mean = 20.94 months, standard deviation [SD] = 4.08) and 57 full-term children (mean = 21.19, SD = 4.32). To assess sleep-related difficulties and habits and child temperament, mothers completed the following questionnaires: the (1) Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children-adapted (SDSC); (2) Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ); and (3) Italian Temperament Questionnaires-version 12-36 months (QUIT). Preterm children needed less support to fall asleep and fell asleep more often alone in their own bed compared to those born at full term; however, preterm children showed more frequent sleep difficulties, such as restlessness and breathing problems during the night. In addition, preterm children had lower scores in the temperamental dimension of attention and higher scores in negative emotionality than full-term children. Finally, sleep problems were correlated with higher motor activity, lower social orientation and attention, and increased negative emotionality; a shorter nocturnal sleep duration was related to higher motor activity and lower inhibition to novelty whereas an earlier rise time was associated with lower attention and social orientation. Preterm children showed sleep pattern problems and disturbance, predominance of attention problems, and negative emotionality related to sleep disruption. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  9. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  10. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  11. The relationship between temperament and character in conversion disorder and comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Evrim; Yenilmez, Yelda; Fistikci, Nurhan; Saatcioglu, Omer

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare conversion disorder patients with healthy controls in terms of temperament and character, and to determine the effect of these characteristics on comorbid depression, based on the idea that conversion disorder patients may have distinctive temperament and character qualities. The study involved 58 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder, based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, under observation at the Bakırköy Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders Outpatient Center, Istanbul. The patients were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and 57 healthy volunteers, matched for age, sex and education level, were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview for people without a psychiatric disorder (SCID-I/NP). All the participants completed a sociodemographic form, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Temperament and Character Inventory. The conversion disorder patients displayed more harm avoidance (Pconversion disorder patients had high self-transcendence (PConversion disorder patients are significantly different from healthy controls on temperament and character measures of harm avoidance, persistence, self-transcendence and self-directedness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  13. Temperament and Self-Soothing Behavior in Children: Object Attachment, Thumbsucking, and Pacifier Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Elyse Brauch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study involving two questionnaires given to mothers of four-, six-, and eight-year olds investigated whether a correlation exists between differences in temperaments of children and their attachment to objects. Results supported the hypothesis and provided evidence that children with non-social attachment are as well adjusted as children without…

  14. Temperaments in completed suicides: Are they different from those in suicide attempters and controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Milelli, Mariantonietta; Battuello, Michele; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Temperaments in completed suicides have never been assessed whereas there is substantial research on temperaments in attempted suicides and psychiatric patients. The significant others of 18 completed suicides participated in this study in order to provide an assessment of temperaments, hopelessness, depression and the suicide risk of their loved ones. The data were compared with data from 244 psychiatric patients of whom 83 had attempted suicide in the previous month. The following instruments were used: the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) module for assessing suicide risk. Individuals who died by suicide more frequently had scores of 9 or higher on the BHS and higher MINI suicide risk scores compared with patients with mood disorders who had not attempted suicide in the previous month. Completed suicides also had lower scores on the TEMPS-A Cyclothymia and Anxiety scales and on the MINI suicide risk scale than mood disorder patients with a recent suicide attempt. Proxy assessment of variables through survivors can result in underestimation of psychiatric morbidity and other parameters investigated, and limits the generalization of our results Our study adds information about temperamental subtypes and other variables in completed suicides and points to their difference from attempted suicides and non-suicidal psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperament and self-based correlates of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Elliot, Andrew J; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament, general self-efficacy, implicit theories of intelligence, and contingencies of self-worth based in others' approval, competition and academic competence. The results indicated that approach temperament, general self-efficacy and incremental theory were positively related, and entity theory was negatively related to cooperative preferences (|r| range from .11 to .41); approach temperament, general self-efficacy, competition contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related to competitive preferences (|r| range from .16 to .46); and avoidance temperament, entity theory, competitive contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related, and incremental theory was negatively related to individualistic preferences (|r| range from .09 to .15). The findings are discussed with regard to the meaning of each of the three social interdependence orientations, cultural differences among the observed relations and implications for practitioners. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Temperament Theory and the Study of Cognition-Emotion Interactions across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather A.; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review current definitions and measurement approaches used to assess individual differences in children's temperament. We review the neural bases of temperamental reactivity and self-regulation and propose that these constructs provide a framework for examining individual differences and developmental change in emotion-cognition…

  17. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior

  18. Temperament Dimensions in Preschool Children: Links with Cognitive and Affective Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Marta; Cerutti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: The present cross-sectional study investigated the question of whether 6 different temperament dimensions (inhibition to novelty, social orientation, motor activity, positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and attention) influenced cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in 168 children (86 three/four-year-olds and 82…

  19. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  20. Temperament traits and chronic pain: the association of harm avoidance and pain-related anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knaster

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA, is associated with pain-related anxiety. METHODS: One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20. Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. RESULTS: The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. CONCLUSION: Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.

  1. Temperament traits and chronic pain: the association of harm avoidance and pain-related anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.

  2. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  3. Temperament and Eating Attitudes in an Adolescent Community Sample: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Marzola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Temperament traits like high harm avoidance (HA have been proposed as putative risk factors for the development of eating disorders (EDs. We aimed at studying the relationship between temperament and eating attitudes on a large community sample of adolescents. Method. We recruited 992 high school students aged 14–18. In addition to measuring body mass index (BMI, participants were asked to complete the temperament and character inventory and the food frequency questionnaire. Results. Sixty-two percent of the sample reported overeating, 22.8% reported normal eating, and 15.2% reported under eating. Under and normal eaters had higher BMI than that of over eaters. Harm avoidance was found to be significantly higher in those participants with lower eating intakes whilst novelty seeking was found to be higher in over eaters. Conclusion. An interesting association between temperament (high HA and food approach (under eating emerged. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether these traits represent a risk factor for the development of EDs.

  4. Estimation of Manifestation of Aggression and Temperament in the Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Dishchuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and revealing the specificity of the relations between the aggression considered within the framework of the system-functional model, and the parameters of temperament of the Russian and Chinese students.

  5. Temperament as a Potential Factor in the Development and Treatment of Conduct Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David; Kemp, Dawn

    This report examines the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) in children and adolescents from the perspective of Hans Eysenck's bio-social theory of personality. The theory views personality as a product of the interaction of temperament and socialization. Eysenck's three-factor model of personality is comprised of Extroversion (E), Neuroticism…

  6. Temperament and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Canadian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the influence of preschoolers' temperament on their objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Actical™ accelerometers were used to measure preschoolers' from London, Canada's (n = 216; 2.5–5 years physical activity and sedentary levels during childcare hours (5 consecutive days; 15 s epoch. The Child Temperament Questionnaire (CTQ was used to assess child temperament via parent/guardian report. The six subscales of the CTQ (i.e., reaction to food, soothability, attention span, activity, sociability, and emotionality were correlated with Actical data (i.e., sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and total physical activity. The five items of the activity subscale were correlated with these three measures of sedentary time and physical activity. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were employed for both sets of analyses. Of the correlations examined, few had an absolute value greater than 0.10, and none were statistically significant after taking multiple comparison bias into account. The results of this work might provide additional indirect support for the conclusion that the childcare environment should be a primary focus with regard to the promotion of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary time among preschoolers. Additional research is required to confirm the relationship between preschoolers' temperament and levels of physical activity and sedentary time.

  7. Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie B H; Allen, Nicholas B; Leve, Craig; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the associations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy (MEP) and maternal socialization of preadolescents' positive and negative affect. It also investigated whether adolescent temperament and gender moderated this association. MEP involves parental awareness and acceptance of their own and their child's emotions and their coaching of child emotions. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving (PSI) interactions were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and maternal behaviors were coded to provide indices of socialization responses to adolescent emotion. In addition, maternal MEP was assessed via interview, and preadolescents provided self-reports of temperament on 2 occasions. Maternal MEP that is higher in awareness and acceptance was associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization behaviors during the EPI. Moreover, preadolescents' temperamental negative emotionality (NEM) and effortful control (EC) moderated some of these MEP-socialization associations. During the positive EPI task, greater maternal awareness and acceptance is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization toward preadolescents with "easy" temperaments, that is, low NEM or high EC. However, during the conflict task, greater maternal awareness is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization among preadolescents with "difficult" temperaments. Some male-specific associations were also found. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Temperament and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Mediation by Rumination and Moderation by Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…

  9. On the relationship between temperament, metacognition, and anxiety : independent and mediated effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragan, Malgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech L.; Kononowicz, Tadeusz; Wells, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between temperamental traits distinguished in regulative theory of temperament, state anxiety, and metacognition as postulated in self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) theory of emotional disorder. Data analysis (n = 315) consisted of independent and

  10. Study of personality’s temperament and self-assessment of higher educational establishments’ students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Liashenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of temperament and self-assessment characteristics in higher educational establishment students. Material: in the research 1st and 2nd year students (n=30 participated. Questioning was used, with the help of which personality’s self assessment and temperament characteristics were estimated. Results: the study of students’ temperament structure showed low demand in mastering of objective world and strive for mental and physical labor. High indicator of social activity and interpersonal skills was registered. The following indicators of self-assessment were received: 15% of students had too low self-assessment, 50% of students have adequate self-assessment and 10% have excessively high self-assessment. Conclusions: quickness of psychic processes (tem and rhythm, impressiveness and emotional sensitivity are important features of temperament. Students demonstrated feeling of anxiety and worry in respect to their studying at university. Besides the have sensitivity to failures to non coincidence of the desired and the results. студентов. With it students have adequate self assessment.

  11. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  12. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  13. TABS Manual for the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale: Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisworth, John T.; Bagnato, Stephen J.; Salvia, John; Hunt, Frances M.

    This manual describes the rationale, use, and validity of the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS), a norm-referenced measure of dysfunctional behavior appropriately used with infants and young children between the ages of 11 and 71 months. TABS is intended to identify children who are developing atypically or are at risk for atypical…

  14. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (Pchildren (all Pchildren with low BLL (BLLchildren by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ADHD, Temperament, and Parental Style as Predictors of the Child's Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious…

  16. Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…

  17. Temperament and Young Children with Visual Impairments: Perceptions of Anglo and Latino Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…

  18. Stability of Child Behavioral Style in the First 30 Months of Life: Single Timepoint and Aggregated Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Schiller, Masha; Hayden, Lisa; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the stability of temperament over time. Observers and mothers rated child behavior at eight timepoints across three assessment waves (8, 15, and 30 months of age). Internal consistency reliability of aggregates of the eight observer reports and eight mother reports were high. When considering single timepoint…

  19. An Investigation of the Stability and Variability in Young Children's Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Carin; Connor, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the relative stability and variability of self-regulated learning (SRL) in kindergartners across various contexts (teacher-directed activities, small-group work, and independent work). They assessed the role of temperament and context on children's use of SRL while seeking to identify if there are optimal contexts for…

  20. DETERMINING OF THERMAL STABILITY OF EXPLOSIVES FOR CIVIL USES MODERN EQUIPMENT EQUIPPED WITH AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel VASILESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stability of explosives for civil use is a key security parameter. When the explosive is exposed to high tempera-tures in a given period of time can lead to undesirable phenomena such as decomposing or even very dangerous as un-controlled detonation.

  1. Temperament and character personality profiles and personality disorders in chronic pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrad, Rupert; Schilling, Guntram; Bausch, Christiane; Nadstawek, Joachim; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Liedtke, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    In his psychobiological model of personality, Cloninger developed a novel approach concerning the relationships between psychopathological syndromes and personality. We investigated 207 chronic pain patients (CPPs) and compared them to 105 pain-free control subjects. Participants were assessed using

  2. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  3. TEMPERAMENT AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING ON ADAPTIVE RESERVES OF YOUNG SCHOOLCHILDREN ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeevna Bedereva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the relationship with intensity of energy metabolism and the level of activation of the cerebral cortex in primary schoolchildren with different temperament characteristic and their possible the impact on the backup power of the brain of children 8–10 years. Materials and methods. The study involved 118 children aged 8–10 years of Krasnoyarsk (mean age 8,9±0,7 years. The potentials were recorded unipolarly in 5 main leads. The study was conducted in the 3-minute test with hyperventilation, the recorded values of the background state and in the 5th minute of the recovery period. Omega-potential were recorded in the frontal leads. Results. Determined that children with different type of temperament are significant differences in the intensity of energy metabolism, activation of the cerebral cortex, and the backup power capabilities of the brain. Children with type of temperament “adequate” had optimal level of activation, mean values of DCP and fairly well developed backup energy capabilities of the brain. In children with type of temperament “intense” was defined with a high level of activation and neuroenergymatabolism, but they had low reserves of energy metabolism of the brain. The “calm” in contrast, at low intensity of neuroenergetics background state had high reserve energy capabilities of the brain. Conclusion. The findings suggest that temperament is correlated with the system of regulation of activity of the cerebral cortex and can to determine individual adaptive reserves of an organism of the child.

  4. Personality in remitted major depressive disorder with single and recurrent episodes assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported increased harm avoidance (HA) assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, such findings may have been related with depression severity and number of depressive episodes. The aims of the present study were twofold: to examine TCI personality profile in remitted MDD (DSM-IV) patients and to compare TCI personality between MDD patients with single episode (SGL-MDD) and those with recurrent episodes (REC-MDD) in order to elucidate personality profile associated with recurrence. TCI was administered to 86 outpatients with remitted SGL-MDD (12 male and 17 female patients; mean age 43.2 ± 12.1 years) and REC-MDD (26 male and 31 female patients; 40.3 ± 11.6 years), and 529 healthy controls (225 men and 304 women; 43.4 ± 15.5 years), matched for age, sex and education years. Logistic regression analyses were performed in which single/recurrent episodes of depression were the dependent variable and age, sex, age of onset, family history of psychiatric disease and TCI scores were entered as possible predictors. The remitted MDD patients had significantly higher scores on HA (P personality profile between remitted MDD patients and controls, and between remitted REC-MDD and SGL-MDD patients, suggesting that they are trait markers. HA and fatigability might be useful to assess risk for recurrence of depression. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Traços de temperamento associados ao transtorno afetivo bipolar: uma revisão integrativa da literatura Temperament traits associated with bipolar affective disorder: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gomide Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    /or personality, between January 2000 and December 2010. The search was performed in January 2011. A total of 199 articles were identified for potential inclusion in the review. After application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 15 articles were selected and their full texts analyzed. Review of the selected studies revealed heterogeneity in terms of sample profile and specific temperament traits assessed with the appropriate instruments. Temperament traits in bipolar patients are identified based on different theoretical models. The results of five studies consistently showed that neuroticism is a distinct personality trait in the temperament profile of bipolar patients. Future reviews should use more specific keywords and limit the search to studies with a longitudinal design.

  6. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Stability of Membership in a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition (WISC-III) Subtest Core Profile Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Ellen R.; Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    Although often applied in practice, clinically based cognitive subtest profile analysis has failed to achieve empirical support. Nonlinear multivariate subtest profile analysis may have benefits over clinically based techniques, but the psychometric properties of these methods must be studied prior to their implementation and interpretation. The…

  8. Bulimic family dynamics: role of parents' personality--a controlled study with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Daga, G Abbate; Leombruni, P; Garzaro, L; Levi, M; Rovera, G G

    2003-01-01

    The numbers of studies on the familial environment and personality of bulimic women have increased in recent years and results have revealed interesting features. In this study, we evaluated the temperament and character traits of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and their mothers and fathers, and we analyzed the correlation of temperament and character traits among members of these bulimic families. Finally, we tested the ability of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to discriminate between normal controls and bulimic subjects, their parents, and their families. Using the TCI, temperament and character features of 28 bulimic patients and their parents (23 fathers and 28 mothers) were analyzed and then compared with a control group of 29 women and their 27 fathers and 29 mothers. Data suggest that both temperament and character factors are involved in BN. Bulimic individuals were high in harm avoidance and low in self-directedness. Their mothers were distinguished by low self-directedness. The fathers were low in persistence. Harm avoidance of bulimic women positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness of their mothers. The bulimic family had low self-directedness as a common denominator observed in all family members. The observation that both temperament and character have important roles in the etiopathogenesis of bulimia nervosa has important treatment ramifications. The TCI was useful in discriminating between normal controls and bulimic subjects, their parents, and the whole family. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  9. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: the role of mothers, fathers, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Helma; Hartman, Catharina A; Hogendoorn, Sanne; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J M; Reichart, Catrien G; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H

    2013-04-01

    A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Participants were 145 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders who received a 12-session CBT program and were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment and three months follow-up. Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the following pretreatment and posttreatment variables as potential predictors of treatment response at follow-up: baseline level of anxiety symptoms, child reported maternal and paternal rearing style (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection), parent reported child temperament traits (negative affect, effortful control, and extraversion), and mothers' and fathers' self-report temperament traits. More maternal negative affect and less emotional warmth as perceived by the child before treatment were related to less favorable treatment outcome (accounting for 29% of the variance in anxiety at follow-up). Furthermore, maternal negative affect and children's extraversion measured after treatment also predicted anxiety at follow-up (together accounting for 19% of the variance). Paternal temperament and parenting style were unrelated to treatment outcome, as were children's pretreatment temperament traits. The results suggest that tailoring intervention to include strategies to reduce maternal negative affect and promote an emotional warm rearing style may improve treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing in male delinquent adolescents in northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R

    1998-01-01

    A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.

  12. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms, violence exposure, and sociodemographic risk factors predict school-aged anxiety symptoms. This longitudinal, prospective study was conducted in a representative birth cohort (n=1109). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized associations between risk factors measured in toddlerhood/preschool (age=3.0 years) and anxiety symptoms measured in kindergarten (age=6.0 years) and second grade (age= 8.0 years). Early child risk factors (anxiety symptoms and temperament) emerged as the most robust predictor for both parent-and child-reported anxiety outcomes and mediated the effects of maternal and family risk factors. Implications for early intervention and prevention studies are discussed. PMID:21153696

  13. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between young stallions' temperament and their behavioral reactions during standardized veterinary examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Marie; Verwilghen, Denis; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Horse handling and veterinary examination can induce hazardous stress reactions. Such reactions occur especially in young and less-trained horses, particularly stallions, and make their handling a risk for breeders, grooms, and medical staff. Moreover, these stressful situations will affect...... radiological examination. During the years 2008 and 2009, 93 stallions were evaluated. Stallions were observed from the moment they were unloaded from the trailer at the clinic until the end of veterinary examinations. In addition to the behavioral observations made by the experimenter, each staff member...... by the clinical staff. These low " easiness of manipulation" scores were positively correlated to temperament traits such as " anxiousness" and " aggressiveness" and negatively correlated to others such as " sociability" or " learning level." Temperament assessment and behavioral observations can therefore...

  15. Temperament in Adulthood Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder without Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Karakus, Kadir; Memis, Cagdas Oyku; Sevincok, Levent; Mersin, Sanem

    2018-03-01

    We examined whether some temperamental traits would be associated with persistence of attention deficit-hyperacitivty disorder (ADHD) in adulthood independent from bipolar disorder (BD). Eighty-one ADHD patients without a comorbid diagnosis of BD were divided into two groups, those with childhood ADHD (n=46), and those with Adulthood ADHD (n=35). The severity of childhood and adulthood ADHD were assessed by using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and Turgay's Adult ADD/ADHD Diagnosis and Evaluation Scale (DES). Subjects' temperamental characteristics were examined using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). The mean scores of WURS-25 were higher in adult ADHD group than in childhood ADHD group (passociated with the severity of adulthood symptoms of ADHD. We might suggest that cyclothymic and irritable temperaments would predict the diagnosis of adulthood ADHD independent from BD.

  16. Enhanced neurocognitive functioning and positive temperament in twins discordant for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higier, Rachel G; Jimenez, Amy M; Hultman, Christina M; Borg, Jacqueline; Roman, Cristina; Kizling, Isabelle; Larsson, Henrik; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-11-01

    Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls. Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores. Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts. These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.

  17. Literature Review: Utility of Temperament, Biodata, and Interest Assessment for Predicting Job Performance. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    tests reduces their criterion-related validity. However, changes in mean scores that may be produced by faking do not mathematically imply changes in...is often thought. Another usual assumption is that faking lowers the criterion-related validity of temperament scales. However, it is mathematically ...Personnel and Guidance Journal, 43, 574-579. Kates, S. L. (1950). Rorschach responses related to vocational interests and job satisfaction. Psychological

  18. Relations of Individually-Typical Features of Persistence with Temperament Properties in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of revealing the individually-typical features of persistence within the framework of the system-functional approach is discussed in the article. The four basic types of the persistence of students are described. A special attention is given to the comparative research of the said types and the specificity of the temperament which allows defining their psychological characteristics, and also elaborates on the possibility of the psychological correction work with the representatives of each of the types.

  19. Linking Gene, Brain, and Behavior: DRD4, Frontal Asymmetry, and Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Louis A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Hamer, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions involving exogenous environmental factors are known to shape behavior and personality development. Although gene-environment interactions involving endogenous environmental factors are hypothesized to play an equally important role, this conceptual approach has not been empirically applied in the study of early-developing temperament in humans. Here we report evidence for a gene-endoenvironment (i.e., resting frontal brain electroencephalogram, EEG, asymmetry) in...

  20. Temperament and character effects on late adolescents’ well-being and emotional-behavioural difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Crescentini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Research on adults points to personality as a crucial determinant of well-being. The present study investigates the question of personality’s relation to well-being and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Methods We assessed the role of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI-125, on psychological well-being (PWB; Psychological Well-Being scales, subjective well-being (SWB; Positive and Negative Affect, PA and NA, respectively, and psychosocial adjustment (emotional-behavioural problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for Adolescents, SDQ-A, in 72 Italian late adolescents (aged 17.5 ± 0.75. Multiple regressions were conducted to predict PWB, SWB, and SDQ-A scores using TCI-125 scales as predictors. Results Character maturity, and in particular Self-Directedness, had a widespread protective effect on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, while different strengths and emotional-behavioural difficulties were associated to specific temperamental and character traits. For example, Harm-Avoidance and Novelty-Seeking positively predicted internalized and externalized problems, respectively. Discussion The present results suggest the usefulness of continuing to evaluate temperament and, in particular, character dimensions in investigations focused on adolescents’ well-being and psychosocial functioning, especially in the contexts of potential interventions aimed at enhancing development of adolescents’ character dimensions at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels.

  1. Temperament, coping, and involuntary stress responses in preadolescent children: the moderating role of achievement goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzinski, Alaina; Bendezú, Jason J; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2018-01-01

    Developmental theorists posit that temperament contributes to preadolescent's stress response styles. Findings from empirical studies, however, have yielded mixed results, thus indicating a need to consider moderators of this relation. Utilizing an analytic framework guided by resiliency theory [Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Resiliency theory: A strengths-based approach to research and practice for adolescent health. Health Education & Behavior, 40, 381-383], this study examined achievement goal orientation as a moderator of the relation between temperament and stress response styles. 96 preadolescent-parent dyads (M age  = 10.30 years, range = 9-12 years) participated in the study. Preadolescents reported on their achievement goal orientation, coping and involuntary stress responses (ISRs) styles and a parent reported on children's temperament. Multiple regressions revealed that effortful control positively predicted preadolescent's predominant use of engagement coping and negatively predicted predominance of ISRs, but only for children with a predominant mastery goal orientation. For preadolescents with a predominant performance goal orientation, effortful control negatively predicted the predominant use of engagement coping and positively predicted predominance of ISRs. Negative affectivity and its interaction with goal orientation did not predict coping or ISR styles. Findings suggest that a predominant mastery goal orientation may function as a promotive factor by enhancing the contribution of effortful control to engagement coping styles and buffering against unmanaged reactivity.

  2. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  3. Temperament traits, social support, and burnout symptoms in a sample of therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Schier, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Burnout is conceptualized as a multidimensional syndrome consisting of physical and emotional exhaustion, a decreased sense of personal accomplishment, and a tendency to evaluate oneself and one's work negatively. This article examines the severity of burnout symptoms and their relationship to temperament traits and social support in a large sample (n = 200) of therapists, selected from professional organizations for Gestalt and cognitive-behavioral therapists in Poland. Participants filled out 3 questionnaires: the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory, and the Berlin Social Support Scale. The mean prevalence of particular burnout symptoms within the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory scales was calculated, the most frequent of which were "tired before work," "loss of commitment," "thinking about other jobs," and "lack of energy for work." The level of burnout symptoms among all therapists was related to temperament traits, briskness, and perseveration, as well as to perceived social support. Perseveration was associated with an increase in burnout symptoms, whereas perceived social support and briskness were related to a decrease in symptoms.

  4. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.

  5. Early-onset Conduct Problems: Predictions from daring temperament and risk taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sunhye; Lee, Steve S

    2017-12-01

    Given its considerable public health significance, identifying predictors of early expressions of conduct problems is a priority. We examined the predictive validity of daring, a key dimension of temperament, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a laboratory-based measure of risk taking behavior, with respect to two-year change in parent, teacher-, and youth self-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and antisocial behavior. At baseline, 150 ethnically diverse 6- to 10-year old (M=7.8, SD=1.1; 69.3% male) youth with ( n =82) and without ( n =68) DSM-IV ADHD completed the BART whereas parents rated youth temperament (i.e., daring); parents and teachers also independently rated youth ODD and CD symptoms. Approximately 2 years later, multi-informant ratings of youth ODD, CD, and antisocial behavior were gathered from rating scales and interviews. Whereas risk taking on the BART was unrelated to conduct problems, individual differences in daring prospectively predicted multi-informant rated conduct problems, independent of baseline risk taking, conduct problems, and ADHD diagnostic status. Early differences in the propensity to show positive socio-emotional responses to risky or novel experiences uniquely predicted escalating conduct problems in childhood, even with control of other potent clinical correlates. We consider the role of temperament in the origins and development of significant conduct problems from childhood to adolescence, including possible explanatory mechanisms underlying these predictions.

  6. Maternal characteristics and perception of temperament associated with infant TV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV.

  7. Temperamental Workers: Psychology, Business, and the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale in Interwar America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Kira

    2018-02-05

    This article traces the history of a popular interwar psychological test, the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale (HWTS), from its development in the early 1930s to its adoption by corporate personnel departments. In popular articles, trade magazines, and academic journals, industrial psychologist Doncaster Humm and personnel manager Guy Wadsworth trumpeted their scale as a scientific measure of temperament that could ensure efficient hiring practices and harmonious labor relations by screening out "problem employees" and screening for temperamentally "normal" workers. This article demonstrates how concerns about the epistemological and scientific credibility of the HWTS were intimately entangled with concerns about its value to business at every step in the test's development. The HWTS sought to measure the emotional and social dimensions of an individual's personality so as to assess their suitability for work. The practice of temperament testing conjured a vision of the subject whose emotional and social disposition was foundational to their own capacity to find employment, and whose capacity to appropriately express, but regulate, their emotions was foundational to corporate order. The history of the HWTS offers an instructive case of how psychological tests embed social hierarchies, political claims, and economic ideals within their very theoretical and methodological foundations. Although the HWTS itself may have faded from use, the test directly inspired creators of subsequent popular personality tests, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Psychometrics of the European Portuguese Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A S; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Rocha, Maria José; Oliveira, João Tiago; Ferreira, Noémia; Gonçalves, Daniel Maffasioli; Rózsa, Sándor

    2017-01-01

    Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality integrates contributions from behavioral genetics, neurobiology, and psychology in the description of the human personality. The temperament and character inventory (TCI) is its assessment instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the TCI has shown good psychometric properties. However, Portuguese spoken in Brazil presents marked and substantial differences to that spoken in Portugal, and no study has yet described the psychometrics of the European Portuguese version. The objective of this study was thus to describe the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese adult version of the TCI (the temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R)). This study involved 1400 Portuguese adult participants. The factorial structure of the European Portuguese version was tested using four methods: exploratory factor analysis, orthogonal procrustes rotation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and exploratory structural equation modeling. The integration of data coming from these methods suggested that the Portuguese version of the TCI-R presented good structural validity (as revealed by the emergence of the temperament and character structures predicted by theory) and high levels of congruence between the American and the Portuguese versions. An improvement in the goodness of fit of the models for the Portuguese population was achieved by using exploratory structural equation modeling over confirmatory factor analysis. Although some facets registered questionable consistency, all dimensions had acceptable to good consistency (all ≥ .79). These results confirm the validity of the Portuguese TCI-R and its adequacy for use in European Portuguese samples.

  9. Temperament and character effects on late adolescents' well-being and emotional-behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Garzitto, Marco; Paschetto, Andrea; Brambilla, Paolo; Fabbro, Franco

    2018-01-01

    Research on adults points to personality as a crucial determinant of well-being. The present study investigates the question of personality's relation to well-being and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. We assessed the role of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI-125), on psychological well-being (PWB; Psychological Well-Being scales), subjective well-being (SWB; Positive and Negative Affect, PA and NA, respectively), and psychosocial adjustment (emotional-behavioural problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for Adolescents, SDQ-A), in 72 Italian late adolescents (aged 17.5 ± 0.75). Multiple regressions were conducted to predict PWB, SWB, and SDQ-A scores using TCI-125 scales as predictors. Character maturity, and in particular Self-Directedness, had a widespread protective effect on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, while different strengths and emotional-behavioural difficulties were associated to specific temperamental and character traits. For example, Harm-Avoidance and Novelty-Seeking positively predicted internalized and externalized problems, respectively. The present results suggest the usefulness of continuing to evaluate temperament and, in particular, character dimensions in investigations focused on adolescents' well-being and psychosocial functioning, especially in the contexts of potential interventions aimed at enhancing development of adolescents' character dimensions at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels.

  10. Comparison of temperament and character personality traits in opiate and stimulant addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi Pouya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problems has a high prevalence, especially among youth. The aim of the present study was to compare personality traits based on the temperament and character inventory in opiate and stimulant addicts in Tehran.  Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 60 male addicts (30 opiate and 30 stimulant addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers in the suburbs of Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method and were studied using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. The participants were sorted according to their age and education.    Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence traits. Thus, opiate addicts had higher levels of harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness, and stimulant addicts had higher levels of self-transcendence. The significance level was set at P<0.01.  Conclusion: The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts. Opiate addicts gained higher scores, compared with stimulant addicts, in Temperament and Character Inventory variables. The obtained results also showed that stimulant addicts were suffering from more severe disorders than opiate addicts. Based on the means of the values of the TCI, personality traits reflecting personality disorders are detectable and predictable in substance abusers. This new understanding is important in the prevention and treatment of addiction.

  11. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  12. The Influence of Parenting Style and Child Temperament on Child-Parent-Dentist Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Pauthoritative parenting style on the effortful control trait (P<.05) and permissive parent style on the child negative affectivity (P<.05). Parenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.

  13. Chilean Adaptation and Validation of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Hoffmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an adapted version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R that would be valid and reliable for assessing temperament and its components in Chileans between 12 and 18 years of age. Originally, Ellis and Rothbart (2001 developed this questionnaire (EATQ-R to be used in North American adolescents. For the study in Chile, a translation protocol was developed, to maintain the original instrument's cultural and linguistic equivalence in the adapted version. Psychometric properties of the EATQ-R, such as factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity, were also assessed. The adaption and validation was carried out in two stages, with two different studies. The first study, which included 612 adolescent students from educational establishments in the cities of Santiago and Concepcion, Chile, developed the Chilean version of the 83-item EATQ-R, which has 13 dimensions, belonging to 4 theoretical factors with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79–0.82. The second study assessed the questionnaire's convergent validity, through its application to 973 adolescent students in Santiago. Results show that the effortful control subscale was significantly inversely related to indicators of adolescent maladjustment, such as substance abuse and behavioral problems. In addition, it was directly associated with indicators of self-concept, including self-esteem and self-efficacy. The opposite pattern was observed when considering negative affect. These findings coincide with current knowledge on the relationship between temperament and adjustment in adolescents.

  14. The relationship of the temperament of the subject of crime with the characteristics of offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakov S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of communication psychological characteristics of temperament types of crimes. The analysis of scientific views on the role of temperament in the predisposition of the individual to the crime. With the help of empirical study confirmed the hypothesis that the subjects who had committed certain type of crime have specific personal psychological characteristics that reveal the determinants of their offences. The personality questionnaires EPI and MMPI used methods of analysis of personal files of prisoners; observation of their behaviour and discussions with them; drawing up of psychological portraits. Also developed and used an original questionnaire. The results showed that among criminals-murderers is dominated by people with a tendency to choleric expression of properties of temperament, expressed the need for self-affirmation, affective behavior, impulsivity, and disregard for social demands. The perpetrators of the theft inherent in the assertion of his personality not only in the eyes of the environment, but above all in its own. The perpetrators of rape there is usually no clear idea of traditionally male and female traits in behaviour, the relationship between a man and a woman are limited to sexual function. Criminals convicted of fraud and hooliganism, unable to establish contact with others not able to take the point of view of another, there is a disregard for moral and ethical standards.

  15. An alternative view of psychological well-being in cardiac rehabilitation: Considering temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Douglas, Kitrina; Fox, Kenneth; McKenna, Jim

    2006-09-01

    Research suggests that personality is related to recovery from cardiac events, yet few conceptions of personality provide hope or possibility of improvement for patients with the least adaptive personality types. Psychobiological theory of personality has potential in this regard, but, to date, no research has investigated temperament and character in cardiac settings. To explore relationships between temperament, character and psychological well-being among cardiac patients. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 81 cardiac patients to obtain data on personality (TCI [Cloninger CR, Przybeck T, Svrakic D, & Wetzel RD. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St Louis (MO), Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University;1994]), anxiety and depression (HADS [Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67(6): 361-70]) and satisfaction with life [Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess 1985;49(1):71-5]. The interaction of two personality dimensions (harm avoidance and self-directedness) was significantly related to measures of psychological well-being. Patients with low self-directedness combined with high harm avoidance reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and lower levels of satisfaction with life. This exploratory study suggests that psychobiological theory of personality may be useful for practitioners in cardiac rehabilitation seeking to identify patients at risk of poor psychological well-being.

  16. Standardization and approbation of the Bulgarian version of the TEMPS-A for temperament evaluation. An example of “delinquent temperament” assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Martinova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to approbate the Bulgarian version of the international instrument for evaluation of temperamental traits, TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego –Autoquestionnaire, and to prove the need to include it in the instruments for research and diagnosis of personality. The study included 901 subjects, 540 of whom are healthy volunteers. One month after the initial test, 118 subjects from the control group were retested with a set of clinical tools to check the reliability of the instrument (temporal stability. The TEMPS-A scales showed high test–retest reliability and high internal consistency. The number of scales was verified and the construct validity of the Bulgarian version of TEMPS-A was confirmed. The results outline the limit for predictive scores on the axis normal–pathological values. The observed correlations did not prove a causal link between the measured variables but verified a statistically significant correlation between the TEMPS-A and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire results, which proved that the two instruments measure the same basic personality characteristics, namely the temperamental construct. The analysis verified the successful standardization and approbation of the Bulgarian version of TEMPS-A for Bulgaria. The comparative analysis of a group of 74 persons serving custodial sentence on the territory of Bulgaria and a control group (N = 74 showed statistically significant differences between the mean scores in the two groups on all TEMPS-A scales, except for hyperthymic temperament, suggesting that delinquent behaviour is connected with an individual's temperamental characteristics.

  17. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  18. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  19. Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: review and analysis with focus on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation

  20. Increasing the Biological Stability Profile of a New Chemical Entity, UPEI-104, and Potential Use as a Neuroprotectant Against Reperfusion-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated the utility of synthetic combinations of two naturally occurring, biologically active compounds. In particular, we combined two known anti-oxidant compounds, lipoic acid and apocynin, covalently linked via an ester bond (named UPEI-100. In an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (tMCAO, UPEI-100 was shown to produce equivalent neuroprotection compared to each parent compound, but at a 100-fold lower dose. However, it was determined that UPEI-100 was undetectable in any tissue samples almost immediately following intravenous injection. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine if biological stability of UPEI-100 could be improved by replacing the ester bond with a more bio cleavage-resistant bond, an ether bond (named UPEI-104. We then compared the stability of UPEI-104 to the original parent compound UPEI-100 in human plasma as well as liver microsomes. Our results demonstrated that both UPEI-100 and UPEI-104 could be detected in human plasma for over 120 min; however, only UPEI-104 was detectable for an average of 7 min following incubation with human liver microsomes. This increased stability did not affect the biological activity of UPEI-104 as measured using our tMCAO model. Our results suggest that combining compounds using an ether bond can improve stability while maintaining biological activity.

  1. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of temperament and character traits on perceived social support and quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Demirci, Seden; Taşkıran, Esra; Kutluhan, Süleyman

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of temperament and character traits on perceived social support and quality of life in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Fifty-two PWE and 54 healthy controls were included in this study. Demographics and clinical data were recorded. Temperament and Character traits were investigated using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Perceived Social Support was evaluated by Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale (MSPSS), and quality of life was assessed using a 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). TCI and MSPSS scores showed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Mental and physical subscales of SF-36 were significantly lower in PWE than the controls (p=0.012, p=0.020, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness were independent predictors for perceived social support, and Persistence score was an independent predictor for the physical subscale of SF-36 even after adjustment for confounding background variables (p<0.05, for all). Temperament and character traits may affect perceived social support and quality of life in PWE. Thus, an evaluation of temperament and character traits may play a significant role in preventing negative effects on perceived social support and quality of life in PWE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperament and social behaviour at home and school among typically developing children and children with an intellectually disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, E; Jenvey, V B

    2006-06-01

    There has been limited research on differences in temperament between typically developing children and children with an intellectual disability (ID). Individual differences have generally been neglected in previous investigations of children with an ID. The present research investigated differences in temperament and social behaviour between typically developing children and children with an ID, in both home and school settings. Participants were 100 children (M = 10.7 years, SD = 0.88) from both regular and special education schools. Temperament was measured using the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability (EAS) Temperament Survey for Children (parental and teacher ratings), while social behaviour was measured using the School Social Behaviour Scales, Second Edition (SSBS-2) and the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS). There were minimal significant differences in temperament between the regular and special education groups. Children who attended regular schools had a significantly higher level of social competence and significantly lower level of antisocial behaviour both at home and school, when compared with children who attended special schools. The difference in social behaviour between children attending regular and special schools was attributed to the difference in intellectual ability of the two groups, as well as contextual influences of regular or special school environments.

  4. Child regulative temperament as a mediator of parenting in the development of depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study from early childhood to preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Hohm, Erika; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Child temperament as well as parenting behaviors have been linked to adolescent depression. Beyond their main effects, the interplay between these factors is of interest. For example, in an interactive model, a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants to parenting has been suggested. However, so far, the differential susceptibility hypothesis has mostly been studied with a focus on externalizing disorders. On the other hand, parenting may shape the child's temperament and vice versa in a transactional process. In a prospective, longitudinal at-risk sample (163 boys, 176 girls), we assessed emotional (easy-difficult) and regulative (self-control) temperament at ages 4.5, and 8 years, respectively, as well as parenting quality at age 4.5 years using the HOME inventory. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to investigate the prediction of depressive symptoms at age 11, measured by the Child Depression Inventory, including interaction terms between the temperament variable and parenting. We additionally tested whether parenting was mediated by child temperament. As previously reported, both self-control and parenting were longitudinally associated with preadolescent depressive symptoms. There were no interactive effects between temperament and parenting. However, the effects of parenting were partly mediated by self-control. Our data do not support a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants in the development of preadolescent depression. However, our results are in line with the assumption that parenting may shape young children's temperament, with positive parenting in the early childhood fostering the development of regulative temperament.

  5. Assessing Soil Organic C Stability at the Continental Scale: An Analysis of Soil C and Radiocarbon Profiles Across the NEON Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Gallo, A.; Hatten, J. A.; Swanston, C.; McKnight, D. M.; Strahm, B. D.; Sanclements, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon stocks have become recognized as increasingly important in the context of climate change and global C cycle modeling. As modelers seek to identify key parameters affecting the size and stability of belowground C stocks, attention has been drawn to the mineral matrix and the soil physiochemical factors influenced by it. Though clay content has often been utilized as a convenient and key explanatory variable for soil C dynamics, its utility has recently come under scrutiny as new paradigms of soil organic matter stabilization have been developed. We utilized soil cores from a range of National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) experimental plots to examine the influence of physicochemical parameters on soil C stocks and turnover, and their relative importance in comparison to climatic variables. Soils were cored at NEON sites, sampled by genetic horizon, and density separated into light fractions (particulate organics neither occluded within aggregates nor associated with mineral surfaces), occluded fractions (particulate organics occluded within aggregates), and heavy fractions (organics associated with mineral surfaces). Bulk soils and density fractions were measured for % C and radiocarbon abundance (as a measure of C stability). Carbon and radiocarbon abundances were examined among fractions and in the context of climatic variables (temperature, precipitation, elevation) and soil physiochemical variables (% clay and pH). No direct relationships between temperature and soil C or radiocarbon abundances were found. As a whole, soil radiocarbon abundance in density fractions decreased in the order of light>heavy>occluded, highlighting the importance of both surface sorption and aggregation to the preservation of organics. Radiocarbon abundance was correlated with pH, with variance also grouping by dominate vegetation type. Soil order was also identified as an important proxy variable for C and radiocarbon abundance. Preliminary results suggest that

  6. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  7. Associations of self-esteem and temperament traits to self- and teacher-reported social status among classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Pullmann, Helle; Hirstiö-Snellman, Paula; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of self- and teacher-reported social status and its relations to self-esteem and temperament in a geographically representative cohort of Finnish adolescents (N = 3941, mean age 15.1 years). High agreement was found between self- and teacher-rated social status (r = 0.42). Different aspects of self-esteem were differently related to social status. When other temperament and self-esteem variables were included in the analyses, strongest predictor for self-rated social status in both genders was social self-esteem (p teacher-rated social status general self-esteem (p teacher-rated) and higher impulsivity (p teacher-rated) in boys. The present findings are consistent with the view that social functioning and peer relations are associated with individual differences in self-concept and temperament dimensions. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Child Temperament, Maternal Feeding Practices, and Parenting Styles and Their Influence on Obesogenic Behaviors in Hispanic Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen

    2018-01-01

    Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.

  9. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Abulizi

    Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.

  10. Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Sauchelli, Sarah; Pastor, Antoni; Gonzalez, Marcela L; de la Torre, Rafael; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, Jose C; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B; Agüera, Zaida; Miró, Jordi; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, pendocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.

  11. Adaptive shaping system for both spatial and temporal profiles of a highly stabilized UV laser light source for a photocathode RF gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, H.; Dewa, H.; Taniuchi, T.; Mizuno, A.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.; Matsui, F.

    2006-02-01

    We have been developing a stable and highly qualified ultraviolet (UV) laser pulse as a light source of an RF gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. Our gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photocathode. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. At the third harmonic generation (central wavelength—263 nm), the laser pulse energy after a 45 cm silica rod is up to 850 μJ/pulse. In its present status, the laser's pulse energy stability has been improved down to 0.2˜0.3% at the fundamental, and 0.7-1.4% (rms; 10 pps; 33,818 shots) at the third harmonic generation, respectively. This stability has been held for 1 month continuously, 24 h a day. The improvements we had passively implemented were to stabilize the laser system as well as the environmental conditions. We introduced a humidity-control system kept at 50-60% in a clean room to reduce damage to the optics. In addition, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying both the adaptive optics to automatic optimization of the electron beam bunch to produce lower emittance with the feedback routine. Before the improvements, the electron beam produced from a cathode suffered inhomogeneous distribution caused by the quantum efficiency effect, and some pulse distortions caused by its response time. However, we can now freely form any arbitrary electron beam distribution on the surface of the cathode.

  12. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal antioxidant intakes in pregnancy, and child temperament at age 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.

  13. Standardization and normative data of the Greek version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Rozsa, Sandor; Siamouli, Melina; Moutou, Katerina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2015-01-01

    Robert Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character is a dimensional approach to personality assessment and gave birth to the temperament and character inventory (TCI). The aim of the present report is to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI, and to replicate its postulated structure and provide preliminary normative data for the Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4 % and 298 males; 40.6 %). Their mean age was 40.80 ± 11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The mean age for females was 39.43 ± 10.87 years (range 25-65 years), while the mean age for males was 42.82 ± 12.06 years (range 25-67 years). Descriptive statistics tables concerning age, gender and occupational status distribution in the sample were created. The analysis included the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis with promax rotation and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the subscales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and t test and Cohen's d as post hoc tests was used to search for differences in subscales scores between males and females. The overall psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI proved to be satisfactory, with acceptable consistencies of the subscales. The factor analysis of temperament identified four factors which together explained 58.56 % of total variance, while the factor analysis of the three-factor solution of the character explained 52.24 % of total variance. The TCI scales correlate significantly but weakly between each other and with age. The Greek version of the TCI exhibits psychometric properties similar to its original English counterpart and to other national translations and it is suitable for use in research and clinical practice.

  14. Maternal Characteristics and Perception of Temperament Associated With Infant TV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. METHODS: We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. RESULTS: Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV. PMID:23296440

  15. Temperament traits and psychopathy in a group of patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoglu, Cengiz; Oner, Ozgur; Ates, Alpay; Algul, Ayhan; Bez, Yasin; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) have been used extensively in research of personality disorders; however, no previous study has investigated the relation between psychopathy factors and temperament and character traits in patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Our aim was to fill this gap in the literature. The PCL-R Factor scores and the TCI temperament and character scores were evaluated in 68 men with ASPD and 65 healthy male controls. The ASPD cases had significantly higher PCL-R Factor 1, Factor 2, and Total scores, as well as significantly higher TCI Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance scores, whereas the control group had higher TCI Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, and Cooperativeness scores. Correlation analysis revealed that, in the whole study group, PCL-R Factor 1, Factor 2, and Total scores were positively correlated with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance scores and negatively correlated with Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, and Cooperativeness scores. When each group was analyzed separately, the correlations were not significant. Regression analysis supported the main findings. Our results showed that both PCL-R Factor 1 score, which is claimed to reflect "core psychopathy," and PCL-R Factor 2 score, which reflects criminal behaviors, were positively correlated with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and were negatively correlated with Reward Dependence in the whole sample. The reduced variance of PCL-R in each group might lead to nonsignificant associations within groups. Without the subjects with severe psychopathy in the present study, it might not be possible to show the association. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural correlates of four broad temperament dimensions: testing predictions for a novel construct of personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy L Brown

    Full Text Available Four suites of behavioral traits have been associated with four broad neural systems: the 1 dopamine and related norepinephrine system; 2 serotonin; 3 testosterone; 4 and estrogen and oxytocin system. A 56-item questionnaire, the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI, was developed to define four temperament dimensions associated with these behavioral traits and neural systems. The questionnaire has been used to suggest romantic partner compatibility. The dimensions were named: Curious/Energetic; Cautious/Social Norm Compliant; Analytical/Tough-minded; and Prosocial/Empathetic. For the present study, the FTI was administered to participants in two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that elicited feelings of love and attachment, near-universal human experiences. Scores for the Curious/Energetic dimension co-varied with activation in a region of the substantia nigra, consistent with the prediction that this dimension reflects activity in the dopamine system. Scores for the Cautious/Social Norm Compliant dimension correlated with activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in regions associated with social norm compliance, a trait linked with the serotonin system. Scores on the Analytical/Tough-minded scale co-varied with activity in regions of the occipital and parietal cortices associated with visual acuity and mathematical thinking, traits linked with testosterone. Also, testosterone contributes to brain architecture in these areas. Scores on the Prosocial/Empathetic scale correlated with activity in regions of the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus. These are regions associated with mirror neurons or empathy, a trait linked with the estrogen/oxytocin system, and where estrogen contributes to brain architecture. These findings, replicated across two studies, suggest that the FTI measures influences of four broad neural systems, and that these temperament dimensions and neural systems could constitute

  17. Neural correlates of four broad temperament dimensions: testing predictions for a novel construct of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy L; Acevedo, Bianca; Fisher, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Four suites of behavioral traits have been associated with four broad neural systems: the 1) dopamine and related norepinephrine system; 2) serotonin; 3) testosterone; 4) and estrogen and oxytocin system. A 56-item questionnaire, the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI), was developed to define four temperament dimensions associated with these behavioral traits and neural systems. The questionnaire has been used to suggest romantic partner compatibility. The dimensions were named: Curious/Energetic; Cautious/Social Norm Compliant; Analytical/Tough-minded; and Prosocial/Empathetic. For the present study, the FTI was administered to participants in two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that elicited feelings of love and attachment, near-universal human experiences. Scores for the Curious/Energetic dimension co-varied with activation in a region of the substantia nigra, consistent with the prediction that this dimension reflects activity in the dopamine system. Scores for the Cautious/Social Norm Compliant dimension correlated with activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in regions associated with social norm compliance, a trait linked with the serotonin system. Scores on the Analytical/Tough-minded scale co-varied with activity in regions of the occipital and parietal cortices associated with visual acuity and mathematical thinking, traits linked with testosterone. Also, testosterone contributes to brain architecture in these areas. Scores on the Prosocial/Empathetic scale correlated with activity in regions of the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus. These are regions associated with mirror neurons or empathy, a trait linked with the estrogen/oxytocin system, and where estrogen contributes to brain architecture. These findings, replicated across two studies, suggest that the FTI measures influences of four broad neural systems, and that these temperament dimensions and neural systems could constitute foundational mechanisms

  18. Temperamento: características e determinação genética Temperament: characteristics and genetic determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Pereira Ito

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou características temperamentais de uma amostra de crianças de 7 a 14 anos, verificando inclusive a influência exercida pela genética na determinação do temperamento. Uma amostra de 26 pais forneceu dados sobre o temperamento de 26 pares de gêmeos (15 monozigóticos, 11 dizigóticos, os quais totalizavam 52 sujeitos. Para coleta de dados foi utilizada a Escala Pavlovian Temperament Survey, versão infantil, que investiga três fatores de temperamento: Força de Excitação (FE, Força de Inibição (FI e Mobilidade (MO. Resultados obtidos indicaram que a partir da percepção dos pais, esta amostra de sujeitos possuía como característica predominante de temperamento a mobilidade. Análise de variância (MANOVA indicou que as características temperamentais variavam quando consideradas as variáveis sexo e faixa etária. Considerando-se a gemealidade, correlações obtidas entre pares de gêmeos monozigóticos e dizigóticos evidenciaram a influência exercida pela genética na determinação dos três fatores de temperamento.This study investigated the temperament characteristics of a sample of children from 7 to 14 years old, verifying the influence of genetics in the determination of temperament. A sample of 26 parents provided data about temperament of 26 pairs of twins (15 monozigotic, 11 dizigotic, totalizing 52 subjects. For the data gathering, the Pavlovian Temperament Survey - PTS, child version was used, which investigates three temperament factors: Strength of Excitation (SE, Strength of Inhibition (SI and Mobility (MO. The results showed that, from parents' perception, this sample had mobility as the predominant temperament characteristic. Analysis of variance (MANOVA indicated that temperament characteristics varied when considering variables such as sex and age group. The correlation obtained from pairs of monozigotic and dizigotic twins made evident the influence of genetic determination on the three

  19. Temperament trait Harm Avoidance associates with μ-opioid receptor availability in frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Salo, Johanna; Hirvonen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Harm Avoidance is a temperament trait that associates with sensitivity to aversive and non-rewarding stimuli, higher anticipated threat and negative emotions during stress as well as a higher risk for affective disorders. The neurobiological correlates of interindividual differences in Harm....... These associations were driven by two subscales of Harm Avoidance; Shyness with Strangers and Fatigability and Asthenia. In conclusion, higher Harm Avoidance score in healthy subjects is associated with higher μ-opioid availability in regions involved in the regulation of anxiety as well as in the control...

  20. Temperament traits, social support, and trauma symptoms among HIV/AIDS and chronic pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Rzeszutek; W\\u0142odzimierz Oniszczenko; Katarzyna Schier; Edyta Biernat-Ka\\u0142uza; Robert Gasik

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo fue investigar la relación entre rasgos de temperamento postulados por la Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT) y dimensiones de apoyo social con el nivel de síntomas de trauma, como aparecen en el trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT), en pacientes VIH+ (n = 182) y SIDA (n = 128)] y en pacientes que sufren dolor crónico (artritis reumatoide; n = 150). El nivel de los síntomas de trauma se evaluó con el Inventario TEPT-F, el temperamento se midió con Inventario FCB-TI y el apo...

  1. 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing of Reference and Clinical Samples and Investigation of the Temperature Stability of MicroBiome Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-16

    quantitative PCR (qPCR) using Taqman Universal Master Mix II (Invitrogen) to determine 16S rDNA copy number in DNA samples. PCR fusion primers LB-27F2...ponent abundances if a result consistent with the formula can be reliably produced. To investigate the relative bacterial abundances, the level of results...profiling with an application to pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage samples. PloS one 2012, 7(4):e34605. 48. Zhao J, Li J, Schloss PD, Kalikin LM, Raymond TA

  2. Quantitative proteome profiling of dystrophic dog skeletal muscle reveals a stabilized muscular architecture and protection against oxidative stress after systemic delivery of MuStem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardenois, Aurélie; Jagot, Sabrina; Lagarrigue, Mélanie; Guével, Blandine; Ledevin, Mireille; Larcher, Thibaut; Dubreil, Laurence; Pineau, Charles; Rouger, Karl; Guével, Laëtitia

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic profiling plays a decisive role in the elucidation of molecular signatures representative of a specific clinical context. MuStem cell based therapy represents a promising approach for clinical applications to cure Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To expand our previous studies collected in the clinically relevant DMD animal model, we decided to investigate the skeletal muscle proteome 4 months after systemic delivery of allogenic MuStem cells. Quantitative proteomics with isotope-coded protein labeling was used to compile quantitative changes in the protein expression profiles of muscle in transplanted Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs as compared to Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. A total of 492 proteins were quantified, including 25 that were overrepresented and 46 that were underrepresented after MuStem cell transplantation. Interestingly, this study demonstrates that somatic stem cell therapy impacts on the structural integrity of the muscle fascicle by acting on fibers and its connections with the extracellular matrix. We also show that cell infusion promotes protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and favors the initial phase of muscle repair. This study allows us to identify putative candidates for tissue markers that might be of great value in objectively exploring the clinical benefits resulting from our cell-based therapy for DMD. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001768 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001768). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  4. Plasma stability-dependent circulation of acyl glucuronide metabolites in humans: how circulating metabolite profiles of muraglitazar and peliglitazar can lead to misleading risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglu; Raghavan, Nirmala; Wang, Lifei; Xue, Yongjun; Obermeier, Mary; Chen, Stephanie; Tao, Shiwei; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Peter T; Li, Wenying; Ramanathan, Ragu; Yang, Zheng; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2011-01-01

    Muraglitazar and peliglitazar, two structural analogs differing by a methyl group, are dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/γ activators. Both compounds were extensively metabolized in humans through acyl glucuronidation to form 1-O-β-acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites as the major drug-related components in bile, representing at least 15 to 16% of the dose after oral administration. Peliglitazar AG was the major circulating metabolite, whereas muraglitazar AG was a very minor circulating metabolite in humans. Peliglitazar AG circulated at lower concentrations in animal species than in humans. Both compounds had a similar glucuronidation rate in UDP-glucuronic acid-fortified human liver microsomal incubations and a similar metabolism rate in human hepatocytes. Muraglitazar AG and peliglitazar AG were chemically synthesized and found to be similarly oxidized through hydroxylation and O-demethylation in NADPH-fortified human liver microsomal incubations. Peliglitazar AG had a greater stability than muraglitazar AG in incubations in buffer, rat, or human plasma (pH 7.4). Incubations of muraglitazar AG or peliglitazar AG in plasma produced more aglycon than acyl migration products compared with incubations in the buffer. These data suggested that the difference in plasma stability, not differences in intrinsic formation, direct excretion, or further oxidation of muraglitazar AG or peliglitazar AG, contributed to the observed difference in the circulation of these AG metabolites in humans. The study demonstrated the difficulty in doing risk assessment based on metabolite exposure in plasma because the more reactive muraglitazar AG would not have triggered a threshold of concern based on the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance on Metabolites in Safety Testing, whereas the more stable peliglitazar AG would have.

  5. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence......Quorum-dependent regulation is mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in several Gram-negative bacteria. The production of AHLs has typically been studied using pure bacteria cultures grown in nutrient-rich media at optimal temperature. AHLs are produced in several chill-stored foods...... of carbon source (glucose,, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, mannitol and sorbitol), temperature (5 and 25 degreesC), salt concentration (0-7%), pH (6, 7 and 8) and co-existing lactic acid bacteria microflora on the AHL profile and production rate from Serratia proteamaculans strain B5a and Enterobacter...

  6. Redefining phenotypes in eating disorders based on personality: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; Root, Tammy; Bulik, Cynthia; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2011-08-15

    To conduct a latent profile analysis (LPA) in eating disorder (ED) patients using temperament and character (TCI-R) measures as indicators. 1312 ED patients including those with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and EDNOS were assessed. The final LPA solution was validated using demographics, clinical variables, ED symptomatology (EDI-2) and impulsive behaviors. The best-fitting model consisted of a six-profile solution using the seven subscales of the TCI-R. These profiles were labeled: "self-focused", "inhibited", "average", "impulsive", "adaptive" and "maladaptive". Validation analyses indicated that the "inhibited" and "maladaptive" profiles generally presented with the highest values for ED symptomatology and impulsive behaviors. Whereas high levels of Harm Avoidance and low levels of Novelty Seeking and Persistence characterized the "inhibited" profile, the "maladaptive" profile presented with low levels of Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness. The most favorable results on the other hand were exhibited by the "adaptive" profile, characterized by high scores on Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and low levels on Novelty Seeking. Finally, when our six-profile solution was compared with the DSM-IV ED diagnoses, significant differences among profiles and ED diagnoses were observed. Our study shows that ED patients can be meaningfully grouped according to temperament and character. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383

  8. Temperament and character in couples with fertility disorders: a double-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Garzaro, Lorenzo; Peris, Clementina; Amianto, Federico; Pierò, Andrea; Abbate Daga, Giovanni

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the personality features of infertile patients. A double-blind, controlled study. An outpatient facility for diagnosis and care of infertility. We assessed 142 infertile couples with obstetric-gynecologic clinical and instrumental examinations. The couples were divided into three groups: organic infertility, functional infertility, and infertility of uncertain origin. The third group was excluded. Organic infertility and functional infertility were ascertained with gynecologic and andrologic clinical examinations, seminal liquid examination, postcoital testing, progesterone assay, hysterosalpingography, biopsy of endometrium, and laparoscopy. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Infertile women showed lower Cooperativeness than control women. Women with functional infertility had lower scores in Cooperativeness and Self-Directedness than women with organic infertility. Men belonging to the functional infertility group had a lower Novelty Seeking score than did those of the organic infertility group. Men and women in the functional infertility group showed higher Harm Avoidance than those in the organic infertility and control groups. The results emphasize that the study of personality in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of infertility might provide useful predictive elements for functional infertility.

  9. Effects of maternal investment, temperament, and cognition on guide dog success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Serpell, James A.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    A continuing debate in studies of social development in both humans and other animals is the extent to which early life experiences affect adult behavior. Also unclear are the relative contributions of cognitive skills (“intelligence”) and temperament for successful outcomes. Guide dogs are particularly suited to research on these questions. To succeed as a guide dog, individuals must accomplish complex navigation and decision making without succumbing to distractions and unforeseen obstacles. Faced with these rigorous demands, only ∼70% of dogs that enter training ultimately achieve success. What predicts success as a guide dog? To address these questions, we followed 98 puppies from birth to adulthood. We found that high levels of overall maternal behavior were linked with a higher likelihood of program failure. Furthermore, mothers whose nursing style required greater effort by puppies were more likely to produce successful offspring, whereas mothers whose nursing style required less effort were more likely to produce offspring that failed. In young adults, an inability to solve a multistep task quickly, compounded with high levels of perseveration during the task, was associated with failure. Young adults that were released from the program also appeared more anxious, as indicated by a short latency to vocalize when faced with a novel object task. Our results suggest that both maternal nursing behavior and individual traits of cognition and temperament are associated with guide dog success. PMID:28784785

  10. Development and validation of a novel method for evaluating behavior and temperament in guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J A.; Hsu, Y

    2001-06-01

    Most guide and service dog organizations would benefit from the development of accurate methods for the early evaluation of canine temperament traits. This paper describes the development and validation of a novel questionnaire method for assessing behavior and temperament in 1-year-old guide dogs. Volunteer puppy-raisers scored a total of 1097 prospective guide dogs on a series of 40 semantic differential-type, behavioral rating scales. Principle components factor analysis of these scores extracted eight stable and interpretable common factors: stranger-directed fear/aggression, non-social fear, energy level, owner-directed aggression, chasing, trainability, attachment, and dog-directed fear/aggression. Three of these eight factors exhibited moderate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha>/=0.72), while the reliabilities of the remaining factors were relatively low (Cronbach's alpha=0.53-0.61). The eight factors were then validated against the guide dog school's own criteria for rejecting dogs for behavioral reasons. The results of this analysis confirmed the construct validity of the puppy raisers' questionnaire assessments of their dogs, and suggested that such methods can provide a useful and accurate means of predicting the suitability of dogs for guiding work. Various modifications to the original questionnaire are proposed in order to enhance its overall reliability.

  11. Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Kryski, Katie R; Jordan, Patricia L; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-02-01

    Children's cortisol reactivity to stress is an important mediator of depression risk, making the search for predictors of such reactivity an important goal for psychopathologists. Multiple studies have linked maternal depression and childhood behavioral inhibition (BI) independently to child cortisol reactivity, yet few have tested multivariate models of these risks. Further, paternal depression and other child temperament traits, such as positive emotionality (PE), have been largely ignored despite their potential relevance. We therefore examined longitudinal associations between child fear/BI and PE and parental depression, and children's cortisol stress reactivity, in 205 7-year-olds. Paternal depression and child fear/BI predicted greater cortisol stress reactivity at a follow-up of 164 9-year-olds, and maternal depression and child PE interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity, such that higher child PE predicted lower cortisol reactivity in the context of maternal depression. Results highlight the importance of both parents' depression, as well as multiple facets of child temperament, in developing more comprehensive models of childhood cortisol reactivity to stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The role of temperament and character in the outcome of depressive mood in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2014-07-01

    The aims were to see which temperament and character dimensions were associated with depression, mainly with its outcome at two-year follow up in eating disorders (EDs). Participants (N=151) were 44 Anorexia nervosa (AN), 55 Bulimia nervosa (BN) and 52 Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rosenberg Self Esteem Questionnaire (RSE), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were administered. Depression at the beginning (t0) was severe in 22% of the cases. Harm Avoidance and Novelty Seeking had an effect on depressed mood at t0, mediated by Ineffectiveness. Responsibility (SD1) was associated with scores on the BDI at two-year follow up (β=-0.37, 95% CI -2.6, -0.6, p<0.01). The evaluation of personality dimension in EDs has therapeutic and prognostic implications: To enhance self-efficacy and self-directness is crucial for good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: the unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-08-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.

  14. Construct validity of Croatian version of the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS by determining the relationship between three Strelau's dimensions of temperament (strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, mobility and basic dimensions of personality as were defined by Eysenck and in the five-factor model of personality. It was expected that strength of excitation and mobility would have significant positive correlations with extraversion and negative correlations with neuroticism, while strength of inhibition would show significant negative correlations with neuroticism. Within two studies (N1 = 74 female students, Mage = 22; N2 = 54 female students, Mage = 20, Croatian version of PTS, Five−Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire FF−NPQ, and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire EPQ R/A were used. The reliability coefficients for all three instruments were satisfactory, although not very high. Coefficients of correlation determined in the first study were not entirely in agreement with either theoretical expectations or empirical results of other authors, probably due to small sample size. However, the results of the second study were in accord with the expected pattern of significant correlations and that could be considered an indicator of good construct validity of PTS. Since this was a preliminary study the results provide only a general insight into the research aim, and represent a good starting point for future validation studies of the Croatian version of PTS.

  15. Predictive Capacity of Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R) in alcohol use disorder outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila Escribano, José Juan; Sánchez Barba, Mercedes; Álvarez Pedrero, Aida; López Villarreal, Ana; Recio Pérez, Joaquina; Rodríguez Rodilla, Manuela; Fraile García, Eulalia

    2016-06-14

    to investigate the ability to predict the outcome of alcohol use disorders through Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R). this is a prospective study consisting of 237 outpatients with alcohol use disorders who underwent follow-up treatment for 6 months and whose personality traits were studied using TCI-R. At the end of that period, the scores of each TCI-R trait were analyzed in terms of those who remained in treatment and those who dropped out. The whole group scored highly in novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) and produced low scores in self-directedness (SD), these last traits are considered prominent. The drop-out group scored significantly (p=.004) higher in novelty seeking (NS) than the follow-up group. Also, when the score was higher than the 67 percentile the likelihood of abandoning the treatment was 1.07 times higher. Cloninger's temperament and character inventory is a good instrument to predict the outcome of treatment of patients with alcohol use disorders and the novelty seeking (NS) dimension is strongly related to therapeutic drop-out.

  16. DNA Methylation of Regulatory Regions of Imprinted Genes at Birth and Its Relation to Infant Temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard F. Fuemmeler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158. RESULTS MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing ( β = 0.15, P = 0.044 and surgency ( β = 0.19, P = 0.018 behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression. Higher methylation levels at the intergenic MEG3-IG methylation regions were associated with surgency ( β = 0.28, P = 0.0003 and PEG3 was positively related to externalizing ( β = 0.20, P = 0.01 and negative affectivity ( β = 0.18, P = 0.02. CONCLUSION While the small sample size limits inference, these pilot data support gene-specific associations between epigenetic differences in regulatory regions of imprinted domains at birth and later infant temperament.

  17. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  18. Altruistic aptitude: age-dependent influence of temperament and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Faron-Lasyk, Aneta; Borecki, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey. The major findings were that emotional intelligence, rather than temperament, is strongly associated with the expression of altruistic behavior in both young and senior subjects, despite a general decrease in the characteristics of emotional intelligence in advanced age. We also failed to substantiate the presence of an appreciable difference in the level of declared altruism between the senior and young subjects. High emotional intelligence, often underling social engagement and bonding, seems thus a good predictor of altruistic aptitude to be displayed by a person. The independence of this association of age-changes in emotional agility is suggestive of causal relationship. The study is relevant for an understanding of the enigmatic origins of important social behaviors like altruism.

  19. Temperament and Character in Psychotic Depression Compared with Other Subcategories of Depression and Normal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap G. Goekoop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Support has been found for high harm avoidance as general vulnerability trait for depression and decreased self-directedness (SD as central state-related personality change. Additional personality characteristics could be present in psychotic depression (PD. Increased noradrenergic activation in PD predicts the involvement of reward dependence (RD. Methods. The data during the acute episode and after full remission from the same subjects, that we used before, were reanalyzed. The dependence of the 7 dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory version 9 on PD, three other subcategories of depression, and a group of normal controls was tested by MANCOVA. Results. Low RD at both time points, and low Cooperativeness during the acute episode, were found as additional characteristics of PD. Conclusion. The combination of two premorbid temperaments, high HA and low RD, and the development of a state-related reduction of two character functions, SD and CO, may be the precondition for the development of combined depressive and psychotic psychopathology.

  20. Family risk factors and adolescent substance use: moderation effects for temperament dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, T A; Sandy, J M; Yaeger, A; Shinar, O

    2001-05-01

    This research tested for moderation in the relation of family risk factors (parent-child conflict, family life events, and parental substance use) to adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana). A sample of 1,810 participants was surveyed at the mean age of 11.5 years and followed with 2 yearly assessments. Temperament dimensions were assessed with the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey and the Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability Inventory. Multiple-group latent growth analyses indicated moderation occurred through (a) alteration of effects of parental variables on the adolescent substance use intercept and on the peer substance use intercept and slope and (b) alteration of the effect of the peer substance use intercept on the adolescent substance use slope. The impact of parental risk factors was decreased among participants with higher task attentional orientation and positive emotionality (resilience effect) and was increased among participants with higher activity level and negative emotionality (vulnerability effect). Results from self-report data were corroborated by independent teacher reports.

  1. Effects of maternal investment, temperament, and cognition on guide dog success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Cheney, Dorothy L; Serpell, James A; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2017-08-22

    A continuing debate in studies of social development in both humans and other animals is the extent to which early life experiences affect adult behavior. Also unclear are the relative contributions of cognitive skills ("intelligence") and temperament for successful outcomes. Guide dogs are particularly suited to research on these questions. To succeed as a guide dog, individuals must accomplish complex navigation and decision making without succumbing to distractions and unforeseen obstacles. Faced with these rigorous demands, only ∼70% of dogs that enter training ultimately achieve success. What predicts success as a guide dog? To address these questions, we followed 98 puppies from birth to adulthood. We found that high levels of overall maternal behavior were linked with a higher likelihood of program failure. Furthermore, mothers whose nursing style required greater effort by puppies were more likely to produce successful offspring, whereas mothers whose nursing style required less effort were more likely to produce offspring that failed. In young adults, an inability to solve a multistep task quickly, compounded with high levels of perseveration during the task, was associated with failure. Young adults that were released from the program also appeared more anxious, as indicated by a short latency to vocalize when faced with a novel object task. Our results suggest that both maternal nursing behavior and individual traits of cognition and temperament are associated with guide dog success.

  2. Assessment of the Temperament, Motivation, and Capability of a School System District for Emergency Management/Crisis Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Larry A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional study of leadership and staff of a public school system in Georgia concerning their temperament type, emergency management motivation and emergency management knowledge in relation to Emergency Management/Crisis performance (ERCM). The study consisted of an inclusive questionnaire that contains questions on four…

  3. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Cortisol concentration and measures of temperament at weaning and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate circulating concentrations of plasma cortisol and measures of temperament at weaning in calves (steers and heifers) and at transport in steers. Calves (n = 993) were produced from a 3-breed diallel mating design that included calves from 3 consecutive y...

  4. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: the role of early temperament and parenting in the development of externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Martina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A difficult or undercontrolled temperament, as well as harsh parental discipline or a lack of warmth, has long been regarded as risk factors for the development of externalizing problems. In addition, it has been suggested that children with difficult temperament are especially susceptible to rearing influences. We investigated the impact of early temperament and parenting and their interactions on externalizing behavior at school age. Participants were 148 boys and 160 girls from a prospective longitudinal study on a high-risk sample. At ages 3 months and 2 years, temperament was assessed by a highly structured parent interview and standardized behavioral observations. Maternal parenting was assessed by videotaped behavioral observation and a parent questionnaire. Externalizing problems at age 8 years were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Using hierarchical linear regression analyses, we found that externalizing problems were predicted by psychosocial adversity and poor self-control, whereas no main effect for restrictive parenting or maternal empathy was found. Fearful-inhibited boys were positively affected by empathic and sensitive parenting, whereas girls who were low in self-control and/or fearful developed less externalizing problems with restrictive parenting. Our results partly support the differential susceptibility hypothesis. In addition, they point toward gender-specific pathways in the development of externalizing problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation of motor, linguistic and temperament factors in epidemiologic subtypes of persistent and recovered stuttering: Initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Nicoline G; Yairi, Ehud; Loucks, Torrey M; Seery, Carol Hubbard; Throneburg, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of any patterns reflecting underlying subtypes of persistence and recovery across epidemiologic, motor, language, and temperament domains in the same group of children beginning to stutter and followed for several years. Participants were 58 2-4-year-old CWS and 40 age and gender matched NFC from four different sites in the Midwest. At the end of the multi-year study, stuttering children were classified as Persistent or Recovered. The same protocol obtaining data to measure stuttering, motor, language and temperament characteristics was used at each site. They have not been included in previous reports. The Persistent group performed consistently differently from the Recovered and Control groups. They performed lower on standardized language tests and in phonological accuracy, had greater kinematic variability, and were judged by their parents to be more negative in temperament. The present study provides data supporting the hypothesis that subtypes of stuttering can be identified along persistency/recovery lines, but results were not definitive. Readers will be able to (a) describe the current state of subtypes of stuttering research; (b) summarize possible contributions of epidemiologic, motoric, linguistic and temperament to such subtyping with regard to persistency and recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  7. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  8. Self-Reported Parenting Behavior and Child Temperament in Families of Toddlers with and without Speech-Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry Carson, Cecyle K.; Carson, David K.; Klee, Thomas; Jackman-Brown, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This study examined self-reported parenting behaviors, and child temperament and behavior, based on parental perceptions of 47 toddlers ages 25 to 31 months. Data were obtained via parental reports and direct assessment. Children were identified as having a speech-language delay (SLD, n = 17) or as typically developing (n = 30) based on…

  9. Challenging Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Behavior Problems in Urban Low-Income Children: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…

  10. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  11. Temperament Based Personality, Socialization, and Behavior in Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders and General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that examined Hans Eysenck's antisocial behavioral hypothesis (ASB). Eysenck's theory of personality has three temperament-based traits: Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E), and Neuroticism (N). His ASB hypothesis predicts that individuals high on P, E, and N with poor socialization are at the greatest…

  12. The influence of attachment and temperament on venipuncture distress in 14-month-old infants: the Generation R Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, N.J.; Darlington, A.S.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Tharner, A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Moll, H.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Passchier, J.; Tiemeier, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of attachment and temperament on infant distress during venipuncture. Method: The study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a prospective population-based study. Two different research procedures (i.e., blood sampling and the Ainsworth Strange Situation

  13. Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, René; Mills, Melinda

    This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey

  14. The comparison of temperament and character between patients with internet gaming disorder and those with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Son, Ji Hyun; Park, Jeong Ha; Kim, Sun Mi; Kee, Baik Seok; Han, Doug Hyun

    2017-06-01

    The differences in prevalence, natural history, and disease progression between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and substance use disorder contribute to the controversy over IGD as a diagnosis under substance-related and addictive disorders. The purpose of the current study was to assess the temperament and character of subjects with IGD in comparison with those with alcohol dependence (AD). Temperament and character were assessed using Cloningernt temperament and character inventory (TCI). The severity of IGD or AD, depressed mood, anxiety, attention and impulsiveness were assessed using each of the six scales. Among patients with AD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of AD was positively correlated with harm avoidance (HA) score and depressed mood. Among patients with IGD, after controlling for other variables, the severity of IGD was positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) score, impulsiveness and attention. There were significant differences in temperament and character between the IGD and AD groups as measured using the TCI. These results suggest that IGD and AD need to be categorized separately in a diagnostic classification system and benefit from different treatment approaches.

  15. The assessment of an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in a Dutch multi-ethnic population of preschool children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); J. Huijding (Jorg); A. Bos (Arie); A.M. van der Veen (Aletta); H. Raat (Hein); F. Verheij (Fop)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form (BIQ-SF) is a 14-item parent-rating scale for assessing an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in preschool children. This study examined the psychometric properties of the BIQ-SF scores in a multi-ethnic community population of Dutch

  16. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Affective temperament, social support and stressors at work as the predictors of life and job satisfaction among doctors and psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Affective temperament, social support and work-related stresors belong to the group of life and job satisfaction indicators. The aim of this research was to examine predictive roles of the basic affective temperament traits, social support and work-related stressors in the feeling of job and life satisfaction among doctors and psychologists. Methods. The sample consisted of 203 individuals out of whom there were 28% male and 72% female doctors (61% and psychologists (39%, 25–65 years old (39.08 ± 9.29, from the two university towns in Serbia. The set of questionnaires included Serbian version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A, Satisfaction with Life scale, Job Satisfaction Survey, short Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and Source of Stress at Work Scale (IRSa for estimating the frequency of stressors at work. Results. According to the existing norms our examinees are satisfied with their life, but considerably less satisfied with their work, specially with pay and benefits, while they are most satisfied with nature of work itself and social relations with co-workers and supervisors. Our results show that depressive and hyperthymic, and to some extent cyclothymic temperament traits of the affective temperament significantly predict 21% of life satisfaction variance. Situational factors, such as stressors at work and social support, are important in predicting job satisfaction (58% of variance with no significant contribution of temperament traits. The analysis did not point out any significant relation of sex, occupation, and age with life and job satisfaction. Conclusions. Affective temperaments can be regarded as predictors of life satisfaction, but in order to better predict satisfaction the aspects of wider social surrounding and sources of stressors at work must be taken in consideration. Future studies should consider other indicators of life

  18. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  19. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  20. Impact of temperament on depression and anxiety symptoms and depressive disorder in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Emma; Miettunen, Jouko; Freimer, Nelson; Joukamaa, Matti; Mäki, Pirjo; Ekelund, Jesper; Peltonen, Leena; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Paunio, Tiina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize at the population level how innate features of temperament relate to experience of depressive mood and anxiety, and whether these symptoms have separable temperamental backgrounds. The study subjects were 4773 members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, a culturally and genetically homogeneous study sample. Temperament was measured at age 31 using the temperament items of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a separate Pessimism score. Depressive mood was assessed based on a previous diagnosis of depressive disorder or symptoms of depression according to the Hopkins Symptom Check List - 25. Anxiety was assessed analogously. High levels of Harm avoidance and Pessimism were related to both depressive mood (effect sizes; d=0.84 and d=1.25, respectively) and depressive disorder (d=0.68 and d=0.68, respectively). Of the dimensions of Harm avoidance, Anticipatory worry and Fatigability had the strongest effects. Symptoms of depression and anxiety showed very similar underlying temperament patterns. Although Harm avoidance and Pessimism appear to be important endophenotype candidates for depression and anxiety, their potential usefulness as endophenotypes, and whether they meet all the suggested criteria for endophenotypes will remain to be confirmed in future studies. Personality characteristics of Pessimism and Harm avoidance, in particular its dimensions Anticipatory worry and Fatigability, are strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as to depressive disorder in this population. These temperamental features may be used as dimensional susceptibility factors in etiological studies of depression, which may aid in the development of improved clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.