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Sample records for temelin npp vibracni

  1. Experimental studies into the fluid dynamic performance of the coolant flow in the mixed core of the Temelin NPP VVER-1000 reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dmitriev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies into the interassembly coolant interaction in the Temelin nuclear power plant (NPP VVER-1000 reactor core. An aerodynamic test bench was used to study the coolant flow processes in a TVSA-type fuel assembly bundle. To obtain more detailed information on the coolant flow dynamics, a VVER-1000 reactor core fragment was selected as the test model, which comprised two segments of a TVSA-12 PLUS fuel assembly and one segment of a TVSA-T assembly with stiffening angles and an interassembly gap. The studies into the coolant fluid dynamics consisted in measuring the velocity vector both in representative TVSA regions and inside the interassembly gap using a five-channel pneumometric probe. An analysis into the spatial distribution of the absolute flow velocity projections made it possible to detail the TVSA spacer, mixing and combined spacer grid flow pattern, identify the regions with the maximum transverse coolant flow, and determine the depth of the coolant flow disturbance propagation and redistribution in adjacent TVSA assemblies. The results of the studies into the interassembly coolant interaction among the adjacent TVSA assemblies are used at OKBM Afrikantov to update the VVER-1000 core thermal-hydraulic analysis procedures and have been added to the database for verification of computational fluid dynamics (CFD codes and for detailed cellwise analyses of the VVER-100 reactor cores.

  2. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2008-08-01

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3"x3") at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of "Marinelli" container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured

  3. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    NPP Instruments are: (1) well understood thanks to instrument comprehensive test, characterization and calibration programs. (2) Government team ready for October 25 launch followed by instrument activation and Intensive Calibration/Validation (ICV). NPP Data Products preliminary work includes: (1) JPSS Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) team ready to support NPP ICV and operational data products. (2) NASA NPP science team ready to support NPP ICV and EOS data continuity.

  5. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. NPP Grassland: NPP Estimates from Biomass Dynamics for 31 Sites, 1948-1994, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes monthly grassland biomass data, net primary productivity (NPP) estimates, and climate (rainfall amounts and temperature) data for multiple...

  7. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  8. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  9. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  10. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  11. Integrated ageing management of Atucha NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranalli, Juan M.; Marchena, Martin H.; Zorrilla, Jorge R.; Antonaccio, Elvio E.; Brenna, Pablo; Yllanez, Daniela; Cruz, Gerardo Vera de la; Luraschi, Carlos, E-mail: ranalli@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Coordinacion Proyectos CNEA-NASA, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sabransky, Mario, E-mail: msabransky@na-sa.com.ar [Departamento Gestion de Envejecimiento, Central Nuclear Atucha I-II Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Atucha NPP is a two PHWR unit site located in Lima, Province of Buenos Aires, 120 km north of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Until recent, the site was split in Atucha I NPP, a 350 MW pressure vessel heavy water reactor in operation since 1974; and Atucha II, a similar design reactor, twice as big as Atucha I finishing a delayed construction. With the start-up of Atucha II and aiming to integrate the management of the plants, the Utility (Nucleolectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima - NASA) has reorganized its operation units. Within this reorganization, an Ageing Management Department has been created to cope with all ageing issues of both Atucha I and II units. The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica - CNEA) is a state-owned R and D organization that; among other functions such as designing and building research reactors, developing uranium mining and supplying radioisotopes to the medical market; is in charge of providing support and technological update to all Argentinean NPPs. The Ageing Management Department of Atucha NPP and the Ageing Management Division of CNEA has formed a joint working group in order to set up an Integrated Ageing Management Program for Atucha NPP following IAEA guidelines. In the present work a summary of the activities, documental structure and first outputs of the Integrated Ageing Management Program of Atucha NPP is presented. (author)

  12. NPP Tropical Forest: Pasoh, Malaysia, 1971-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains four ASCII data files (.txt format), one providing net primary production (NPP) component data and three providing climate data. The NPP...

  13. ISLSCP II IGBP NPP Output from Terrestrial Biogeochemistry Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains modeled annual net primary production (NPP) for the land biosphere from seventeen different global models. Annual NPP is defined as the net...

  14. ISLSCP II IGBP NPP Output from Terrestrial Biogeochemistry Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains modeled annual net primary production (NPP) for the land biosphere from seventeen different global models. Annual NPP is defined as...

  15. NPP Tropical Forest: Atherton, Australia, 1974-1985, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains eight data files (.txt format): three net primary productivity (NPP) data files and five climate data files. The NPP estimates are based on...

  16. NPP Tropical Forest: Kade, Ghana, 1957-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one NPP data file and two climate data files (ASCII .txt format). The NPP file contains above- and below- ground biomass, litterfall, standing...

  17. Analysis list: npp-3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available npp-3 Embryo + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-3.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/np...p-3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/npp-3.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  18. Analysis list: npp-13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available npp-13 Embryo + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-13....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/npp-13.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/np...p-13.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/npp-13.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  19. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, J. [Almaraz NPP, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  20. Improving the energy efficiency of NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Shcheklein

    2016-03-01

    Application of heat pumps within the cooling circuit of the main condenser of steam-turbine power plant for the purpose of enhancement of financial indicators is not justifiable. As it was demonstrated by estimation calculations, the use of heat pumps within the main condenser loop is promising only for reducing heat discharged by NPPs in the environment. Utilization using heat pumps of low-potential heat removed by equipment cooling systems is the efficient way to improve NPP efficiency. Non-productive extraction of steam from the thermal cycle of the power unit is reduced in this case which results in the additional power generation as well as reduces heat disposal in the environment.

  1. NPP Tropical Forest: Darien, Panama, 1967-1968, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NPP data set contains one ASCII file (.txt format). The data file contains above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, LAI, vegetation/soil micro-nutrient...

  2. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  3. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  4. VIIRS/NPP On Board Calibrator (OBC) IP NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  5. ISLSCP II Global Primary Production Data Initiative Gridded NPP Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Net Primary Production (NPP) is an important component of the carbon cycle and, among the pools and fluxes that make up the cycle, it is one of the steps that are...

  6. ISLSCP II Global Primary Production Data Initiative Gridded NPP Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Net Primary Production (NPP) is an important component of the carbon cycle and, among the pools and fluxes that make up the cycle, it is one of the steps...

  7. Equipment reliability improvement process; implementation in Almaraz NPP and Trillo NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risquez Bailon, Aranzazu; Gutierrez Fernandez, Eduardo [Nuclear Engineering Division, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion, S.A.U., Avda. de Manoteras 20 Edif.C, 28050 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The Equipment Reliability Improvement Process (INPO AP-913) is a non-regulatory process developed by the US Nuclear Industry for improving Plants Availability. This Process integrates and coordinates a broad range of equipment reliability activities into one process, performed by the Plant in a non-centralized way. The integration and coordination of these activities will allow plant personnel to evaluate the trends of important station equipment, develop and implement long-term equipment health plans, monitor equipment performance and condition, and make adjustments to preventive maintenance tasks and frequencies based on equipment operating experience, if necessary, arbitrating operational and design improvements, to reach a Failure-free Operation. This paper describes the methodology of Equipment Reliability Improvement Process, being focused on main aspects of the implementation process, relating to the scope and establishment of an Equipment Reliability Monitoring Plan, which should include and complement the existing mechanisms and organizations in the Plant to monitor the condition and performance of the equipments, with the common aim of achieving an operation free of failures. The paper will describe the tools that Iberdrola Ingenieria has developed to support the implementation and monitoring of the Equipment Reliability Improvement Process, as well as the results and lessons learned from its implementation in Almaraz NPP and Trillo NPP. (authors)

  8. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Mutnuru, R. K.; Neukaeter, Erwin; Bitterli, Beat

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  9. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmert Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  10. Construction prospects of new power units at Khmelnitskij NPP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenyuk, Denys [NNEGC ' Energoatom' , 01032 Vetrova, 3, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2008-07-01

    According to the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for a period up to 2030 it is planned to put into operation power units 3 and 4 of Khmelnitskij NPP by year 2016. In this work considerations are presented on the possible options while selecting reactor unit type for Khmelnitskij NPP power units 3 and 4, which is the main determinant of the cost, construction and commissioning time, and utilization of the existent civil structures. To optimize Khmelnitskij-3 and 4 construction, a survey of the data has been conducted with regard to the possibility of construction of new power units of PWR/VVER type at Khmelnitskij NPP site. The multivariable analysis has been performed based on the projects technical and cost data, construction time and conditions, as well as their compliance with the IAEA and EUR safety requirements for new power units. (author)

  11. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1973-1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII data files (.txt format), one for net primary production (NPP) component data and two for climate data. The NPP studies were...

  12. NPP Tropical Forest: Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 1970-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two NPP data files and one climate data file (ASCI .txt format). The NPP files contain data for above-ground biomass, litterfall, and nutrient...

  13. NPP Tropical Forest: John Crow Ridge, Jamaica, 1974-1978, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five NPP data files and three climate data files (ASCII .txt format). There is one NPP file for each of the five sub-types of upper montane...

  14. Comprehensive radiation survey and public health assessment in the vicinity of NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilov A.S.

    2015-12-01

    health indicators of the public living around the NPP, general state of the adult and children public is healthy. There is no impact of the NPP on negative trends in some changing indicators of the adult and children public health.

  15. NPP Boreal Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1965-1995, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of above- and below-ground biomass, above- and below-ground NPP (ANPP and BNPP), and total NPP(TNPP) for selected North American and...

  16. NPP Boreal Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1965-1995, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides estimates of above- and below-ground biomass, above- and below-ground NPP (ANPP and BNPP), and total NPP(TNPP) for selected North...

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  18. Evaluation of MODIS NPP and GPP products across multiple biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Stith T. Gower; Steve W. Running; Maosheng Zhao; Marcos H. Costa; Al A. Kirschbaum; Jay M. Ham; Scott R. Saleska; Douglas E. Ahl

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of daily gross primary production (GPP) and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution are now produced operationally for the global terrestrial surface using imagery from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. Ecosystem-level measurements of GPP at eddy covariance flux towers and plot-level measurements of...

  19. Improvement of waste release control in French NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, T.; Lucquin, E.; Dupin, M. [EDF/GDL (France); Florence, D. [EDF/GENV (France); Grisot, M. [EDF/CNPE Saint Laurent (France)

    2002-07-01

    The new waste release control in French NPP is more restrictive than the old one and needs heavy investment to bring plants to compliance with it. The great evolutions are a chemical follow up on more chemicals with a higher measurement frequency and with lower maximum concentrations and a specific measurement of carbon 14. Regarding radioactive releases, a new counting has been settled and activity of carbon 14 release is now measured and no longer calculated. The evolution of the French regulation leads to develop specific procedures and analytical techniques in chemistry and in radiochemistry (UV spectrometric methods, carbon 14 measurements,..) EDF NPP operators have launched a voluntarist process to reduce their releases since the beginning and before the evolution of the regulation. EDF priorities in terms of environment care lead henceforth to implement a global optimisation of the impact for a better control of releases. The new regulation will help EDF to reach its goals because it covers all the aspects in one administrative document: it is seen as a real simplification and a clarification towards public. In addition, this new regulation fits in with international practices which will allow an easier comparison of results between EDF and foreign NPP. These big environmental concerns lead EDF to create a national dedicated laboratory (LAMEN) in charge of developing specific measurement procedures to be implemented either by NPP or by sub-contractor laboratories. (authors)

  20. Conditioning of core components in NPP Wuergassen with equipment ZVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friske, A.; Ehlert, A.

    2001-07-01

    The NPP Wuergassen (KKW) preparing the decommissioning has to dispose off core components. These are 130 control rods and 774 fuel channels. Further core components not under review here were already conditioned previously. The core components will be cut up in the fuel element storage pool and will be loaded into primary containers. At a later date the primary containers shall be prepared for long-term interim storage with a conditioning line. The place of the interim storage shall be in the UNS-building of the NPP Wuergassen until a later transport to the final repository. To cut up the core components within the fuel element storage pool a facility had to be designed meeting the high packaging density requirements in the primary containers. (orig.)

  1. Integrated tool for NPP lifetime management in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, L. [UNESA, Madrid (Spain); Lopez de Santa Maria, J. [ASCO-Vandellos 2 NPPs l' Hospitalet de l' Infant, Tarragona (Spain); Cardoso, A. [Tecnatom SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The project for the Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management System SIGEVI (Sistema Integrado de GEstion de VIda de Centrales Nucleares) was initiated in April 1998 and finalized in December 2000, the main objective of the project being to develop a computer application facilitating the assessment of the condition and lifetime of nuclear power plant components. This constituted the second phase of a further-reaching project on NPP Lifetime Management. During the first phase of this project, carried out between 1992 and 1995, the methodology and strategy for the lifetime management of the Spanish NPP's were developed. Among others, degradation phenomena were assessed and the most adequate methods for their monitoring were defined. The SIGEVI Project has been performed under the management of UNESA (Spanish Electricity Association) and with the collaboration of different engineering firms and research institutes (Tecnatom, Empresarios Agrupados, Ufisa, Initec and IIT), with Vandellos II as the pilot plant. The rest of the Spanish NPP's have also actively participated through the Project Steering Committee. The following sections describe the scope, the structure and the main functionalities of the system SIGEVI. (authors)

  2. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication.

  3. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  4. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Osnabruck Data, 1937-1981, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains three files. The first file provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates, vegetation characteristics, and summary climate data...

  5. NPP Multi-Biome: Global IBP Woodlands Data, 1955-1975, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four data files containing net primary productivity (NPP) data, edaphic characteristics, average climatic conditions, and basic descriptive...

  6. NPP Multi-Biome: Global IBP Woodlands Data, 1955-1975, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four data files containing net primary productivity (NPP) data, edaphic characteristics, average climatic conditions, and basic...

  7. NPP Cropland: Gridded Estimates For the Central U.S.A., 1982-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Net primary productivity (NPP) of agricultural regions was estimated from crop harvested yield, as recorded in national agricultural statistics. The...

  8. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepcek, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  9. Progress of S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Jack; Lei, N.; Wang, Z; Keller, G

    2017-01-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS has successfully operated for more than 5 years since its launch in October, 2011. Including a day-night band (DNB), the VIIRS collects data in 22 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from 0.4 to 12.4 um. On-orbit calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSB),is performed using a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system. In addition, regularly scheduled lunar observations are used to support RSB on-orbit calibration. In this paper, we provide an...

  10. OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit V1 (OMPS_NPP_LP_L2_AER675_DAILY) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit collection contains the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients at 675 nm (AER675)...

  11. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  12. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  13. NPP/VIIRS Atmospherically Corrected Surface Reflectance 6-Min L2 Swath 375m, 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VNP09_NRT is a Near Real Time (NRT) S-NPP/VIIRS 375 m, 750 m Atmospherically Corrected Surface Reflectance product. The NPP/VIIRS surface reflectance products...

  14. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Considering global climate change, near surface temperature is the major factor affecting the terrestrial ecosystem, followed by the precipitation. This means terrestrial ecosystem NPP is more closely related to near surface temperature than precipitation. Between 1976 and 2005, NPP shows an obvious increasing temporal ...

  15. Estimation of Explosion Energy Yield at Chernobyl NPP Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergey A.; Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    The value of the 133Xe/133mXe isometric activity ratio for the stationary regime of reactor work is about 35, and that for an instant fission (explosion) is about 11, which allowed estimation of the nuclear component of the instant (explosion) energy release during the NPP accident. Atmospheric xenon samples were taken at the trajectory of accident product transfers (in the Cherepovetz area); these samples were measured by a gamma spectrometer, and the 133Xe/133mXe ratio was determined as an average value of 22.4. For estimations a mathematic model was elaborated considering both the value of instant released energy and the schedule of reactor power change before the accident, as well as different fractionation conditions on the isobaric chain. Comparison of estimated results with the experimental data showed the value of the instant specific energy release in the Chernobyl NPP accident to be 2·105-2·106 J/Wt or 6·1014-6·1015 J (100-1,000 kt). This result is matched up to a total reactor power of 3,200 MWt. However this estimate is not comparable with the actual explosion scale estimated as 10t TNT. This suggests a local character of the instant nuclear energy release and makes it possible to estimate the mass of fuel involved in this explosion process to be from 0.01 to 0.1% of total quantity.

  16. A simplified Suomi NPP VIIRS dust detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yikun; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Jinshan; Wei, Jing; Su, Qinghua; Sun, Wenxiao; Liu, Fangwei; Shu, Meiyan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the complex characteristics of dust and sparse ground-based monitoring stations, dust monitoring is facing severe challenges, especially in dust storm-prone areas. Aim at constructing a high-precision dust storm detection model, a pixel database, consisted of dusts over a variety of typical feature types such as cloud, vegetation, Gobi and ice/snow, was constructed, and their distributions of reflectance and Brightness Temperatures (BT) were analysed, based on which, a new Simplified Dust Detection Algorithm (SDDA) for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP VIIRS) is proposed. NPP VIIRS images covering the northern China and Mongolian regions, where features serious dust storms, were selected to perform the dust detection experiments. The monitoring results were compared with the true colour composite images, and results showed that most of the dust areas can be accurately detected, except for fragmented thin dusts over bright surfaces. The dust ground-based measurements obtained from the Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System (MICAPS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index (OMI AI) products were selected for comparison purposes. Results showed that the dust monitoring results agreed well in the spatial distribution with OMI AI dust products and the MICAPS ground-measured data with an average high accuracy of 83.10%. The SDDA is relatively robust and can realize automatic monitoring for dust storms.

  17. Development of NPP Monitoring and Operation Support Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-04-15

    During the first stage (2001.7.1-2004.6.30), we developed general human factors design guidelines VDU-based workstations, PMAS alarm display design guidelines, PMAS SPADES display design guidelines, and the revision of KHNP HFE guidelines (HF-010), which have been applied to domestic NPP designs. We also supported other KNICS projects by performing RPS COM design reviews, development of RPS COM Style Guide, and a review of CEDMCS cabinet operator module display design. We developed the ADIOS prototype, NPP performance analysis systems for YGN No.1, 2 plants and Kori No. 2 plant, alarm cause tracking systems for Kori No. 2 plant and OPR1000, and signal fault detection and diagnosis methods for deaerators and steam generators. During the second stage(2004.7.1-2008.4.30), we supported other KNICS projects by reviewing RPS COM display designs three times, developing ESF-CCS COM style guides and reviewing ESF-CCS COM display design, reviewing CRCS LOM and PCS MTP display designs, and developing requirements for DCS GUI components. We also developed integrated style guide for I and C cabinet operator module display designs. In cooperative research with KOPEC-AE, we developed basic technologies for advanced HSI design including task analysis methods, an information and control requirements database, display design criteria, a HSI prototype with its evaluation, and methods for human factors engineering verification and validation.

  18. Modernization and power upgrading of the Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, A. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In 1995, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) started a project for modernization and power upgrading of the Loviisa NPP. The main objectives of the project are to ensure plant safety, to increase electricity production and to improve the expertise of the IVO staff. The total electricity output of Loviisa 1 and 2 units is planned to be increased by about 100 MW. This will be achieved through renovation of the steam turbines and through gradual increase in the thermal reactor power up to 1,500 MW from the present level of 1,375 MW. The Loviisa NPP Final Safety Analysis Report has been revised to a great extent in connection with the licensing process of the reactor power upgrading. The project also includes certain improvements in the primary and safety systems to ensure plant safety. The total cost estimate of the project is around 200 million FIM. The project implementation started in 1995 and in accordance with the plans in 2000 after several phases the last measures at power plant will be completed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  19. Highly Reliable NPP Instrumentation Using Constant Voltage Feedback Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung J.; Choi, Bo H.; Kim, Ji H.; Rim, Chun T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    A highly reliable nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation using constant voltage feedback circuits is proposed. Contrary to conventional NPP instrumentation, two operational amplifiers are used at auxiliary building to supply constant DC voltage across the potentiometer or wheatstone bridge type sensors, such as resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and strain gauges. The proposed constant voltage feedback circuits maintain its output voltage as constant regardless of the length of lead wire from the auxiliary building to the sensors. A detail analysis of the proposed feedback circuits and design procedures including the internal resistance and parasitic LC components of lead wire are presented. A prototype with lumped RLC values for modeling lead wires is fabricated and experimentally verified to supply constant 10V up to 200m distance under 0.8% error. Due to its versatile characteristics with cost effective structure, the proposed scheme can be generally extended to pressure meters and water-level recorders to guarantee robust measurements without conventional current transducers under severe accidents.

  20. Experience Practices on Decontamination Activity in NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju; Sohn, Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) involves various technical and administrative activities for a utility to terminate its license, which allows the plant site to be released from the regulatory control (site release). Decontamination activity in NPP decommissioning is one of the main technical activities to be performed during the decommissioning. The decontamination at decommissioning sites is usually performed due to several reasons such as reducing personnel dose and disposal costs, and cleanup to meet license termination requirements by using physical or chemical removal techniques proven through the previous experience practices. This paper introduces the best and worst practices for the decontamination activities collected from the decommissioning operational experiences through the implementation of nuclear decommissioning projects around the world. Review of the experiences of decontamination shows that it is important to conduct an advanced planning for optimized implementation of decontamination taking into considering site specific conditions such as operating time, reactor type, system, and so on. Also, a review of newer decontamination methods is necessary to safely and economically decommission the nuclear facility.

  1. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  2. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  3. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. (Inst. for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway)); Valkonen, J. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (author)

  4. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  5. Preparation method matters: Aiming at higher NPP diversity and representativeness in sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    of palynology in archaeological and forensic sciences. NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples may be numerous in types as well as in abundance. However, preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion potentially biases NPP assemblages because of differential damage or even...... dissolution of microfossils. In spite of this potential bias standard preparation procedures for pollen analysis have, in most cases without modification, generally been applied to palynological samples used for NPP analysis. We review briefly the advantages of high diversity NPP-analysis and preparation...

  6. Suggestion of a Framework to Analyze Failure Modes and Effect of Cyber Attacks in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Young; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans.

  7. Potential of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Imagery for Modeling the Regional Economy of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi Li; Huimin Xu; Xiaoling Chen; Chang Li

    2013-01-01

    ...) Satellite has become a new satellite used to monitor nighttime light. This study performed the first evaluation on the NPP-VIIRS nighttime light imagery in modeling economy, analyzing 31 provincial regions and 393 county regions in China...

  8. NPP Tropical Forest: Gunung Mulu, Malaysia, 1977-1978, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains seven ASCII data files (.txt format). Four files provide NPP data for contrasting lowland rainforests within Gunung Mulu National Park on the...

  9. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  10. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  11. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 34 grasslands, 14 tropical forests, and 5...

  12. BigFoot NPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered Net Primary Production (NPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each...

  13. BigFoot NPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered Net Primary Production (NPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each site is...

  14. NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, NPP Multi-Biome: Summary Data from Intensive Studies at 125 Sites, 1936-2006, contains a single shapefile that provides site-level summary statistics...

  15. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 34 grasslands, 14 tropical forests, and 5 boreal forest...

  16. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Osnabruck Data, 1937-1981, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files. The first file provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates, vegetation characteristics, and summary climate data for 720...

  17. NPP Multi-Biome: Gridded Estimates for Selected Regions Worldwide, 1954-1998, R3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files (.csv format) containing gridded (0.5-degree) estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), elevation, temperature,...

  18. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  19. NPP Tropical Forest: Barro Colorado, Panama, 1969-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). One file provides net primary productivity (NPP) data for the moist lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado...

  20. Search and Retrieval of Foreign Objects for the Steam Generator of Wolsung NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Ho [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We developed a foreign object search and retrieval (FOSAR) system for Wolsung NPP unit 1 steam generators. The steam generators of Wolsung NPP unit 1 have one 2.5 inch hand hole and two 4 inch hand holes. The FOSAR system was designed to be installed through 4 inch hand holes. Using permanent magnet, the FOSAR system was firmly attached to the vertical annulus wall of the steam generator. We successfully developed the FOSAR system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. Using the developed FOSAR system, technicians successfully found and removed various foreign objects. Most of the foreign objects, we found, were made of carbon steel sheet, therefore magnet tool was the most useful to remove it. Alligator tool was sometimes used. Based on the experience during the FOSAR activities, we are developing a lancing system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. It will be designed and manufactured until November 2016.

  1. NPP Tropical Forest: La Selva, Costa Rica, 1975-1994, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two data files with this data set in (.txt) format. The files contain net primary productivity (NPP) data and climate data for a mature tropical lowland...

  2. NPP Tropical Forest: Marafunga, Papua New Guinea, 1970-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII files (.txt format), one providing net primary production (NPP) component data for a lower montane rainforest and the other...

  3. NPP Grassland: Klong Hoi Khong, Thailand, 1984-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three data files in text format (.txt). One file contains monthly biomass measurements and Net Primary Productivity (NPP) estimates made...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-08 Ecosystem Demography Model Estimated C, NPP, and Biomass For Amazonia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Ecosystem Demography Model (ED) estimates of potential above-ground net primary production (NPP) (kg C/m2/y), potential average live...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-08 Ecosystem Demography Model Estimated C, NPP, and Biomass For Amazonia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Ecosystem Demography Model (ED) estimates of potential above-ground net primary production (NPP) (kg C/m2/y), potential average live biomass...

  6. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains documented field measurements of NPP components for 39 old-growth tropical forests distributed worldwide between latitudes 23.58 N and 23.58...

  7. VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Suomi NPP Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) developed at the NOAA NCDC is an intermediate product processing level (NOAA Level 1b) between a Raw Data Record (RDR)...

  8. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Net primary productivity (NPP) estimates were compiled by the Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI). The database covers 2,523 individual sites and 5,164...

  9. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  10. NPP Tropical Forest: Khao Chong, Thailand, 1962-1965, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one net primary productivity (NPP) data file and three climate data files (.txt format) for a fully closed tropical rainforest in the Khao...

  11. NPP Temperate Forest: OTTER Project Sites, Oregon, USA, 1989-1991, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates and associated field measurements for six sites located along the 250-km, west-east transect of the...

  12. Seismic site evaluation practice and seismic design guide for NPP in Continent of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yuxian [State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Geophysics

    1997-03-01

    Energy resources, seismicity, NPP and related regulations of the Continent of China are briefly introduced in the beginning and two codes related to the seismic design of NPP, one on siting and another on design, are discussed in some detail. The one on siting is an official code of the State Seismological Bureau, which specifies the seismic safety evaluation requirements of various kinds of structures, from the most critic and important structures such as NPP to ordinary buildings, and including also engineering works in big cities. The one on seismic design of NPP is a draft subjected to publication now, which will be an official national code. The first one is somewhat unique but the second one is quite similar to those in the world. (author)

  13. NPP Tropical Forest: Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1996-1997, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that quantifies net primary productivity (NPP) as a function of rainfall in mesic to wet montane rainforests on...

  14. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Bryophytes and lichens abound in many arctic ecosystems and can contribute substantially to the ecosystem net primary production (NPP). Because of their growth seasonality and their potential for growth out of the growing season peak, bryophyte and lichen contribution to NPP may be particularly...... significant when vascular plants are less active and ecosystems act as a source of carbon (C). To clarify these dynamics, nonvascular and vascular aboveground NPP was compared for a subarctic heath during two contrasting periods of the growing season, viz. early-mid summer and late summer-early autumn....... Nonvascular NPP was determined by assessing shoot biomass increment of three moss species (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum elongatum) and by scaling to ecosystem level using average standing crop. For D. elongatum, these estimates were compared with production estimates obtained from...

  15. NPP Tropical Forest: San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela, 1975-1984, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes five ASCII files (.txt format). Three files contain above- and below-ground biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) data, one file for each...

  16. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  17. NPP Cropland: Gridded Estimates For the Central USA, 1982-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single data file (.csv format) that provides gridded values of net primary productivity (NPP) for cropland in eight counties in the central...

  18. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Analysis of the seasonal behaviour of NPP, LAI, FPAR along climatic gradients across ecotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondeau, A. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Kaduk, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Kicklighter, D.W. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hale, MA (United States). Ecosystems Center

    1997-10-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of net primary production (NPP), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) and leaf area index (LAI) simulated by eleven global biospheric models are analysed using two transects covering a temperature and a precipitation gradient. The temperature transect crosses biomes such as tundra, boreal forest, temperate mixed forest, and temperate deciduous forest in North America. The precipitation transect crosses arid shrublands, savannas, and tropical forests in Africa. Two sites have been chosen from each of the two transects to examine the relationship between seasonal variations in NPP, FPAR and LAI in more detail, through the computation of the monthly absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and monthly light use efficiency (LUE). Seasonal variations in the climatic variables drive the seasonality of NPP, and depending if the simulated canopy responds to unfavourable periods or not, the seasonal NPP is determined by the seasonal APAR or the seasonal LUE. For the satellite-driven Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) using a standard climatology, the smooth seasonal variations are generally explained by the satellite observations, but the different strategies for processing the satellite data generate significant variability between models. Canopy Models differ widely, in particular with respect to LAI. This is visible over the evergreen forest s, though only a small part of the variability of the NPP seasonal profiles between models is explained by the LAI. Models disagree most on the description of the vegetation structure in savannas, where seasonal NPP is strongly dependent on the description of the canopy through both APAR and LUE. (orig./KW)

  19. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  20. Analysis of Steam Generators Corrosion Products from Slovak NPP Bohunice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Degmová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the nuclear industry is to increase the nuclear safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs. As the steam generator (SG is the most corrosion sensitive component of NPPs, it is important to analyze the corrosion process and optimize its construction materials to avoid damages like corrosion cracking. For this purpose two different kinds of SGs and its feed water distributing systems from the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice were studied by nondestructive Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were scraped from the surface and analyzed in transmission geometry. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the main components in the corrosion layers of both SGs. Dependant of the material the SG consisted of, and the location in the system where the samples were taken, the ratios between magnetite and hematite and the paramagnetic components were different. The obtained results can be used to improve corrosion safety of the VVER-440 secondary circuit as well as to optimize its water chemistry regime.

  1. Radiation dose optimization in the decommissioning plan for Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, R.; Eurajoki, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering (Finland)

    1995-03-01

    Finnish rules for nuclear power require a detailed decommissioning plan to be made and kept up to date already during plant operation. The main reasons for this {open_quotes}premature{close_quotes} plan, is, firstly, the need to demonstrate the feasibility of decommissioning, and, secondly, to make realistic cost estimates in order to fund money for this future operation. The decomissioning for Lovissa Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (2{times}445 MW, PWR) was issued in 1987. It must be updated about every five years. One important aspect of the plant is an estimate of radiation doses to the decomissioning workers. The doses were recently re-estimated because of a need to decrease the total collective dose estimate in the original plan, 23 manSv. In the update, the dose was reduced by one-third. Part of the reduction was due to changes in the protection and procedures, in which ALARA considerations were taken into account, and partly because of re-estimation of the doses.

  2. New engineering safety factors for Loviisa NPP core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko; Saarinen, Simo; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In Loviisa NPP, there are two limiting thermal margins called the enthalpy rise margin and the linear heat rate margin that are monitored during normal operation. Engineering safety factors are applied in determination of both of these factors. The factors take into account the effect of various manufacturing tolerances, impact of the irradiation and simulation uncertainties on the local heat rate and on the enthalpy of the coolant. The engineering factors were re-evaluated during 2015 and the factors were approved by the Finnish radiation and nuclear safety authority in 2016. The re-evaluation was performed by considering all of the identified phenomena that affect the local heat rate or the enthalpy of the coolant. This paper summarizes the work that was performed during the re-evaluation of the engineering safety factors and presents the results for each uncertainty component. The new engineering safety factors are 1.115 for the linear heat rate and 1.100 for the enthalpy rise margin when the old factors were 1.12 and 1.16, respectively. The new factors improve the fuel economy by about 1%.

  3. GNF2 advance fuel design and operation at Cofrentes NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Pedro [Iberdrola Generacion (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Iberdrola Nuclear Production nuclear fuel management policy has been focused in the fuel vendor diversification with the goal to improve the fuel efficiency and to maintain the security of fuel supply together with the availability of the most advanced fuel design. Thus, the most advanced fuel design developed by each vendor has been loaded in the Cofrentes NPP in order to achieve the demanding operating conditions including power up-rate and cycle length extension. In order to obtain the above goals, Iberdrola has developed an in-house methodology (Giralda Methodology) for the bundle and nuclear design and licensing of reload. This methodology, together with the support of fuel vendor, has been applied to perform the nuclear and cycle design for the operation of this new design to be loaded in Cofrentes next outage scheduled by September 2009. The GNF2 licensing process is going to be performed taken into account the feedback obtained during the licensing process with the Spanish Regulatory Body of former fuel designs loaded at the plant, as the SVEA Optima2 developed by Westinghouse and the Atrium10XP developed by Areva. Together with the design and licensing process, and associated with the expected change in plant water chemistry conditions due to the application of the Online Nobel Metal Injection a specific inspection plan has been defined to assure the expected performance of this advance fuel design at the plant. (authors)

  4. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R. J.; Warren, J. M.; Iversen, C. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  5. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University; McMurtrie, Ross [University of New South Wales; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  6. The regulatory requirements, design bases, researches and assessments in the field of Ukrainian NPP's seismic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykolaychuk, O.; Mayboroda, O.; Krytskyy, V.; Karnaukhov, O. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    State Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ukraine (SNRA) pays large attention to problem of nuclear installations seismic stability. As a result the seismic design regulatory guides is revised, additional seismic researches of NPP sites are conducted, seismic reassessment of NPP designs were begun. The experts involved address all seismic related factors under close contact with the staff of NPP, design institutes and research organizations. This document takes stock on the situation and the research programs. (author)

  7. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature Retrieved from NAVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguang Tu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The validation of sea surface temperature (SST retrieved from the new sensor Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite is essential for the interpretation, use, and improvement of the new generation SST product. In this study, the magnitude and characteristics of uncertainties in S-NPP VIIRS SST produced by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO are investigated. The NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST and eight types of quality-controlled in situ SST from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam are condensed into a Taylor diagram. Considering these comparisons and their spatial coverage, the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is then validated using collocated drifters measured SST via a three-way error analysis which also includes SST derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS onboard AQUA. The analysis shows that the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST is of high accuracy, which lies between the drifters measured SST and AQUA MODIS SST. The histogram of NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST root-mean-square error (RMSE shows normality in the range of 0–0.6 °C with a median of ~0.31 °C. Global distribution of NAVO VIIRS SST shows pronounced warm biases up to 0.5 °C in the Southern Hemisphere at high latitudes with respect to the drifters measured SST, while near-zero biases are observed in AQUA MODIS. It means that these biases may be caused by the NAVO S-NPP VIIRS SST retrieval algorithm rather than the nature of the SST. The reasons and correction for this bias need to be further studied.

  8. Handling of damaged spent fuel at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Ronny [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany); Bechtel, Sascha [Hoefer und Bechtel GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is situated in the north-eastern part of Lithuania close to the borders with Latvia and Belarus and on the shore of Lake Druksiai. It is approximately 120 km from the capital city Vilnius. The power plant has two RMBK type water cooled graphite moderated pressure tube reactors each of design capacity 1500MW(e). The start of operation of the Unit 1 was in 1983 and of the Unit 2 in 1987. In the period 1987 - 1991 (i.e. Soviet period) a small proportion of the existing spent nuclear fuel suffered minor to major damages. In the frame of decommissioning of INPP it is necessary that this damaged fuel is retrieved from the storage pools and stored in an interim spent fuel store. NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany) as part of a consortium with GNS mbH (Germany) was awarded the contract for an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (B1- ISFSF). This contract includes the design, procurement, manufacturing, supply and installation of a damaged fuel handling system (DFHS). Objective of this DFHS is the safe handling of spent nuclear fuel with major damages, which result in rupture of the cladding and potential loss of fuel pellets from within the cladding. Typical damages are bent fuel bundle skeletons, broken fuel rods, missing or damaged end plugs, very small gaps between fuel bundles, bent central rods between fuel bundles. The presented concept is designed for Ignalina NPP. However, the design is developed more generally to solve these problems with damaged fuel at other nuclear power plants applying these proven techniques. (orig.)

  9. Simulator experiments: effects of NPP operator experience on performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beare, A.N.; Gray, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the FY83 research, a simulator experiment was conducted at the control room simulator for a GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) NPP. The research subjects were licensed operators undergoing requalification training and shift technical advisors (STAs). This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of senior reactor operator (SRO) experience, operating crew augmentation with an STA and practice, as a crew, upon crew and individual operator performance, in response to anticipated plant transients. Sixteen two-man crews of licensed operators were employed in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The SROs leading the crews were split into high and low experience groups on the basis of their years of experience as an SRO. One half of the high- and low-SRO experience groups were assisted by an STA. The crews responded to four simulated plant casualties. A five-variable set of content-referenced performance measures was derived from task analyses of the procedurally correct responses to the four casualties. System parameters and control manipulations were recorded by the computer controlling the simulator. Data on communications and procedure use were obtained from analysis of videotapes of the exercises. Questionnaires were used to collect subject biographical information and data on subjective workload during each simulated casualty. For four of the five performance measures, no significant differences were found between groups led by high (25 to 114 months) and low (1 to 17 months as an SRO) experience SROs. However, crews led by low experience SROs tended to have significantly shorter task performance times than crews led by high experience SROs. The presence of the STA had no significant effect on overall team performance in responding to the four simulated casualties. The FY84 experiments are a partial replication and extension of the FY83 experiment, but with PWR operators and simulator.

  10. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    When illuminated by the Sun, the onboard solar diffuser (SD) panel provides a known spectral radiance source to calibrate the reflective solar bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on the Suomi-NPP satellite. The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) degrades over time due to solar exposure, and this degradation is measured using the SD stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM acts as a ratioing radiometer, comparing solar irradiance measurements off the SD panel to those from a direct Sun view. We discuss the design and operations of the SDSM, the SDSM data analysis, including improvements incorporated since launch, and present the results through 1000 days after launch. After 1000 days, the band-dependent H-factors, a quantity describing the relative degradation of the BRDF of the SD panel since launch, range from 0.716 at 412 nanometers to 0.989 at 926 nanometers. The random uncertainty of these H-factors is about 0.1 percent, which is confirmed by the similar standard deviation values computed from the residuals of quadratic exponential fits to the H-factor time trends. The SDSM detector gains have temperature sensitivity of up to about 0.36 percent per kelvin, but this does not affect the derived H-factors. An initial error in the solar vector caused a seasonal bias to the H-factors of up to 0.5 percent. The total exposure of the SD panel to UV light after 1000 orbits is equivalent to about 100 hours of direct sunlight illumination perpendicular to the SD panel surface.

  11. An overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS calibration maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-09-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Onorbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multiorbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper provides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  12. Development of Information Datasheets of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Equipment using cfiXLM schema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho; Song, Eunhye [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In 2009, EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute) published a new NPP information handover guide to provide NPP owners and operators with data handover templates in consistent format for effective delivery of information during all stages of the handover process. Another difficult concern for NPP data information management is to exchange the data information among many organizations such as NPP owners, operators, engineering companies, suppliers, and vendors. As a matter of fact, the improperly formatted handover of information sometimes occurs due to the discrepancy of data format (e. g., data description language type). This improper delivery can make negative effects on NPP integrity and safety. Thus, the lack of proper exchange for different data information systems of organizations should be resolved by using an international standard data format. The standard data format can reduce the cost and time for data exchange in each phase for design, procurement, delivery, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment. The AEX(automating equipment information exchange) pilot implementation project team under EPRI advanced nuclear technology (ANT) program has been conducted a research for the use of XML equipment schemas for electronic data exchange(EDE). They applied XML equipment schema for the design, selection, quotation, purchase and mock install of a safety injection centrifugal pump using EDE standard HI(hydraulic institute) 50.7. For data exchange, FIATECH, an industry consortium, has equally developed library of templates and reference data for ISO-15926, which is an international standard capable of reducing data-error and delivery time for exchanging data among different organizations. KHNP as an only owner/operator company has not experienced much difficulty in data interoperability with other organizations, but continued its unremitting exertions to develop a robust system capable of managing data information generated in all the stages of NPP

  13. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors.

  14. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of carbon (C taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years and seasonal (for 1 year scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique.

    The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr−1, 29% yr−1 and 39% yr−1, respectively was significant among years with up to 12% yr−1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the

  15. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  16. Activities of Cofrentes NPP lifetime management; Actividades de Gestion de Vida de CNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. J.; Gomez, J.; Martorell, S.; Uribe, O.

    2004-07-01

    Cofrentes NPP Plan Life Management main objective is to monitor and control structures, system/components (SSCs) ageing to secure NPP design life (following Spanish Nuclear Industry Methodology) and keep open the renewal of NPP Operating License beyond their designed life (10 CFR 54). Following action are developed: selection of critical components (120), study of ageing mechanism and evaluation of maintenance practices, remaining SSC. to be completed by 2007. In addition to this scope Cofrentes has added components according to 10 CFR 54. For concrete structures study a data base is used which tracks condition and history, providing their following and tracing. Finally, a life indicator system is under development, to make possible to follow-up SSC operational life through evaluation and indicators analysis, considering all parameters that affect them for both active and passive components and to track indicator trends, Q. A. and efficiency of the plant life management system. (Author)

  17. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  18. NPP/VIIRS Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VNP09GA_NRT is a Near Real Time (NRT) S-NPP/VIIRS 500m and 1km Daily Level 2G Surface Reflectance product. The NPP/ VIIRS surface reflectance products are...

  19. Application of ultrasonic method for testing corrosion state of NPP equipment and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Yu.V.; Grebennikov, V.V.; Grigor' ev, M.V.; Glek, Yu.S.

    1984-01-01

    Experience of using non-destructive ultrasonic testing of NPP equipment and pipelines is described. The method is applied for determination of general corrosion rate of structures of carbon and alloyed steels under operation as well as for disclosure and measurement of the depth of cracks on articles and pipelines of 08Kh18N10T steel. The testing is necessary for opportune NPP shut-down for repair as well as for determination of the resource of further operation of non-repairable structures. Specifications of ultrasonic thickness gauges flow detectors and flaw meters used for testing are given.

  20. Financial and economical aspects for decommissioning of NPP in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.; Schlingensiepen, D. [RWE Power AG, Corporate Communications, Stuettgenweg 2, 50935 Cologne (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    enclosure (2). Of RWE Power's reactors, two of them are currently decommissioned, one is in safe enclosure and for one reactor the application to decommission has been filed. The choice whether to file the application to the regulatory authorities to decommission the plant immediately after the termination of power production or to create a plant status of safe enclosure for a longer time (e.g. 30 years) and subsequently remove the plant afterwards is to the operator. The decisive factor is the operator's appraisal of the relevant technical and economical influencing factors. Experience shows that this evaluation has to be operator- and plant-specific. Either methodology implies benefits and disadvantages which have to be considered. Furthermore the operator has to decide whether the decommissioning project will be managed and executed with its own personnel or by an external contractor. The long established German legal framework obliges the operators of NPPs to ensure the safe decommissioning of the NPP and the safe and orderly disposal of all originating wastes. This obligation creates a legally defined liability of the NPP operator to decommission the nuclear installation. To ensure that the means to fulfill the obligation are available, the operator has to provide for the necessary provisions for nuclear liabilities in the balance sheet. Thus these provisions are accumulated internally. The calculation of these provisions takes into account the costs for idle operation after termination of power production, the costs for actual removal of the plant and the costs of final disposal of all wastes. Currently the European Commission is discussing proposals to establish a system of guaranteed external funds to cover the expected expenses for nuclear decommissioning. A uniform funds-concept on EU-level would discriminate against the German nuclear utilities in relation to their competitors. The different degree of liberalization established in the European countries

  1. Filtration Algorithms of Untrustworthy Analogous Information in APCS at TPP and NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers filtration algorithms of untrustworthy analogous information in APCS at TTP and NPP that make it possible to identify credibility of information transmitted through communication channels in the form of signals and which are continuously changeable in the regime of real time.

  2. Water chemistry of secondary circuit and SG currently status NPP 'Kozloduy' 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, K. [Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria)

    2002-07-01

    The author gives a historical review of the secondary water chemistry regimes of NPP Kozloduy Unit 3. Results of eddy current inspection on the steam generator of Unit 5 and quantity of the deposits on the surfaces of steam generator during 1989-2001 inspections are given. (uke)

  3. Kinematics of Reference Height Network on the Territory of Rivne Npp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Petrov, Sergiy; Bokhonko, Sergiy; Babiy, Lyubov; Shpakivskyy, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    Rivne Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is located in western Ukraine. Construction of the station began in 1976. Totally four power generating units are operating on the station. Complicated geological conditions and display of man-made karst led to the need for monitoring of sediments and deformations on Rivne NPP. Since 1984 on the Rivne NPP there were conducted geodetic observations on the conditions of height reference network consisting of nine deep fixed reference points, which are installed in basaltic rocks. Totally 110 cycles of observations were conducted. The heights of fixed reference points were determined by leveling of I-st class. It is necessary to assess the kinematics of the reference height network and implement zoning of station territory according to a speed of inclination of the earth's surface. An average annual rates of displacement which appear as a linear trend weredetermined on the results of measurements for each fixed reference point by the least squares method. Excluding these values the vertical displacements of fixed reference points were derived and only the periodic component that is changing according to the periodic law remained present there. For each fixed reference point it was determined amplitude and optimum oscillation period and the coefficients of regression equations. Using the annual velocity of displacement of fixed reference points it was done the zoning of the Rivne NPP. There were allocated areas, which were characterized by different rates of inclinations and frequency of oscillations

  4. An Analysis of Cyber-Attack on NPP Considering Physical Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joonbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some research teams performed related works on cyber-physical system which is a system that cyber-attack can lead to serious consequences including product loss, damage, injury and death when it is attacked. They investigated the physical impact on cyber-physical system due to the cyber-attack. But it is hard to find the research about NPP cyber security considering the physical impact or safety. In this paper, to investigate the relationship between physical impact and cyber-attack, level 1 PSA results are utilized in chapter 2 and cyber-attack analysis is performed in chapter 3. The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans.

  5. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing the terrestrial ecosystem has had a positive response to climate change. MME NPP has increased. 3.647PgC during historical period, which shows an increasing temporal trend of 3.9 gCm ..... In reality, the terrestrial ecosystem is a complex variable, which can be effected by many factors, such as climate, CO2, human ...

  6. VIIRS/NPP Active Fires 6-Min L2 Swath 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VNP14IMG_NRT is a Near Real Time (NRT) S-NPP/VIIRS 375 m active fire detection data product (Schroeder 2014). The product is built on the EOS/MODIS fire product...

  7. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  8. Effect of dietary NPP level and phytase supplementation on the laying performance over one year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Tischler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our trial was aimed to study the effect of different dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP levels with and without phytase enzyme supplementation on laying performance and eggshell quality of Tetra SL-LL in the last 25 weeks of the long-term (17 months egg production. A total of 69 Tetra SL-LL layers were allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Two diets with different levels of NPP (2.45 or 2.15 g/kg, HP and LP, respectively were formulated, and 0 or 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme was added to low NPP feed (LP and LP+E, respectively. Dietary Ca was uniformly adjusted (38.2 g/kg to feed in each treatment. In the course of the trial, intensity of egg production (%, egg weight (g/egg, number of the broken eggs and feed intake (g/d/bird were recorded. Every 2 weeks 20 eggs per treatment were broken to determine the shell strength and thickness. Our results show that low NPP diet had detrimental effect on the intensity of egg production (P<0.05 and phytase added to the LP diet resulted the lowest number of broken eggs (P<0.05. In conclusion, NPP content of the layer diet can be reduced from 2.45 to 2.15 g/kg in the last 25 weeks of the elongated laying term (12-17 month of laying, if supplemented with 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme without compromising the egg production, and in the same time it can improve eggshell quality and reduce the number of broken eggs.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study.

  10. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is crucial for the nuclear power plant project decision makers and management personnel to identify the actual factors of construction delay and their ranking in order to take preventive actions. NPP project is complex in nature and the construction phase is one of the most key phase which is subject to many factors result from many sources. From experience, nuclear projects have faced challenges similar to other complex mega projects with additional nuclear specific issues and life time cost of nuclear reactor is concentrated upfront as capital cost, and therefore delays in construction may become intolerable in terms of both lost revenues and interest on the capital. Budget over-runs and delays on next generation new build nuclear projects in recent years clearly demonstrate that the nuclear industry continues to repeat its failed management and project control processes of the past. Similar to major infra-structure projects, actual completion times can vary substantially from initial estimates but this uncertainty is too crucial to the nuclear industry due to high levels of capital at risk, for every year a project is delayed the levelized cost of electricity increases by approximately 8-10%. causes of delay, to develop a generalized AHP model for delay factors, and to prioritize the risk in different factors in various levels of construction phase in international turnkey NPP project. This paper describes and prioritizes Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay factor for turnkey international project. This study also determines the different party's importance in percentage behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), financial and country factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%). Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected

  11. Determining the contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP variations over the last decade in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Chen, Dongxiang; Wei, Zongqiang; Dai, Liang; Li, Xingong

    2014-02-15

    Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) is an important measure of global change, and identifying the relative contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP is important for understanding the impact of human and natural influences on terrestrial systems and the carbon cycle. The objective of this study was to reveal how urbanisation and climate drive changes in NPP. Satellite-based estimates of NPP collected over a 12-year period (1999-2010) were analysed to identify NPP variations in the Yangtze River Delta. Temporal and spatial analysis methods were used to identify the relationships among NPP, nighttime light urbanisation index values, and climatic factors from pixel to regional scales. The NPP of the entire Yangtze River Delta decreased slightly at a rate of -0.5 g C m(-2)a(-1) from 1999 to 2010, but this change was not significant. However, in the urban region, NPP decreased significantly (pclimate change to NPP variation. The results revealed that the urbanisation factor is the main driving force for NPP change in high-speed urbanisation areas, and the factor accounted for 47% of the variations. However, in the forest and farm regions, the NPP variation was mainly controlled by climate change and residual factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NPP/VIIRS Moderate-Resolution Dual Gain Bands Calibrated Radiance 6-Min L1B Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1 and Level-2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  13. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  14. Multifunctional backup electricity supply for NPP auxiliary needs based on combined-cycle power plant with hydrogen overheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Yurin

    2016-12-01

    The proposed system allows ensuring supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP during more than 72h. Use of the steam turbine plant included in the composition of the combined cycle gas turbine unit is possible for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in case of failure of gas turbine plants. Steam turbine can be operated due to the generation of additional steam during incineration of hydrogen in oxygen. With appropriate modernization the system allows using decay heat released in the nuclear reactor core. It was established that the proposed option of combining NPP with combined cycle gas turbine unit in combination with hydrogen generating complex allows enhancing reliability of supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in emergency conditions accompanied with loss of electric power supply.

  15. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  16. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  17. Development of Auto-tuning System for the Process Optimal Control of Wolsung NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, M.H.; Park, I.S.; Shin, C.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This was written as the research final report of {sup D}evelopment of Auto-tuning System for the Process Optimal Control of Wolsung NPP{sup (}95ZS13). In this research, a new PID controller auto-tuning algorithm and Auto-tuning System which can simulate and analyze control system performance have been developed for process optimal control of Wolsung NPP. The developed algorithm can estimate a process model without using test signal generation and calculate the optimal PID control parameters which can satisfy desired control performances. The system can be used in the PID controller tuning or retuning of operating plants or initial startup plants as well as fossil plants. (author). 40 refs., 117 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. Impact of EM Emissions from WSN Nodes on Sensitive Protection Equipment in NPP - an experimental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataul, Bari; Wang, Quan; Jin, Jiang; Chen, Dongyi [University of Western Ontario, Ontario (China); Li, Liqian [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River (Canada); Chen, Dongyi [University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    There is a concern about the impacts of EMI/RFI from wireless devices on the sensitive instruments in the existing safety and protection systems in a NPP. This concern is legitimate, as several shut downs of NPPs have been attributed to the EMI/RFI from the wireless devices. However, these experiences are mostly due the use of higher-powered wireless devices such as a walkie-talkie. In contrast, a typical low-power WSN module, operating at a higher frequency bands appears to have minimal EMI/RFI impacts to safety instruments. The case studies and experimental results have also supported this observation. It is therefore concluded that a WSN system that uses low-power transmitters and operates at high frequency bands cause no noticeable adverse effects to the instruments in safety related I and C systems in a NPP.

  19. Estimation of air tritium concenration around Wolsung NPP site using a Lagrangian atmopsheric dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. C.; Lee, K. B.; Song, Y. I. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. N. [KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    A Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model(K-LADM) combining a three dimensional sea-land breeze model has been developed and applied to the estimation of the quaterly and the annual averaged air tritium concentration around Wolsung NPP site. The estimated concentrations were compared with the observed concentration data. The results showed that the present Lagrangian Atmospheric dispersion model(K-LADM) provided very good agreement with the observations.

  20. Computer modeling and simulators as part of university training for NPP operating personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers aspects of a program for training future nuclear power plant personnel developed by the NPP Department of Ivanovo State Power Engineering University. Computer modeling is used for numerical experiments on the kinetics of nuclear reactors in Mathcad. Simulation modeling is carried out on the computer and full-scale simulator of water-cooled power reactor for the simulation of neutron-physical reactor measurements and the start-up - shutdown process.

  1. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  2. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  3. Integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites—A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Senthil, E-mail: cskumar@igcar.gov.in [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Hassija, Varun; Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramaniyan, V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Framework for integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites. • Categorization of external and internal events. • Modelling of key issues: mission time, cliff-edge, common cause failures, etc. • Safety goals for multi-unit NPP sites. • Comparison of site core damage frequency in one, two, three and four unit sites. - Abstract: Most of the nuclear power producing sites in the world houses multiple units. Such sites are faced with hazards generated from external events: earthquake, tsunami, flood, etc. and can threaten the safety of nuclear power plants. Further, risk from a multiple unit site and its impact on the public and environment was evident during the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. It is therefore important to evolve a methodology to systematically assess the risk from multi-unit site. For a single unit site, probabilistic risk assessment technique identifies the potential accident scenarios, their consequences, and estimates the core damage frequency that arise due to internal and external hazards. This challenging task becomes even more complex for a multiple unit site, especially when the external hazards that has the potential to generate one or more correlated hazards or a combination of non-correlated hazards are to be modelled. This paper presents an approach to evaluate risk for multiple NPP sites and also compare the risk for sites housing single, double and multiple nuclear plants.

  4. Development of seismic safety reevaluation procedure considering the ageing of NPP facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Kue [Jeonju Univ., Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. M. [Cheonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Cheong, S. H.; Kim, I. S.; Lee, M. G.; Kim, D. O. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G. H. [Mokpo National Maritime Univ., Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    There are three of Nuclear Power Plants subject to the USI A-46 in Korea, including Kori No 1 and No 2 and Wolsung No 1. For the sake of resolution of the issue the possibility of adopting the GIP developed by the SQUG in USA is very high. In relation to the issue, this study addresses some technical improvements of the GIP including sloshing analysis based on multiple modes, seismic retrofit of cabinet for reduction of ICRS and modification of IRS depending on damping ratio. Dominant degradation factor and its affects NPP concrete elements are reviewed : chloride induced corrosion, carbonation of concrete elements, freezing and thawing of concrete elements, chemical and biological process, crack affect on concrete degradation. Various technical reports and papers about age-related degradation are reviewed for identification of degradation properties of NPP structures and components and degradation trend in NPP structures and components. This report summarizes numerical model for concrete degradation and development procedure of numerical models for concrete degradation. This report proposes the research necessity for performance evaluation of degraded concrete structure and selection of element for further study.

  5. An overview of the ENEA activities in the field of coupled codes NPP simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, C.; Negrenti, E.; Sepielli, M. [ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Santa Maria di Galeria, 00123, Rome (Italy); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA Brasimone Research Center, Camugnano, 40032 (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the nuclear research activities in the fields of safety, training and education, ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Sustainable Development) is in charge of defining and pursuing all the necessary steps for the development of a NPP engineering simulator at the 'Casaccia' Research Center near Rome. A summary of the activities in the field of the nuclear power plants simulation by coupled codes is here presented with the long term strategy for the engineering simulator development. Specifically, results from the participation in international benchmarking activities like the OECD/NEA 'Kalinin-3' benchmark and the 'AER-DYN-002' benchmark, together with simulations of relevant events like the Fukushima accident, are here reported. The ultimate goal of such activities performed using state-of-the-art technology is the re-establishment of top level competencies in the NPP simulation field in order to facilitate the development of Enhanced Engineering Simulators and to upgrade competencies for supporting national energy strategy decisions, the nuclear national safety authority, and the R and D activities on NPP designs. (authors)

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Onsite Atmospheric Dispersion Factor in Westinghouse type NPP in KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Song, Dong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ARCON96 is a NRC licensed air dispersion model to evaluate onsite atmospheric relative concentration X/Q. The purpose of this paper is to provide some results for checking and testing the functionalities of ARCON96. Specially, this code is optimized to estimate a habitability of control room. Since NUREG 0737 issue, the control room habitability has been studied for a FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). Some assumptions and methodology is used in this paper. Some methodology is introduced in this paper. The reason of the selection of 2-loop Westinghouse NPP is because of carrying out the study project for the 2-loop Westinghouse NPP in the condition of the defueled NPP condition. Onsite atmospheric dispersion factor sensitivity is performed. Key impact factor is reviewed. Some results are below: a. Time averaged effect of X/Q is timely increased. b. ARCON96 code is more conservative at the low wind speed conditions. c. Building wake impact is significant in the condition of unstable atmospheric class with more than 7m/sec of wind speed. d. Plume meander effect is strong when the distance from the release point is small. e. The other plume meander effect is strong when the meander duration time is accumulated Finally, these results show that the appropriate conservation of ARCON96 is appeared in some conditions. Also these results seem to be in good agreement with NRC Regulatory Guide and positions.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709.

  8. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in prostate cancer patients: influence of Gleason score, treatment and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Vanessa; Maders, Liési D K; Bagatini, Margarete D; Battisti, Iara E; Bellé, Luziane P; Santos, Karen F; Maldonado, Paula A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Schetinger, Maria R C; Morsch, Vera M

    2013-04-01

    The relation between adenine nucleotides and cancer has already been described in literature. Considering that the enzymes ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) act together to control nucleotide levels, we aimed to investigate the role of these enzymes in prostate cancer (PCa). E-NPP and ADA activities were determined in serum and platelets of PCa patients and controls. We also verified the influence of the Gleason score, bone metastasis and treatment in the enzyme activities. Platelets and serum E-NPP activity increased, whereas ADA activity in serum decreased in PCa patients. In addition, Gleason score, metastasis and treatment influenced E-NPP and ADA activities. We may propose that E-NPP and ADA are involved in the development of PCa. Moreover, E-NPP and ADA activities are modified in PCa patients with distinct Gleason score, with bone metastasis, as well as in patients under treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  10. MetEd Resources for Embracing Advances with S-NPP and JPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2014-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. For many years COMET's satellite education programs have focused on developing self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. This presentation provides a tour of COMET's satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Over 90 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Satellite" topic area. Quite a few polar-orbiting-related lessons are available in both English, Spanish, and French. Additionally, S-NPP and JPSS relevant information can also be found on the the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc) that is maintained by COMET. The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to

  11. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Radiation protection monitoring zone population NPP according to experts in case of emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilipko, V A; Shevchenko, K K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to peer review the implementation of protective measures to limit public exposure surveillance zone NPP in case of emergency considering laws and regulations. Survey method using expert assessments were used. Experts were formed in four groups who are respon sible for radiation protection of various groups surveillance zone of RNPP. Requirements to selections experts were professional experience not less than 10 years, the profile and post. For primary empirical data was used simple ordering of values of an even or consistent comparison. According to experts, measures warning, provision of stable iodine preparations, provision of collective (protective constructions, hiding place) and personal protective equipment (clothing, gauze bandages, respirators, mask), material and technical equipment at the Rivne NPP could be significantly different in rural and urban sur veillance zone in the case of emergency. Group risk in case of an emergency, can become students of rural schools surveillance zone due to imperfect warning system and lack of shelter facilities. There is no consensus among experts on radiation protection assessments of various groups surveillance zone, including provision of means of individual and collective protection, preparedness protective actions in case of emergency. State radiation protection surveillance zone Rivne NPP, including a system of organizational, techni cal, biomedical, financial and economic measures to prevent and respond to the National Assembly, does not meet the laws of Ukraine "On Nuclear Energy Use and Radiation Safety" and "On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character ", requiring State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate (SNRI) of Ukraine on this question. V. A. Prilipko, K. K. Shevchenko.

  13. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP) candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Shazmeen Daniar; Basri, Nor Afifah; Omar, Nurlyana; Koh, Meng-Hock; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saridan Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA) is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point of view of

  14. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. [Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway); Valkonen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  15. SEARCH FOR THE BEST POWER CONTROL PROGRAM AT NPP WITH VVER-1000 USING GRADIENT DESCENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Pelykh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is regarded to the search for the best power control program at nuclear power plant (NPP with VVER- 1000 by gradient descent method for the objective function, which includes the criteria of efficiency, safety and damage. Criteria normalization to the maximum value is carried out when looking for the minimum of the objective function because criteria have different physical nature. There were chosen such objective criteria as depth of fuel burn-up, index of the fuel cladding damage and axial offset - the ratio of the energy at the top and bottom of the reactor core.

  16. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Shazmeen Daniar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point

  17. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  18. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  19. Radionuclide Distribution in the Soil on the Stabatishkes Site in the Vicinity of the Ignalina NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Aliončik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A near surface repository for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste will be built on the Stabatiškės site in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP during decommissioning works. The reservoir can also be used for the waste stored in the temporary repositories of the Ignalina NPP. Engineering and nature protective barriers are used in the repository for radioactive waste, however, radionuclides can spread into the environment, extend in the biosphere and cause (define the external power light exposure of the environment due to the natural and premature (prescheduled degradation of the engineering barriers of the repository. The properties of the soil (acidity, quantity of organic substances, humidity are being investigated for estimating the possible migration and dispersion of radionuclides. The activity of radionuclides in the soil is also estimated before building the repository. Natural and artificial radionuclides make the pollution of the soil, and therefore the accumulation and vertical migration of artificial (137Cs, 60Co and natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K radionuclides are being researched in the soil on the Stabatiškės site.Article in Lithuanian

  20. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  1. A Model-based Approach to Scaling GPP and NPP in Support of MODIS Land Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Cohen, W. B.; Gower, S. T.; Ritts, W. D.

    2003-12-01

    Global products from the Earth-orbiting MODIS sensor include land cover, leaf area index (LAI), FPAR, 8-day gross primary production (GPP), and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution. The BigFoot Project was designed specifically to validate MODIS land products, and has initiated ground measurements at 9 sites representing a wide array of vegetation types. An ecosystem process model (Biome-BGC) is used to generate estimates of GPP and NPP for each 5 km x 5 km BigFoot site. Model inputs include land cover and LAI (from Landsat ETM+), daily meteorological data (from a centrally located eddy covariance flux tower), and soil characteristics. Model derived outputs are validated against field-measured NPP and flux tower-derived GPP. The resulting GPP and NPP estimates are then aggregated to the 1 km resolution for direct spatial comparison with corresponding MODIS products. At the high latitude sites (tundra and boreal forest), the MODIS GPP phenology closely tracks the BigFoot GPP, but there is a high bias in the MODIS GPP. In the temperate zone sites, problems with the timing and magnitude of the MODIS FPAR introduce differences in MODIS GPP compared to the validation data at some sites. However, the MODIS LAI/FPAR data are currently being reprocessed (=Collection 4) and new comparisons will be made for 2002. The BigFoot scaling approach permits precise overlap in spatial and temporal resolution between the MODIS products and BigFoot products, and thus permits the evaluation of specific components of the MODIS NPP algorithm. These components include meteorological inputs from the NASA Data Assimilation Office, LAI and FPAR from other MODIS algorithms, and biome-specific parameters for base respiration rate and light use efficiency.

  2. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Condition of 137Cs Activity in Karimunjawa Waters and its Distribution When an NPP Jepara is Operated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Muslim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Karimunjawa islands are located in the middle of the Java Sea, approximately 83 km northwest of Jepara city. These islands have become an Indonesian marine tourism destination and since 2001 had been designated as a national park. The Indonesian government has chosen Muria peninsula in the district of Jepara, Indonesia as a site for a potential nuclear power plant (NPP. The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of radiocesium (137Cs activity and forecast its spread if an NPP is operated at Jepara. To determine the distribution of 137Cs in Karimunjawa waters, a sampling of water was done in six stations. Simulation modeling was used to map the distribution of 137Cs should an NPP be constructed in Jepara. The results showed that 137Cs activity in Karimunjawa waters ranges from 0.12 to 0.39 mBq.L-1 with an average of 0.24 mBq.L-1. This value is slightly higher than previous studies in the coastal waters of Gresik, which had an average activity of 0.200 mBq.L-1 because the waters around Karimunjawa have a lower dilution rate than the coastal waters of Gresik. However, these values were considerably lower than those in the waters of Northeast Japan before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident which registered 137Cs activity at 2-3 mBq.L-1.This indicates that 137Cs in Karimunjawa is not entirely from Fukushima rather from the global fallout. The 137Cs distribution model suggests that after 15 days, a leakage in the Muria Peninsula nuclear plant will not contaminate Karimunjawa waters because the current in the Java Sea is relatively weak and dominant in the westward direction. Thus, when an NPP leak only runs for 15 days, Karimunjawa waters remain safe. Keyword: 137Cs, Karimunjawa, NPP, modeling, Muria Peninsula

  4. Analysis of World Nuclear Market and Strategy of Korean NPP's Competitiveness Improvement for Exportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    China, India and USA (nuclear adopted countries) are planning tremendous number of NPPs to meet their increasing electricity demand and Saudi Arabia, Vietnam (nuclear adopting countries) are also planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix as a long-term plan. Korea has exported 4 units of APR1400 to the UAE in December, 2009. Korea became sixth NPP supplier country and our economic feasibility and safety features were started to evaluate worldwide. Nuclear industries became a new driver of Korea’s export and nuclear industries in Korea are now expecting another NPP export to Middle-eastern countries, including UAE and Saudi Arabia, based on the first-mover’s advantage at the UAE. In 2000s, five countries (Japan, USA, France, Russia and Korea), which are able to build NPP, focused on NPP export more than domestic construction. Global trend of world nuclear market changed rapidly, especially after NPP export to the UAE. By the global trend, hegemony of nuclear market migrated from supplier country to buyer country. Nuclear companies started cooperating rather than competing. Financing to developing countries become more important. In general, one of the considerable combinations is Korea-Japan-USA alliance. Korea is in charge of EPC, Japan supports financing and deficient technology (with USA partner), and Japan-USA handles fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle based on new agreed terms of ROK-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. This combination was judged to best way to collaborate with global companies. Paying attention to many delayed (or potentially delayed) constructions from Russia, intercepting the construction work will be available in case of contracted countries. Korea can emphasize the short construction time, high responsiveness and mild/equal diplomatic position to the target countries.

  5. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE OF NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ENVELOPE WALLS TECHNICAL CONDITION OF NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  6. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment; accident analysis of Wolsong-NPP for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Kim, T. M.; Cho, C. H.; Hur, J. Y.; On, M. R.; Hwang, H. R.; Ahn, Z. K.; Kang, D. I. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Accident analysis of Wolsong NPP for DUPIC fuel is accomplished as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle technology development between the light water reactor and the heavy water reactor. Some analyses are performed for the thermohydraulic and radionuclide behaviour inside containment, radionuclide dispersion through atmosphere and public dose calculation after large loss of coolant accident. Wolsong 2 design data are used for containment model. For comparison with the result for natural uranium (NU) core, 100 % reactor outlet header break is selected for the limiting case which resulted in the significant public dose in Wolsong 2,3,4 FSAR. Single failure and dual failure cases, which are distinguished whether containment subsystem is working or not, are analyzed. PRESCON2 code for the thermohydraulic behaviour inside containment, SMART code for the radionuclide behaviour and PEAR code for atmospheric dispersion and the public dose calculation are used. 10 refs., 52 figs., 28 tabs. (Author)

  7. The optimal approach for the processes of verification and validation of NPP software and hardware complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, S.; Tolokonsky, A.; Rogov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the task of increasing the quality of software and hardware complex development has not lost its urgency. The problem mentioned has still been solving by the search of an optimal structure, stage content and life cycle processes. The current system of international standards has been developed on the basis of advanced software complexes for aviation, space and defense industries being designed during the second half of the 20th century. However, it lacks a holistic approach for verification and validation. The paper presents the analysis of Russian and international regulatory framework and current verification and validation methods in the context of the life cycle of NPP software and hardware complexes. Basing on the data obtained, a new approach for verification and validation methods has been introduced.

  8. Development of Rainfall-Discharge Model for Future NPP candidate Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji-hong; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    By this study, most suitable model for future nuclear power plant site in Yeongdeok to be used to predict peak amount of riverine flooding was developed by examining historical rainfall and discharge data from the nearest gage station which is Jodong water level gage station in Taehwa basin. Sitting a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires safety analyses that include the effects of extreme events such as flooding or earthquake. In light of South Korean government's 15-year power supply plan that calls for the construction of new nuclear power station in Yeongdeok, it becomes more important to site new station in a safe area from flooding. Because flooding or flooding related accidents mostly happen due to extremely intense rainfall, it is necessary to find out the relationship between rainfall and run-off by setting up feasible model to figure out the peak flow of the river around nuclear related facilities.

  9. Photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells grown by OMVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S.; Singh, K.; Bhimnathwala, H.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)/p/p(+) homojunction InP solar cells fabricated by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are described. The cells are characterized by I-V, C-V and quantum efficiency measurements, and simulations are used to obtain various device and material parameters. The I-V characteristics show a high recombination rate in the depletion region; this is shown to be independent of the impurity used. It is shown that cadmium is easier to use as an acceptor for the p base and p(+) buffer and is therefore beneficial. The high quantum efficiency of 98 percent at long wavelengths measured in these cells indicates a very good collection efficiency in the base. The short-wavelength quantum efficiency is poor, indicating a high surface recombination.

  10. VPBER-600 passive safety reactor plant for the medium size NPP of new generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovsky, G.M.; Kuznetsov, L.E.; Novikov, V.V.; Panov, Yu.K.; Runov, B.I.

    1993-12-31

    VPBER-600 (RP) a vessel type PWR for the enhanced safety nuclear power plant of new generation as compared with the existing ones is discussed in the paper. The enhanced safety level is achieved through adoption of the following design decisions: primary circuit leak tight arrangement; integral reactor type; guard vessel for reactor and primary circuit systems accomodation; passive safety systems that do not require external power and control actions for actuation, or initiated from self-actuated devices. VPBER-600 RP safety level allows to use the plant both in NPP and in co-generation plant located near heat consumers. Scheme and design decisions adopted in the RP are described and main technical data are given in the paper. The focus is on the design decisions that provide realization of the formulated safety concept.

  11. TRITIUM IN URINE OF PEOPLE LIVING IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF THE BELOYARSKAYA NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Chebotina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to determine relationship between tritium concentration in the body fluid (urine of people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP and tritium concentration in drinking water.Materials and methods. Studed population (men and women. Urine samples were collected in the clinical laboratory of a medical unit in Zarechny town. There were 50 individuals in the studied group. Patients were different on age and weight. Water samples were collected in an arbitrary way, through the all study period, from October to November in 2015 year. Tritium concentrations were determined with the ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus-1220 (USA. The facility developed by L.G. Bondareva was used for tritium extraction. The method allowes to separate the template, which significantly effects determination of tritium.Results. The urine samples from people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP in Zarechny town were analyzed in the study. There was positive relationship between tritium concentration in drinking water and tritium concentration in urine. Statistically significant correlation between analyzed parameters was found (correlation coefficient 0.98; significance level 0,007. Individual doses were estimated according to Harrison, Khursheed, Lambert. The Doses vary from 0,32 to 1,12 with an allowance for consumption of drinking water 100 l y–1 (according to the consumption standard for the analyzed region, which amounts 0,032–0,12 % from dose limit for population (1 mSv y–1. It was determined what drinking water is the main source of the radionuclide in human body in this region. The determined values of tritium concentration in drinking water are significantly lower than the intervention level for tritium of 7600 Bq l–1 ( Radiation Safety Standards-99/2009, Appendix 2a.

  12. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  13. Development of the regulatory guide on the management of aging for the operating NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Myung; Lee, Jae Kyung; Byeon, Chang Soo; Kim, Hyo Soo [Chungju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ryul; Eun, Hui Kwang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    this is the first final report, and it includes the analysis of PSR regulation status for the operating NPP of foreign countries and thus established scope and method of Korean PSR. The detailed requirements of aging management, as one of the most important factors, is planned to be dealt in the second final report, The result of study so far can be summarized as below, The necessity and feasibility of domestic PSR application is confirmed through the investigation, comparison and review of PSR implementation and regulation status in foreign countries, And, detailed analysis of vaseline guidelines of IAEA performed to establish a skeleton of desirable safety review guideline for Korean NPP. Our own objectives, scope and strategy of review for PWR are roughly set up form factor by factor analysis of PSR implementation experience in foreign countries and background of IAEA guidelines. The essential elements of review for each PSR safety factors are classified and proposed. For efficient review of proposed safety factors and elements, three different option of framework for PSR guidelines are proposed and compared. Through analysis of strength safety factors and elements, three different options of framework for PSR guidelines are proposed and compared. Through analysis of strength and weakness of the three optional frameworks proposed for Korean PSR guideline, the third one is recommended as the best for both owner and regulator. By maintaining the current framework of SAR at maximum and, at the same time, referring the basic concept of IAEA PSR guide, the detailed contents and its review elements are chosen. The standards on the aging was proposed preliminarily for the application of aging evaluation in PSR.

  14. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  16. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M

    2008-08-01

    The area affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 has become a unique test site where long-term ecological and biological consequences of a drastic change in a range of environmental factors as well as trends and intensity of selection are studied in natural settings. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident for biota varied from an enhanced rate of mutagenesis to damage at the ecosystem level. The review comprehensively brings together key data of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting over 20 years the Chernobyl NPP zone. The severity of radiation effects was strongly dependent on the dose received in the early period after the accident. The most exposed phytocenoses and soil animals' communities exhibited dose dependent alterations in the species composition and reduction in biological diversity. On the other hand, no decrease in numbers or taxonomic diversity of small mammals even in the most radioactive habitat was shown. In a majority of the studies, in both plant and animal populations from the Chernobyl zone, in the first years after the accident high increases in mutation rates were documented. In most cases the dose-effect relationships were nonlinear and the mutation rates per unit dose were higher at low doses and dose rates. In subsequent years a decline in the radiation background rate occurred faster than reduction in the mutation rate. Plant and animal populations have shown signs of adaptation to chronic exposure. In adaptation to the enhanced level of exposure an essential role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation was shown. Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed.

  17. Scheme of higher-density storage of spent nuclear fuel in Chernobyl NPP interim storage facility no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britan, P.M. [Kiev Research and Designing Institute ' EnergoProekt' , 203 department KIEP Pobedy ave. 4 Kiev 01135 (Ukraine)

    2008-07-01

    On 29. March 2000 the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine issued a decree prescribing that the last operating unit of Chernobyl NPP be shut down before its design lifetime expiry. In accordance with the Contract concluded on 14 June 1999 between the National Energy-generating Company 'Energoatom' and the Consortium of Framatome, Campenon Bernard-SGE and Bouygues, in order to store the spent ChNPP fuel a new interim dry storage facility (ISF-2) for spent ChNPP fuel would be built. Currently the spent nuclear fuel (spent fuel assemblies - SFAs) is stored in reactor cooling pools and in the reactors on Units 1, 2, 3, as well as in the wet Interim Storage Facility (ISF-1). Taking into account the expected delay with the commissioning of ISF-2, and in connection with the scheduled activities to build the New Safe Confinement (including the taking-down of the existing ventilation stack of ChNPP Units 3 and 4) and the expiry of the design operation life of Units 1 and 2, it is expedient to remove the nuclear fuel from Units 1, 2 and 3. This is essential to improve nuclear safety and ensure that the schedule of construction of the New Safe Confinement is met. The design capacity of ISF-1 (17 800 SFAs) is insufficient to store all SFAs (21 284) currently on ChNPP. A technically feasible option that has been applied on other RBMK plants is denser storage of spent nuclear fuel in the cooling ponds of the existing ISF-1. The purpose of the proposed modifications is to introduce changes to the ISF-1 design supported by necessary justifications required by the Ukrainian codes with the objective of enabling the storage of additional SFAs in the existing storage space (cooling pools). The need for the modification is caused by the requirement to remove nuclear fuel from the ChNPP units as soon as possible, before the work begins to decommission these units, as well as to create safe conditions for the construction of the New Safe Confinement over the existing Shelter Unit

  18. Net primary productivity (NPP) and associated parameters for the U.S. outer continental shelf waters, 1998-2009 (NODC Accession 0071184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession consists of monthly net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 1998-2009 derived from the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) for the 26...

  19. Beyond designed functional margins in CANDU type NPP. Radioactive nuclei assessment in an LOCA type accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budu Andrei Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union's energy roadmap up to year 2050 states that in order to have an efficient and sustainable economy, with minimum or decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, along with use of renewable resources, each constituent state has the option for nuclear energy production as one desirable option. Every scenario considered for tackling climate change issues, along with security of supply positions the nuclear energy as a recommended option, an option that is highly competitive with respect to others. Nuclear energy, along with other renewable power sources are considered to be the main pillars in the energy sector for greenhouse gas emission mitigation at European level. European Union considers that nuclear energy must be treated as a highly recommended option since it can contribute to security of energy supply. Romania showed excellent track-records in operating in a safe and economically sound manner of Cernavoda NPP Units 1&2. Both Units are in top 10 worldwide in terms of capacity factor. Due to Romania's need to ensure the security of electricity supply, to meet the environmental targets and to move to low carbon generation technologies, Cernavoda Units 3&4 Project appears as a must. This Project was started in 2010 and it is expected to have the Units running by 2025. Cost effective and safety operation of a Nuclear Power Plant is made taking into consideration functional limits of its equipment. As common practice, every nuclear reactor type (technology used is tested according to the worse credible accident or equipment failure that can occur. For CANDU type reactor, this is a Loss of Cooling Accident (LOCA. In a LOCA type accident in a CANDU NPP, using RELAP/SCDAP code for fuel bundle damage assessment the radioactive nuclei are to be quantified. Recently, CANDU type NPP accidents are studied using the RELAP/SCDAP code only. The code formerly developed for PWR type reactors was adapted for the CANDU geometry and can assess the

  20. Calculation of an accident with delayed scram at NPP Greifswald using the coupled code DYN3D/ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, S.

    1998-10-01

    Complex computer codes modeling the whole reactor system including 3D neutron kinetics in combination with advanced thermohydraulic plant models become more and more important for the safety assessment of nuclear reactors. Transients or experiments with both neutron kinetic and thermalhydraulic data are needed for the validation of such coupled codes like DYN3D/ATHLET. First of all measured results from nuclear power plant (NPP) transients should be used, because the experimental thermalhydraulic facilities do not offer the possibility to model space-dependent neutron kinetic effects and research reactors with reliably measured 3D neutron kinetic data do not allow to study thermalhydraulic feedback effects. In this paper, an accident with delayed scram which occurred in 1989 at the NPP Greifswald is analyzed. Calculations of this accident were carried out with the goal to validate the coupled code DYN3D/ATHLET. (orig.)

  1. KAERI software verification and validation guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital I and C system of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Eom, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    This technical report is to present V and V guideline development methodology for safety-critical software in NPP safety system. Therefore it is to present V and V guideline of planning phase for the NPP safety system in addition to critical safety items, for example, independence philosophy, software safety analysis concept, commercial off the shelf (COTS) software evaluation criteria, inter-relationships between other safety assurance organizations, including the concepts of existing industrial standard, IEEE Std-1012, IEEE Std-1059. This technical report includes scope of V and V guideline, guideline framework as part of acceptance criteria, V and V activities and task entrance as part of V and V activity and exit criteria, review and audit, testing and QA records of V and V material and configuration management, software verification and validation plan production etc., and safety-critical software V and V methodology. (author). 11 refs.

  2. Beam-to-beam joints with bolted end-plate connections concerning steel platforms Angra 2 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lema, Lucio Gonzalez de, E-mail: lucio@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETEROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GEC.T

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents adopted end-plates connections as structural solution for joints in steel platforms subjected to seismic loads as well as exceptional loads due to postulated piping ruptures. The beam-to-beam bolted end-plate connections designed for Angra 2 NPP were based in allowable stresses design. Also, usual assumptions and methods in the engineering practice, concerning steel platforms for german power plants in the 80's, were considered. The adopted method is compared with the proceedings according to Eurocode 3 - Part 1-8 to verify safety margins between old and new concept. The target of this comparison is to be sure that the adopted design is enough conservative to be adopted for the next NPP - Angra 3 (similar to Angra 2), whose construction will start in 2009. (author)

  3. Regression tree modeling of forest NPP using site conditions and climate variables across eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    As evidence of global warming continue to increase, being able to predict forest response to climate changes, such as expected rise of temperature and precipitation, will be vital for maintaining the sustainability and productivity of forests. To map forest species redistribution by climate change scenario has been successful, however, most species redistribution maps lack mechanistic understanding to explain why trees grow under the novel conditions of chaining climate. Distributional map is only capable of predicting under the equilibrium assumption that the communities would exist following a prolonged period under the new climate. In this context, forest NPP as a surrogate for growth rate, the most important facet that determines stand dynamics, can lead to valid prediction on the transition stage to new vegetation-climate equilibrium as it represents changes in structure of forest reflecting site conditions and climate factors. The objective of this study is to develop forest growth map using regression tree analysis by extracting large-scale non-linear structures from both field-based FIA and remotely sensed MODIS data set. The major issue addressed in this approach is non-linear spatial patterns of forest attributes. Forest inventory data showed complex spatial patterns that reflect environmental states and processes that originate at different spatial scales. At broad scales, non-linear spatial trends in forest attributes and mixture of continuous and discrete types of environmental variables make traditional statistical (multivariate regression) and geostatistical (kriging) models inefficient. It calls into question some traditional underlying assumptions of spatial trends that uncritically accepted in forest data. To solve the controversy surrounding the suitability of forest data, regression tree analysis are performed using Software See5 and Cubist. Four publicly available data sets were obtained: First, field-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (USDA

  4. Assessment of the NOAA S-NPP VIIRS Geolocation Reprocessing Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series analysis requires consistent data records from satellites. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partner (S-NPP satellite launched in 2011 requires a major effort to produce consistently calibrated sensor data records (SDR. Accurate VIIRS geolocation products are critical to other VIIRS products and products from other instruments on the S-NPP satellite. This paper presents methods for assessing major improvements to the VIIRS geolocation products in the ongoing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR reprocessing that incorporates all corrections in calibration parameters and SDR algorithms since launch to present. In this study, we analyzed the history of VIIRS geometric calibration parameter updates to identify optimal parameters to account for geolocation errors in the early days of the mission. A sample area located in North Western Africa was selected for validation purposes after analyzing global VIIRS and Landsat control point matching results. Geolocation products over the study region were reprocessed and I-bands/M-bands geolocation improvements were characterized by comparing geolocation errors before and after the reprocessing. Our results indicate that all short-term geolocation anomalies before the latest operational geometric calibration parameter update on 22 August 2013 were effectively minimized after reprocessing, with geolocation errors reduced from −47.1 ± 83.8 m to −23.3 ± 51.1 m (along scan and from −15.6 ± 43.6 m to −5.9 ± 37.7 m (along track. Terrain correction for the VIIRS Day-Night-Band (DNB was not implemented in the NOAA operational processing until 22 May 2015. In the reprocessing, it will be implemented to the entire DNB geolocation data record. DNB reprocessing improvement due to this implementation was evaluated using nighttime observations over point

  5. Comparison Between NPP-VIIRS Aerosol Data Products and the MODIS AQUA Deep Blue Collection 6 Dataset Over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Andrew M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are small particles suspended in the atmosphere and have a variety of natural and man-made sources. Knowledge of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere, and its change over time, is important for multiple reasons. These include climate change, air quality (pollution) monitoring, monitoring hazards such as dust storms and volcanic ash, monitoring smoke from biomass burning, determining potential energy yields from solar plants, determining visibility at sea, estimating fertilization of oceans and rainforests by transported mineral dust, understanding changes in weather brought upon by the interaction of aerosols and clouds, and more. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine AOD. This study compares the VIIRS dataset to ground-based measurements of AOD, along with a state-of-the-art satellite AOD dataset (the new version of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Deep Blue algorithm) to assess its reliability. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011, carrying several instruments designed to continue the biogeophysical data records of current and previous satellite sensors. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD), and related activities since launch have been focused towards validating and understanding this new dataset through comparisons with other satellite and ground-based products. The operational VIIRS AOD product is compared over land with AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations using the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm from the forthcoming Collection 6 of MODIS data

  6. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  7. Dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel internals in the NPP Wuergassen; Zerlegung der RDG- Einbauten im KKW Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Jan Hendrik [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The reactor pressure vessel internals of the NPP Wuergassen were dismantled and dissected in the time period 19-03-2007 to 21-09-2007 and packaged for final disposal. The total amount was about 18 tons of steel. The dissected was performed using specific water-quartz sand-cutting tools within a settling tank. The dismantling concept intended to cut shape-optimized pieces with respect to space saving packaging. The project included a specific water treatment system.

  8. Impact of radiation protection planning on the dismantling strategy of the cylindrical part of the RPV of Wuergassen NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.; Dittrich, W.; Terry, I. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The packing of cut segments of the RPV of Wuergassen NPP demands consideration of radiation protection aspects. By an iterative process, which considers on the one hand engineering aspects and on the other hand the specified limits for radiological quantities, an optimized package concept had been compiled which is characterized by a minimum amount of containers. Radiological measurements for the first packed containers are in good agreement with calculated dose rates and comply with the KONRAD disposal conditions. (orig.)

  9. A preliminary analysis of the unit 1 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP by the RELAP/SCDAPSIM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, C.; Del Nevo, A.; Negrenti, E.; Sepielli, M. [ENEA ' Casaccia' Research Center, Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    In the framework of the activities devoted to the development of the ENEA-Casaccia 'NPP Engineering Simulator', a RELAP5/SCDAPSIM model of the unit 1 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP was developed and applied for a severe accident analysis. In this paper the preliminary results are reported. In order to correctly describe the main phenomena, a detailed nodalization of a BWR-3 primary system and of Mark I containment were developed and coupled. BWR-3 NPP public available data of a similar unit were used for setting up the RELAP/SCDAPSIM model and for performing its steady state and transient validation. Main events reconstruction of the Fukushima scenario was based on the official Japanese data. The first 24 hours of the accident were simulated, beginning with the reactor scram as a consequence of the earthquake, and reproducing the behavior of the main engineered safety features (safety/relief valves, isolation condensers). Results showed that the core uncovering and degradation began at +2 hours after the tsunami wave hit the plant. Core melting was predicted having occurred in the subsequent 6 hours, with a fuel relocation at the bottom of reactor pressure vessel. RELAP/SCDAPSIM special models calculated the severe damage of the reactor boundary allowing to estimate the time of the consequent containment over-pressurization that resulted well beyond the design limits. Calculations ended at the time of the actuation of the containment venting procedures since they were immediately followed by a major hydrogen explosion in the reactor building. Sensitivities analyses were performed to test the different RELAP/SCDAPSIM models of core degradation and a bounding range for the main parameters involved during the core degradation was obtained. This work constitutes also an example of the present capabilities and one of the steps being performed at the ENEA-Casaccia Research Center for the reintroduction of a 'Enhanced NPP Engineering Simulator'. (orig.)

  10. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  11. A mobile dose prediction system based on artificial neural networks for NPP emergencies with radioactive material releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Gomes, Kelcio J.; Cunha, José Luiz, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work presents the approach of a mobile dose prediction system for NPP emergencies with nuclear material release. The objective is to provide extra support to field teams decisions when plant information systems are not available. However, predicting doses due to atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide generally requires execution of complex and computationally intensive physical models. In order to allow such predictions to be made by using limited computational resources such as mobile phones, it is proposed the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) previously trained (offline) with data generated by precise simulations using the NPP atmospheric dispersion system. Typical situations for each postulated accident and respective source terms, as well as a wide range of meteorological conditions have been considered. As a first step, several ANN architectures have been investigated in order to evaluate their ability for dose prediction in hypothetical scenarios in the vicinity of CNAAA Brazilian NPP, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil. As a result, good generalization and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 was achieved for a validation data set (untrained patterns). Then, selected ANNs have been coded in Java programming language to run as an Android application aimed to plot the spatial dose distribution into a map.In this paper, the general architecture of the proposed system is described; numerical results and comparisons between investigated ANN architectures are discussed; performance and limitations of running the Application into a commercial mobile phone are evaluated and possible improvements and future works are pointed. (author)

  12. Studies of Effect Analysis of Electromagnetic Pulses (EMP) in Operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Ryu, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Yi; Lee, Eui Jong [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The effect analysis of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) has been studied for the past year by the Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) in order to better establish safety measures in operating nuclear power plants. What is an electromagnetic pulse (EMP)? As a general term for high-power electromagnetic radiation, it refers to strong electromagnetic pulses that destroy only electronic equipment devices in a short period without loss of life. The effect analysis of EMPs in operating NPPs and their corresponding safety measures in terms of selecting target devices against EMP impact have been examined in this paper. In general, domestic nuclear power plants do apply the design of fail-safe concepts. For example, if key instruments of a system fail because of EMPs, the control rods of a nuclear reactor are dropped automatically in order to maintain safe conditions of the NPP. Reactor cooling presents no problem because the diesel generator will adopt the analog starting circuit least affected by the electromagnetic waves.

  13. The-Abstraction-Hierarchy-based Mobile PC Display Design for NPP Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In; Kim, Bo Gyung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Recently, the importance of effective maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been emphasized and research into effective maintenance by adopting mobile maintenance aids (MMAs) have been attempted. For improved and effective use of an MMA display design method based on abstraction hierarchy (AH) is proposed and its design considerations are discussed in this study. Six levels of abstraction hierarchy are proposed in this paper to classify the maintenance information. By classifying and organizing maintenance information using AH, maintenance information can be used effectively by users with either high or low levels of expertise. When information classification has been finished, the information for MMA design is selected and designed. With the considerations of MMA design analysis and guidelines, AH-based MMA is designed for the maintenance tasks. An experiment is conducted using the AH-based MMA in order to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the maintenance tasks and to identify design considerations to enhance the proposed MMAs. The result indicated that an AH-based manual was more effective than a conventional manual in terms of task completion time and number of errors. The workload for the AH-based manual was estimated less than the conventional manual for subjects with low level of expertise. As the level of expertise increases, subjects tended to follow more abstract information while the number of navigations decreased. It is believed that when mobile devices become pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, AH-model applied MMAs can be used as an effective maintenance supporting tool

  14. Transitioning from MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS data for Agricultural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.; Bandaru, V.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Franch, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2016-12-01

    S-NPP VIIRS was designed to provide continuity of the MODIS AQUA observations. MODIS data are being used routinely to monitor agricultural regions of the world for crop condition. This approach relies on assessing the current growing season in the context of growing previous seasons, which in turn requires multi-year observations. The MODIS data form the basis of a number of operational decision support systems currently used for agriculture. The requirement for timely information has driven the delivery of MODIS data by the near NASA real-time processing system (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE)). In addition, research is underway to use such coarse resolution data for estimating regional crop area and yield. As the MODIS instruments age, there is a need to transition the monitoring capability to VIIRS. The operational status of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will ensure the provision of VIIRS data into the future, with the launch of JPSS-1 planned for January 2017 and JPSS-2 in 2021. The fundamental record for coarse resolution monitoring for agricultural is the Surface Reflectance product. This product has been developed for VIIRS and validation is in progress. From the Surface Reflectance product, vegetation indices are developed. This paper reviews current agricultural monitoring and decision support approaches and presents an inter-comparison of MODIS and VIIRS observations and the initial integration of VIIRS data into LANCE and the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) System.

  15. Determination of plutonium isotopes in low activity waste of NPP origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, A.; Taskaeva, I.; Veleva, B.; Valova, Tz.; Slavchev, B.; Dimitrova, D.

    2006-01-01

    The inventory analysis of the alkaline low level liquid radioactive waste collected during more than 30 years of NPP “Kozloduy” operation requires determination of eighteen radioactive isotopes with different decay properties. Plutonium isotopes of interest are Pu-238, Pu-239/Pu-240, and Pu-242. The preliminary investigations of the supernatant phase of model and authentic waste samples showed essential challenges for determination of plutonium due to its various oxidation states and low concentration in the complex matrix. Plutonium concentration was determined in precipitate and supernatant after the calcium phosphate precipitation and in the different fractions of the anion exchange steps. The separation by anion exchange and final purification of plutonium fraction by extraction chromatography on TEVA resin (EiChroM Industries) was studied by variation of plutonium oxidation states. The sources were prepared by micro precipitation with NdF3 and counted by alpha spectrometry. As a result from the performed experiments, plutonium determination procedure was optimized and applied to real waste samples.

  16. MORE. Management of Requirements in NPP modernisation projects - Project report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Fredriksen, R.; Thunem, H.P.J. [IFE (Norway); Ventae, O.; Valkonen, J.; Holmberg, J.E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The overall objective of the project MORE is to improve the means for managing the large amounts of evolving requirements in Nordic NPP modernisation projects. In accordance to this objective, the activity will facilitate the industrial utilisation of the research results from the project TACO. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the overall aim of the TACO project has been to identify the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements. The project resulted in the development of a traceability model for handling requirements from their origins and through their final shapes. Particular emphasis for the MORE project in 2005 was put on utilising a prototype of a tool (TRACE) intended to support an adopted approach to dependable requirements engineering, suitable for modelling and handling large amounts of requirements related to all stages of the systems development process and not only those traditionally including requirements at high-level stages. (au)

  17. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  18. Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiong Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The VIIRS instrument on board the S-NPP spacecraft has successfully operated for more than four years since its launch in October 2011. Many VIIRS environmental data records (EDR have been continuously generated from its sensor data records (SDR with improved quality, enabling a wide range of applications in support of users in both the operational and research communities. This paper provides a brief review of sensor on-orbit calibration methodologies for both the reflective solar bands (RSB and the thermal emissive bands (TEB and an overall assessment of their on-orbit radiometric performance using measurements from instrument on-board calibrators (OBC, as well as regularly scheduled lunar observations. It describes and illustrates changes made and to be made for calibration and data quality improvements. Throughout the mission, all of the OBC have continued to operate and function normally, allowing critical calibration parameters used in the data production systems to be derived and updated. The temperatures of the on-board blackbody (BB and the cold focal plane assemblies are controlled with excellent stability. Despite large optical throughput degradation discovered shortly after launch in several near- and short-wave infrared spectral bands and strong wavelength-dependent solar diffuser degradation, the VIIRS overall performance has continued to meet its design requirements. Also discussed in this paper are challenging issues identified and efforts to be made to further enhance the sensor calibration and characterization, thereby maintaining or improving data quality.

  19. Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Chiang, Kwofu; Efremova, Boryana; Fullbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; McIntire, Jeff; Oudrari, Hassan; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The VIIRS instrument on board the S-NPP spacecraft has successfully operated for more than four years since its launch in October, 2011. Many VIIRS environmental data records (EDR) have been continuously generated from its sensor data records (SDR) with improved quality, enabling a wide range of applications in support of users in both the operational and research communities. This paper provides a brief review of sensor on-orbit calibration methodologies for both the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the thermal emissive bands (TEB) and an overall assessment of their on-orbit radiometric performance using measurements from instrument on-board calibrators (OBC) as well as regularly scheduled lunar observations. It describes and illustrates changes made and to be made for calibration and data quality improvements. Throughout the mission, all of the OBC have continued to operate and function normally, allowing critical calibration parameters used in the data production systems to be derived and updated. The temperatures of the on-board blackbody (BB) and the cold focal plane assemblies are controlled with excellent stability. Despite large optical throughput degradation discovered shortly after launch in several near and short-wave infrared spectral bands and strong wavelength dependent solar diffuser degradation, the VIIRS overall performance has continued to meet its design requirements. Also discussed in this paper are challenging issues identified and efforts to be made to further enhance the sensor calibration and characterization, thereby maintaining or improving data quality.

  20. Physical startup tests for VVER-1200 of Novovoronezh NPP. Advanced technique and some results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Dmitry A.; Kraynov, Yury A.; Pinegin, Anatoly A.; Tsyganov, Sergey V. [National Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.

    2017-09-15

    The intention of the startup physics tests was to confirm design characteristics of the core loading and their compliance with safety analysis preconditions. The program of startup tests for the leading unit is usually composed in such a way that is is possible to study as much neutron-physical characteristics as possible in the safest condition of zero power. State-of-the-art safety analysis is including computer codes that use three dimensional neutron kinetics and thermohydraulics models. For the substantiation of such models, for its validation and verification there is a need in reactor experiments that implementing spatially distributed transients. We based on such statements when composing hot zero power physical startup program for the new VVER-1200 unit of Novovoronezh NPP. Several tests unconventional for VVER were developed for that program. It includes measuring the worth for each of control rod groups and measuring of single rod worth from the inserted groups - test that models rod ejection event in some sense.

  1. Commissioning and Operation of a Robotic Arm for Waste Retrieval at Trawsfynydd NPP, North Wales - 12091

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alan L.; Cabrera, David L. [Magnox Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Trawsfynydd is one of the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power plants. It started operation in 1965 and ceased generation in 1991. Before the site can enter the 'care and maintenance' phase a number of wet and dry waste stores around the site must be emptied and their contents made safe. Wet wastes include sludges and resins produced during the operating life of the NPP. The sludges and resins are stored in a number of different tanks that vary significantly in terms of size, shape, internal features and access. A dexterous long reach manipulator arm has been designed and built to facilitate tank clearance. Commissioning of the arm was carried out in parallel with Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the manufacturer's site in Colorado, USA. In addition to basic functional testing this work included a full range of task based testing to ensure that the arm, tools, control system and support equipment were thoroughly exercised in representative conditions. Trawsfynydd is one of the lead sites in the UK's program for nuclear plant decommissioning. As such the lessons learned, both in terms of technology and process, will be applicable across the remainder of the fleet. (authors)

  2. Systems engineering approach for the reuse of metallic waste from NPP decommissioning and dose evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Woo; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The oldest commercial reactor in South Korea, Kori-1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), will be shut down in 2017. Proper treatment for decommissioning wastes is one of the key factors to decommission a plant successfully. Particularly important is the recycling of clearance level or very low level radioactively contaminated metallic wastes, which contributes to waste minimization and the reduction of disposal volume. The aim of this study is to introduce a conceptual design of a recycle system and to evaluate the doses incurred through defined work flows. The various architecture diagrams were organized to define operational procedures and tasks. Potential exposure scenarios were selected in accordance with the recycle system, and the doses were evaluated with the RESRAD-RECYCLE computer code. By using this tool, the important scenarios and radionuclides as well as impacts of radionuclide characteristics and partitioning factors are analyzed. Moreover, dose analysis can be used to provide information on the necessary decontamination, radiation protection process, and allowable concentration limits for exposure scenarios.

  3. Prediction of impacts of Temelín NPP on hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Problems associated with possible impacts of Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the environment are being studied under supervision of the Czech Ministry of Environment. The objective of ongoing studies is to examine a reference level (conditions prior to the plant operation) in terms of concentrations of radioactive and non-radioactive polluting substances in the environment. Special attention paid to the hydrosphere is associated with requirements for protection of water quality in the Vltava River and its use to supply Prague capital, outdoor recreation, and other purposes. It is also important that the Vltava affects water quality in the Elbe as the main Czech-German transboundary river. Relevant attention is paid also to protection of groundwater resources in use for water supply purposes in wide environs of the plant. Possible impacts on hydrosphere are being predicted for standard operation of the plant and also for accidental conditions. The monitoring and research are intended to be continued during the pre-operational period and additional three years during the operation. The main interim results are presented in this paper.

  4. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  5. Development of a light weighted mobile robot for SG tube inspection in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil; Jeong, Kyung Min; Shin, Hochul; Gweng, Jung Ju; Lee, Sung Uk; Jeong, Seung Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chun Sup; Park, Ki Tae [Korea Plant Service and Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam generators (SG) are among the most critical components of pressurized water Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). SG tubes must provide a reliable pressure boundary between the primary and secondary cooling water, because any leakage from tube defects could result in the release of radioactivity to the environment. Thus degradations of steam generators tubes should be monitored and inspected periodically under nuclear regulation. In service inspections of SG tubes are carried out using eddy current test (ECT) and the defected tubes are usually plugged. Because the radioactivity in the internal SG chambers limits free access of human workers, remote manipulators are required. In South Korea, Manipulators such as the Zet ec SM series and the Westinghouse ROSA series have bee used. Such manipulators are rigidly mounted to man ways or tube sheets of SG. Confusions of the inspected tubes may occur from deflection of the manipulators. To reduce the deflections of the manipulators for covering the large working areas of tube sheets, sufficient rigidity is required and that leads to an increase of the weight. Such weight increase results in some difficulties for handling and more radiation exposure of human workers. Recently light weighed mobile robots have been introduced by Westinghouse and Zet ec. The robots can move keeping in contact with the tube sheets using devices which are commonly called cam locks. They are easier to handle and provide no confusion for the position of the inspected tubes. But when the clamping forces are loosed accidentally, they can be fall down and light repair works can be performed. This paper provides the design results for a lightweight mobile robot which is being developed in cooperation of our institutes.

  6. An Abstraction Hierarchy based mobile PC display design in NPP maintenance considering the level of expertise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Ho Bin [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In [Department of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Six levels of Abstraction Hierarchy based information for maintenance were proposed. Errors and workload with AH based information display were reduced for LL subjects. Design concerns discovered can be applied to practical use of mobile maintenance aids. - Abstract: Recently, the importance of effective maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been emphasized and research into effective maintenance by adopting mobile maintenance aids (MMAs) have been attempted. For improved and effective use of an MMA display design method based on the hierarchy is proposed and its design considerations are discussed in this study. Six levels of hierarchy are proposed in this paper to classify the maintenance information. By classifying and organizing maintenance information using the hierarchy, maintenance information can be used effectively by users with either high or low levels of expertise. When information classification has been finished, the information for MMA design is selected and designed. With the considerations of MMA design analysis and guidelines, a hierarchy-based MMA is designed for the maintenance tasks. An experiment is conducted using the hierarchy-based MMA in order to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the maintenance tasks and to identify design considerations to enhance the proposed MMAs. The result indicated that a hierarchy-based manual was more effective than a conventional manual in terms of task completion time and number of errors. The workload for the hierarchy-based manual was estimated less than the conventional manual for subjects with low level of expertise. As the level of expertise increases, subjects tended to follow more abstract information while the number of navigations decreased. It is believed that when mobile devices become pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, the hierarchy model applied MMAs can be used as an effective maintenance supporting tool.

  7. A study on mobile PC display design in NPP maintenance considering the level of expertise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In

    2010-02-15

    pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, AH-model applied MMAs can play a role as an effective maintenance supporting tool.

  8. IMPROVED MODELS AND METHOD OF POWER CHANGE OF NPP UNIT WITH VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymur Foshch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the improved mathematical and imitational allocated in space multi-zone model of VVER-1000 which differs from the known one. It allows to take into account the energy release of 235U nuclei fission as well as 239Pu . Moreover, this model includes sub-models of simultaneous control impact of the boric acid concentration in the coolant of the first circuit and the position of 9th group control rods which allows to consider it as the model with allocated parameters and also allows to monitor changes in the mentioned technological parameters by reactor core symmetry sectors, by layers of reactor core height and by fuel assembly group each symmetry sector. Moreover, this model allows to calculate important process-dependent parameters of the reactor (including axial offset as quantitative measure of its safety. As the mathematical and imitational models were improved, it allows to take into account intrinsic properties of the reactor core (including transient processes of xenon and thus reduce the error of modelling static and dynamic properties of the reactor.The automated control method of power change of the NPP unit with VVER-1000 was proposed for the first time. It uses three control loops. One of which maintains the regulatory change of reactor power by regulating the concentration of boric acid in the coolant, the second circuit keeps the required value of axial offset by changing the position of control rods, and the third one holds constant the coolant temperature mode by regulating the position of the main turbo generator valves.On the basis of the above obtained method, two control programs were improved. The first one is the improved control program that implements the constant temperature of the coolant in the first circuit and the second one is the improved control program that implements the constant steam pressure in the second circuit.

  9. S-NPP VIIRS instrument telemetry and calibration data trend study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor instrument health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and calibration parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on instrument performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and calibration look-up tables (LUTs) to instrument temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board Calibrator Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and calibration parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard calibrators. The study also shows how the instrument and calibration parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and calibration parameters may help to improve the instrument calibration processes and SDR Quality Flags.

  10. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L. [Canatom-NPM, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-04-15

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  11. Development of a GUI based RETRAN running environment for Kori NPP units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Doo

    2000-09-01

    RETRAN was developed by EPRI and introduced for domestic use. RETRAN, which is a best-estimate system code approved by USNRC and used by most utilities in US, can be used in various plant support activities such as licensing calculations for plant design changes, EOP validation, and training. RETRAN, however, has been limited to only a few groups of specialists because of the difficulty involved in its usage. The aim of this project is to develop a graphic user interface (GUI) based code running environment for RETRAN named PRE (RETRAN Running Environment) in order to assist ordinary users in their input preparation, code execution, and output interpretation. TRIP and CONTROL BLOCK and VOLUME/JUNCTION input cards from base input are designed to be able to modify the existing input cards and add a new input cards through dialog boxes for users who have not much expertise in use of RETRAN. The RRE is designed to provide the calculated results though on-line X-Y graphs, plant mimics, indicators, nodalization window for easy interpretation of its output. It also provides the replay function using pre-calculated results saved in files. The RRE was developed for Kori NPP units 1 and 2 using Delphi 4.0 and Visual Fortran 6.0 and it runs on personal computers to increase the accessibility. The RRE developed in this study for Kori units 1 and 2 can be used in various plant support activities which require thermal-hydraulic analysis of the NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) such as licensing calculations for plant design change, validation of EOP improvement, and operator training. The RRE developed can be expanded its application to other nuclear plants with low expense.

  12. Development of CIAU database for NPP safety analysis by Cathare2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Nevo, A.; D' Auria, F. [Pisa Univ., Dept. of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    The process of application of Best Estimate (BE) computer codes to the safety analysis of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) implies the evaluation of uncertainty. This uncertainty is due to several causes connected with such codes and their use that includes the approximations in the constitutive equations, the numerical solution methods, the imperfect knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, nodalization and user effects, etc. The application of the BE SYStem (BE-SYS) codes with the connected uncertainty of the final results allows to provide a good view of existing margins or limits on NPP operation, consequently offering a basis for possible parameters optimizations. For this reasons, given the availability of mature codes for BE analysis and in the framework of the research of methods and tools for uncertainty evaluation, in the early nineties, University of Pisa (UNIPI) proposed a methodology, the Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE), using measured and calculated data related to counterpart and similarity tests performed in Integral Test Facilities (ITF). The objective was to avoid or minimize the expert judgments. Some years later, following the experience of UMAE, a new method was developed. This method, the Code with the capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU), aims at the objectives of reducing the dependence by the engineering judgments and the resources needed for the uncertainty evaluation. On the other hand, the application of the CIAU method implies the availability of a database constituted by a Quantity Uncertainty Matrix (QUM) and Time Uncertainty Vector (TUV) set up using qualified experimental data and qualified system code calculation results. This is the topic of this paper that describes the development of the database for the CIAU method application to CATHARE2 code. The activity and the methodology used are highlighted, including the main features of the database carried out in order to perform BE

  13. Safety assessment and regulatory strategy for NPP I and C modernization projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, S.; Blocquel, Ch

    1999-10-01

    IPSN is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority (DSIN), but also acts independently. Through our participation at this IAEA meeting we wish to further our appreciation of the industry position for I and C modernization projects. We will present some of the concerns of the safety assessor and safety authority for such projects. We hope to share our experiences and views concerning current strategies for I and C modernization and licensing from. In our experience with NPP I and C programmes, the need for modification is most often not directly linked to safety. For our safety assessment we have to identify clearly and, as far as possible, categorize the safety relevance of the specified modifications and all safety impact in its implementation. Modernization can be simply for reasons of replacement of obsolete existing equipment or it can be linked to functional evolutions; safety functions may be directly or indirectly affected. The state of the art I and C solutions proposed by today's modernization programs have many benefits, but also pose a certain number of difficulties for the safety demonstration. On the implementation side, the safety assessment for a modernization project has to take into consideration specific issues compared with that for new plant. These include interface and compatibility with the existing installation, issues relating to 'on line' installation and commissioning, as well as operational issues concerning the changeover and trail periods. A further subject for discussion concerns how our regulatory requirements apply to modernization. We must as a minima comply with the requirements of the period. To what measure must we apply current or future (under development or for future reactor designs) standards? How can we tie in with requirements and legislation for new projects? Do we make a special case for back-fits? (authors)

  14. Modeling the transport of nitrogen in an NPP-2006 reactor circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, O. E.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Sledkov, R. M.; Melekh, S. S.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Efficient radiation protection of the public and personnel requires detecting an accident-initiating event quickly. Specifically, if a heat-exchange tube in a steam generator is ruptured, the 16N radioactive nitrogen isotope, which contributes to a sharp increase in the steam activity before the turbine, may serve as the signaling component. This isotope is produced in the core coolant and is transported along the circulation circuit. The aim of the present study was to model the transport of 16N in the primary and the secondary circuits of a VVER-1000 reactor facility (RF) under nominal operation conditions. KORSAR/GP and RELAP5/Mod.3.2 codes were used to perform the calculations. Computational models incorporating the major components of the primary and the secondary circuits of an NPP-2006 RF were constructed. These computational models were subjected to cross-verification, and the calculation results were compared to the experimental data on the distribution of the void fraction over the steam generator height. The models were proven to be valid. It was found that the time of nitrogen transport from the core to the heat-exchange tube leak was no longer than 1 s under RF operation at a power level of 100% N nom with all primary circuit pumps activated. The time of nitrogen transport from the leak to the γ-radiation detection unit under the same operating conditions was no longer than 9 s, and the nitrogen concentration in steam was no less than 1.4% (by mass) of its concentration at the reactor outlet. These values were obtained using conservative approaches to estimating the leak flow and the transport time, but the radioactive decay of nitrogen was not taken into account. Further research concerned with the calculation of thermohydraulic processes should be focused on modeling the transport of nitrogen under RF operation with some primary circuit pumps deactivated.

  15. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  16. Development of regulatory guide for review of aging management of the operating NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Myung; Lee, Jae Kyung [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ryul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This is the final report of the second year study. Based on the first year study, proposal of revised guidelines, analysis of revised or newly issued IAEA safety guides and reference guidelines of developed countries, and proposal of detailed guidelines of aging management in PSR have been performed in the second year study. The summary of results in the study so far can be summarized as below, overall view on PSR and idea of effective domestic application were leaded through additional investigation and comparison of legal basis, experiences and current status of PSR implementation among the countries having operating NPPs including Korea. Strategies of adequate application of PSR are roughly reevaluated and totally reestablished in summary from the analysis in factor by factor basis of PSR implementation experience in foreign countries and background of IAEA guidelines. Models and draft framework of PSR report in the first year study were summarized and reevaluated, and structure and outline options of PSR guidelines for judging the PSR report are newly proposed with comparison of their strengths and weaknesses based on the first year study. Among the opt ions, guidelines framework equivalent to the PSR report was picked up as the best. For the judgement of aging management, the most appropriate one was chosen for the detailed judgement of aging management review in our PSR being based on the Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR) in United States considering potential future usage in the judgement for continued operation of old NPP at the time of expiration of its design life. A draft PSR guidelines is prepared and attached by revision of basic guidelines issued in 2000, considering the issues discussed for the draft revision of IAEA PSR guide, the draft IAEA document about 'experience of PSR implementation of member states', and the characteristics of Hungarian PSR Guidelines.

  17. Joint Polar Satellite System's Operational and Research Applications from Suomi NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key operational and research applications, and includes: 1) Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. 2) Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. 3) Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be discussed, including the use of CrIS and ATMS for improved weather forecasting, the use of VIIRS for environmental monitoring of sea ice, smoke, fire, floods, droughts, coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms

  18. Full System Decontamination (FSD) with the CORD{sup R} Family prior to Decommissioning - Experiences at the German NPP Obrigheim 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, Christian [Department STC-G, AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 1109, 91001 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Minimizing personal radiation exposure and obtaining material free for release are the highest priorities for the decommissioning of a NPP. This calls for a FSD as the first and most effective measure. AREVA NP has a long experience with FSDs, not only for operating plants but also for decommissioning in particular. Starting 1986 with the first decontamination for decommissioning at the NPP FR2, a German research reactor, AREVA NP has performed more than 10 FSDs worldwide prior to NPP dismantling. Based on these long term decontamination experiences including the successful performance of the FSD at the German PWR in Stade 2005, AREVA NP received the contract for the FSD prior to decommissioning at the German PWR in Obrigheim (357 MWe). The NPP Obrigheim was permanently shut down in May 2005 after 36 years of operation. The decontamination of the complete primary circuit and the auxiliary systems RHR and CVCS was performed in the first quarter of 2007. The total system volume was 160 m{sup 3}, total system surface approximately 8100 m{sup 2}. Decontamination was carried out with the worldwide approved decontamination process HP/CORD D UV, using NPP own systems and the AREVA NP AMDA decontamination equipment. In the paper detailed results of the decontamination will be outlined. An important value for further decommissioning activities was the remarkable dose rate reduction at the heavy components, especially the steam generators. The average decontamination factor achieved at the systems exceeded the value of 600. (author)

  19. Training in fundamentals of radiological coverage in Laguna Verde NPP; Entrenamiento de fundamentos de coberturas radiologicas en la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara H, M. A., E-mail: marcolarah@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In 2010, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) celebrates the Knowledge Transfer and Retention Workshop, an event where nuclear regulators and operators presented the strategies that various NPP to worldwide were implemented to mitigate the consequences of this generational change and take advantage of it, the trend in the presented works was the same: the generational change occurs in a faster way that the transfer of knowledge, the future was already here and many NPP had not been adequately prepared to train its nuclear technicians and engineers in the tasks demanded by the industry of them, so in addition to preparing these workers to forced marches was necessary to establish strategies to retain at more experienced staff in the industry. The Laguna Verde NPP has not been exempt to this process; the preparation of personnel squares to replace those that reaching retirement age in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has become extensive in the last five years, sometimes leading to have personnel covering functions without an alternate to the next lower position, the cause? Not enough staff. In the specific case of radiation protection (Rp) the time required for obtaining the status of Rp technician according to the ANSI/ANS 3.1 standard is 2 years, one of the tasks that most occupies part of these two years is training in radiological coverage, this training requires a mix of knowledge and experience, recently one of the concepts used for training in Rp is the evaluation and management of the radiological risk, topic that is considered in this technical work. (Author)

  20. Surface Water Mapping from Suomi NPP-VIIRS Imagery at 30 m Resolution via Blending with Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the dynamics of surface water using remotely sensed data generally requires both high spatial and high temporal resolutions. One effective and popular approach for achieving this is image fusion. This study adopts a widely accepted fusion model, the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, for blending the newly available coarse-resolution Suomi NPP-VIIRS data with Landsat data in order to derive water maps at 30 m resolution. The Pan-sharpening technique was applied to preprocessing NPP-VIIRS data to achieve a higher-resolution before blending. The modified Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI was employed for mapping surface water area. Two fusion alternatives, blend-then-index (BI or index-then-blend (IB, were comparatively analyzed against a Landsat derived water map. A case study of mapping Poyang Lake in China, where water distribution pattern is complex and the water body changes frequently and drastically, was conducted. It has been revealed that the IB method derives more accurate results with less computation time than the BI method. The BI method generally underestimates water distribution, especially when the water area expands radically. The study has demonstrated the feasibility of blending NPP-VIIRS with Landsat for achieving surface water mapping at both high spatial and high temporal resolutions. It suggests that IB is superior to BI for water mapping in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The finding of this study also has important reference values for other blending works, such as image blending for vegetation cover monitoring.

  1. The challenge of the global management of plant design modifications. example of the new EJ system at Vandellos NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Fernando; Valdivia, Carlos; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Trueba, Pedro [Control Rooms and Simulation, Tecnatom, Avda. Montes de Oca, 1 - 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes. Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    One of the most challenging areas in the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) is related to the management of plant design modifications. Plant modifications can be made to improve reliability, facilitate operation, improve safety or get better results. In any of these situations, plant modifications imply many different activities that have to be done in a coordinated manner. NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) shows a global approach to manage most of these activities. Although this approach is mainly focused on the design and construction of new plants, it can also be applied to plant modification management. Successful global management will require performing every activity in a specific order, taking advantage of the output coming from some tasks as input for others and finalizing every task when necessary. This will provide the best results in terms of quality, time required for implementation, safe and reliable operation and maintenance, and cost. Tecnatom is involved in most of the activities related to the operational areas and has applied a global approach to get advantages in terms of quality and cost, which is outlined in this paper. As an example of this approach, the Vandellos NPP experience is shown in this presentation. Vandellos NPP carried out an important design modification that consists of replacing an old essential service water system with a new one. This was a three-year project that implied the construction of new reservoirs, new buildings, the implementation of new equipment, and new panels in the main control room. This paper shows the way in which all of these activities were performed. (authors)

  2. Application of the leak-before-break concept to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eperin, A.P.; Zakharzhevsky, Yu.O.; Arzhaev, A.I. [and others

    1997-04-01

    A two-year Finnish-Russian cooperation program has been initiated in 1995 to demonstrate the applicability of the leak-before-break concept (LBB) to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP. The program includes J-R curve testing of authentic pipe materials at full operating temperature, screening and computational LBB analyses complying with the USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, and exchange of LBB-related information with emphasis on NDE. Domestic computer codes are mainly used, and all tests and analyses are independently carried out by each party. The results are believed to apply generally to RBMK type plants of the first generation.

  3. Cutting and conditioning of the reactor pressure vessel in the NPP Wuergassen; Zerlegung und Konditionierung des Reaktordruckgefaesses im Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraps, Uwe [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Duwe, Peter [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Bewerungen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    NPP Wuergassen was shutdown in 1995 after 23 years of operation. Since 1997 the nuclear power plant is being dismantled. The cutting of the reactor pressure vessel internals was performed between 2003 and 2008. After decontamination the cylindrical parts of the reactor pressure vessel were dissected, the process was finalized in 2010. AREVA has now a 30 years-experience concerning repair, replacement and dismantling of reactor components. In the contribution the authors describe the process planning, manufacture and testing of appropriate remote handled tools, decontamination, dissection of the pressure vessel (320 t), conditioning, packaging and transport of the radioactive waste including radiation protection monitoring.

  4. Simulation of Thermopower Influence on Fuel Core of Power Rod in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP Active Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kulikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems of modern methods for  calculation of designs and materials of nuclear power. A model of numerical analysis for stress-strain state of fuel pins in the NPP active zone is proposed in the paper. The paper contains simulation concerning a fuel core section of a nuclear reactor heat-generating element with subsequent solution of a temperature and thermoelastic problem in computer program complex FEA ANSYS Workbench 11.0. All the obtained results have passed through checking procedure.

  5. Real-time management (RTM) by cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) for risk analysis of Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-03-15

    The earthquake and tsunami induced accident of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Fukushima disaster is investigated by the real-time management (RTM) method. This non-linear logic of the safety management is applied to enhance the methodological confidence in the NPP reliability. The case study of the earthquake is modeled for the fast reaction characteristics of the RTM. The system dynamics (SD) modeling simulations and cloud computing are applied for the RTM method where the real time simulation has the fast and effective communication for the accident remediation and prevention. Current tablet computing system can improve the safety standard of the NPP. Finally, the procedure of the cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) modeling is constructed.

  6. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  7. Using Ground Targets to Validate S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB and Moderate resolution bands (M bands of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor Data Records produced by NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE are acquired from nearly nadir overpasses for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. A kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF correction model is used for both Libya 4 and Dome C sites to correct the surface BRDF influence. At both sites, the simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA DNB reflectances based on SCIAMACHY spectral data are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectances based on modulated Relative Spectral Response (RSR. In the Libya 4 site, the results indicate a decrease of 1.03% in Land PEATE TOA reflectance and a decrease of 1.01% in SCIAMACHY derived TOA reflectance over the period from April 2012 to January 2016. In the Dome C site, the decreases are 0.29% and 0.14%, respectively. The consistency between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE data trends is good. The small difference between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE derived TOA reflectances could be caused by changes in the surface targets, atmosphere status, and on-orbit calibration. The reflectances and radiances of Land PEATE DNB are also compared with matching M bands and the integral M bands based on M4, M5, and M7. The fitting trends of the DNB to integral M bands ratios indicate a 0.75% decrease at the Libya 4 site and a 1.89% decrease at the Dome C site. Part of the difference is due to an insufficient number of sampled bands available within the DNB wavelength range. The above results indicate that the Land PEATE VIIRS DNB product is accurate and stable. The methods used in this study can be used on other satellite instruments to provide quantitative assessments for calibration stability.

  8. Cutting of Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps at Wuergassen NPP/ Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralf Loock [Framatome ANP GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    KWW Nuclear Power Plant has been erected and put into operation in the time period 1968 to end of 1971. In 23 years of operation about 73 billions kWh electric power have been generated. The electric rated power was 670 MW. In May 1995 the decommission was started for economical reasons, since April 1997 the demolition is in progress. In autumn 2003 FANP has been called upon to cut the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps. After a 10 months preparatory phase, cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps was started in September 2004. For radiation protection reasons the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps were cut and packed remote controlled under water. The cutting process had been selected particularly under consideration of radiation protection aspects. A combination of the technologies band sawing and nibbling was assigned for cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps. The band saw consists of a substructure and of a feed system installed on it. The feed system can be equipped with one or two band saws optionally. A turntable is integrated in the substructure. It is used to support the CRGT respectively the residual piece of the CRGT and to move it out of the cut position after finishing the cutting. After getting the agreement to the specification, the equipment has been designed and manufactured according to the specification preferences. After finishing the internal testing, the factory acceptance test as well as acceptance and functional tests of every facility were carried out. After cold testing being performed successfully, the cutting equipment was installed in the NPP and checked for operational safety additionally. Cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps has been carried out on two working places inside the fuel element storage pool. During the total project duration on site the processing has been supervised by the radiation protection staff permanently. As a result 110 Control Rod Guide Tubes and 18 Jet Pumps were

  9. Remotely Sensed Estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP and Its Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Greater Khingan Mountain Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We improved the CASA model based on differences in the types of land use, the values of the maximum light use efficiency, and the calculation methods of solar radiation. Then, the parameters of the model were examined and recombined into 16 cases. We estimated the net primary productivity (NPP using the NDVI3g dataset, meteorological data, and vegetation classification data from the Greater Khingan Mountain region, China. We assessed the accuracy and temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region from 1982 to 2013. Based on a comparison of the results of the 16 cases, we found that different values of maximum light use efficiency affect the estimation more than differences in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR. However, the FPARmax and the constant Tε2 values did not show marked effects. Different schemes were used to assess different model combinations. Models using a combination of parameters established by scholars from China and the United States produced different results and had large errors. These ideas are meaningful references for the estimation of NPP in other regions. The results reveal that the annual average NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region was 760 g C/m2·a in 1982–2013 and that the inter-annual fluctuations were not dramatic. The NPP estimation results of the 16 cases exhibit an increasing trend. In terms of the spatial distribution of the changes, the model indicated that the values in 75% of this area seldom or never increased. Prominent growth occurred in the areas of Taipingling, Genhe, and the Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Notably, NPP decreased in the southeastern region of the Greater Khingan Mountains, the Hulunbuir Pasture Land, and Holingol.

  10. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Redundant filtration system of the fuel buildings,units 1 and 2 Almaraz NPP; Sistema de filtracion redundante de los edificios de combustible unidades 1 y 2 de la central nuclear de almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Tanco, J.

    2011-07-01

    The project redundant filtering fuel buildings in units 1 and 2 of Almaraz NPP, will compliance to the requirements established in the complementary technical instructions to the authorization of exploitation of Almaraz NPP, established by the CSN and will consist of the installation of a new filtration unit.

  12. Verification and validation of new operation supports systems for Beznau NPP; Verificacion y validacion de nuevos sistemas de apoyo a la operacion para la CN Baeznau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A.; Burillo, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the activities associated with the Verification and Validation works performed by Tecnatom on a computerised Advanced Alarm System (AAS) and a Computer Based Procedure System (CBP), for the licensing of these systems to be used in the control rooms of Beznau NPP (property of NOK). In this process Tecnatom acted as an independent company in the evaluation of the new systems, supporting Beznau NPP to obtain the approval from the HSK (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate) for the implementation of these systems into the training and operating concepts of the plant. (Author)

  13. Development of an improved active fire global data set using S-NPP/VIIRS 375 and 750 m data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; Walsh, W.; Guillevic, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    An improved active fire detection and characterization algorithm was developed using the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (S-NPP/VIIRS) 375 and 750 m data. The product combines a refined 375 m active fire detection data set with sub-pixel fire characterization (fire radiative power [FRP]) derived from co-located 750 m mid-infrared unsaturated data. We observe a 4-20 fold increase in the absolute number of fire pixels detected compared to coarser resolution fire products (e.g., EOS/MODIS 1 km and S-NPP/VIIRS 750 m). On average, we find that 45% of daytime and 80% of nighttime fire pixels detected with the 375 m product consist of small and/or low intensity fires typically omitted by the coarser resolution products. Consequently, areas dominated by small land parcels (e.g., southeast Asia) where low intensity management fires prevail have substantially increased their biomass burning footprint relative to the global fire activity maps depicted, for example, by the MODIS 1 km data. We address atmospheric attenuation issues impacting individual FRP retrievals and present the results from the implementation of routine correction methods that support improved data quality and data continuity requirements, and the associated environmental data records.

  14. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  15. Project equipment HVAC chilled with R22 in the NPP Asco; Proyecto de sustitucion de equipos HVAC refrigerados con R22 en la C.N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimot Jimenez, J. J.; Imbert, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the project of changing units of air conditioning in the Asco NPP currently used R22 as coolant. The project has a powerful, affecting 37 units, of which more than half are Clase1E. The document describes the process of sizing, scope of change and solutions adopted for this change of design.

  16. Development of the model MAAP5-DOSE for dose analysis in Cofrentes NPP; Desarrollo del modelo MAAP5-DOSE para analisis de dosis en C.N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, P.; Ibanez, L.; Lamela, B.; Serrano, C.

    2013-07-01

    Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion has developed a model of Cofrentes NPP with code MAAP5-DOSE in order to be able to assess in realistic conditions the the expected dose in points and radiological consequences of severe accident of local action.

  17. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  18. Developing Off-site Emergency Preparedness and Response Model (OEPRM) for Severe Accident of NPP in a Densely Populated Country Using System Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossena, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Song, Jin Ho [KAERI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main objectives of this study are to find the influencing factors of systems and sub-systems of OEPRM, to find the interdependency among the influencing factors, and to develop a conceptual qualitative OEPRM for densely populated NPP country in case of SA using system dynamics (SD). NPP accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity. Severe accident (SA) is certain low probability accident that are beyond design basis accident which may arise due to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation and jeopardize the integrity of many or all of the barriers to the release of radioactive material. The weakness to the off-site emergency response in the time of Fukushima accident was observed. So, it is crucial to develop an off-site emergency preparedness and responses model (OEPRM) for radiological emergency in densely populated country from the Fukushima emergency response lesson. In this study, an OEPRM is developed for densely populated NPP country to mitigate radiological effects in case of SA using SD approach. Besides, this study focuses the weakness of emergency response in Fukushima accident and proposed solution approach. The development of OEPRM in case of SA of NPP is very complex because of the involvement of various organization and it requires highly specialized agencies and technical experts. Moreover, if the country is agriculture based, it will make completely sophisticated.

  19. Application of noble metals on line in Cofrentes NPP and operation experience; Aplicacion de metales nobles en linea en C.N. Cofrentes y experiencia de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Zapata, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Cofrentes NPP implemented in 2010 the Noble Metal Chemistry as a mitigation technique for the Primary System materials protection against IGSCC. the paper describes briefly the technology fundamentals, the implementation of the specific project, the initial application and the operating experience along the last 3 cycles of the plant. (Author)

  20. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors.

  1. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Five years of gas flaring by country, oil field or flare observed by the Suomi NPP satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    We will present a new methodology and the resulting interactive map and statistical estimates of flared gas volumes in 2012-2016 using multispectral infrared images from VIIRS radiometer at the Suomi NPP satellite. The high temperature gas flares are detected at the night side of the Earth with the Nightfire algorithm. Gas flares are distinct from biomass burning and industrial heat sources because they have higher temperatures. Sums of the radiative heat from the detected flares are calibrated with country-level flared volumes reported by CEDIGAZ. Statistical analysis of the database with accumulated 5 years of the Nightfire detections makes it possible to estimate instant flow rate for an individual flare, as well as integral flared volumes and long term trends for all the countries or oil and gas fields.

  3. Relap5/Mod3.1 analysis of main steam header rupture in VVER- 440/213 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, P. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    The presentation is focused on two main topics. First the applied modelling of PGV-4 steam generator for RELAP5 code are described. The results of steady-state calculation under reference conditions are compared against measured data. The problem of longitudinal subdivision of SG tubes is analysed and evaluated. Secondly, a best-estimate analysis of main steam header (MSH) rupture accident in WWER-440/213 NPP is presented. The low reliability of initiation of ESFAS signal `MSH Rupture` leads in this accident to big loss of secondary coolant, full depressurization of main steam system, extremely fast cool-down of both secondary and primary system, opening of PRZ SV-bypass valve with later liquid outflow, potential reaching of secondary criticality by failure of HPIS. 7 refs.

  4. Radiometric Inter-Calibration between Himawari-8 AHI and S-NPP VIIRS for the Solar Reflective Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI on-board Himawari-8, which was launched on 7 October 2014, is the first geostationary instrument housed with a solar diffuser to provide accurate onboard calibrated data for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR bands. In this study, the Ray-matching and collocated Deep Convective Cloud (DCC methods, both of which are based on incidently collocated homogeneous pairs between AHI and Suomi NPP (S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, are used to evaluate the calibration difference between these two instruments. While the Ray-matching method is used to examine the reflectance difference over the all-sky collocations with similar viewing and illumination geometries, the near lambertian collocated DCC pxiels are used to examine the difference for the median or high reflectance scenes. Strong linear relationships between AHI and VIIRS can be found at all the paired AHI and VIIRS bands. Results of both methods indicate that AHI radiometric calibration accuracy agrees well with VIIRS data within 5% for B1-4 and B6 at mid and high reflectance scenes, while AHI B5 is generally brighter than VIIRS by ~6%–8%. No apparent East-West viewing angle dependent calibration difference can be found at all the VNIR bands. Compared to the Ray-matching method, the collocated DCC method provides less uncertainty of inter-calibration results at near-infrared (NIR bands. As AHI has similar optics and calibration designs to the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI, which is currently scheduled to launch in fall 2016, the on-orbit AHI data provides a unique opportunity to develop, test and examine the cal/val tools developed for ABI.

  5. Using VIIRS/NPP and MODIS/Aqua data to provide a continuous record of suspended particulate matter in a highly turbid inland lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Duan, Hongtao; Shen, Ming; Ma, Ronghua; Xue, Kun; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Qitao

    2018-02-01

    Inland lakes are generally an important source of drinking water, and information on their water quality needs to be obtained in real time. To date, Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played a critical, effective and long-term role in fulfilling this function. However, the MODIS instruments on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites have operated beyond their designed five-year mission lifespans (Terra was launched in 1999, whereas Aqua was launched in 2002), and these instruments may stop running at any time in the near future. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP, which was launched in Oct 2011) is expected to provide a consistent, long-term data record and continue the series of observations initiated by MODIS. To date, few evaluations of the consistency between VIIRS and MODIS have been conducted for turbid inland waters. In this study, we first used synchronous MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data (±1 h) collected during 2012-2015 to evaluate the consistency of Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) observations over Lake Hongze (the fourth-largest freshwater lake in China), since accurate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values cannot be acquired over turbid inland waters. Second, we used recently developed algorithms based on Rrc in the red band to estimate the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data. Finally, we assessed the consistency of the SPM products derived from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP. The results show the following. (1) The differences in Rrc among the green (VIIRS 551 nm and MODIS 555 nm) and red bands (VIIRS 671 nm and MODIS 645 nm) indicate a satisfactory consistency, and the unbiased percentage difference (UPD) is products obtained using MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP have a satisfactory degree of consistency (0-150 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.81, UPD < 16% and 0-80 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.85, UPD < 12%, respectively

  6. GHRSST GDS2 Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite created by the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), starting with S-NPP launched on 28 October 2011, is the new generation of the US Polar Operational Environmental Satellites...

  7. Evaluating the Ability of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data to Estimate the Gross Domestic Product and the Electric Power Consumption of China at Multiple Scales: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaifang Shi; Bailang Yu; Yixiu Huang; Yingjie Hu; Bing Yin; Zuoqi Chen; Liujia Chen; Jianping Wu

    2014-01-01

    ...) and the electric power consumption (EPC). In early 2013, the first global NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data were released by the Earth Observation Group of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA/NGDC...

  8. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  9. Technical aspects of the process of segmentation and packaging of the reactor vessel of Jose Cabrera NPP; Aspectos tecnicos del proceso de segmentacion y embalaje de la vasija del reactor de la central nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivieso, J. M.; Garcia Castro, R.

    2015-07-01

    Westinghouse is carrying out the segmentation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) within the framework of the Dismantling and Decommissioning Project of the Jose Cabrera NPP. The final concept is based on the comprehensive Westinghouse experience in the field of LWR pressure vessel and internals segmentation, and particularly in previous reactor internals segmentation project for Jose Cabrera NPP. This article shows the development of all the activities included: cutting method selection, preparatory works, cutting activities, waste characterization and packaging activities. (Author)

  10. Recovery of the electric supply in the SBO event of prolonged in NPP Almaraz; Recuperacion del suministro electrico en caso de SBO prolongado en CN Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo Silvo, J. M.; Garcia Galarraga, M.

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of strategies of defence in depth and in response to the complementary technical instructions of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) carried out after the tests of resistance, Almaraz NPP has implemented a series of modifications in order to deal with events of total loss of power Electric, Station blackout (SBO), over a long period of time, beyond the foundations of design. The purpose of modifications in Almaraz NPP is the creation of a supply infrastructure independent of the existing plant, which can attach portable external sources to supply power to a series of considered to be receptors of importance for the monitoring and maintenance of the plant in a safe condition.

  11. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  12. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerospace Transportable Lidar System 2 (ATLS-2) provides ground truth humidity and temperature data for the testing and evaluation of instruments aboard environmental satellites. The Aerospace ground-truth data consist of collocated state-of-the art lidar and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). The lidar system consists of a pulsed UV transmitter, 36-inch collection telescope, and detection channels for water Raman, nitrogen Raman, and Rayleigh/Mie scattering. All channels are separated into two altitude bins to improve the dynamic range of the system. Dedicated balloon-borne radiosondes are Vaisala RS-92, processed with the current version of the Digicora-III software. The synergy between the Raman lidar data and radiosonde data produce high accuracy, quality-controlled vertical profiles of humidity (0 - 20 km) and temperature (0 - 60 km). Starting in May 2012, The Aerospace Corporation has exercised ATLS-2 to collect dedicated ground truth data sets in support of calibration and validation (cal/val) efforts for the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) aboard the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Data sets are collected from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on the west coast of Kauai and are timed to be coincident with S-NPP overpasses. The Aerospace PMRF datasets complement the ensemble of similar datasets collected from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) sites, which are compared to CrIMSS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) by the NOAA/NESDIS/STAR cal/val team for validation of algorithm performance and algorithm improvement. In addition to providing the only dedicated CrIMSS data in the mid-pacific, The Aerospace Corporation was the first site to provide ground truth data to the EDR cal/val team. As a result, ATLS-2 data sets served as the initial benchmarks for EDR performance testing. Details of the ATLS-2 system and data products as well

  13. Decommissioning of Wuergassen NPP - work on the reactor service floor; Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen - Arbeiten auf der Reaktorbedienungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, A.; Winnefeld, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wuergassen NPP (KWW) is located on the River Weser, some 50 km north of Kassel. It is a single unit boiling water reactor with an installed electrical generation capacity of 670 MW. The plant was constructed by AEG between 1968 and 1971 and went into operation in late 1971. Wuergassen NPP generated a total of 73 billion kWh of electricity during its period of commercial operation. Cracks were discovered in the core shroud of the reactor pressure vessel while carrying out inspection work during the annual scheduled refuelling outage in 1994. As a result of this, the plant was shut down, Various alternatives as to how to proceed further where evaluated within one year. PreussenElektra AG, the operator at the time, ultimately decided to finally shut the plant down in 1995 and to immediately begin with the decommissioning. Several independent of each other phases have been planned for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The plant components are to be dismantled beginning with the non and low contaminated parts up to the more concentrated or activated installations. The whole decommissioning has been divided into a total of six phases. Theses phases are roughly depicted in fig. 1. Now that the Ministry of Economy and Small Business, Energy and Transport for the State of North Rhine Westphalia has granted permission for phases 1 to 5, all work within the framework of the direct decommissioning of Wuergassen Nuclear Power Plant can be carried out. There are at the present time approximately 500 people actively working on site. This number is made up of about 170 staff from E.ON Kernkraft GmbH and some 330 employees from outside contractors. The decommissioning tasks presented here describe the work that has been carried out in the area of the reactor service floor and specifically in the proximity of the reactor vessel. Therefore, particular requirements were necessary for the technology employed, as well as for the importance of practical radiation protection

  14. An empirical study on the basic human error probabilities for NPP advanced main control room operation using soft control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Inseok, E-mail: nuclear82@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ar Ryum, E-mail: arryum@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem Al, E-mail: 100035556@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Lee, Seung Jun, E-mail: sjlee@kaeri.re.kr [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1, Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. ► The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. ► Different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered. ► BHEPs in a soft control operation environment are investigated empirically. ► This work will be helpful to verify if soft control has positive or negative effects. -- Abstract: By adopting new human–system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, soft controls, and so on, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features in Advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, touch screens, and so on, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the devices. However, because of the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered in the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA), Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and so on, these methods have been applied to conventional MCRs, and they do not consider the new features of advance MCRs such as soft controls. As a result, there is an insufficient database for assessing human reliabilities in advanced

  15. Core shroud cracking in BWR-NPP and respective preventive measures taken for NPP Isar 1; Befundsituation an den austenitischen RDB-Einbauten in in- und auslaendischen SWR-Anlagen und daraus abgeleitete Massnahmen in KKI 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erve, M. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Maier, V. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Baeumler, H.J. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Winter, F. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Hurlebaus, D. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Marschke, D. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Senski, G. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Since 1990 there have been reports on crack initiation in the core shroud of boiling water reactors which have been established in the framework of recurrent tests. In the corresponding tests in German power plants, in Wuergassen in 1994, there were crack flaws found in the flanges of the core shroud as well as in the base plate rings of the core grids. This was an occasion to systematically lay down a strategy suited for German boiling water reactors for recurrent tests and to work out measures among system manufacturers, operators and experts. The purpose, on the one hand, was to prevent crack formation, and on the other to be able to assess findings with regard to the loading capacity factor when they do occur. The paper reports on the measures specifically planned or worked out for the NPP Isar 1. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit 1990 wird ueber Rissbildungen in Kernmaenteln in Siedewasserreaktoren berichtet, die im Rahmen von wiederkehrenden Pruefungen festgestellt worden waren. Bei entsprechenden Pruefungen in deutschen Anlagen wurden 1994 in Wuergassen in den Flanschen des Kernmantels sowie an den Auflageringen der Kerngitter Rissbefunde festgestellt. Dies war Anlass genug, im Kreise Systemhersteller, Betreiber und Gutachter systematisch eine fuer deutsche SWR-Anlagen geeignete Strategie fuer wiederkehrende Pruefungen festzulegen und Massnahmen zu erarbeiten, um einerseits einer Rissbildung vorbeugen zu koennen, andererseits bei Auftreten von Befunden diese im Hinblick auf Belastbarkeit bewerten zu koennen. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrages wird ueber die fuer die Anlage KKl 1 konkret vorgesehenen bzw. erarbeiteten Massnahmen berichtet. (orig.)

  16. Organization and management of maintenance in the NPP's Asco and Vandellos II; Organizacion y gestion del mantenimiento en las centrales nucleares Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folguera, M.; Corral, A.

    2014-04-01

    The article starts with a description of the international framework that, using technical instructions, guides and guidelines, regulates the maintenance of nuclear power plants. It also outlines the characteristics of the organization and management of maintenance in the NPP's operated by ANAV. Such management is supported in a variety of processes and programs among which are: work management, training and qualification, operational experience, supervision, foreign material exclusion, work management in RP areas and outage preparation. (Author)

  17. Uncertainties in carbon residence time and NPP-driven carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous USA: a Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Zhou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C residence time is one of the key factors that determine the capacity of ecosystem C storage. However, its uncertainties have not been well quantified, especially at regional scales. Assessing uncertainties of C residence time is thus crucial for an improved understanding of terrestrial C sequestration. In this study, the Bayesian inversion and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique were applied to a regional terrestrial ecosystem (TECO-R model to quantify C residence times and net primary productivity (NPP-driven ecosystem C uptake and assess their uncertainties in the conterminous USA. The uncertainty was represented by coefficient of variation (CV. The 13 spatially distributed data sets of C pools and fluxes have been used to constrain TECO-R model for each biome (totally eight biomes. Our results showed that estimated ecosystem C residence times ranged from 16.6±1.8 (cropland to 85.9±15.3 yr (evergreen needleleaf forest with an average of 56.8±8.8 yr in the conterminous USA. The ecosystem C residence times and their CV were spatially heterogeneous and varied with vegetation types and climate conditions. Large uncertainties appeared in the southern and eastern USA. Driven by NPP changes from 1982 to 1998, terrestrial ecosystems in the conterminous USA would absorb 0.20±0.06 Pg C yr−1. Their spatial pattern was closely related to the greenness map in the summer with larger uptake in central and southeast regions. The lack of data or timescale mismatching between the available data and the estimated parameters lead to uncertainties in the estimated C residence times, which together with initial NPP resulted in the uncertainties in the estimated NPP-driven C uptake. The Bayesian approach with MCMC inversion provides an effective tool to estimate spatially distributed C residence time and assess their uncertainties in the conterminous USA.

  18. Process for evaluation of renewal of the operating permit for Garona NPP.; Proceso para la evaluacion de la renovacion de la autorizacion de explotacion de Garona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzuela Jimenez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Process for evaluation of renewal of the operating permit for Garona NPP. The Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant has requested the renewal of its operating permit for a period of ten years, this implying extension of the operating lifetime of the facility beyond the 40 years originally established. This article explains the process of evaluation that the CN is carrying out in order to draw up a report on the technical feasibility of this proposal. (Author)

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and extracellular calcium promote mineral deposition via NPP1 activity in a mature osteoblast cell line MLO-A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqing; Turner, Andrew G; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A; Atkins, Gerald J

    2015-09-05

    While vitamin D supplementation is common, the anabolic mechanisms that improve bone status are poorly understood. Under standard mineralising conditions including media ionised calcium of 1.1 mM, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) enhanced differentiation and mineral deposition by the mature osteoblast/pre-osteocyte cell line, MLO-A5. This effect was markedly increased with a higher ionised calcium level (1.5 mM). Gene expression analyses revealed that 1,25D-induced mineral deposition was associated with induction of Enpp1 mRNA, coding for nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) and NPP1 protein levels. Since MLO-A5 cells express abundant alkaline phosphatase that was not further modified by 1,25D treatment or exposure to increased calcium, this finding suggested that the NPP1 production of pyrophosphate (PPi) may provide alkaline phosphatase with substrate for the generation of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Consistent with this, co-treatment with Enpp1 siRNA or a NPP1 inhibitor, PPADS, abrogated 1,25D-induced mineral deposition. These data demonstrate that 1,25D stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineral deposition, and interacts with the extracellular calcium concentration. 1,25D regulates Enpp1 expression, which presumably, in the context of adequate tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, provides Pi to stimulate mineralisation. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which vitamin D with adequate dietary calcium can improve bone mineral status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New ways in reactor dismantling - dismounting of the containment building in the NPP Wuergassen; Neue Wege im Rueckbau. Demontage des Sicherheitsbehaelters im KWW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolles, Frank [E.ON Energie (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen; Stein, Rainer

    2008-07-01

    The dismantling concept for the containment of the NPP Wuergassen is differing from hitherto existing practice with respect to the on-site compilation of emissions from the dismantling process using extraction by suction and different catcher systems. The concept also includes a special transport and logistics system with a flexible crane system for removal of dismantled parts and transfer for decontamination or storage. The paper contains detail information on the dismantling process, the economic evaluation and preliminary experiences.

  1. Prescription launching related to the chemical measurement methods in the waste and environmental field with regards to the regulation framework dedicated to the NPP chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, M.; Dupin, M.; Cosse, C.; Lepetit, D.; Gacon, A. [EDF/Ceidre/DLAB, Avoine (France)

    2010-07-01

    At the present time, chemical analytical methods are elaborated by EDF Corporate Laboratories and then transmitted to the NPP laboratories for them to decline these procedures to fit with their own analytical devices. In fact, the feedback linked to the exceedings of the regulatory release thresholds pointed out that some differences in the chemical releases regarding several chemical substances could be attributed to the measurement channel. In some cases, one can exhibit a significant increase concerning some NPP chemical releases which can be due to modifications inherent to preservation methods and/or sample analyses. In 2004, this context lead EDF Nuclear Generation Corporate Division supported by NPP Representatives to prescribe the chemical analytical methods in the effluents and environment field and to standardise the dedicated chemical analytical devices. Several goals are carried on : To develop reliable, simple, rapid and applicable on site procedures which are congruent with the existing standards or with a simple adaptation of the standardised method when the standard is not directly applicable or does not fit; To standardise the dedicated analytical devices already available or available at a reasonable investment; To encourage an optimisation of the human resources; and, Health potential problems are also taken into account in the choice of the chemical reagents to be used in the analytical procedures. Other positive consequences can be pointed out concerning the regulatory framework, that is to say a consolidation with regards to the documents linked to the new requests exhibited in the NPP new licences for waste releases and water supply. For the citizens, it reinforces the confidence in the efficiency of the releases surveillance. (author)

  2. Fukushima Daiichi accident as a stress test for the national system for the protection of the public in event of severe accident at NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kutkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the circumstances of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March 2011 in Japan should be used as the framework for the stress test of the national system for the protection of public in the beyond design extension conditions at NPP. Stress tests of the public protection strategy show to what extent the national system is stable under the most unfavorable NPP conditions and give an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities and the ways to resolve them. A definition of the Fukushima stress test model has been provided, and the actions undertaken by Japanese authorities under the conditions of the Fukushima Daiichi accident have been considered as the response to this stress test. The stress test has revealed major vulnerabilities in the strategy for the protection of public in the event of an accident at an NPP, which was successfully proven many times by over a hundred exercises at different levels. The stress test showed that the principal vulnerability of protection strategy being in use in Japan in 2011 was the reliance on computer systems in the assessment of the emergency exposure for decision-making during the emergency response phase. It is proposed, that the Fukushima stress test should be used to identify the vulnerabilities in the Russian Federation's strategy for the protection of public in the event of a nuclear accident and to use the lessons learnt from the test results to perfect this strategy.

  3. NOAA/National Weather Service Operational Applications and Training of S-NPP Imagery and Products in Preparation for JPSS Mission Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, B.; Miller, S. D.; Folmer, M. J.; Lindstrom, S.; Nietfeld, D.; Stevens, E.; Dankers, T.; Baker, M.; Meier, B.; Mostek, A. J.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS), in collaboration with the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) and its Cooperative Institutes, have been prototyping various operational applications of Suomi-NPP satellite imagery and products. Some of these new satellite capabilities are NOAA and S-NPP mission unique and have resulted in new science applications for high impact events and related impact-based decision support services. From detection to monitoring to recovery-phase operations, S-NPP debuts new NOAA-unique capabilities for true color RGB imagery, Near Constant Contrast Day-Night Band Imagery, Flood/Ice Detection and Monitoring, Wildfire and Smoke Detection and Monitoring, Severe Weather Environmental and Storm Analysis, Dust Detection and Monitoring, and Global Infrared and Microwave Atmospheric Soundings. These newly demonstrated applications have been part of the research to operations transitions occurring in the NOAA Satellite Proving Ground (JPSS and GOES-R) and NOAA training developed as part of the Virtual Institute for Satellite Integration and Training (VISIT).

  4. Change of outlook for the forest productivity estimated with remote sensing using the new Collection 6 GPP/NPP MODIS product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Hrvoje; Kern, Anikó; Anić, Mislav; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Balenović, Ivan; Alberti, Giorgio; Kovač, Goran; Barcza, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of forest productivity from remote sensing data, such as the MOD17 GPP and NPP values derived from MODIS data, are becoming increasingly important tools for monitoring forest productivity in light of the climate change. Hence, small sensor degradation, like the one in the case of MODIS sensor on-board satellite Terra could lead so significant bias in results and false conclusions of the path that the ecosystem is on. In new Collection 6 (C6) of the MOD17 product, the sensor degradation problem has been addressed compared to the previous version Collection 5.5 (C5.5) products, offering a new outlook on the trends in forest productivity. In our work we compared the C5.5 and C6 for MOD17 GPP and NPP products against estimates from eddy covariance and field measurements ('ground truth') at young Pedunculate oak site in Jastrebarsko forest. In order to assess the outlook of forest productivity at larger scale we intersected in GIS maps of forest areas under management and MODIS pixels with 1km spatial resolution. After selecting only those pixels that have at least 90% forest coverage according to the management plans, we analysed the temporal trends and variability in MODIS derived GPP and NPP both from C5.5 and C6 products. Analysis was performed for four main forests classes according to the dominant tree species (Pedunculate oak, Sessile oak, Common beech and Silver fir).

  5. Towards real-time risk mitigation for NPP in Switzerland: the potential role of EEW and OEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Wiemer, Stefan; Behr, Yannik; Clinton, John; Renault, Philippe; Le Guenan, Thomas; Douglas, John; Woessner, Jochen; Biro, Yesim; Caprio, Marta; Cua, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Spurred by the research activities being carried out within the EC-funded project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real Time Earthquake Risk Reduction, FP7, contract no. 282862, 2011-2014, www.reaktproject.eu), we present herein the key elements to understanding the potential benefits of routinely using Earthquake Early Warning and Operational Earthquake Forecasting methods to mitigate the seismic risk at NPP in Switzerland. The advantages of using the aforementioned real-time risk reduction tools are critically discussed based on the limitations of the current scientific knowledge and technology, as well as on the costs associated to both system maintenance and machine- or human-triggered actions following an alert. Basic inputs to this discussion are, amongst others: a) the performances of the Swiss seismic network (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/monitor, where SeisComP3 is used as earthquake monitoring software) and the selected EEW algorithm (the Virtual Seismologist, VS, http://www.seiscomp3.org/doc/seattle/2013.200/apps/vs.html), in terms of correct detections, false alerts, and missed events; b) the reliability of time-dependent hazard scenarios for the region of interest; c) a careful assessment of the frequency of occurrence of critical warnings based on the local and regional seismicity; d) the identification of the mitigation actions and their benefits and costs for the stakeholders.

  6. Development of a HFE program for an operating NPP: Balancing between existing design practices and human factors standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Leena [Nuclear and Thermal Power, Fortum (Finland); Savioja, Paula [Human Factors in Complex Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fortum (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes HFE program development project conducted at a Finnish power company Fortum. The aim of developing a formal HFE program was to improve integration of human factors issues in design of technical systems and to systematically document the HFE process of the company. As Fortum has a long tradition of designing control room solutions, the starting point of the HFE program development was the existing own design practices. On the other hand, the aim was to create a program which would comply with international guidelines such as NUREG-0711. The program development was conducted by tracing the HFE design practices in an on-going I and C modernization project. This empirical work was carried out by interviews of designers and other HFE key stake holders. After the explication of the current practices, the gaps, overlaps and differences in relation to the international standards and guidelines were identified. Based on an analysis of current practices and guidelines and standards a new HFE process model was created. The design process model can be followed in modifications which concern systems with human user interfaces of any kind. The model consists of five separate phases which comply with the general engineering design process model utilized at the company. The HFE program is intended to be both a practical guide on how to take human factors issues into consideration in the design of NPP systems and also a tool for the management of HFE activities.

  7. A Procedure to Address the Fuel Rod Failures during LB-LOCA Transient in Atucha-2 NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Adorni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the specific event scenario and on the purpose of the analysis, the availability of calculation methods that are not implemented in the standard system thermal hydraulic codes might be required. This may imply the use of a dedicated fuel rod thermomechanical computer code. This paper provides an outline of the methodology for the analysis of the 2A LB-LOCA accident in Atucha-2 NPP and describes the procedure adopted for the use of the fuel rod thermomechanical code. The methodology implies the application of best estimate thermalhydraulics, neutron physics, and fuel pin performance computer codes, with the objective to verify the compliance with the specific acceptance criteria. The fuel pin performance code is applied with the main objective to evaluate the extent of cladding failures during the transient. The procedure consists of a deterministic calculation by the fuel performance code of each individual fuel rod during its lifetime and in the subsequent LB-LOCA transient calculations. The boundary and initial conditions are provided by core physics and three-dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic system codes calculations. The procedure is completed by the sensitivity calculations and the application of the probabilistic method, which are outside the scope of the current paper.

  8. Extent estimation of different factors influence on the corrosion cracking of steels type X18H10T in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjazhkin, P.S.; Kritski, V.G.; Simanovski, V.M.; Kovalev, S.M.; Malov, M.Ju.; Butorin, S.L. [All-Russean Design and Scientific Research Inst. of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    1. Results of the performed complex study of chemical and physical factors effect on pipelines DU-300 integrity proves that in HT and going to power conditions under reactor RBMK-1000 operation there are most favourable conditions for origin and further undergrowth of crack in near-joint zones of pipelines and equipment made of steel X18H10T. These conditions are defined by high concentration of oxygen and electric conductivity of the coolant, higher in comparison with NOC (operation at power) stressed-and-strained state of units being loaded with additional dynamic loads. 2. Results received are of an evaluating character, they show only that under start-up operations after thermal shutdown an accelerated growth of cracks is most probable. 3. In view of a general trend of prolongation of operation terms of NPP with RBMK-1000 (LNPP including), realization of procedures to decrease probability of occurrence and evolution of CCS in equipment and pipelines and introduction of a system of corrosion monitoring is one of the actual tasks. 4. An additional measure can be a validated transition to hydro-pressing of the circuit at lower temperature (80-90 C). (authors)

  9. Atucha II NPP full scope simulator modelling with the thermal hydraulic code TRAC{sub R}T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Pablo Rey; Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Rivero, Norberto, E-mail: prey@tecnatom.e, E-mail: jaruiz@tecnatom.e, E-mail: nrivero@tecnatom.e [Tecnatom S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    In February 2010 NA-SA (Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.) awarded Tecnatom the Atucha II full scope simulator project. NA-SA is a public company owner of the Argentinean nuclear power plants. Atucha II is due to enter in operation shortly. Atucha II NPP is a PHWR type plant cooled by the water of the Parana River and has the same design as the Atucha I unit, doubling its power capacity. Atucha II will produce 745 MWe utilizing heavy water as coolant and moderator, and natural uranium as fuel. A plant singular feature is the permanent core refueling. TRAC{sub R}T is the first real time thermal hydraulic six-equations code used in the training simulation industry for NSSS modeling. It is the result from adapting to real time the best estimate code TRACG. TRAC{sub R}T is based on first principle conservation equations for mass, energy and momentum for liquid and steam phases, with two phase flows under non homogeneous and non equilibrium conditions. At present, it has been successfully implemented in twelve full scope replica simulators in different training centers throughout the world. To ease the modeling task, TRAC{sub R}T includes a graphical pre-processing tool designed to optimize this process and alleviate the burden of entering alpha numerical data in an input file. (author)

  10. Development of 4.5 kW SPT T-160 for Joint Tests with NPP TOPAZ-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, Anatoly; Petrosov, Valery A.; Vasin, Anatoly L.; Baranov, Vladimir L.; Rebrov, Serdei G.; Wetch, Joseph R.; Wong, See-Pok

    1994-07-01

    The electric thruster T-160 is related to a low thrust rocket engines group which can be used on spacecrafts for their orbit correction and parameters change. T-160 flight tests are supposed to be conducted together with the TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) as a part of the NEPSTP program. The thruster T-160 is a Hall-type plasma accelerator with the closed electron drift. Plasma is accelerated in crossed magnetic and electric fields in an accelerating channel made of insulating material. Gaseous xenon is used as a propellant for the thruster, electric power supply of 4-4.5 kW is required for its operation. The cathode-neutralizer emission element is made of porous tungsten saturated with barium salts. The thruster T-160 is equipped with a flow control unit ensuring propellant coming to the cathode and gas distributing anode, and a power processing unit and can be delivered with a propellant storage and supply system, thus forming a complete propulsion system set.

  11. Psychophysiological characteristics in the ChNPP accident clean-up workers, exclusion zone evacuees and anti-terrorist operation servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of interdependencies between psychometric parameters and spontaneous cerebral electric activity in the ChNPP accident clean up workers, evacuees from exclusion zone, and anti terrorist operation service men. Psychometric and neurophysiological parameters were reviewed in the study subjects retro spectively and in comparison. Study population included the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), evacuees from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone, specifically in a sample from a cohort of the NRCRM Clinical Epidemiological Register (n=316), and anti terrorist operation servicemen (n=81) undergoing rehabilitation in the NRCRM Radiation psychoneurology department. A control group of persons (n=84) was also involved in the study. Diagnostic method ology for the characteristic personality features, namely the personality test of character accentuation by G. Shmishek and K. Leonhard, and Eysenck Personality Inventory (by H. J. Eysenck) were applied. Computer EEGs were registered and analyzed on the 16 channel electroencephalograph DX 4000 (Kharkiv, Ukraine). In the aftermath of the emergency period, a personality deformation occurs in the clean up workers and survivors of the ChNPP accident, which is characterized by aggravation of such personality traits as jam (fixedness), emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and disthymia, with diminished hyperthymia and ostenta tion (demonstrability). Increased incidence of fixedness, pedantry, cyclothymia, affectability and disthymia with decreased hyperthymia were revealed in the group of ATO participants. Cerebral bioelectrical activity in the ChNPP ACUW was characterized by an increased delta activity power with decreased beta and theta activity power and dom inant frequency in comparison with all groups of survivors and control group. The ATO group was different from groups of survivors and control group with a lower power of delta, theta and beta activity, and a higher dominant frequency. Introversion

  12. The effects of different footprint sizes and cloud algorithms on the top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenying; Liang, Lusheng; Miller, Walter F.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    2017-10-01

    Only one Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and it has been placed in cross-track mode since launch; it is thus not possible to construct a set of angular distribution models (ADMs) specific for CERES on NPP. Edition 4 Aqua ADMs are used for flux inversions for NPP CERES measurements. However, the footprint size of NPP CERES is greater than that of Aqua CERES, as the altitude of the NPP orbit is higher than that of the Aqua orbit. Furthermore, cloud retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which are the imagers sharing the spacecraft with NPP CERES and Aqua CERES, are also different. To quantify the flux uncertainties due to the footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES, and due to both the footprint size difference and cloud property difference, a simulation is designed using the MODIS pixel-level data, which are convolved with the Aqua CERES and NPP CERES point spread functions (PSFs) into their respective footprints. The simulation is designed to isolate the effects of footprint size and cloud property differences on flux uncertainty from calibration and orbital differences between NPP CERES and Aqua CERES. The footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES introduces instantaneous flux uncertainties in monthly gridded NPP CERES measurements of less than 4.0 W m-2 for SW (shortwave) and less than 1.0 W m-2 for both daytime and nighttime LW (longwave). The global monthly mean instantaneous SW flux from simulated NPP CERES has a low bias of 0.4 W m-2 when compared to simulated Aqua CERES, and the root-mean-square (RMS) error is 2.2 W m-2 between them; the biases of daytime and nighttime LW flux are close to zero with RMS errors of 0.8 and 0.2 W m-2. These uncertainties are within the uncertainties of CERES ADMs. When both footprint size and cloud property

  13. The effects of different footprint sizes and cloud algorithms on the top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instrument on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Only one Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instrument is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and it has been placed in cross-track mode since launch; it is thus not possible to construct a set of angular distribution models (ADMs specific for CERES on NPP. Edition 4 Aqua ADMs are used for flux inversions for NPP CERES measurements. However, the footprint size of NPP CERES is greater than that of Aqua CERES, as the altitude of the NPP orbit is higher than that of the Aqua orbit. Furthermore, cloud retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, which are the imagers sharing the spacecraft with NPP CERES and Aqua CERES, are also different. To quantify the flux uncertainties due to the footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES, and due to both the footprint size difference and cloud property difference, a simulation is designed using the MODIS pixel-level data, which are convolved with the Aqua CERES and NPP CERES point spread functions (PSFs into their respective footprints. The simulation is designed to isolate the effects of footprint size and cloud property differences on flux uncertainty from calibration and orbital differences between NPP CERES and Aqua CERES. The footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES introduces instantaneous flux uncertainties in monthly gridded NPP CERES measurements of less than 4.0 W m−2 for SW (shortwave and less than 1.0 W m−2 for both daytime and nighttime LW (longwave. The global monthly mean instantaneous SW flux from simulated NPP CERES has a low bias of 0.4 W m−2 when compared to simulated Aqua CERES, and the root-mean-square (RMS error is 2.2 W m−2 between them; the biases of daytime and nighttime LW flux are close to zero with RMS errors of 0.8 and 0.2 W m−2. These uncertainties are within the uncertainties of CERES ADMs

  14. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  15. Radiometric traceability diagnosis and bias correction for the Suomi NPP VIIRS long-wave infrared channels during blackbody unsteady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changyong; Wang, Wenhui; Blonski, Slawomir; Zhang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Program (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs) have been performing well since the data became available on 20 January 2012, and the Sensor Data Record data reached validated maturity on 18 March 2014. While overall the validation has shown that these channels have an estimated absolute uncertainty on the order of 0.1 K based on extensive comparisons, there is a remaining issue that persisted over the years. A calibration bias on the order of 0.1 K is introduced in channels such as M15 during the quarterly blackbody temperature warm-up/cooldown, and the bias is further amplified by the sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm up to 0.3 K in the global daily-averaged products which causes an apparent spike in the SST time series. Our investigation reveals that this bias is caused by a fundamental but flawed theoretical assumption in the VIIRS calibration equation, which states that the shape of the calibration curve is assumed unchanged from prelaunch to postlaunch without any constrains. While the assumption may work to account for long-term degradation, it has a shortcoming during the blackbody unsteady state. In this study, we present a diagnostic and correction method with a compensatory term (Ltrace) to reconcile the assumption such that it removes the calibration bias during the blackbody temperature changes. The methodology has been tested using historical data, and the results are very positive. The implementation has minimal impacts on the operational data processing system and is readily available for use in operations.

  16. Real-time mapping of combustion sources using Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS and CrIMSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhin, M.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Night-time images from the Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS scanning radiometer in visible and infrared spectral bands provide invaluable data for real-time detection of natural and technological combustion sources on the surface of the Earth, such as forest fires, gas flares, steel mills or active volcanoes. Point sources detected at night in 1.6 micron near-infrared M10 channel are most likely to be large fires or gas flares. Their temperature and radiative power can be estimated by simultaneous fitting of two Planck black-body spectral curves to the observed radiances of all VIIRS infrared M-channels, one curve for the temperature and power of the combustion, another for the background. VIIRS instrument is sensitive to the IR sources with temperature range from 800 to 2000 degrees K. This method can discriminate low temperature sources such as volcanoes and forest fires from the high temperature gas flares with 300 m average location error. Global real-time mapping of the IR sources on the Earth requires correction of the M-channels for bow tie effect, atmospheric correction and filtering of the false detections resulting from sensor bombardment by the cosmic rays, especially at the aurora rings and at the South Atlantic anomaly. MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer mode is used with temperature and moisture profiles provided by the CrIMSS onboard sensor suite. False detections can be removed by correlating of the observed bright spots in M10 channel with other infrared and the visible day-night band. After geometry correction and denoising, the IR point sources are mapped on Google Earth and listed in a table. NOAA NGDC provides global daily detection products for thousands of IR sources as KML vector maps and as CSV tables.

  17. Evolving Synergy between UV and VIS instruments for Aerosol Remote Sensing- Implications for Suomi NPP and Future Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of aerosols started in 1979 using data from the AVHRR series of instruments on NOAA polar orbiters. Though limited to the oceans only, AVHRR clearly showed the basic latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal patterns in global aerosol fields that have been confirmed by more advanced instruments. In the early 90s a surprising discovery was made that UV instruments, such as TOMS, designed primarily to measure atmospheric ozone, can enhance this information by tracking the aerosol absorption signal of smoke and dust plumes over both land and water, as well as over bright surfaces covered by low level clouds, snow and ice. While more recent VIS/IR mapping instruments, such as SeaWIFS, MISR, MODIS, and VIIRS have greatly enhanced aerosol remote sensing capability compared to AVHRR, similar improvements have been made in UV remote sensing of aerosols, particularly with the launch of OMI on Aura in 2004. More recently, several successful approaches have been developed to combine MODIS and OMI data to estimate aerosol single scattering albedo over cloud-free areas and aerosol optical thickness over cloudy areas. I will discuss how these advanced techniques could be applied to combine VIIRS and OMPS data from Suomi NPP and what improvements are planned for JPSS-1. These techniques could also be applied to process data from the EPIC instrument, scheduled to be launched on the DSCOVR satellite next year. It will be located 1.5 million km from the Earth along the Sun-Earth axis at the first Lagrange point. Several other UV/VIS instruments are planned to be launched in LEO and GEO orbits in this decade that can take advantage of this synergy.

  18. Time changes in radiocesium wash-off from various land uses after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-05-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to monitor and model the time series change of radiocesium transfer through aquatic systems after significant fallout, especially from the Chernobyl disaster. However, no data is available for the temporal changes of radiocesium concentration in environmental materials such as soil and water after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Our research team has been monitoring the environmental consequences of radioactive contamination just after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. Research items are listed below. 1. Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use. 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope. 3. Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water. 4. Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment. 5.Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide important insights into the future prediction of the radiocesium wash-off from catchments with different land uses.

  19. The risk of macular degeneration development in persons antenatally irradiated as a result of Chornobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, T F; Fedirko, P A; Dorichevska, R Y; Denysenko, N V; Samoteikina, L A; Tyshchenko, O P

    2016-12-01

    Assess the risk of macular degeneration development in persons exposed in utero as a result of Chornobyl NPP accident. The object of the study was the state of the macular area of the retina of 84 individuals exposed in utero as a result of the Chornobyl disaster. They were surveyed at the age of 14-30. The results of stan dardized ophthalmic examinations conducted between 2000 and 2016 were used. The control group consisted of 165 persons who have not undergone prenatal exposure and were examined at the same age as the core group. All patients were examined according to the formalized ophthalmic protocol procedure, examination included ophthal moscopy and fundus camera photography (VISUCAM lite Digital Camera, Zeiss). Statistical analysis of the survey results was carried out using the free trial version of «Open Epi 2.2.1» software package. It is shown that the prevalence of macular degeneration of the retina at the age of 14-30 for persons exposed in utero was 95.23 ± 32.03 in 1000 and compared with control age (17.86 ± 10.31 in 1000) was significant ly higher (χ2 = 7.827, p = 0.0026). In the under 30 age group of the antenatally exposed there already appear macular degenerations whose clinical picture resembles age related macular degeneration. It is proved that the prevalence of macular degeneration was significantly higher in the group of antenatally exposed as compared with non irradiated control at the same age. T. F. Babenko, P.A. Fedirko, R.Y. Dorichevska, N.V. Denysenko, L. A. Samoteikina, O. P. Tyshchenko.

  20. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  1. From Environmental Data Record (EDR) to Information Data Record (IDR) - Towards The Development of S-NPP/JPSS Real-Time Informatics in Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    In cooperation with the NOAA Suomi NPP/JPSS program, CIMSS/SSEC continues to leverage and expand the NASA funded International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) effort, and to facilitate the use of international polar orbiter satellite data through the development of a unified Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP). CSPP supports the Suomi NPP and JPSS, and will subsequently build up over time, to support operational GOES-R, METOP series, FY-3 series, and geostationary meteorological and environmental satellites for the global weather and environmental user community. This paper briefly highlights 16 years (2000-2016) of success of IMAPP and, more recently, of CSPP, that latter as a pathway to the development of a freely available software package to transform VIIRS, CrIS, and ATMS Raw Data Records (RDRs) (i.e. Level 0) to Sensor Data Records (SDRs) (i.e. Level 1), and SDRs to Environmental Data Records (EDRs) (i.e. Level 2) in support of Suomi NPP and subsequently the JPSS missions under the CSPP framework. Examples of CSPP in implementing the customized - UW multi-instrument hyperspectral retrieval and NOAA enterprise algorithms - 1) The Clouds from AVHRR Extended (CLAVR-X), 2) Microwave Integrated Retrieval (MIR), 3) Advanced Clear-SKY Processor for Oceans (ACSPO), 4) NOAA Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) will be outlined. Moreover, the current innovations in the development of Information Data Record (IDR) from single or multiple EDRs and other ancillary and auxiliary data, to become the foundation of CSPP Informatics (CSPP science information processing and integration system) will be discussed. Several current CSPP Informatics examples such as 1) Infusion Data into Environmental Air Quality Application - International (IDEA-I), 2) AWH (Aviation Weather Hazard), and 3) Aerosol Visibility are to be highlighted.

  2. NPP accident scenario. Which emergency measures are planned in Switzerland?; Szenario KKW-Unfall. Welche Notfallschutzmassnahmen sind in der Schweiz geplant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury, Christoph [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (BABS), Bern (Switzerland). Eidgenoessisches Departement fuer Verteidigung Bevoelkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS)

    2016-07-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Fukushima the Swiss government has ordered an extensive analysis of emergency planning in case of a NPP accident Switzerland. A special working group has analyzed the possible improvements of Swiss emergency planning based on the experiences in Japan. Under the special direction of the Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (BABS) the agreed improvements were integrated into the emergency concept. The reference scenarios have been re-assessed and the zone concept adapted. The emergency measures include shelter-type rooms (basement or window-less rooms), the preventive distribution of iodine pills, measures concerning agriculture, aquatic systems, preventive evacuation, traffic regulations, and delayed evacuation.

  3. Ultrasonic findings in the NPP Beznau. Report on the planned further procedure of the licensee; Ultraschallbefunde des Kernkraftwerks Beznau. Stellungnahme zum geplanten weiteren Vorgehen des Betreibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Simone; Pistner, Christoph

    2016-03-15

    Due to the ultrasonic findings in the reactor pressure vessel of NPP Beznau-1 in 2015 the licensee had to provide a new structural integrity analysis based on the changed material properties. The authors discuss the interpretation of the findings in Beznau with in relation to similar findings in the Belgian NPPS Doel-3 and Tihange-2. A doubtless metallurgical characterization of the irregularities in the RPV wall as not possible based on ultrasonic testing only. Destructive testing of samples from the reactor pressure vessel is also not possible since no original material bearing irregularities is available.

  4. Development of tools to manage the operational monitoring and pre-design of the NPP-LV cycle; Desarrollo de herramientas para administrar el seguimiento operativo y el pre-diseno del ciclo de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Arredondo S, C.; Hernandez M, J. L.; Montes T, J. L.; Castillo M, A.; Ortiz S, J. J., E-mail: raul.perusquia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the development of tools to facilitate the management so much, the operational monitoring of boiling water reactors (BWR) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) through independent codes, and how to carry out the static calculations corresponding to process of optimized pre-design of the reference cycle next to current cycle. The progress and preliminary results obtained with the program SACal, developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), central tool to achieve provide a management platform of the operational monitoring and pre-design of NPP-LV cycle are also described. The reached preliminary advances directed to get an Analysis center and automated design of fuel assembly cells are also presented, which together with centers or similar modules related with the fuel reloads form the key part to meet the targets set for the realization of a Management Platform of Nuclear Fuel of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  5. Seismic qualification tests of fans of the NPP of Laguna Verde U-1 and U-2; Pruebas de calificacion sismica de ventiladores de la Central Laguna Verde U1 and U2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvio C, G.; Garcia H, E. E.; Arguelles F, R.; Vela H, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Naranjo U, J. L., E-mail: gilberto.jarvio@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Centrales Nucleoelectricas, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km 7.5, Dos Bocas, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the results of the seismic qualification tests applied to the fans that will be installed in the control panels of the three divisions of the diesel generators of the nuclear power plant (NPP) of Laguna Verde, Unit-1 and Unit-2. This seismic qualification process of the fans was carried out using two specimens that were tested in the seismic table (vibrating) of the Engineering Institute of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), in accordance with the requirements of the standard IEEE 344-1975, to satisfy the established requirements of seismic qualification in the technical specifications and normative documents required by the nuclear standards, in order to demonstrate its application in the diesel generators Divisions I, II and III of the NPP. The seismic qualification tests were developed on specimens that were retired of the NPP of Laguna Verde recently with a service life of 7.75 years. (Author)

  6. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  7. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter-Comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Using Hyperspectral Infrared Sounder Measurements as a Transfer Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the calibration consistency of the spectrally-matched thermal emissive bands (TEB between the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, using observations from their simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO. Nearly-simultaneous hyperspectral measurements from the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder(AIRS and the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS are used to account for existing spectral response differences between MODIS and VIIRS TEB. The comparison uses VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR in MODIS five-minute granule format provided by the NASA Land Product and Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE and Aqua MODIS Collection 6 Level 1 B (L1B products. Each AIRS footprint of 13.5 km (or CrIS field of view of 14 km is co-located with multiple MODIS (or VIIRS pixels. The corresponding AIRS- and CrIS-simulated MODIS and VIIRS radiances are derived by convolutions based on sensor-dependent relative spectral response (RSR functions. The VIIRS and MODIS TEB calibration consistency is evaluated and the two sensors agreed within 0.2 K in brightness temperature. Additional factors affecting the comparison such as geolocation and atmospheric water vapor content are also discussed in this paper.

  9. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-I» NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE. REPORT 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE ACCIDENT AND RADIATION SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary assessment of the accident scale, level of its radiation effect on the population and response of national authorities of various countries for the population radiation protection provisions. High levels of the environmental radioactive contamination demanded the application of complex measures for the radiation protection of the population from adjacent territories of Japan. Radionuclides from the region of damaged NPP can get to the other countries by means of the long-distant air and sea water mass transfer. Specific activity of cesium radionuclides in the sea biota can reach the level recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as the safe level for the international trade or exceed it. Significant radioactive contamination of the territories of other countries resulting from the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident did not occur. Many world countries applied measures of the Japanese food products import control on the base of the radiation monitoring data. These prohibitions are consequently remitted following the radiation situation improvement.

  10. A procedure for addressing the fuel rod failures during LB-LOCA transient in Atucha-2 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorni, Martina; Del Nevo, Alessandro; Parisi, Carlo; D' Auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), Via Diotisalvi 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, Oscar [Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., UGCNAII, 2806 Lima (Argentina)

    2009-06-15

    Overview of CNA-2 NPP: Atucha-2 is a pressurized heavy water cooled and moderated reactor (PHWR) designed by Siemens under construction in the Republic of Argentina. The nominal electric power is 745 MWe. The reactor is equipped with a PWR-type Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The operating pressure for the moderator and the coolant is equal (11.5 MPa) since the same fluid is simultaneously passing through the core and the moderator tank. The moderator and coolant circuits are connected through the bypass in the lower plenum and the upper plenum of the RPV. The former is constituted by two loops with a U-Tubes SGs. The latter is a four loops moderator system connecting upstream and downstream the moderator tank. Four horizontal U-Tubes exchangers remove the heat from the moderator system and preheat the feed water. The reactor power is generated in the core, composed by 451 fuel bundles placed in vertical fuel channels, each one containing a fuel assembly (FA) composed by 37 fuel rods. The reactor power is removed via the above mentioned 2 hydraulic loops equipped with U-Tubes Steam Generators (SG). The fuel rod consists of a stack of natural UO{sub 2} pellets, of compensation pellets in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the supporting tube, and the compression spring. Everything is placed into a Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. Although most fission products are retained within the UO{sub 2}, a fraction of the gaseous fission products is released from the pellets and accumulated in the plenum of the rod. The fuel rod cladding thickness is adequate to be 'free-standing', i.e., capable of withstanding external reactor pressure without collapsing onto the pellets. All fuel rods are internally pre-pressurized in order to reduce compressive clad stresses and creep down due to the high coolant pressure. Helium is used as pressurizing gas to get good heat transfer from fuel to cladding. The plant is operated with a on-power re-fueling that is performed by a refueling machine. After

  11. Pilot study of parathyroid glands in adult and pediatric subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident, methodology of parathyroid diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyi, O V; Kopylova, O V; Afanasyev, D Ye; Mazurenko, O V; Berezovskyi, S Ya

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids. Among the study subjects there were 339 ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), 32 persons were evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone and 224 ones were included to the control group. Diagnostic ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroids was performed according to the standard method. Additionally, in children with parathyroid hyperplasia an additional assay of 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum was performed. In calculating the statistical significance, its level p Parathyroids are a few small but critically important endocrine glands that synthesize parathyroid hormone, regulating mainly phosphoric calcium metabolism. Insufficient (hypoparathyroidism) or excessive (hyperparathy roidism) function of parathyroids is harmful to the patients affecting the state of nervous and cardiovascular sys tem. Parathyroidss can accumulate isotopes of cesium, strontium and radioactive iodine. The available data testify to an increased incidence of clinically significant hyperplasia of parthyroids (more than 9 mm in adults and more than 5 mm in children) among persons exposed toionizng radiation as a result of the accident at the ChNPP (28.64%) and their descendants (23.8-70.6%). First of all are concerned those adults who live in contaminated areas in comparison with the control group (24.15% in not irradiated). Evacuees from the 30 km exclusion zone being the category of people who were exposed to the absorbed iodine isotopes in the first days of the Chernobyl accident are the another risk group. These data

  12. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 3. A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive Outage (Safety-train Outage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and communication between

  13. Radionuclides contribution of emergency NPP 'Fukushima-1' in the contamination of the Sakhalin Island soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanova, I.V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Pozolotina, V.N.; Antonova, E.V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Zhuravlev, Yu.N.; Timofeeva, Ya.O.; Burdukovskii, M.L. [Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Russian Far East is of special interest for radioecology because of the Fukushima-1 NPP accident occurred in close vicinity of this region. We evaluated the contents of man-made radionuclides, heavy metals and the contribution of the accident fallouts of {sup 137}Cs into contamination of the soil-plant covers in the coastal zone of the Myravyov-Amyrsky Peninsula and the territory of the Island Sakhalin. This contribution was assessed with use specific activity of {sup 134}Cs and ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs. The generally-accepted methods of the radioecological investigations were used for sampling. The leaf fall, forest litters, and soils were sampling from the profile cuts of layer by layer, up to 20 cm. The artificial radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 134,137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu), heavy metals and microelements (Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn) contents in the prepared samples were determined. Analysis of samples has shown that the contents of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in 0-20 cm layer of the soils of test plots doesn't depend from the place of their situated and vary from 300 to 1500 Bk/m{sup 2} for {sup 90}Sr and from 500 to 4000 Bk/m{sup 2} for {sup 137}Cs. The presence in investigated samples of {sup 134}Cs indicates to contribution of accidental fallout of Fukushima-1 into contamination of the components of the natural ecosystems. Taking into account the contents of {sup 134}Cs and the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio in the gas-aerosol fallout (at the time of the accident it was almost equal) we calculated amounts of {sup 137}Cs that contaminated the different areas of Far-Eastern region. The results are in the range 70-300 Bq/m{sup 2}, which is higher than that at the Urals and Siberia territories (1.0-40.0 Bq/m{sup 2}). The contents of {sup 239,240}Pu in samples collected in the coastal zone of the Myravyov-Amyrsky Peninsula vary from 20 to 60 Bq/m{sup 2} and the ratio {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu is on the average 0.04. Similar levels of contamination

  14. Climate induced changes in biome distribution, NPP and hydrology for potential vegetation of the Upper Midwest U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motew, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    While much attention is focused on future impacts of climate change on ecosystems, much can be learned about the previous interactions of ecosystems with recent climate change. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on potential vegetation distributions (i.e. grasses, trees, and shrubs) and carbon and water cycling across the Upper Midwest USA from 1948-2007 using the Agro-IBIS dynamic vegetation model. We drove the model using a historical, gridded daily climate data set (temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) at a spatial resolution of 5 min x 5 min. While trends in climate variables exhibited heterogeneous spatial patterns over the study period, the overall impact of climate change on vegetation productivity was positive. We observed total increases in net primary productivity (NPP) ranging from 20-150 g C m-2, based on linear regression analysis. We determined that increased summer relative humidity, increased annual precipitation and decreased mean maximum summer temperatures were key variables contributing to these positive trends, likely through a reduction in soil moisture stress (e.g., increased available water) and heat stress. Model simulations also illustrated an increase in annual drainage throughout the region of 20-140 mm yr-1, driven by substantial increases in annual precipitation. Evapotranspiration had a highly variable spatial trend over the 60-year period, with total change over the study period ranging between -100 and +100 mm yr-1. We also analyzed potential changes in plant functional type (PFT) distributions at the biome level, but hypothesize that the model may be unable to adequately capture competitive interactions among PFTs as well as the dynamics between upper and lower canopies consisting of trees, grasses and shrubs. An analysis of the bioclimatic envelopes for PFTs common to the region revealed no significant change to the boreal conifer tree climatic domain over the study

  15. An experimental study on the effect of noise and sleep loss on human performance using the measure of TCI during NPP maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Jun

    2008-02-15

    There are various stressors in NPP maintenance, such as environmental stressors and work-related stressors. These stressors degrade human performance and increase human error. Stress has not been largely considered as a factor of human error in root cause analyses. Recently, however, regulatory bodies and research institutes have worked to manage the physical condition of the operator and improve the environment and methods of NPP maintenance. These efforts have focused on reducing the incidence of human error due to stress. It is necessary to study how much stress affects human performance before these efforts are complete. The objectives of the present study are to formulate a Task Concentration Index (TCI) based on Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in order to evaluate the degree to which a person concentrates on a task experimentally. With the TCI, the study will also evaluate the effects of noise and sleep loss on human performance during NPP maintenance tasks. Stress influences the efficiency of information processing and data input and output. Stress and human error are tightly linked in a closed-loop combination. The human body responds to stress by activating the nervous system and specific hormones. Therefore, physiological signals are changed by stress. A spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) provides a noninvasive technique for indirectly measuring sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation during specific tasks. The high-frequency component (HF, 0.15∼0.4Hz) reflects momentary respiration and is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. The low-frequency component (LF, 0.04∼0.15Hz) has been interpreted mainly as an indicator of sympathetic influences (especially when expressed in normalized units). When the level of stress is high, the Normalized Low Frequency component (NoLF) of HRV signals is generally higher than the normal state. The difference in NoLF readings between a normal state and during a task could be used to evaluate

  16. RADIATION-HYGIENIC ESTIMATION OF THE POSSIBLE LEVELS OF FAR EAST SEA FRUITS CONTAMINATION WITH LONG LIVING RADIONICLIDES DUE TO THE ACCIDENT ON ‘FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Repin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The information on contamination levels of Pacific ocean sea water and spreading of contaminated water is given for the period of the accident on «Fukushima-1» NPP and after it. Data on fishery areals are represented. The analyses of fish contamination levels is fulfilled .The questions of fish monitoring are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the state of the engines and generators of medium voltage of Almaraz NPP; Evaluacion del Estado de los Motoeres y Generadores de Media Tension de CN Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Fernandez, E.; Calatayud, M.; Gonzalez Redondo, R.; Tisquez Bailon, A.

    2014-07-01

    Almaraz NPP within the process of improvement of reliability of equipment has made the assessment of the State and degree of aging of medium voltage generators and engines as starting point for the implementation of a monitoring Plan in the long term of the State and Performance of these devices. (Author)

  18. Long-term operation of NPP Current situation and future prospects; Operacion a Largo Plazo de CC.NN. Situacion actual y perspectivas de futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, I.; Esteban, G.; Garcia, R.

    2014-07-01

    In 2009 the CSN approved the Safety Instruction IS-22, which regulates the activities that Spanish NPPs must develop in their Life Management Plans and the specific works necessary to apply for license renewal for long-term operation. This instruction includes the criteria currently laid down by national and international legislation (10 CFR 54, NUREG-1800 and NUREG-1801). Since then, within the international framework, different organizations such as the IAEA have also developed reference guides that describe and regulate these processes, as for example the Safety Guide NS-G-2.12, or the International Generic Ageing Lessons Learned (IGALL) Report. In this context, the specific works necessary to carry out the NPP License Renewal Applications of Spanish NPPs are described first, then, the future prospects with reference to the IAEA recommendations, are addressed. (Author)

  19. Large-scale experimental facility for emergency condition investigation of a new generation NPP WWER-640 reactor with passive safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniskevich, Y.N.; Vasilenko, V.A.; Zasukha, V.K.; Migrov, Y.A.; Khabensky, V.B. [Research Inst. of Technology NITI (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The creation of the large-scale integral experimental facility (KMS) is specified by the programme of the experimental investigations to justify the engineering decisions on the safety of the design of the new generation NPP with the reactor WWER-640. The construction of KMS in a full volume will allow to conduct experimental investigations of all physical phenomena and processes, practically, occurring during the accidents on the NPPs with the reactor of WWER type and including the heat - mass exchange processes with low rates of the coolant, which is typical during the utilization of the passive safety systems, process during the accidents with a large leak, and also the complex intercommunicated processes in the reactor unit, passive safety systems and in the containment with the condition of long-term heat removal to the final absorber. KMS is being constructed at the Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, Russia. (orig.). 5 refs.

  20. Validation and expected error estimation of Suomi-NPP VIIRS aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent with AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Zhang, Hai; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu; Holben, Brent N.; Petrenko, Maksym

    2016-06-01

    The new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, provides critical daily global aerosol observations. As older satellite sensors age out, the VIIRS aerosol product will become the primary observational source for global assessments of aerosol emission and transport, aerosol meteorological and climatic effects, air quality monitoring, and public health. To prove their validity and to assess their maturity level, the VIIRS aerosol products were compared to the spatiotemporally matched Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Over land, the VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record (EDR) exhibits an overall global bias against AERONET of -0.0008 with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the biases as 0.12. Over ocean, the mean bias of VIIRS AOT EDR is 0.02 with RMSE of the biases as 0.06. The mean bias of VIIRS Ocean Ångström Exponent (AE) EDR is 0.12 with RMSE of the biases as 0.57. The matchups between each product and its AERONET counterpart allow estimates of expected error in each case. Increased uncertainty in the VIIRS AOT and AE products is linked to specific regions, seasons, surface characteristics, and aerosol types, suggesting opportunity for future modifications as understanding of algorithm assumptions improves. Based on the assessment, the VIIRS AOT EDR over land reached Validated maturity beginning 23 January 2013; the AOT EDR and AE EDR over ocean reached Validated maturity beginning 2 May 2012, excluding the processing error period 15 October to 27 November 2012. These findings demonstrate the integrity and usefulness of the VIIRS aerosol products that will transition from S-NPP to future polar-orbiting environmental satellites in the decades to come and become the standard global aerosol data set as the previous generations' missions come to an end.

  1. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-»I NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE REPORT 2: ACTIVITIES OF THE ROSPOTREBNADZOR AUTHORITIES FOR THE RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION ON THE EARLY STAGE OF ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic measures of the Rospotrebnadzor emergency response during the early stage of the «Fukushima-I» NPP radiation accident are being analyzed in the article. Radiation monitoring of the environmental objects of the territories of the Russian Federation Far East Federal District, radiation control of arriving from Japan vehicles, freights and passengers as well as imported from Japan food products were promptly organized. This allowed to get reliable evaluations of the levels of radioactive contamination at the Russian Federation territory and population exposure doses due to the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident, timely exclude the possibility of import to the Russian territory for the freights, vehicles, food products having contamination exceeding established in the Russian Federation standards.

  2. Membrane systems and their use in nuclear power plants. Treatment of primary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kus, Pavel; Bartova, Sarka; Skala, Martin; Vonkova, Katerina [Research Centre Rez, Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic). Technological Circuits Innovation Dept.; Zach, Vaclav; Kopa, Roman [CEZ a.s., Temelin (Czech Republic). Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    2016-03-15

    In nuclear power plants, drained primary coolant containing boric acid is currently treated in the system of evaporators and by ion exchangers. Replacement of the system of evaporators by membrane system (MS) will result in lower operating cost mainly due to lower operation temperature. In membrane systems the feed primary coolant is separated into two output streams: retentate and permeate. Retentate stream consists of the concentrated boric acid solution together with other components, while permeate stream consists of purified water. Results are presented achieved by testing a pilot-plant unit of reverse osmosis in nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin.

  3. The use of reverse osmosis at nuclear power plants. Replacement of evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kus, Pavel; Bartova, Sarka; Kunesova, Katerina; Smejdova, Vladena; Vonkova, Katerina [Research Centre Rez, Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic). Technological Circuits

    2015-06-01

    Evaporators are being used in nuclear power plants for the treatment of primary coolant containing H3BO3 for neutron absorption and other components for adjusting water chemistry. The aim is to achieve a concentrated H3BO3 solution, which is further purified by ion exchangers and then recycled into the primary cycle. Operation of evaporators is expensive, therefore reverse osmosis was proposed as one promising alternative. A pilot-plant RO unit was used for the experiments performed with feed solution. The successful technology is now being implemented at Temelin NPP.

  4. Monitoring of social networks and their links with the external communication plan of Cofrentes NPP; Monitorizacion de redes sociales y su vinculacion con el plan de comunicacion externa de CN Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, C.; Tejedor Garcia, E.

    2015-07-01

    Currently, new communication models are being established in the society. Companies, as part of society and as socially responsible entities should be part of these changes and, therefore, adapt themselves to these new models of communication. In one approach and study of this new model, some experiences obtained by Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant are studied, a SWOT analysis of the situation is made and are raised the three main objectives Cofrentes NPP should pursue if it enters in the social networks field. (Author)

  5. Non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and terrestrial non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) indicating fluctuation of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW): piston core (St-21) from Ulleung Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chang-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Piston core samples (St-21) collected from the northern part of Ulleung Basin, Korea yielded a great amount of palynomorph including arboreal pollen (AP), non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and non-pollen palynormorphs (NPP). Abundance of NAP changes significantly throughout the core, showing high percentages (ca. 10 %) during 18ka, 33ka, and 65ka. Such a fluctuation of NAP would have been controlled by freshwater run-off into the East Sea during the period of last glaciation, most probably by influx of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW) because there has not been a large river along the coast surrounding the East Sea. Other palynomorph (freshwater algae and fungal spore) originated from terrestrial environments also shows similar trend. Because influx of ECSCW, in general, tends to increase during the period of warm climate while decrease at the time of cold seasons, horizons with high percentages of NAP and terrestrial NPP indicate warm climates, introducing more NAP and terrestrial NPP into the East Sea. Such interpretation is also supported by principle component analysis (PCA).

  6. Assessment of scan-angle dependent radiometric bias of Suomi-NPP VIIRS day/night band from night light point source observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Cao, Changyong; Shao, Xi

    2015-09-01

    The low gain stage of VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) on Suomi-NPP is calibrated using onboard solar diffuser. The calibration is then transferred to the high gain stage of DNB based on the gain ratio determined from data collected along solar terminator region. The calibration transfer causes increase of uncertainties and affects the accuracy of the low light radiances observed by DNB at night. Since there are 32 aggregation zones from nadir to the edge of the scan and each zone has its own calibration, the calibration versus scan angle of DNB needs to be independently assessed. This study presents preliminary analysis of the scan-angle dependence of the light intensity from bridge lights, oil platforms, power plants, and flares observed by VIIRS DNB since 2014. Effects of atmospheric path length associated with scan angle are analyzed. In addition, other effects such as light changes at the time of observation are also discussed. The methodology developed will be especially useful for JPSS J1 VIIRS due to the nonlinearity effects at high scan angles, and the modification of geolocation software code for different aggregation modes. It is known that J1 VIIRS DNB has large nonlinearity across aggregation zones, and requires new aggregation modes, as well as more comprehensive validation.

  7. Recalculation with SEACAB of the activation by spent fuel neutrons and residual dose originated in the racks replaced at Cofrentes NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Pedro; Rodriguez, Alain; Töre, Candan; Compadre, José Luis de Diego; Quesada, Baltasar Rodriguez; Moreno, Raul Orive

    2017-09-01

    In order to increase the storage capacity of the East Spent Fuel Pool at the Cofrentes NPP, located in Valencia province, Spain, the existing storage stainless steel racks were replaced by a new design of compact borated stainless steel racks allowing a 65% increase in fuel storing capacity. Calculation of the activation of the used racks was successfully performed with the use of MCNP4B code. Additionally the dose rate at contact with a row of racks in standing position and behind a wall of shielding material has been calculated using MCNP4B code as well. These results allowed a preliminary definition of the burnker required for the storage of racks. Recently the activity in the racks has been recalculated with SEACAB system which combines the mesh tally of MCNP codes with the activation code ACAB, applying the rigorous two-step method (R2S) developed at home, benchmarked with FNG irradiation experiments and usually applied in fusion calculations for ITER project.

  8. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EURADOS SURVEY ON INDIVIDUAL MONITORING DATA AND INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENTS OF FOREIGNERS EXPOSED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP ACCIDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M A; Fojtik, P; Franck, D; Osko, J; Gerstmann, U; Scholl, C; Lebacq, A L; Breustedt, B; Del Risco Norrlid, L

    2016-09-01

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V. (EURADOS) survey on individual monitoring data and dose assessment has been carried out for 550 foreigners returning home after being exposed in Japan to intakes of radionuclides (mainly (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) as a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In vivo and in vitro measurements were performed in their respective countries at an early stage after that accident. Intakes of radionuclides were detected in 208 persons from Europe and Canada, but the committed effective dose E(50) was below the annual dose limit for the public (<1 mSv) in all the cases. Lessons learned from this EURADOS survey are presented here regarding not only internal dosimetry issues, but also the management of the emergency situation, the perception of the risk of health effects due to radiation and the communication with exposed persons who showed anxiety and lack of trust in monitoring data and dose assessments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Study on the impact of transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading at Loviisa NPP on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Tuukka [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    The fuel economy of Loviisa NPP was improved by implementing a transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading scheme between 2009 and 2013. Equilibrium cycle length as well as all process parameters were retained unchanged while the increase of fuel enrichment enabled to reduce the annual reload batch size from 102 to 84 assemblies. The fuel cycle transition obviously had an effect on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory. However, due to simultaneous change in several quantities the net effect over the relevant cooling time region is not self-evident. In this study the effect is analyzed properly, i. e. applying consistent calculation models and detailed description of assembly-wise irradiation histories. The study concludes that for the cooling time, foreseen typical prior to encapsulation of assemblies, the decay heat of discharge batch increases 2 - 3%. It is also concluded that, in order to maintain 100% filling degree of final disposal canisters, the cooling time prior to encapsulation needs to be prolonged by 10 - 15 years.

  10. Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Parmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud. This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels.

  11. Area-based fuzzy membership forest cover comparison between MODIS NPP and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) across eastern U.S. forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngsang; Baker, Bradley Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This research assessed the accuracy of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer's (MODIS) land cover classification of softwood and hardwood using a fuzzy-based approach for 31 easternmost states in the U.S. Our main objective was to quantitatively evaluate spatially explicit land cover classifications of MODIS net primary product (NPP) scheme using the USDA Forest Service's (FS) field-based, tree-specific Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA). We used a grid of 648 km 2 hexagons as base mapping units and interpreted our results at the USDA FS level IV ecological regions. Forest area was calculated for both MODIS and FIA and were found to be strongly correlated (Pearson's r = 0.875, p < 0.01), which suggests the two classifications are comparable. Area-based fuzzy memberships of softwood and hardwood forest were determined for both MODIS and FIA for each hexagon. We used cross-entropy (H c ) to evaluate the accuracy of the MODIS classification. Our results determined that the accuracy of MODIS forest cover classification was not uniform for all ecological regions. Tree species importance values (IV) and Shannon's diversity index (H s ) were calculated to examine species abundance and heterogeneity, which may partially explain discrepancies between MODIS and FIA classifications. The greatest misclassifications were due to (1) MODIS underestimating softwood forest cover and (2) MODIS confusing forest cover with other land covers such as grassland, cropland, or woody savanna. Our results provide a guideline for users to understand the degree of uncertainty of MODIS forest cover classifications in the eastern USA.

  12. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishсhenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to the flows in the Pacific Ocean the radioactivity transfer toKamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and the ingress into theOkhotskSeawas expected in 2014. It is expected a slight increase of the cesium concentration in water and sea biota in the area of Russia fishing zone FAO 61, but not higher than the concentrations in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident. Data on measurements of the pollution of fish caught in the Pacific Ocean,JapanandOkhotskSeasin 2011–2014 years during the sea expeditions organized by the Russian Geographical Society, yet showed that the total content of cesium isotopes in any fish sample have not eceeded the value of 0.7 Bq/kg. The prognose risk assessment carried out for the conservative scenario of water contamination in fishing zones ofRussiaand seafood consumption characteristic for the region showed that this risk is minimal according to the WHO scale and does not exceed the risk from fish caughed in Black Sea and Baltic Sea, contaminated after theChernobylaccident, consumption. 

  13. Utilization of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band for Arctic Ship Tracking and Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Straka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime ships operating on-board illumination at night appear as point sources of light to highly sensitive low-light imagers on-board environmental satellites. Unlike city lights or lights from offshore gas platforms, whose locations remain stationary from one night to the next, lights from ships typically are ephemeral. Fishing boat lights are most prevalent near coastal cities and along the thermal gradients in the open ocean. Maritime commercial ships also operate lights that can be detected from space. Such observations have been made in a limited way via U.S. Department of Defense satellites since the late 1960s. However, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, which carries a new Day/Night Band (DNB radiometer, offers a vastly improved ability for users to observe commercial shipping in remote areas such as the Arctic. Owing to S-NPP’s polar orbit and the DNB’s wide swath (~3040 km, the same location in Polar Regions can be observed for several successive passes via overlapping swaths—offering a limited ability to track ship motion. Here, we demonstrate the DNB’s improved ability to monitor ships from space. Imagery from the DNB is compared with the heritage low-light sensor, the Operational Linescan System (OLS on board the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP satellites, and is evaluated in the context of tracking individual ships in the Polar Regions under both moonlit and moonless conditions. In a statistical sense, we show how DNB observations of ship lights in the East China Sea can be correlated with seasonal fishing activity, while also revealing compelling structures related to regional fishery agreements established between various nations.

  14. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  15. Application of the IS-22. Implantation of aging management programs in Cofrentes NPP; Aplicacion de la IS-22. Implantacion de los programas de gestion del envejecimiento en CN Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Zapat, J. D.; Sainero, J.

    2014-10-01

    The Safety Instruction IS-22 is mainly based on the License Renewal rule (10CFR54), unlike the 10 CFR54, the IS-22 is a continued process to be met in the current operation as well as in the long term operation period. Key elements of the aging management according to the IS-22 are the Aging Management Program (AMPs). The AMPs implementation as part of the current Plant Life Management in Cofrentes NPP provides a new approach to the plant maintenance and a solid support for the long term operation. (Author)

  16. Construction project of Flamanville 3 NPP. The participation of Iberdrola engineering and Construction; El proyecto de construccion de la central nuclear de Flamanville 3. La participacion de Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Prada, J. I.; Cubian, B.

    2014-10-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction (IIC) leads several projects mini EPC for the EPR Flamanville 3 NPP for providing important for safety components and auxiliary systems in the pump house and in the turbine island. The realization of this new nuclear project has been a challenge from the technical and organizational perspective because the plant is the first of the new nuclear station (FDAKE) type EPR 1700 MWe series in a highly restrictive environment due to to the large number of particular requirements from the final customer and the meager degree of progress of the design to the date of commencement of construction. (Author)

  17. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  18. Characterization in support of the activities of the plan of restoration of the site of the Jose Cabrera NPP; Caracterizacion soporte de las actividades del plan de restauracion del emplazamiento de la CN Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno Blesa, M. E.; Lopez Fernandez, M. T.; Martin Palomo, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to perform radiological characterization of the grounds of the Jose Cabrera NPP. The information gained in the early stages of planning the project of dismantling has been supplemented with the results of the campaigns developed during the implementation phase of the project. The joint analysis of all the data obtained, provided that they are sufficient in quantity and quality, is the starting point to establish the future actions of restoring the site; selection of the most appropriate restoration techniques and identification of specific areas of action.

  19. Evaluation of fatigue vessel in the Sta. M Garona NPP : real transients and design transients; Evaluacion de la fatiga en la vasija de CN Santa M de Garona: transitorios reales frente a transitorios de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Gorrochategui, I.

    2005-07-01

    The number of transient that control the fatigue of its reactor pressure vessel is included in the Sta. M Garona NPP Technical Specifications, being the different transients described in the design specification of the corresponding component. In this work, on the one hand, the description of the design transients with their corresponding real ones is compared and, on the other hand, the number of occurrences and the number of transients originally estimated is also compared. In both cases the influence of the difference between design and reality in the fatigue usage is discussed. (Author)

  20. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER TO CONDITIONS OF NORMAL POPULATION ACTIVITY OF THE SETTLEMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of criteria of return of territories with radioactive pollution caused by Chernobyl NPP accident to conditions of normal population activity. It is established that in 12 entities of the Russian Federation (except Bryansk and Kaluga regions all agricultural food produce, including that from the personal part-time farms, corresponds to hygienic specifications. Non- corresponding to the standard SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 on 137Cs are part of the milk samples produced at personal part-time farms of the Bryansk region and most of natural foodstuff samples (berries, mushrooms, fish and wild animals meat in Bryansk and Kaluga regions. The content of 137Cs both in agricultural and in wild-growing foodstuff produced at radioactively contaminated territories depends not only on the density of radioactive pollution, but also on the types of soil. The average settlement annual effective dose of population irradiation (AAED90 in the 3700 among 4413 settlements as of 2014 was below 0.3 mSv/year. Only in 713 settlements of Bryansk, Kaluga, Oryol and Tula regions the AAED90 exceeds 0.3 mSv/year. In the Bryansk region, once subject to the greatest radioactive contamination, in 276 settlements AAED90 exceeds 1 mSv/year, and in 8 of them - 5 mSv/year.The legislation of the Russian Federation defines only criteria and requirements for consideration of the suffered territories as zones of radioactive contamination. Requirements on transfer of territories polluted by radiation accidents and their population to normal life activity conditions (regarding the radiological factor are not developed.Radiological criteria are suggested for transfer of the settlements considered to be the zone of radioactive pollution to conditions of normal life activity: average irradiation dose of critical population group: 1.0 mSv per year and lower (AAED crit; decrease of radionuclide soil contamination density to the level enabling to use the territory

  1. Using NPP-Suomi VIIRS I-band data to delineate high- and low-intensity burn areas for forest fires in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waigl, C. F.; Prakash, A.; Stuefer, M.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present and evaluate an algorithm that generates near real-time fire detections suitable for use by fire and related hazard management agencies in Alaska. Our scheme offers benefits over available global products and is sensitive to low-intensity residual burns while at the same time avoiding common sources of false detections as they are observed in the Alaskan boreal forest, such as refective river banks and old fire scars. The algorithm is based on I-band brightness temperature data form the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NOAA's NPP Suomi spacecraft. Using datasets covering the entire 2015 Alaska fire season, we first evaluate the performance of two global fire products: MOD14/MYD14, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the more recent global VIIRS I-band product. A comparison with the fire perimeter and properties data published by the Alaska Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) shows that both MODIS and VIIRS fire products successfully detect all fires larger than approx. 1000 hectares, with the VIIRS I-band product only moderately outperforming MOD14/MYD14. For smaller fires, the VIIRS I-band product offers higher detection likelihood, but still misses one fifth of the fire events overall. Furthermore, some daytime detections are missing, possibly due to processing difficulties or incomplete data transfer. Second, as an alternative, we present a simple algorithm that uses the normalized difference between the 3.74µm and 11.45 µm VIIRS-I band at-sensor brightness temperatures to map both low- and high-intensity burn areas. Such an approach has the advantage that it makes use of data that is available via the direct readout station operated by Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA). We apply this scheme to known Alaskan boreal forest fires and validate it using GIS data produced by fire management agencies, fire detections from near simultanous Landsat

  2. An Emerging ESDR: Multi-Platform Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances fromEOS-AIRS, S-NPP/JPSS CrIS, and METOP IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strow, L. L.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Motteler, H.; Hepplewhite, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Space-based measurements of high-spectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances of the earth began in Sept. 2002 with the NASA EOS-AQUA AIRS instrument. The CrIS instrument on NASA's Suomi-NPP platform supplements this record in the 1:30 polar orbit, starting in 2012, and may continue for 15 years under the NOAA/NASA JPSS Program. The first of three IASI hyperspectral sounders on EUMETSAT's METOP platforms (9:30 orbit) started operation in July 2007, followed by the 2nd IASI on METOP-2 in early 2013. Development of a follow-on instrument (IASI-NG) for post METOP-3 is well underway. These instruments are sensitive to the atmospheric temperature and humidity profile, surface temperature and emissivity, and minor gases (CO2, O3, CO, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HNO3, etc.) They also have high sensitivity to clouds, especially long-wave cloud radiative forcing. The National Research Council has recommended the development of a hyperspectral IR radiance climate data set as a climate benchmark. We present here evidence that supports the use of the existing hyperspectral sounders for generation of these ESDRs and eventually CDRs. The large spatial and temporal overlap between these sensors has provided a rich data-set for inter-calibration studies that are used to characterize the accuracy of a combined ESDR radiance product. We will discuss the stability of each instrument, and inter-calibration differences (with error estimates). In addition, we have developed robust, non-statistical approaches for converting the AIRS spectral radiances into equivalent CrIS radiances, a key step in development of a long-term consistent radiance record. Finally, several examples of robust decadal changes in the earth's atmosphere using AIRS will be discussed and compared to ERA and MERRA re-analysis products (temperature, water vapor, cloud forcing). Finally, we will review the challenges involved in creating an ESDR from 3 different instruments and institutions/countries.

  3. Radiation protection and health of personnel of contracting enterprises participating in works for transformation of the object "shelter" of SSE Chornobyl NPP into an ecologically safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, V A; Bazyka, D A; Likhtarev, I A; Lyashenko, L A; Berkovskiy, V B; Loganovskiy, K N; Nechaev, S U; Shvayko, L I; Sarkisova, E A; Kolosynska, O O; Drozdova, V D; Bonchuck, Y V; Arjasov, P B; Nezgovorova, G A; Tatarenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of the object "Shelter" (OS) of SSE Chornobyl NPP into an ecologically safe system is one of the most important state programs in Ukraine. Both medical and dosimetric measures on healthcare of personnel participating in these works ranks the main place among most actual problems of contemporary clinical radiobiology, radiation hygiene, and radiation protection. The study objective was to work out and implement the medical and biophysical checking of the health status and workability both with radiation protection of personnel executing works on transformation of OS into an ecologically safe system. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The interdependent complex program of medical and biophysical (for internal and external irradiation) control of personnel executing the production tasks under conditions of ionizing radiation impact and open sources of ionizing radiation. Realization of medical examination envisages the estimation of the status of haemopoietic, immune, endocrine, respiratory systems, organ of vision, nervous system, psychics status and psychophysiological adaptation, ear, both with circulatory, digestive, urogenital, and bone-muscular system. There were 19434 cases of medical control of personnel in total. Results of the input medical control testify to the following: 4698 (48.90%) were admitted to work, 4909 (51.10%) were rejected. Individual annual effective doses of irradiation in the major part of cases did not exceed 12 mSv. There were 1845 cases of 239+240Pu content in excrements exceeding the level of 1.5 mBq/sample at a current biophysical control. Individual doses of internal irradiation at that did not exceed 1 mSv. The program of medical and biophysical service for reconstruction works on the OS proved its necessity and efficiency as its results showed that under the unique radiation-hygienical conditions not engineering challenges and technical problems but issues of how to save the health and workability of people and prevent the

  4. Comparison between the Suomi-NPP Day-Night Band and DMSP-OLS for Correlating Socio-Economic Variables at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light imagery offers a unique view of the Earth’s surface. In the past, the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors have been used as an efficient means to correlate regional and global socio-economic activities. With the launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the day-night band (DNB of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard represents a major advancement in nighttime imaging capabilities, because it surpasses its predecessor DMSP-OLS in radiometric accuracy, spatial resolution and geometric quality. In this paper, four variables (total night light, light area, average night light and log average night light are extracted from nighttime radiance data observed by the VIIRS-DNB composite in 2013 and nighttime digital number (DN data from the DMSP-OLS stable dataset in 2012, respectively, and correlated with 12 socio-economic parameters at the provincial level in mainland China during the corresponding period. Background noise of DNB composite data is removed using either a masking method or an optimal threshold method. In general, the correlation of these socio-economic data with the total night light and light area of VIIRS-DNB composite data is better than with the DMSP-OLS stable data. The correlations between total night light of denoised DNB composite data and built-up area, gross regional product (GRP and power consumption are higher than 0.9 and so are the correlations between the light area of denoised DNB composite data and city and town population, built-up area, GRP, power consumption and waste water discharge. However, the correlations of socio-economic data with the average night light and log average night light of VIIRS-DNB composite data are not as good as with the DMSP-OLS stable data. To quantitatively analyze the reasons for the correlation difference, a cubic regression method is developed to correct the saturation effect of the DMSP

  5. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  6. Calculations of hydrogen transport for the simulation of a Sbo in the NPP-L V using the code CFD GASFLOW; Calculos de transporte de hidrogeno para la simulacion de un SBO en la CNLV usando el codigo CFD GASFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C.; Mugica R, C. A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Consultor, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, D-76344 Eggenstein -Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The scenario of electric power total loss in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) has been analyzed using the code MELCOR previously, until reaching fault conditions of the primary container. A mitigation measure to avoid the loss of the primary contention is the realization of a venting toward the secondary contention (reactor building), however this measure bears the potential explosions occurrence risk when the hydrogen accumulated in the primary container with the oxygen of the reactor building atmosphere reacting. In this work a scenario has been supposed that considers the mentioned venting when the pressure of 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} is reached in the primary container. The information for the hydrogen like an entrance fact is obtained of the MELCOR results and the hydrogen transport in both contentions is analyzed with the code CFD GASFLOW that allows predicting the detailed distribution of the hydrogen volumetric concentration and the possible detonation of flammability conditions in the reactor building. The results show that the venting will produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability in the level of the recharge floor. The methodology here described constitutes the base of a detailed calculation system of this type of phenomena that can use to make safety evaluations in the NPP-L V on scenarios that include gases transport. (Author)

  7. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  8. Development of the Database of Cables of Almaraz NPP as the fire deterministic analysis support; Elaboracion de la base de datos de cables de C.N. Almaraz como soporte de los analisis deterministas de incendios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Sanchez, T.; Fernandez Ramos, P.; Garcia Romero, A.; Fuente Prieto, I.

    2013-07-01

    Within the process of transition to the NFPA-805, it requires a deterministic analysis of fire, for which it is necessary, on the one hand, the identification and location of the cables and equipment necessary and important for achieve and maintain safe, and stop on the other hand, the analysis of the different types of spurious multiple, based on the methodology described in the NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. the base Almaraz NPP cables data it collects this information and is a fundamental tool to analyze the capacity of the plant to achieve the stop safe in case of fire, which allows you to find possible vulnerabilities and take appropriate measures to improve the security of it.

  9. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  10. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  11. Analysis of thermohydraulics fluctuations in NPP Trillo with basis/PARCSv2.7. Validation code and comparison with results of SIMULATE-3K; Analisis de fluctuaciones termohidraulicas en C.N. Trillo con RELAP5/PARCSv2.7. Validacion del codigo y comparacion con resultados de SIMULATE-3K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Bermejo, J. A.; Lopez, A.; Ortega, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, a RELAP5/PARCSv2.7 model of TRILLO NPP core and the obtainment of INCORE and EXCORE detectors signals is presented. For its validation, Control Rod drop transient real data is used. Besides, the results are compared with SIMULATE-3K results obtained by CNAT. Different transients triggered by moderator temperature perturbations at the core inlet are performed, and the results are compared with SIMULATE-3K results for these transients.

  12. Adaptation of the implementation of surveillance of the general discharge of the Trillo NPP, and on-line access to the data; Adaptacion de la Instrumentacion de vigilancia del vertido general de la CN Trillo, y acceso on-line a los datos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caler Rubio, R.; Escribano Blanco, N.

    2013-07-01

    The object of this work is to make the necessary modifications in the implementation of surveillance of the general of the Trillo NPP dumping to comply with the requirements by the Confederacion Hidrografica del Tajo in the review of the authorization of discharges CHT-ATT-000045, through the installation of new analyzers of physicochemical parameters on discharge of waste from Central canal, as well as the implementation of a system of real time data access.

  13. Experiences in the implementation of the Coaching project in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V); Experiencias en la implementacion del proyecto Coaching en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde (CNLV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez M, H. I., E-mail: hugo.mendez01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Departamento del Centro de Entrenamiento, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This document has the purpose of to share acquired experiences during the implementation of the Coaching project focused the training of supervisors and directive personnel of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V). Derived of the improvement areas identified by the supervisor organization of the nuclear power stations WANO (World Association Nuclear of Operators) and of the auto-evaluations realized by the expert personnel of the same power station that based on external experiences carried out through the Benchmarking (comparison with other power stations) they have reflected the necessity to activate a training process in Coaching with a practical focus toward the directive and supervisor personnel in the power station. By means of the observation of the personnel's acting so much in the control rooms like in different areas, three focus areas have been identified for the training in Coaching, these are the personnel's motivation, the organizational communication so much in vertical form as horizontal and the perception of confidence lack among directive, supervisors, operators and technicians. The plan focused in the abilities training of Coaching with practical sense was development, supported with an evaluation of 360 grades as tool of competitions development through a computer application e-Coaching. The use of application and Coaching following techniques facilitated the conformation of the practical focus, same that are of continuous use starting from the training of the supervisor and directive personnel. (Author)

  14. Radioecologycal study of 239/240Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of 239/240Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-01

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on 239/240Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope 239/240Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration 239/240Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg-1 and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m-3 and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m-3.

  15. Criticality and shielding study for reracking of the spent fuel storage of NPP Jaragua; Estudio de la criticalidad y el blindaje del almacen de combustible irradiado de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua para redes compactas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel; Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Alvarez Cardona, Caridad [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    Annually one third of the fuel assemblies are discharged from VVER-440 reactor core. After 2 years of decay in the refueling pool, these assemblies are transferred to the spent fuel storage pool. With two units in operation, it would exhaust its storage capability in about 10 years. According to the trend of extending the interim storage period, the reracking of the spent fuel storage pool has become a viable option to enlarge storage capability at the nuclear power plant. The present paper deals with the criticality and shielding analysis for reracking of the spent fuel storage pool of NPP Juragua. The WIMS/D4 lattice code is used for the criticality study. For doses calculations, the source strength is estimated with ORIGEN 2 and the shielding problem is solved with the combination of the code ANISN and the multigroup library CASK. It is shown that it is possible to compact the storage rack in a factor of 1.98 using 3 mm thick boron steel clads. While the source is nearly doubled in the pool, the doses in its boundaries are increased approximately in only 1.24 times. (author)

  16. Implementation of rafts of water spillage retention in the NPP. Almaraz and Trillo. Actions arising from the ITC-2; Implantacion de balsas de retencion de vertidos liquidos en las CCNN de Trillo y Almaraz. Actuaciones derivadas de la ITC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font Hadinger, I.; Fernandez Morales, E.; Lopez Hernandez, A.

    2014-07-01

    In compliance with the ITC-2 of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, have been built rafts for the containment of spills potentially radiologically contaminated, produced within the NPP site. Almaraz and Trillo. These discharges would be caused by certain mitigation activities to deploy in response to events beyond the design basis related to the potential loss of large areas (large fire mitigation and spraying of gaseous emissions) and in addition in the case of CNA, by a potential leak of the SFP (Spent Fuel Pool - pool of spent fuel). The basic idea is that any liquid discharge generated by the previous reasons within the Nuclear island may be content before your arrival to the outside of the plant through its network for the disposal of rainwater. Therefore, these rafts are the barrier last contention against an uncontrolled discharge of these waters to the environment. The same design ensures compliance with all the requirements, normative and practical, ensuring containment of aforementioned wastes potential capacity. (Author)

  17. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V; Calculo y analisis de concentraciones volumetricas de hidrogeno en el tubo de venteo rigido propuesto para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz I, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H{sub 2} coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  18. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 2: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The second part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: accident analysis; systems analysis; plant operation; operating experience feedback; radio protection and health; probabilistic safety assessment; summary and future plans.

  19. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 1: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The first part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: core design and fuel management; pressurized components; electrical supply; instrumentation and control; containment; internal events; site conditions and external events.

  20. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Perdue, Robert [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of

  1. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    coarser spatial and spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  2. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  3. 137Cs and plutonium isotopes accumulation/retention in bottom sediments and soil in Lithuania: A case study of the activity concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides and their provenance before the start of operation of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčiulionienė, D; Lukšienė, B; Montvydienė, D; Jefanova, O; Mažeika, J; Taraškevičius, R; Stakėnienė, R; Petrošius, R; Maceika, E; Tarasiuk, N; Žukauskaitė, Z; Kazakevičiūtė, L; Volkova, M

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operations of the new nuclear facilities in Belarus is of great value worldwide. Inland water bodies in Lithuania (specifically the Neris River, the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon) are near the site of the Belarusian NPP under construction and, for this reason, sediments and flooded soils from these sensitive areas were analysed for radiocesium and plutonium isotopes (macrophytes were analysed only for 137Cs) in 2011-2012. The 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity concentrations in bottom sediments from the Nemunas River, sampled in 1995-1996 and re-calculated to the year 2016, were compared with those of 2011-2012. The obtained activity of 137Cs in bottom sediments of the Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon varied from 1 Bq/kg to 47.0 Bq/kg. The activity of 137Cs in the tested soils ranged from 5.3 B g/kg to 32.9 Bq/kg. The 239+240Pu activity in bottom sediments of the studied sampling sites varied between 0.016 and 0.34 Bq/kg and in flooded soils from 0.064 to 0.55 Bq/kg. The 238Pu activity values were very low or lower than the detection limit. The activity of 137Cs in macrophytes varied from values lower than the detection limit to 6 Bq/kg. A strong positive linear correlation for bottom sediments was calculated between: 239+240Pu and total organic carbon (TOC), r = 0.86, p-value 0.01; 239+240Pu and silt, r = 0.80, p-value 0.029; 137Cs and silt, r = 0.78, p-value 0.04; and 137Cs and TOC, r = 0.85, p-value 0.015. The similar peculiarities of 137Cs and 239+240Pu accumulation in bottom sediments and flooded soil allow us to assume that 137Cs can be used as a tracer for 239+240Pu in the initial stage of searching for radionuclide accumulation zones. A remaining impact of the Chernobyl fallout in average comprised: in the Lower Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon sediments - 51%, in the Middle Nemunas River -90% and in the floodplains of the Nemunas River - 59

  4. State of erythroid, granulocyte and platelet branches of hematopoiesis on stages of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who were exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, K M; Pushkareva, T I; Tsvyetkova, N M; Lyashenko, L O; Kuznyetsova, O Ye; Kuzmenko, V F; Gonchar, L O; Yaatsemyrskyy, S M

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of proliferation and differentiation processes of progenitor cells in bone marrow by the com position of elements of erythroid, granulocyte and platelet branches of hematopoiesis on the treatment stages in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who were exposed to radiation from the Chornobyl NPP accident. The 46 children with ALL were studied, who lived in Kyiv, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv regions. Studies were conducted before the start of chemotherapy (ChT), on the 33 day of ChT (phase I), and after the com pletion of ChT (phase II). Exposure doses of patients, hemogram and myelogram parameters both with indices of mat uration of progenitor cells were evaluated. Signs of dysplasia of hematopoietic branch elements were revewed. The 46 patients were studied. They have had the B ALL, namely pro B ALL (n=5), «common type» (n=36), pre B ALL (n=3), and T ALL in 2 other cases. In a debut of ALL the bone marrow was represented by lymphoblasts. Along with ChT conduction the bone marrow hematopoiesis recovered by such types, as erythroid, granulocyte, gran ulocyte whith monocytes, and uniform, when the cells number of all branches was within a normal quantity. At the phase ІІ of ChT the number of patients with hematopoiesis recovery by erythroid type decreased and number of chil dren with activation of granulocyte branch of hematopoiesis increased. In children with pro B ALL the number of erythroid elements was higher than normative at both ChT phases. A direct correlation was established between the number of myelokaryocytes (Mkc) and megakaryocytes (Mgkc) in both phase І and phase ІІ of treatment (Rs = +0.72; Rs = +0.56, respectively). There was no correlation between the radiation dose in patients (3.73 ± 0.12 mSv) and studied parameters. Types of bone marrow recovery were established in ALL patients after the ChT indicating to the differ ent kinetic pathways of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Evaluation of reasons of prevalence of some

  5. New-generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) volcanic SO2 dataset: algorithm description, initial results, and continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  6. Results of the filters change of the cooling system and cleaning of the spent fuel pool in the NPP-L V; Resultados del cambio de filtros del sistema de enfriamiento y limpieza de la alberca de combustible gastado en la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara H, M. A., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The cooling system and cleaning of the spent fuel pool has for object to extract the heat of the decay irradiated fuel that is stored in the pool, to maintain the temperature and the water level of the pool to specific values, as well as to submit the water to a purification process through a filtration process and demineralization. To be able to carry out these functions the system has a filtrate system that is able to retain particles in suspension whose filtrate elements after several cycles retained highly activated metallic particles that saturated the filters, which ended up accumulating speed levels of dose exhibition of up to 70 rem/hour, for it, to the moment to be necessary the filters substitution several options were analyzed, from the robots employment (whose cost was considered in 1 million dollars) until the factory of special tools that it allowed the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) to carry out the work with a dose and a minor budget (30 and 12.5 times minor respectively according to the initially estimated budget). This work describes the results of implementing the method selected by the NPP-L V that allowed to minimize times and collective dose with technology 100% Mexican, developed by personal of Electricity Federal Commission. (Author)

  7. THE PRAGMATICS OF NPP PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical things, concrete behaviour, violence and abstract notions are all expressed using language. Our world is fitted to .... This platform was meant to exhibit the aspirants' intelligence, knowledge, credibility and objectivity to the masses. ..... plant it firmly in the minds of the people. The repetitive use of I believe in several ...

  8. Safety enhancement solutions Laguna Verde NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    After the event happened in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima (Japan) proposals are carried out to improve the safety systems in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Mexico), from the application of the recommendations of the US NRC, until the considerations for the renovation of the operation license. (Author)

  9. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  10. Operational risk management for a NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.K., E-mail: KScott@AtlanticNuclear.ca [Atlantic Nuclear Services Inc., Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Organizational failures are a hazard to the successful operation of a nuclear power plant. Risk reduction strategies have been developed around two themes: using an understanding of the nature and mechanism of human failures to eliminate them by modifying work processes; or, modifying human behaviour by creating a strong safety culture that overrides the tendency to fail. This paper examines the problem from the perspective of operational risk management. It includes the internal management of operations and the influence of the external environment on the organization. A model is proposed that encompasses all the operational risk factors in the organization's decision making process. To prevent failure the organization must have the capability to adapt and the capacity to evolve. The hazards that would lead to an organizational failure are developed from this evolutionary model. The operational risk management program would include these hazards as well as the conventional nuclear safety hazards. (author)

  11. NPP Grassland: Charleville, Australia, 1973-1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Above and below ground productivity of a native C3 grassland and an introduced C4 grassland were studied from 1973-1974 near Charleville in Southern...

  12. NPP Grassland: Hays, USA, 1970, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). Two files contain above- and below-ground biomass and productivity data for a mixed prairie grassland, one...

  13. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Moravek, J.; Spirko, M.

    2002-02-26

    The first (pilot) nuclear power plant A1 in the Slovak Republic, situated on Jaslovske Bohunice site (60 km from Bratislava) with the capacity of 143 MWel, was commissioned in 1972 and was running with interruptions till 1977. A KS 150 reactor (HWGCR) with natural uranium as fuel, D2O as moderator and gaseous CO2 as coolant was installed in the A1 plant. Outlet steam from primary reactor coolant system with the temperature of 410 C was led to 6 modules of steam generators and from there to turbine generators. Refueling was carried out on-line at plant full power. The first serious incident associated with refueling occurred in 1976 when a locking mechanism at a fuel assembly failed. The core was not damaged during that incident and following a reconstruction of the damaged technology channel, the plant continued in operation. However, serious problems were occurring with the integrity of steam generators (CO2 gas on primary side, water and steam on secondary side) when the plant had to be shut down frequently due to failures and subsequent repairs. The second serious accident occurred in 1977 when a fuel assembly was overheated with a subsequent release of D2O into gas cooling circuit due to a human failure in the course of replacement of a fuel assembly. Subsequent rapid increase in humidity of the primary system resulted in damages of fuel elements in the core and the primary system was contaminated by fission products. In-reactor structures had been damaged, too. Activity had penetrated also into certain parts of the secondary system via leaking steam generators. Radiation situation in the course of both events on the plant site and around it had been below the level of limits specified. Based on a technical and economical justification of the demanding character of equipment repairs for the restoration of plant operation, and also due to a decision made not to continue with further construction of gas cooled reactors in Czechoslovakia, a decision was made in 1977 to terminate plant operation. The decision on the A1 plant decommissioning was issued in 1979.

  14. DCVD Measurements at the Laguna Verde NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.D.; Gerwing, A.F. [Channel Systems Inc., Pinawa MA (Canada); Kosierb, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vones, J.; Broodryck, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-12-30

    A new digital Cerenkov viewing device (DCVD) with high ultraviolet light sensitivity has been developed. Field measurements on BWR spent fuel at Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 resulted in new Cerenkov information on GE9 and GE12 spent fuel assemblies. Off-alignment measurements show: quantitative differences in the degree of light collimation from between the fuel rods; lack of light collimation from water rods; and decreased light collimation from partial length rod positions. Hidden rods could also be detected in off-angle views. The results indicate that it may be possible to detect missing partial-length fuel rods in GE12 fuel assemblies. The new DCVD was able to verify low burnup, long-cooled, natural uranium GE6 fuel assemblies.

  15. Arrangement and statistics of storage containers of spent fuel for assemblies of the SFP of NPP-L V, Unit 1; Arreglo y estadistica de contenedores de almacenamiento de combustible gastado para los ensambles de la ACG de la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Vargas A, A. F.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work presents the determination of assemblies of the spent fuel pool (SFP) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) which are candidates to be assigned to storage containers of independent spent fuel, with the objective of liberating decay heat and to have more space in the SFP, for the store of retired assemblies of the reactors in future reloads of NPP-L V, besides that the removed assemblies of the SFP should be stored in specific containers to guarantee the physical safety of them, as well as the radiological protection to the population and the environment. The design of the containers considered in this work is to store a maximum of 69 assemblies; it has a thermal capacity of 26 kilowatts and allows storing assemblies with a minimum of 5 years of have been extracted of the reactor core. Is considered that in 2016 start the storage of the spent assemblies on the containers, the candidates assemblies to store cover from the first reload in 1991, until the assemblies deposited in the SFP in the 14 reload in 2010; therefore in 2016, such assemblies will have fulfilled with the criteria of 5 years of have been removed of the Reactor, also the 69 assemblies assigned to each container will have a resulting decay heat that does not exceed the thermal capacity of the container, but that in great percentage approximates to the same one, and this way to take full advantage of their storage capacity and thermal capacity for each container. This work also contains the arrangement to accommodate the assemblies in the containers; such arrangement is constituted by areas according to the decay heat of each assembly. (Author)

  16. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-data Intercomparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison (EMDI) provides the first opportunity for a wide range of global carbon cycle models to be compared with measured...

  17. Scenarios catalog for the graphical console for analysis of severe accidents visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of source term of the NPP-LV; Catalogo de escenarios para la consola grafica para analisis de accidentes severos visualizacion de OEs, NAEs y calculo del termino fuente de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mendoza R, M. E.; Tijerina S, F.; Garcia C, T., E-mail: manuel.mendoza@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    A nuclear power plant is operated at all times within the design criteria of structures, systems and components, and according to the operation technical specifications. For different areas of work of a nuclear power plant is necessary to carry out practices in which is useful to have the prediction of the thermo-hydraulic and radiological progression of scenarios that imply exceeding that design bases, even reaching the damage of the fuel in different degree. During the exercises and drills of the External Plan of Emergency Response, the projection of doses is done to exercise the different tasks of the plan. To make the projection of doses is required to have the radiological source term of the scenario on which is practiced. Because of this, was identified the convenience of having a catalog of scenarios for which the radiological source term was calculated. In 2004, a first version of the catalog was produced for a power of 2027 MW, and in 2011 the catalog was updated for extended power conditions, 2317 MW. Both versions were made using the severe accident simulator MAAP-3B. That catalog consists of a form and an optical storage device. The form contains tables and figures in which the characteristics of the scenario to be practiced are searched and the electronic files of the corresponding radiological source term are located in the storage device. Due to the recent development of the graphical console for analysis of severe accidents, visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) CoGrAAS, the catalog printed was replaced by an electronic catalog for the CoGrAAS. The new catalog retains the philosophy of the previous catalog, constituted by a wide collection of scenarios that involve different circumstances and phenomena, that can be used to practice different tasks during training exercises or simulacrums, and combined with the following advantages: the scenario selection is made from an

  18. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV; Especificacion de los requerimientos para tramitar una licencia de una instalacion independiente de almacenamiento temporal en seco de combustible gastado (ISFSI) en el sitio de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  19. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  20. Graphic console for analysis of severe accidents visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for the NPP-LV (CoGrAAS); Consola grafica para analisis de accidentes severos visualizacion de OEs, NAEs y calculo del termino fuente para la CLV (CoGrAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S.; Mendoza E, P. R.; Gonzalez C, J. M.; Cecenas F, M. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Tijerina S, F., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    In response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the NRC conducted an analysis and issued recommendations to improve the safety of the nuclear reactors. These include strengthening and integrating emergency response capabilities and emphasizing periodic staff training, the performance of simulation exercises. As a tool to observe these recommendations, the Graphic Console was developed for Analysis of Severe Accidents, Visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV ; CoGrAAS). The CoGrAAS is a computer system that displays in an integrated, graphic and dynamic way the information of a catalog of previously simulated accident scenarios. Has core mimics, vessel, primary containment and safety systems, trend graph of thermodynamic and radiological variables and the emergency procedures (OEs), chronological list of events, windows with detailed information for the dry-well, among others. The use of CoGrAAS allows that staff to understand and become familiar with the thermo-hydraulic progression of actual scenarios that exceed the design basis including those with core damage as severe accidents. The system enables personnel to develop an integral vision of the scenarios during the exercises and drills by observing and analyzing the evolution of the main reactor, core and primary containment variables, the response of emergency systems and the influence of that progression on OEs and the emergency action levels (NAEs). The CoGrAAS allows o observe the radiological variables and obtain the source term, to make the projection of doses, at any time within the scenario evolution. Thus, not only can the phenomenology of severe accidents be analyzed and understood, it is also possible to exercise, verify and evaluate the performance of critical tasks in the application of procedures, guidelines and emergency management plans. (Author)

  1. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  2. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  3. Radiological environment within an NPP after a severe nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andgren, Karin; Fritioff, Karin; Buhr, Anna Maria Blixt; Huutoniemi, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    The radiological environment following a severe nuclear accident can be visualised on building layouts. The direct radiation in an area (or room) can be visualized on the layout by a colouring scheme depending on the dose rate level (for example orange for high gamma dose rate level and purple for an intermediate gamma dose rate level). Following the Fukushima accident, a need for update of these layouts has been identified at the Swedish nuclear power plant of Forsmark. Shielding calculations for areas where access is desired for severe accident management have been performed. Many different sources of radiation together with different types of shielding material contribute to the dose that would be received by a person entering the area. External radiation from radioactivity within e.g. pipes and components is considered and also external radiation from radioactivity in the air (originating from diffuse leakage of the containment atmosphere). Results are presented as dose rates for relevant dose points together with a method for estimating the dose rate levels for each of the rooms of the reactor building.

  4. NPP Tundra: Toolik Lake, Alaska, 1982, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one text file (.csv format) that provides productivity data for four contrasting tundra vegetation types studied during 1982 near Toolik Lake...

  5. NPP Grassland: Badkhyz, Turkmenistan, 1948-1982, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains estimates of above-ground live phytomass for an ephemeral desert steppe located in the...

  6. NPP Grassland: Jornada, USA, 1970-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). Two files contain above- and below-ground biomass and productivity data for a desert grassland in the Jornada...

  7. NPP Grassland: Dzhanybek, Kazakhstan, 1955-1989, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains a long time series of biomass measurements made between 1955 and 1989 on a semi-desert...

  8. NPP Tropical Forest: Gunung Mulu, Malaysia, 1977-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall, and nutrient content of different vegetation components and soil for four lowland rain forest types on contrasting soils at Gunung...

  9. Establishing the Safety Infrastructure for NPP in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkhbat, Norov [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The survey results and analyses were used to establish the basis for developing nuclear safety infrastructure in Mongolia. Power Energy effective reform or introduction of nuclear reactors should be implemented in coming future to avoid this critical situation faces us. The most participant suggested that Mongolia may cooperate in the field of nuclear safety and infrastructure development with the Republic of Korea. Nuclear Energy Agency of the government of Mongolia has organized Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development (NUPID) training in cooperating with Seoul National University and other organizations in 2008, 2010 and 2012. There is a need to improve the nuclear energy law of Mongolia. Total energy supply of Mongolia is 5124.08 MWt as of 2012. 92.4% of total energy supply produces with coal, 0.56% with liquid fuel, and 0.01% with renewable energy sources, remained 6% imports from Russia. Mongolia operates seven Thermal Centralized Systems (TCS) with total capacity of 802 MWt, which provides dual; electricity and thermal power. Energy demand in Mongolia is expected to increase, due to the dramatically expanding mining industry. It is absolutely impossible to supply such rapid growth having operated old technology and inefficient production which exists currently in Mongolia. Therefor Mongolian government is interested in utilizing nuclear energy and approved Nuclear Energy Law in 2009. National Development Strategy (2008-2021) stated as that the peaceful exploitation of the nuclear energy will be an important factor for the sustainable development of Magnolia. Action Plan of the Government for 2008-2012 stated as that ...conduct a comprehensive research for use of nuclear energy, develop technical and economic feasibility study and improve radiation control and safety. International community has developed appropriate approaches in the form of IAEA safety standards, which has a positive experience of regulation and safety. These approaches contribute to the creation of newcomers to nuclear power solid foundation of safety and confidence-building measures at the international level. Egypt, Jordan, UAE, Kazakhstan, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia have been involving in the international program. The IAEA Safety Standard Guide SSG-16 'Establish the Safety Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Program' provides guidance on the implementation of the requirements of the relevant IAEA standards and as well as identified and recommended that the period of the formation of the safety infrastructure, the sequence necessary for safety operations, responsible government agencies, and major organization participating. To identify nuclear professional opinions on establishment of nuclear energy, a survey questionnaire on this matter was conducted for the nuclear related organization in Mongolia.

  10. FUNCTIONAL MODELLING FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORTEN LIND

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants. Functional modelling is defined and its relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the levels of abstraction in models for diagnosis must reflect plant knowledge about goals and functions which is represented in functional modelling. Multilevel flow modelling (MFM, which is a method for functional modelling, is introduced briefly and illustrated with a cooling system example. The use of MFM for reasoning about causes and consequences is explained in detail and demonstrated using the reasoning tool, the MFMSuite. MFM applications in nuclear power systems are described by two examples: a PWR; and an FBR reactor. The PWR example show how MFM can be used to model and reason about operating modes. The FBR example illustrates how the modelling development effort can be managed by proper strategies including decomposition and reuse.

  11. Functional Modelling for Fault Diagnosis and its application for NPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents functional modelling and its application for diagnosis in nuclear power plants.Functional modelling is defined and it is relevance for coping with the complexity of diagnosis in large scale systems like nuclear plants is explained. The diagnosis task is analyzed...... and it is demonstrated that the levels of abstraction in models for diagnosis must reflect plant knowledge about goals and functions which is represented in functional modelling.Multi level flow modeling (MFM), which is a method for functional modeling,is introduced briefly and illustrated with a cooling system example...

  12. NPP Boreal Forest: Canal Flats, Canada, 1984, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt). One file contains stand characteristics, soil characteristics, biomass distribution, and production allocation data measured...

  13. NPP Tropical Forest: Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall, and nutrient content of above-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical seasonal evergreen forest at Magdalena Valley, Columbia,...

  14. NPP Tropical Forest: Marafunga, Papua New Guinea, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass and nutrient content of different vegetation components and soil for a lower montane secondary rain forest at Marafunga in the highlands of Papua...

  15. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Currently available data on net primary production in tropical forests are extremely limited. Even the best estimates for this biome must be thought of as...

  16. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes of carbon...

  17. NPP Boreal Forest: Jadraas, Sweden, 1973-1983, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format). Two of the files contain stand characteristics, above- and below-ground biomass, and above- and below-ground...

  18. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes...

  19. NPP Grassland: Otradnoe, Russia 1969-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three data files in text format (.txt). Two files contain biomass and above-ground net primary production (ANPP) estimates for two upland...

  20. Fluorescence, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures chlorophyll fluorescence, which gives insight into the physiology of phytoplankton in the ocean. When phytoplankton are under stress, the rate at...

  1. NPP Grassland: Kurukshetra, India, 1970-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII files (.txt format). One file contains above- and below-ground biomass (including standing dead material and litter) and...

  2. Snowfall Rate Retrieval using NPP ATMS Passive Microwave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua; Zhao, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2014). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The ATMS SFR product is validated against radar and gauge snowfall data and shows that the ATMS algorithm outperforms the AMSU/MHS SFR.

  3. Fluorescence, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures chlorophyll fluorescence, which gives insight into the physiology of phytoplankton in the ocean. When phytoplankton are under stress, the rate at...

  4. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Králik, Juraj, E-mail: juraj.kralik@stuba.sk [Faculty of Civil Engineering, STU in Bratislava, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava (Slovakia); Králik, Juraj, E-mail: kralik@fa.stuba.sk [Faculty of Architecture, STU in Bratislava, Námestie Slobody 19, 812 45 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  5. The pragmatics of NPP presidential campaign promises in Ghana's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses election campaign promises under Commissives, an aspect of Speech Act Theory, and Political Discourse Analysis (PDA). It considers the importance of context and looks at the social settings that are connected with promises. It examines the semantics, pragmatics and the structure of campaign ...

  6. NPP Grassland: Nylsvley, South Africa, 1974-1989, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five data files in text format (.txt). Three files contain biomass dynamics data for a broad-leaved savanna located in the 800-hectare...

  7. A study for EVMS application to NPP construction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, M. S.; Kwak, J. K. [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The earned value project management method integrates three critical elements of project management scope management, cost management and time management. It requires the periodic monitoring of actual expenditures and physical scope accomplishments, and allows calculation of cost and schedule variances along with performance indices. It allows forecasting of project cost and schedule at completion and highlights the possible need for corrective action. It is also anticipated that there will be intense competition in the nuclear industry as the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction. In order to attain competitive advantages under the globalized market, utilizing advanced project control systems by integrating cost and time management is of great concern for practitioners as well as the researchers. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to identify major previously improving activities that characterize the real-world Earned Value Management System (EVMS) implementation for nuclear power plant construction. And several distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were also investigated.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  9. NPP Grassland: Tullgarnsnaset, Sweden, 1968-1969, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ACSII files (.txt format). Two files contain above-ground biomass data for two ungrazed seashore meadow plots dominated by the...

  10. NPP Grassland: Charleville, Australia, 1973-1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, litterfall, and bioelement data for a native...

  11. NPP Grassland: Nairobi, Kenya, 1984-1994, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three data files in text format (.txt). One file contains a long time series of monthly biomass measurements and net primary productivity...

  12. Knowledge integrated management system for maintenance service at NPP Isar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griedl, R. [E.ON Kernkraft (Germany); Weinrauch, M.; Buschart, R. [AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The principal goal of the WIS software program is to support maintenance decision-making and maintenance planning by providing all information relevant for maintenance planning by systematically documenting and analyzing the results of maintenance activities. There are basically 4 major sources of information for maintenance planning and decision making: -) inspection reports documenting maintenance activities and component maintenance history, -) diagnostic data supplied by process information and monitoring systems that serve to identify the present conditions of components, -) empirical knowledge derived from experience at any plant, -) technical documentation as well as maintenance and testing procedures. The WIS system integrates all these 4 sources of information, processes the data and users can access this maintenance-related information via a user-friendly graphic interface. The WIS system has been put into service gradually at the Isar nuclear power plant, starting with valves and their actuators, and followed by pumps, fans and their respective drive motors. (A.C.)

  13. NPP Grassland: Tumentsogt, Mongolia, 1982-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains tri-monthly measurements of above-ground biomass made during the growing season...

  14. NPP Grassland: Vindhyan, India, 1986-1989, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains four data files in text format (.txt). Three files provide above- and below-ground productivity data for three derived savannas on the...

  15. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem (subarctic...

  16. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem...

  17. NPP Grassland: Rio Mayo, Argentina, 1972-1997, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three data files in text format (.txt) for a temperate dry steppe at Rio Mayo, Argentia. One file contains quarterly above-ground biomass data...

  18. NPP Boreal Forest: Canal Flats, Canada, 1984, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt). One file contains stand characteristics, soil characteristics, biomass distribution, and production allocation...

  19. NPP Grassland: Bridger, USA, 1970-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII text files for the Bridger grassland study site in the Rocky Mountains (45.78 N, -110.78 W, Elevation 2,340 m). Two files contain...

  20. NPP Tropical Forest: John Crow Ridge, Jamaica, 1974-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass and productivity for four subtypes of an upper montane tropical forest along John Crow Ridge in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Jamaica from 1974 to 1978

  1. NPP Tropical Forest: Luquillo, Puerto Rico, 1963-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Productivity of lower montane tropical forest at various study sites within the Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico from 1963 to present

  2. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  3. NPP Grassland: Xilingol, China, 1980-1989, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains bi-weekly measurements of above-ground live biomass recorded during the growing season...

  4. NPP Tundra: Point Barrow, Alaska, 1970-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three data files. One file (.csv format) provides above- and below-ground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) data for a wet arctic tundra...

  5. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  6. Development of Safety Culture Assessment Strategy for Korean NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper aims at developing the requirements for a method to evaluate the operational safety culture, evaluating currently available methods based on the requirements, and suggesting a method to evaluate and improve the operational safety culture for Korean nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the widely-used methods to assess safety culture for NPPs and their basis. Then, this paper develops the requirements for the method to evaluate operational safety culture for Korean NPPs. Based on these requirements, Korean Safety Culture Indicators (KSCI) and evaluation measures are also suggested. Finally this paper proposes the guidelines to develop improvements to safety culture from the evaluation results.

  7. NPP Boreal Forest: Flakaliden, Sweden, 1986-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format) for an established 8.25 ha boreal forest dominated by Norway spruce, Picea abies, at Flakaliden (64.12 N 19.45 E) in...

  8. NPP Grassland: Olokemeji, Nigeria, 1956-1964, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII files (.txt format). One file contains monthly above-ground biomass data (total live biomass plus dead matter) for May 1956 to...

  9. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal forest...

  10. NPP Grassland: Canas, Costa Rica, 1969-1970, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII text files; one providing above-ground biomass, productivity, and bioelement concentration data for a derived savanna at Cañas (10.4...

  11. NPP Grassland: Calabozo, Venezuela, 1969-1987, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains four ASCII text files for a 260-hectare humid Trachypogon savanna at the Estacion Biologica de Los Llanos, Calabozo, Venezuela (8.93 N, -67.42...

  12. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall,a nd nutrient content of above- and below-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical montane forest at San Eusebio, Venezuela.

  13. NPP Grassland: Kursk, Russia, 1954-1983, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains a long time series of biomass measurements made between 1954 and 1983 on a virgin...

  14. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal...

  15. NPP Boreal Forest: Mississagi, Canada, 1969-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt format) for study sites in the Mississagi River area of Ontario, Canada (46.35 N -83.38 W elevation 860 m). One file...

  16. NPP Boreal Forest: Mississagi, Canada, 1970-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt format) for study sites in the Mississagi River area of Ontario, Canada (46.35 N -83.38 W elevation 860 m). One file...

  17. NPP Grassland: Towoomba, South Africa, 1949-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides seven data files in text format (.txt). The files provide biomass estimates, soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) measurements...

  18. NPP Grassland: Media Luna, Argentina, 1981-1983, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII files (.txt format). One file provides monthly above-ground live biomass, dead matter, and litter data and daily above-ground net...

  19. Primary coolant technology in VVER/PWR units. Experience with preconditioning, decontamination and recontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonkova, Katerina [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kysela, Jan

    2012-01-15

    For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified hot functional test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formed due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation. Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first 10 years of operation are compared and presented. The operation experience from all above mentioned units showed a low level of corrosion products in the primary system as well as low dose rates. Second part of the paper deals with radiation fields that exist in nuclear power plants primarily due to the deposition of radioisotopes on the surfaces of primary components after decontamination. Large-scale crud deposition on fuel surface resulted in cases NPP Loviisa, Paks and Novovoronezh after steam generators decontamination. After decontamination higher corrosion products release occurs followed by subsequent higher radiation fields. Actual in-pile loop tests carried at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez are focused on the study of surface preconditioning - similar to HFT chemistry - after decontamination. Effects of the decontamination on deposition formation on primary circuit surfaces are investigated under steam generator operating conditions with the model device which contains heat exchanger tube. (orig.)

  20. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  1. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  2. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  3. How does trust affect acceptance of a nuclear power plant (NPP: A survey among people living with Qinshan NPP in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Xiao

    Full Text Available It is difficult to know whether different dimensions of trust have different effects on local residents' acceptance of nuclear power plants (NPPs. In previous research such trust has been considered as a single dimensional concept. This paper divides trust into goodwill trust and competence trust, and we explore the ways in which trust affects acceptance of NPPs through structural equation modeling. A survey of 491 people was conducted in Haiyan County, China, where the Qinshan nuclear power plant is located. We find that goodwill trust is significantly correlated with competence trust, and each can indirectly promote residents' acceptance of NPPs but by different paths. Goodwill trust improves acceptance of NPPs by decreasing risk perception, while competence trust improves acceptance of NPPs by increasing benefit perception. However, the associations between goodwill trust and benefit perception, competence trust and risk perception, are not significant.

  4. Assessing deposition levels of 55Fe, 60Co and 63Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudelis, A.; Druteikienė, R.; Lukšienė, B.

    2010-01-01

    . Non-destructive analysis by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry was followed by radiochemical separation. Radiochemical analysis was based on anion-exchange and extraction chromatography. 55Fe and 63Ni activities were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The results indicate that the deposition...

  5. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Nighttime (11 microns), Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  6. NPP Tropical Forest: Cinnamon Bay, U.S. Virgin Islands, 1982-1993, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). One data file contains above-ground biomass, litter, litterfall, herbivory, biomass change, and above-ground...

  7. Suomi NPP ATMS Level 1B Brightness Temperature V1 (SNPPATMSL1B) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Level 1B data files contain brightness temperature measurements along with ancillary spacecraft, instrument, and...

  8. JACOS: AI-based simulation system for man-machine system behavior in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Yokobayashi, Masao; Tanabe, Fumiya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawase, Katsumi [CSK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komiya, Akitoshi [Computer Associated Laboratory, Inc., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    A prototype of a computer simulation system named JACOS (JAERI COgnitive Simulation system) has been developed at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) to simulate the man-machine system behavior in which both the cognitive behavior of a human operator and the plant behavior affect each other. The objectives of this system development is to provide man-machine system analysts with detailed information on the cognitive process of an operator and the plant behavior affected by operator's actions in accidental situations of a nuclear power plant. The simulation system consists of an operator model and a plant model which are coupled dynamically. The operator model simulates an operator's cognitive behavior in accidental situations based on the decision ladder model of Rasmussen, and is implemented using the AI-techniques of the distributed cooperative inference method with the so-called blackboard architecture. Rule-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with If-Then type of rules. Knowledge-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with MFM (Multilevel Flow Modeling) and qualitative reasoning method. Cognitive characteristics of attentional narrowing, limitation of short-term memory, and knowledge recalling from long-term memory are also taken into account. The plant model of a 3-loop PWR is also developed using a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis code RELAP5/MOD2. This report is prepared as User's Manual for JACOS. The first chapter of this report describes both operator and plant models in detail. The second chapter includes instructive descriptions for program installation, building of a knowledge base for operator model, execution of simulation and analysis of simulation results. The examples of simulation with JACOS are shown in the third chapter. (author)

  9. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  10. LBA-ECO TG-05 NPP, Carbon Pool, Soil Characteristics, Soil Gas Flux Maps of Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides maps produced from model output data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (NASA-CASA) model...

  11. Development of highly reliable power and communication system for essential instruments under severe accidents in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwan; Jang, Gi Chan; Shin, Sung Min; Kang, Hyun Gook; Rim, Chun Taek [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Ill [I and C Group, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article proposes a highly reliable power and communication system that guarantees the protection of essential instruments in a nuclear power plant under a severe accident. Both power and communication lines are established with not only conventional wired channels, but also the proposed wireless channels for emergency reserve. An inductive power transfer system is selected due to its robust power transfer characteristics under high temperature, high pressure, and highly humid environments with a large amount of scattered debris after a severe accident. A thermal insulation box and a glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are proposed to protect the essential instruments, including vulnerable electronic circuits, from extremely high temperatures of up to 627 .deg. C and pressure of up to 5 bar. The proposed wireless power and communication system is experimentally verified by an inductive power transfer system prototype having a dipole coil structure and prototype Zigbee modules over a 7-m distance, where both the thermal insulation box and the glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are fabricated and tested using a high-temperature chamber. Moreover, an experiment on the effects of a high radiation environment on various electronic devices is conducted based on the radiation test having a maximum accumulated dose of 27 Mrad.

  12. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  13. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  14. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  15. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  16. Photosynthetically Available Radiation, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures photosynthetically available radiation that may be used to mode primary productivity. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for...

  17. Maintenance and management of refills NPP Cofrentes; Mantenimiento y gestion de recargas en CN Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salar, J.; Blanquer, N.

    2014-04-01

    Maintenance in a nuclear power plant is a discipline that requires considering multiple criteria. Many risks can be involved during the jobs execution, and the preparation of activities needs an important knowledge and experience. During outages, many pieces of equipment are reviewed and inspected, and there is a huge increase of the number of risks and variables needed to perform and adequate preparation, coordination and execution of the maintenance activities. Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant has improved the Outage preparation organization, in order to get more people involved, and make sure that all the critical parameters have been considered for each outage work. (Author)

  18. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole cameras was a new approach for the exact and stable position control on the IRWST strainer, unlike a traditional robot for underwater facility inspection. The developed robot will be practically used to enhance the efficiency and reliability of the inspection of nuclear power plant components.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIOUS ROBOT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF APR1400 NPP IRWST STRAINER ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU HYUN JANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole cameras was a new approach for the exact and stable position control on the IRWST strainer, unlike a traditional robot for underwater facility inspection. The developed robot will be practically used to enhance the efficiency and reliability of the inspection of nuclear power plant components.

  20. NPP Multi-Biome: Production and Mortality for Eastern US Forests, 1962-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two data files (tab-delimited .txt format) with this data set that provide estimates of above-ground biomass per county; county-level annual above-ground...

  1. NPP Boreal Forest: Siberian Scots Pine Forests, Russia, 1968-1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (comma-separated-value format). One file provides components of net primary productivity, standing biomass, age and stand...

  2. NPP Boreal Forest: Siberian Scots Pine Forests, Russia, 1968-1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (comma-separated-value format). One file provides components of net primary productivity, standing biomass, age and stand structure,...

  3. Technological features of cementation of liquid organic wastes from radiochemical production and NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, T.B.; Kiselev-Dmitriev, A.L.; Masanov, O.L. [A.A. Bochvar Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    One method to manage liquid radioactive wastes is to incorporate them into inorganic materials. At VNINM, work was performed to cement spent oils and extractants and to determine final product properties. Attention was paid to a choice of emulsifiers. Parameters investigated included emulsifier availability, stability, and incorporability into a matrix material.

  4. Diversity Enhances NPP, N Retention, and Soil Microbial Diversity in Experimental Urban Grassland Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant L Thompson

    Full Text Available Urban grasslands, landscapes dominated by turfgrasses for aesthetic or recreational groundcovers, are rapidly expanding in the United States and globally. These managed ecosystems are often less diverse than the natural or agricultural lands they replace, leading to potential losses in ecosystem functioning. Research in non-urban systems has provided evidence for increases in multiple ecosystem functions associated with greater plant diversity. To test if biodiversity-ecosystem function findings are applicable to urban grasslands, we examined the effect of plant species and genotypic diversity on three ecosystem functions, using grassland assemblages of increasing diversity that were grown within a controlled environment facility. We found positive effects of plant diversity on reduced nitrate leaching and plant productivity. Soil microbial diversity (Mean Shannon Diversity, H' of bacteria and fungi were also enhanced in multi-species plantings, suggesting that moderate increments in plant diversity influence the composition of soil biota. The results from this study indicate that plant diversity impacts multiple functions that are important in urban ecosystems; therefore, further tests of urban grassland biodiversity should be examined in situ to determine the feasibility of manipulating plant diversity as an explicit landscape design and function trait.

  5. Systems and Services for Real-Time Web Access to NPP Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST) proposes to build a scalable, adaptable, and interoperable information processing and delivery infrastructure that will...

  6. Systems and Services for Real-Time Web Access to NPP Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST) proposes to investigate information processing and delivery technologies to provide near-real-time Web-based access to...

  7. Fluorescence, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures chlorophyll fluorescence, which gives insight into the physiology of phytoplankton in the ocean. When phytoplankton are under stress, the rate at...

  8. S-NPP ATMS Instrument Prelaunch and On-Orbit Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-Hsuan; Anderson, Kent; Leslie, Vincent R.; Blackwell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of a new generation of microwave sounders was launched aboard the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) combines the capabilities and channel sets of three predecessor sounders into a single package to provide information on the atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles that are the most critical observations needed for numerical weather forecast models. Enhancements include size/mass/power approximately one third of the previous total, three new sounding channels, the first space-based, Nyquist-sampled cross-track microwave temperature soundings for improved fusion with infrared soundings, plus improved temperature control and reliability. This paper describes the ATMS characteristics versus its predecessor, the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), and presents the first comprehensive evaluation of key prelaunch and on-orbit performance parameters. Two-year on-orbit performance shows that the ATMS has maintained very stable radiometric sensitivity, in agreement with prelaunch data, meeting requirements for all channels (with margins of 40% for channels 1-15), and improvements over AMSU-A when processed for equivalent spatial resolution. The radiometric accuracy, determined by analysis from ground test measurements, and using on-orbit instrument temperatures, also shows large margins relative to requirements (specified as evaluation of the performance of ATMS is especially important for this first proto-flight model unit of what will eventually be a series of ATMS sensors providing operational sounding capability for the U.S. and its international partners well into the next decade.

  9. Assessment of minute volume of lung in NPP workers for Korean reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J.; Song, S. H.; Lee, J.; Jin, Y. W.; Yim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S. [KNETEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To formulation of the reference Korean for radiation protection purpose, we measured the forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume in second(FEVI), minute ventilation(MV) of Nuclear Power Plant workers using SP-1 Spirometry Unit(Schiller AG. 1998) and eatimated the liters of breathed for working and resting, also compared these data with ICRP 23.

  10. Development and Verification of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Code for Analysis of Tsunami near NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Young Beom; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It becomes more complicated when considering the shape and phase of the ground below the seawater. Therefore, some different attempts are required to precisely analyze the behavior of tsunami. This paper introduces an on-going activities on code development in SNU based on an unconventional mesh-free fluid analysis method called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and its verification work with some practice simulations. This paper summarizes the on-going development and verification activities on Lagrangian mesh-free SPH code in SNU. The newly developed code can cover equation of motions and heat conduction equation so far, and verification of each models is completed. In addition, parallel computation using GPU is now possible, and GUI is also prepared. If users change input geometry or input values, they can simulate for various conditions geometries. A SPH method has large advantages and potential in modeling of free surface, highly deformable geometry and multi-phase problems that traditional grid-based code has difficulties in analysis. Therefore, by incorporating more complex physical models such as turbulent flow, phase change, two-phase flow, and even solid mechanics, application of the current SPH code is expected to be much more extended including molten fuel behaviors in the sever accident.

  11. A survey on the development of advanced instrumentation and control system in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Chang Sik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Chung, Chul Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    Many developed countries are improving or operating the advanced I and C systems of NPPs. They are: (1) N4 of EDF in France, (2) AP 600 of Westinghouse in USA, (3) NUPLEX-80+ of ABB-CE in USA, (4) CANDU in Canada, (5) Ohi 3 and 4, APWR and ABWR in Japan, (6) Belt-D in Germany, (7) Sizewell B in Britain, (8) Halden Reactor Projector in Norway, (9) I and C systems in Russia and Eastern Europe. This report describes the development trend, background, system architecture, characteristics with the new safety concerns, licensing problems, future plan, and retrofit experiences of these advanced nuclear I and C systems. The biggest difference between the existing systems and the advanced systems is the application of software rather than hardware for the functional implementation. All of the improved I and C systems accepted the standard modules and off-the shelf devices. Their characteristics are focused on EPRI URD Chapter 10. (author).

  12. Determination of the NPP Kr\\vsko spent fuel decay heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromar, Marjan; Kurinčič, Bojan

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear fuel is designed to support fission process in a reactor core. Some of the isotopes, formed during the fission, decay and produce decay heat and radiation. Accurate knowledge of the nuclide inventory producing decay heat is important after reactor shut down, during the fuel storage and subsequent reprocessing or disposal. In this paper possibility to calculate the fuel isotopic composition and determination of the fuel decay heat with the Serpent code is investigated. Serpent is a well-known Monte Carlo code used primarily for the calculation of the neutron transport in a reactor. It has been validated for the burn-up calculations. In the calculation of the fuel decay heat different set of isotopes is important than in the neutron transport case. Comparison with the Origen code is performed to verify that the Serpent is taking into account all isotopes important to assess the fuel decay heat. After the code validation, a sensitivity study is carried out. Influence of several factors such as enrichment, fuel temperature, moderator temperature (density), soluble boron concentration, average power, burnable absorbers, and burnup is analyzed.

  13. Initial data on protective containment for safety analysis of NPP with WWER-1000 Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubeladze Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article the nuclear safety issues with VVER-1000 reactor are considered. The study element is the protective containment (PC, the most important function of which is localization and retention of radioactive substances within the accident localization zone. The example of possible unregulated destructive forcing (UDF on the PC for the construction and installation work period is given.

  14. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.

  15. Asset management methodology in NPP Cofrentes; Metodologia de gestion de activos en C. N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbally, D.; Feijo, J. P.; Sierra, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Cofrentes asset management plan is articulated around the tool SIGAN (computer management system of nuclear assets), this tool allows you to structure in an objective and documented the investment plan aimed at modernization and management of the plant life, achieving a consensus among the parties involved in terms of planning development and implementation.

  16. Development of NPP control room operators`s mental workload measurement system using bioelectric signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Cha, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    This study developed mentalload measurement system based on the relations between mentalload and physiological responses of the human operators. The measurement system was composed of the telemetry system for EEG, EOG, ECG and respiration pattern of the subjects, A/D converter, the physiological signal processing programs (compiled by the Labview). The signal processing programs transformed the physiological signal into the scores indicating mentalload status of the subjects and recorded the mentalload scores in the form of the table of a database. The acqknowledge and the labview programs additionally transformed the mentalload score database and the operator behavior database so that both database were consolidated into one. 94 figs., 57 refs. (Author).

  17. Dealing with unexpected events : efficient and safe solutions to emergent repair on NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekens Massazza, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Facilities are constantly challenged with unexpected events occurring on Primary Circuit components. A solution must be deployed quickly to minimize impact on the scheduled outage duration while guaranteeing safety, quality and ALARA standards. AREVA NP has demonstrated worldwide recognized capabilities and expertise through efficient management of various unexpected forced events through the time. Turnkey packaged solutions which are proposed are based on proven technics which can be quickly adapted and qualified to the specific problem, resulting in customers’ full satisfaction. (Author)

  18. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  19. Fukushima impact on Asco NPP; Impacto de Fukushima en C. N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, J.; Hernandez, R.

    2015-07-01

    The accident at Fukushima convulsed the Japanese and international society in all walks of life. The Nuclear Safety Council, apply for nuclear power plants to carry out in record time what they call {sup r}esistance tests ANAV and in particular Asco responded to requirements through a reanalysis of the external events, an analysis of the consequences of nomination deterministic event of the total loss of heat sink and lost total power and finally an analysis of the capacities of the plant to respond to a condition of severe accident that would affect the two units of the site. (Author)

  20. Preliminary Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Uljin NPP Site using Tsunami Propagation Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyunme; KIm, Minkyu; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Donghoon [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis is based on the seismic hazard analysis method. The seismic hazard analysis had been performed by using the deterministic or probabilistic method. Recently, the probabilistic method has been received more attention than the deterministic method because the probabilistic approach can be considered well uncertainties of hazard analysis. Therefore the studies on the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) have been performed in this study. This study was focused on the wave propagation analysis which was the most different thing between seismic hazard analysis and tsunami hazard analysis.

  1. REVIEW OF PRACTICE FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED/BURIED NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SEISMIC LOADINGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-24

    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research.

  2. Development of Highly Reliable Power and Communication System for Essential Instruments Under Severe Accidents in NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hwan Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a highly reliable power and communication system that guarantees the protection of essential instruments in a nuclear power plant under a severe accident. Both power and communication lines are established with not only conventional wired channels, but also the proposed wireless channels for emergency reserve. An inductive power transfer system is selected due to its robust power transfer characteristics under high temperature, high pressure, and highly humid environments with a large amount of scattered debris after a severe accident. A thermal insulation box and a glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are proposed to protect the essential instruments, including vulnerable electronic circuits, from extremely high temperatures of up to 627°C and pressure of up to 5 bar. The proposed wireless power and communication system is experimentally verified by an inductive power transfer system prototype having a dipole coil structure and prototype Zigbee modules over a 7-m distance, where both the thermal insulation box and the glass-fiber reinforced plastic box are fabricated and tested using a high-temperature chamber. Moreover, an experiment on the effects of a high radiation environment on various electronic devices is conducted based on the radiation test having a maximum accumulated dose of 27 Mrad.

  3. VIIRS/NPP Thermal Anomalies/Fire 6-Min L2 Swath 750m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Anomalies (VNP14) Version 1 product is produced in 6-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths) at...

  4. Development of a hardware-in- loop simulation platform for NPP main control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Pengfei; Bi Chunyu; Yu Yang; Lin Meng; Song Xinli; Wu Guoyang; Su Zhida

    2017-01-01

    The simulation technology of the nuclear power plant are gradually applying to the nuclear power industry. However, most of the research on nuclear power plant simulation system only focus on pure computerized simulation at present, and it is difficult to fully display the characteristics of the simulating objects. In order to simulate the response characteristics of control system more really, a hardware-in-loop simulation platform of main control systems in the nuclear power plant has been ...

  5. Resuspension of deposited radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H.; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-04-01

    Releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident are typically associated with the atmospheric discharges in the early phase of the accident in spring 2011. Analysis of weekly air filters, however, has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations in the Minamisoma area north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported 137Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high 90Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg-1) as well as a high 90Sr/137Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross 137Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 1011 Bq has been released.

  6. Spanish experience on modeling of environmental radioactive contamination due to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident using JRODOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorzhak, Alla; Puras, Carlos; Montero, Milagros; Mora, Juan C

    2012-11-06

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, decision support systems (DSS) for supporting response of the decision makers in emergencies have been developed and refined. Data available from real accidents are used to validate these systems, thus demonstrating their real capabilities and finally to improve them. This article presents the findings of the simulation exercises using JRODOS DSS performed in Spain after the first days of the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The investigation was carried out in two phases. The first phase is considered the early phase of the accident when few details of the real emissions are known (operational modeling). The second phase demonstrates how real measurements could be used (reconstructive modeling) to improve model predictions. Only major releases to the atmosphere, occurring during the first two weeks, were taken into account. Validation of the model was performed by direct comparison of the modeled results with real measurements.

  7. NPP Grassland: Pampa De Leman, Argentina, 1980-1982, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII files (.txt format). One file contains monthly productivity data measured on an arid dwarf-shrub steppe in northern Patagonia,...

  8. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 8-day Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Surface Reflectance (VNP09H1) Version 1 composite product provides an estimate of land surface...

  9. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance Daily L3 Global 0.05 Deg CMG V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) daily surface reflectance Climate Modeling Grid (VNP09CMG) Version 1 product provides an estimate of land...

  10. Crud formation evaluation at the advanced fuel operating in Angra-1 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Diego; Palheiros, Franklin; Gomes, Sydney, E-mail: franklin@inb.gov.br, E-mail: diegogomez@inb.gov.br, E-mail: sydney@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Superintendência de Engenharia do Combustível

    2017-07-01

    In nuclear engineering, 'crud' is a technical term. It stands for Chalk River Unidentified Deposit, originally found on the cladding surface of some fuel rods in the referred canadian reactor, for which it was named. The deposit can be flaky, porous, or hard depending on its chemical composition. In most cases, it reduces the power output of nuclear reactors - the deposits absorb boron and the neutrons that keep the fission reaction going, as well lead to a more corrosion scenario by increasing the oxide/metal interface surface temperature. This issue might been a concern at Angra 1 where many design alterations have been performed in the new Fuel assembly design. The so called 16NGF has a smaller fuel rod diameter, different burnable absorber - gadolinium instead of pyrex borosilicate glass, hydraulic mismatch compared to 16STD fuel, new IFM grids, higher FDeltaH and several other characteristics. All those features lead to a increase in the subcooled boiling rates, which might favour particles depositions in fuel cladding forming the undesired Crud deposits. In order to evaluate how those implementations could impact negatively the new fuel performance at Angra 1, a study has ben carried out using Thermal Hydraulic calculations. With that, an existing methodology was used to assess the associated risks and what could be the done to mitigate further development of crud in 16NGF Fuel in Angra 1. (author)

  11. LBA-ECO TG-05 NPP, Carbon Pool, Soil Characteristics, Soil Gas Flux Maps of Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides maps produced from model output data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach...

  12. MORE - Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Thunem, H.P.J. [IFE (Norway); Valkonen, J. [VTT (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the report is to document the work and related activities in the period January 1 December 31 in 2006, including dissemination activities. The work in this period has been concentrated on further research for adopting an approach for dependable requirements engineering and its supporting tool. The majority of the efforts in 2006, however, was spent on making the researchers, developers, utilities and licensees more aware of the importance of the area of requirements engineering, and in that respect organising an international seminar on dependable requirements engineering. This seminar was defined as a deliverable in the Activity Plan for 2006 and became also the most important deliverable for 2006. Therefore, this report naturally features a detailed summary of the seminar, which proved to be a true success and at the same time a door opener for more initiatives within the topic, proposed by several participants. More efforts within dissemination of the background and objectives of the project MORE within the nuclear community and towards NPPs that do carry out modernisation projects continued to be one important focus. (au)

  13. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  14. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  15. NPP Grassland: Central Plains Experimental Range (SGS), USA, 1939-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set records the productivity of a semiarid shortgrass prairie steppe located in the Central Plains Experimental Reserve (CPER)/Pawnee National Grassland in...

  16. ISLSCP II GPPDI, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Class B Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) was set up as a Focus 1 activity of the IGBP Data and Information System, a coordinated international program...

  17. ISLSCP II GPPDI, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Class B Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) was set up as a Focus 1 activity of the IGBP Data and Information System, a coordinated international...

  18. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  19. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  20. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  1. Failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) on mechanical subsystems of diesel generator at NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Singh, Brijendra; Sung, Tae Yong; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Largely, the RCM approach can be divided in three phases; (1) Functional failure analysis (FFA) on the selected system or subsystem, (2) Failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) to identify the impact of failure to plant safety or economics, (3) Logical tree analysis (LTA) to select appropriate preventive maintenance and surveillance tasks. This report presents FMECA results for six mechanical subsystems of the diesel generators of nuclear power plants. The six mechanical subsystems are Starting air, Lub oil, Governor, Jacket water cooling, Fuel, and Engine subsystems. Generic and plant-specific failure and maintenance records are reviewed to identify critical components/failure modes. FMECA was performed for these critical component/failure modes. After reviewing current preventive maintenance activities of Wolsung unit 1, draft RCM recommendations are developed. 6 tabs., 16 refs. (Author).

  2. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  3. Main Results of Phase IV BEMUSE Project: Simulation of LBLOCA in an NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the calculations performed by participants and emphasizes its usefulness for future uncertainty evaluation, to be performed in next phase. The objectives of the activity are basically to simulate the LBLOCA reproducing the phenomena associated to the scenario and also to build a common, well-known, basis for the future comparison of uncertainty evaluation results among different methodologies and codes. The sensitivity calculations performed by participants are also presented. They allow studying the influence of different parameters such as material properties or initial and boundary conditions, upon the behaviour of the most relevant parameters related to the scenario.

  4. Fluorescence, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, West US, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS measures chlorophyll fluorescence, which gives insight into the physiology of phytoplankton in the ocean. When phytoplankton are under stress, the rate at...

  5. Evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) Implementation in a Konvoi NPP Containment Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Alonso, E.; Papini, D.; Jimenez, G.

    2015-07-01

    The evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) implementation has been developed under the methodology extracted from the IAEA document, analysing the size, location and number of the PARs capable to minimize the combustion risk, which arises from a hydrogen release generated during a severe accident and its distribution in containment building. A detailed three-dimensional model of Konvoi (PWR) containment with GOTHIC 8.1 code was used for the simulations. The hydrogen preferential pathways and the accumulation points were studied and identified on the basis of a base case scenario without any mitigation measure. The PAR configuration offers an improvement in the chosen accidental scenario; decreasing the possibility of hydrogen combustion and leading to concentration values below the flammability limit (hydrogen concentration below 7%), in all the containment compartments at the end of the transient. Furthermore, from the analysis, it is concluded that the time required to reach hydrogen concentrations below the combustion limit is considerably reduced. (Author)

  6. Development of degradation D/B system for the containment building of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Song, Y. C. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, J. H. [KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. K.; Lee, J. S. [KICT, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The Degradation D/B System is developed for digitalizing the history of the Containment building of nuclear power plant. It have 6 D/B which are consist of General, Design drawing, Material, Construction, ISI{center_dot}SIT{center_dot}ILRT D/B. For efficient operation of the system, utilities are also developed such as the aging and repair data management program for concrete and steel structures, the data search engine with various options helping users find what they want, and the data exchange program restoring and updating input data.

  7. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  8. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  9. Optimizing the NPP refurbishment environmental qualification design process for an in-service installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacBeth, M.J.; Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom-NPM, Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the Environmental Qualification (EQ) modification design work required to upgrade the Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station B Facility. The RB airlocks provide a containment boundary function and are designed to prevent a breach of containment from occurring for all analysed station conditions. Recent, more stringent, Canadian Nuclear Regulatory actions have imposed EQ requirements for the RB airlocks in Canadian Nuclear Generating Stations. The airlocks are required to function under the worst-case design basis accident (DBA) conditions for the assigned mission duration and the design must demonstrate that a spurious door opening cannot be initiated by any accident conditions. This paper reviews key project design activities while providing detailed insights to the potential solution or elimination of some problematic aspects of these types of design activities. General recommendations for optimal technical management of such project implementation issues are presented. (author)

  10. VIIRS/NPP Raw Radiances in Counts 6-Min L1A Swath - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1A data product contains the unpacked, raw VIIRS science, calibration and engineering data; the extracted ephemeris and attitude data from the...

  11. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  12. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  13. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Nighttime (4 microns), Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  14. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  15. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Terra Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  16. Porcine ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1/CD203a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Cathrine Bie; Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Viuff, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    Swine workshop cluster 9 (SWC9) antibody identifying a porcien epitope on macrophages and thymocytes was used to precipitate and characterize the molecule from biotinylated macrophages and to obtain peptide sequence by mass spectrometry. The protein was identified as ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase...

  17. Segmentation of steam dryers at Wuergassen NPP with diamond rope sawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmut Runge [RWE NUKEM GmbH (Germany); Peter Duwe [E.ON Kernkraft, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In 2004 we first applied diamond rope saw techniques to segment one of the reactor vessel inside components of the BWR Wuergassen. Meanwhile we have successfully demonstrated the benefits of this technique on a 1:1 scale model of a second steam dryer. Rope sawing meanwhile turns out to be a reliable and comparably simple segmentation technique, which has found its entrance to remote cutting and segmentation even in high radiation environment and on bulk components as well as on fine metal structures. (authors00.

  18. Suomi NPP VIIRS solar diffuser screen transmittance model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mcintire, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    The visible infrared imaging radiometer suite on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite calibrates its reflective solar bands through observations of a sunlit solar diffuser (SD) panel. Sunlight passes through a perforated plate, referred to as the SD screen, before reaching the SD. It is critical to know whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate. Several factors such as misalignments of the SD panel and the measurement apparatus could lead to errors in the measured transmittance and thus adversely impact on-orbit calibration quality through the SD. We develop a mathematical model to describe the transmittance as a function of the angles that incident light makes with the SD screen, and apply the model to fit the prelaunch measured transmittance. The results reveal that the model does not reproduce the measured transmittance unless the size of the apertures in the SD screen is quite different from the design value. We attribute the difference to the orientation alignment errors for the SD panel and the measurement apparatus. We model the alignment errors and apply our transmittance model to fit the prelaunch transmittance to retrieve the "true" transmittance. To use this model correctly, we also examine the finite source size effect on the transmittance. Furthermore, we compare the product of the retrieved "true" transmittance and the prelaunch SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value to the value derived from on-orbit data to determine whether the prelaunch SD BRDF value is relatively accurate. The model is significant in that it can evaluate whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate and help retrieve the true transmittance from the transmittance with measurement errors, consequently resulting in a more accurate sensor data product by the same amount.

  19. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  20. Does the Fukushima NPP disaster affect the caesium activity of North Atlantic Ocean fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisch, G.; Aust, M.-O.

    2013-08-01

    Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection.