Sample records for tem triethylenemelamine

  1. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.


    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental conditions

  2. TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators

    CERN Document Server

    Proll, J H E; Xanthopoulos, P; Lazerson, S A; Faber, B J


    With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is adressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X [C.D. Beidler $\\textit{et al}$ Fusion Technology $\\bf{17}$, 148 (1990)] and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT [D.A. Spong $\\textit{et al}$ Nucl. Fusion $\\bf{41}$, 711 (2001)] code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stella...

  3. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The


    and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...... materials and devices with the specimen being contacted by electrical, mechanical or other means, with emphasis on in situ electrical measurements performed in a gaseous or liquid environment. We will describe the challenges and prospects of electrical characterization of devices and processes induced...... by a voltage in gas and liquids. We will also provide a historical perspective of in situ TEM electrical measurements and applications using electrical contacts....

  4. TEM PSHA2015 Reliability Assessment (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Chan, C. H.; Ma, K. F.


    The Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM) developed a new probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for determining the probability of exceedance (PoE) of ground motion over a specified period in Taiwan. To investigate the adequacy of the seismic source parameters adopted in the 2015 PSHA of the TEM (TEM PSHA2015), we conducted several tests of the seismic source models. The observed maximal peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the ML > 4.0 mainshocks in the 23-year data period of 1993-2015 were used to test the predicted PGA of PSHA from the areal and subduction zone sources with the time-independent Poisson assumption. This comparison excluded the observations from 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, as this was the only earthquake associated with the identified active fault in this past 23 years. We used tornado diagrams to analyze the sensitivities of these source parameters to the ground motion values of the PSHA. This study showed that the predicted PGA for a 63% PoE in the 23-year period corresponded to the empirical PGA and the predicted numbers of PGA exceedances to a threshold value 0.1g close to the observed numbers, confirming the parameter applicability for the areal and subduction zone sources. We adopted the disaggregation analysis from a hazard map to determine the contribution of the individual seismic sources to hazard for six metropolitan cities in Taiwan. The sensitivity tests of the seismogenic structure parameters indicated that the slip rate and maximum magnitude are dominant factors for the TEM PSHA2015. For densely populated faults in SW Taiwan, maximum magnitude is more sensitive than the slip rate, giving the concern on the possible multiple fault segments rupture with larger magnitude in this area, which was not yet considered in TEM PSHA2015. The source category disaggregation also suggested that special attention is necessary for subduction zone earthquakes for long-period shaking seismic hazards in Northern Taiwan.

  5. The Italian reference site for TEM methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapia


    Full Text Available The success of a long term transient electromagnetic survey (TEM rigorously calls for appropriate system calibration, in addition to advanced processing and inversion of the measured data. In fact, acquisition of TEM data can be affected by a variety of noise sources from both inside and outside the system, making it difficult, for example, to define an absolute turn off time and/or to synchronize transmitter and receiver. For these reasons, a reference site plays an important role. As first step, we performed the calibration of a Geonics 47 at the Lyngby reference site in Denmark. We then set up a new reference site using the same calibrated TEM instrument. The reference site was established in the San Rossore park area (Pisa, where we identified an area that matches the required conditions. Subsequently, a series of TEM measurements were collected in the selected area using two pre-calibrated TEM instruments: the Geonics 47 and the WalkTEM respectively. The reference responses were therefore jointly inverted, obtaining a 5 layers model that was appointed to be the TEM reference model for the site. Afterwards, based on that reference model, we calibrated the Geonics 47 and 57 instruments for a 100 x 100 m central loop configuration. A unique time-shift and a data level shift factor was calculated and applied to the TEM system as result of the calibration procedure. The San Rossore TEM reference site is now available for anyone interested in calibrating TEM systems.

  6. TEM-145 and TEM-146 β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 5, 2007 ... The β-lactamases with pI values of 6.0 and 6.6 could be identified as transcripts of. TEM β-lactamase genes and those with pI values of 7.8 and 8.6 as transcripts of the E. coli chromosomal AmpC genes. The TEM-β-lactamase enzymes showed the following changes compared to TEM-1: TEM-145 had two.

  7. Compressive Classification for TEM-EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Weituo; Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Gehm, Michael; Browning, Nigel D.


    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is typically conducted in STEM mode with a spectrometer, or in TEM mode with energy selction. These methods produce a 3D data set (x, y, energy). Some compressive sensing [1,2] and inpainting [3,4,5] approaches have been proposed for recovering a full set of spectra from compressed measurements. In many cases the final form of the spectral data is an elemental map (an image with channels corresponding to elements). This means that most of the collected data is unused or summarized. We propose a method to directly recover the elemental map with reduced dose and acquisition time. We have designed a new computational TEM sensor for compressive classification [6,7] of energy loss spectra called TEM-EELS.

  8. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-domain Electro Magnetic (TEM) systems, are used for remote sensing of conductive mineral deposits buried under the surface of the earth. A low frequency trapezoidal current excitation set-up in an exciter coil loop causes a flux that penetrates deep into the earth. When the excitation is cut off sharply, conductive ...

  9. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and energy levels of the TEM system, require special type of excitation technique. Power converters for ... This paper proposes a novel converter topology to meet these excitation current require- ments. A novel ... The converter control system is given a square wave current reference of required amplitude,. ON duration TS ...

  10. Quantification of small, convex particles by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Sigmund J. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Synthesis and Properties, Material Physics, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail:; Holme, Borge [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 124, Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Marioara, Calin D. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Synthesis and Properties, Material Physics, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)


    It is shown how size distributions of arbitrarily oriented, convex, non-overlapping particles extracted from conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images may be determined by a variation of the Schwartz-Saltykov method. In TEM, particles cut at the surfaces have diminished projections, which alter the observed size distribution. We represent this distribution as a vector and multiply it with the inverse of a matrix comprising thickness-dependent Scheil or Schwartz-Saltykov terms. The result is a corrected size distribution of the projections of uncut particles. It is shown how the real (3D) distribution may be estimated when particle shape is considered. Computer code to generate the matrix is given. A log-normal distribution of spheres and a real distribution of pill-box-shaped dispersoids in an Al-Mg-Si alloy are given as examples. The errors are discussed in detail.

  11. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM...... of SiNW were also investigated in situ. SiNWs were grown on silicon microcantilever heaters using the VLS mechanism. When grown across a gap between adjacent cantilevers, contact was formed when the SiNW impinged on the sidewall of an adjacent cantilever. Using in situ TEM, SiNW contact formation...... process at high temperatures was observed in real time. As the eutectic droplet made contact, it wetted the surface; Si growth catalyzed by the eutectic continued, while at the same time Au often migrated/diffused away from the contact site. The parameters of this contact formation process were measured...

  12. Semiclassical TEM image formation in phase space. (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Röder, Falk


    Current developments in TEM such as high-resolution imaging at low acceleration voltages and large fields of view, the ever larger capabilities of hardware aberration correction and the systematic shaping of electron beams require accurate descriptions of TEM imaging in terms of wave optics. Since full quantum mechanic solutions have not yet been established for, e.g., the theory of aberrations, we are exploring semiclassical image formation in the TEM from the perspective of quantum mechanical phase space, here. Firstly, we use two well-known semiclassical approximations, Miller's semiclassical algebra and the frozen Gaussian method, for describing the wave optical generalization of arbitrary geometric aberrations, including nonisoplanatic and slope aberrations. Secondly, we demonstrate that the Wigner function representation of phase space is well suited to also describe incoherent aberrations as well as the ramifications of partial coherence due to the emission process at the electron source. We identify a close relationship between classical phase space and Wigner function distortions due to aberrations as well as classical brightness and quantum mechanical purity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TEM-EELS: A personal perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egerton, R.F., E-mail: [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada)


    The development of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope (TEM-EELS) is illustrated through personal anecdote, highlighting some of the basic principles, instrumentation and personalities involved. The current state of the art is reviewed, together with some challenges for the future. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The history of EELS instrumentation is reviewed in a lighthearted manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current state of the art is summarized, together with some future possibilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A couple of related mathematical puzzles are offered as a challenge to the reader.

  14. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding......The increasing use of environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides exciting new possibilities for investigating chemical reactions and understanding both the interaction of fast electrons with gas molecules and the effect of the presence of gas on high......‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...

  15. TEM-145 and TEM-146 ß-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Escherichia coli isolates which were isolated from the urine of patients in state hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were investigated to determine the sequence of the TEM -lactamases responsible for their resistance to -lactamase inhibitors. The isolates were subjected to MIC determinations, iso-electric focusing ...

  16. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  17. Nanoparticle embedded chitosan film for agglomeration free TEM images. (United States)

    Dogan, Üzeyir; Çiftçi, Hakan; Cetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Tamer, Ugur


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a very useful and commonly used microscopy technique, used especially for the characterization of nanoparticles. However, the identification of the magnetic nanoparticle could be thought problematic in TEM analysis, due to the fact that the magnetic nanoparticles are usually form aggregates on the TEM grid to form bigger particles generating higher stability. This prevents to see exact shape and size of each nanoparticle. In order to overcome this problem, a simple process for the formation of well-dispersed nanoparticles was conducted, by covering chitosan film on the unmodified copper grid, it was said to result in aggregation-free TEM images. It is also important to fix the magnetic nanoparticles on the TEM grids, due to possible contamination of TEM filament which is operated under high vacuum conditions. The chitosan film matrix also helps to protect the TEM filament from contact with magnetic nanoparticles during the imaging process. The proposed procedure offers a quick method to fix the nanoparticles in a conventional copper TEM grid and chitosan matrix prevents agglomeration of nanoparticles, and thus getting TEM images showing well-dispersed individual nanoparticles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  19. In-situ TEM Studies : Heat-treatment and Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.R.K.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been well known as a powerful characterisation tool to understand the structure and composition of various materials down to the atomic level. Over the years, several TEM studies have been carried out to understand the compositional, structural and

  20. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM. (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J


    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K. (Degli); (UCSF)


    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  2. Coordinated Isotopic and TEM Studies of Presolar Graphites from Murchison (United States)

    Croat, T. K.; Stadermann, F. J.; Zinner, E.; Bernatowicz, T. J.


    TEM and NanoSIMS investigations of the same presolar Murchison KFC graphites revealed high Zr, Mo, and Ru content in refractory carbides within the graphites. Along with isotopically light carbon, these suggest a low-metallicity AGB source.

  3. Appendix B: Summary of TEM Particle Size Distribution Datasets (United States)

    As discussed in the main text (see Section 5.3.2), calculation of the concentration of asbestos fibers in each of the bins of potential interest requires particle size distribution data derived using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes of carbon...

  5. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes...

  6. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering. (United States)

    Janbroers, S; de Kruijff, T R; Xu, Q; Kooyman, P J; Zandbergen, H W


    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775K under vacuum conditions.

  7. Exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity structure using a portable TEM system: TEM-FAST prosystem; Kan`igata TEM ho sochi TEM-FAST prosystem ni yoru senbu hiteiko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Y.; Kumekawa, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effectiveness of the TEM-FAST ProSystem which is a portable TEM system developed recently for use in exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity. The system consists of a loop type antenna, the TEM-FAST as the main equipment, and a host computer, the host computer controlling the entire system. The system acquires transient response data in secondary induced magnetic fields lasting 4 {mu} sec to 1 m sec. The number of data is 5490 stacks in one measurement, and the data acquisition time is about three minutes. Measurements were carried out by using the TEM-FAST in the vicinity of a well, whose results were compared with those of electric logging, and discussions were given on them. Although the electric logging results had no data available for depths shallower than 35 m, the measurement results from the TEM-FAST were found highly harmonious with those of the electric logging. In addition, there were transmission and telephone lines in locations about 10 m away from the well during the measurement, but extremely high data quality was discovered. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The limits of TEM and beyond - Video Vignette. (United States)

    Meylemans, Diederik Vg; Hompes, Roel; Cunningham, Chris


    Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) has been shown to be safe and feasible for both benign and malignant lesions, which aren't amendable to colonoscopic resection.[1, 2] Nonetheless these can be challenging, especially for circumferential, low and high anteriorly located lesions above the peritoneal reflection. Complications such as peritoneal perforation can be managed by TEM and a 360° resection can be closed and heals with minimal stenosis, even after prior radiotherapy. These add to the benefits of TEM (minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity and mortality, short length of stay and improved organ preservation rate with adequate function)[3, 4]. However, compared to rectal resection, this comes with an increased risk of local recurrence and need for neo-adjuvant treatment to downsize and downstage the tumour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically......The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  10. Effect of the Tem Mode on the kicker Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Zannini, C; Vaccaro, VG


    The kickers are major contributors to the CERN SPS beam coupling impedance. As such, they may represent a limitation to increasing the SPS bunch current in the frame of a luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The C-Magnet supports a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode due to the presence of two conductors. Due to the finite length of the structure this TEM mode affects the impedance below a certain frequency (when the penetration depth in the ferrite becomes comparable to the magnetic circuit length). A theoretical model was developed to take into account also the impedance contribution due to the TEM mode. The model is found to be in good agreement with CST 3D electromagnetic (EM) simulations. It allows for generic terminations in the longitudinal direction. An example of kicker is analyzed taking into account also the external cables.

  11. TEM specimen preparation of a phase-change optical disk (United States)



    It has been popular to use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation for investigating the microstructure of a phase-change optical disk. In the present work, a new method to prepare a plan-view TEM sample from a disk has been developed. In this method, a copper mesh is placed on a specific area of interest in the disk in advance and then the material is thinned down. By employing this procedure, it becomes possible for the first time to obtain foils that contain the specific area. Furthermore, an advanced method to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample has also been developed, in which elimination of the polymer substrate is followed by ion milling. With this method, it is possible to prepare cross-sectional foils for high-resolution and analytical electron microscopy observations.

  12. Complete Tem-Tomography: 3D Structure of Gems Cluster (United States)

    Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.


    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the 3D shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the 3D structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous 3D TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to constrain the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.

  13. Developments in TEM Nanotomography of Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Taylor, Rae


    This investigation was designed to explore the possibility of using transmission electron microscope (TEM) tomography on cement-based systems gain a greater understanding of their nanostructure and pore network. The preliminary results show a clearly a well-defined pore network at the nanoscale, with pore size approximately 1.7-2.4 nm in diameter and spaced around 5-8 nm apart. A comparison of small angle X-ray scattering data with 2-D TEM images analyzed with the Fourier slice theorem documents an excellent structural correlation. © 2015 The American Ceramic Society.

  14. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg


    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... and that there is a high proportion of twins in the fine grained graphite. It appears that twinning and stacking faults are involved in the fine grained structure of the graphite. It is discussed how Ti addition affect crystal growth and may lead to formation of superfine graphite....

  15. Microfabricated Nanofluidic cells for in situ liquid TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone

    structural information of materials. In this regard, in situ liquid cell electron microscopy (EM) is one of the new emerging methods that gained a lot of attention by making possible to observe processes and samples in liquid environments within the chamber of an electron microscope. The main focus...... on wafer bonding of Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 on Si3N4 membranes. With the improved liquid layer thickness control, we use the devices to measure the electron mean free path in water which is a fundamental aspect of TEM studies, and present the high-resolution TEM capabilities of the nanofluidic...

  16. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  17. Quantitative TEM analysis of a hexagonal mesoporous silicate structure. (United States)

    Hudson, S; Tanner, D A; Redington, W; Magner, E; Hodnett, K; Nakahara, S


    TEM analysis of mesoporous materials is generally undertaken to give qualitative results. Accurate quantitative analysis is demonstrated in this study. A systematic image analysis of a powder form of a hexagonal mesoporous material known as KIT-6 is conducted using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Three types of image contrast typically appear in this material (a hexagonal honeycomb structure, wide and narrow parallel lines). The honeycomb face is used to characterise this material in terms of a conventional 2-D hexagonal structure and the d-spacings for the (100) and (110) planes are experimentally measured in varying focus conditions. A tilting experiment is conducted to determine how the angle of tilt affects the line spacing and their visibility. Tilting has very little effect on the line spacing, whereas it affects the visibility of both the wide and narrow lines by limiting an angle range of visibility. The hexagonal lattice structure parameter determined by TEM method is found to be approximately 7% lower than that calculated by low-angle X-ray diffraction. Thus we conclude that TEM data can be used to determine the geometry and dimensions of hexagonal mesoporous silica materials, with a small error in the hexagonal lattice parameter.

  18. Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015 (United States)


    Laboratory Hodnik Debra National Ground Intelligence Center Hudson Irwin US Army Research Laboratory Jentsch Florian University of Central Florida...ARL-CR-0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting...0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015 by

  19. Herbal Remedies And Their Adverse Effects In Tem Tribe Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, up to 80% of the population relies on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care. In Togo, western Africa, Tem tribe is a population with old knowledge of medicinal plants, however, still very little is known about their medical practices. The present study was conducted to access for the apprehension of ...

  20. 2D Inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Luís Porsani, Jorge; Acácio Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando


    A new methodology was developed for 2D inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM). The methodology consists in the elaboration of a set of routines in Matlab code for modeling and inversion of TEM data and the determination of the most efficient field array for the problem. In this research, the 2D TEM modeling uses the finite differences discretization. To solve the inversion problem, were applied an algorithm based on Marquardt technique, also known as Ridge Regression. The algorithm is stable and efficient and it is widely used in geoelectrical inversion problems. The main advantage of 1D survey is the rapid data acquisition in a large area, but in regions with two-dimensional structures or that need more details, is essential to use two-dimensional interpretation methodologies. For an efficient field acquisition we used in an innovative form the fixed-loop array, with a square transmitter loop (200m x 200m) and 25m spacing between the sounding points. The TEM surveys were conducted only inside the transmitter loop, in order to not deal with negative apparent resistivity values. Although it is possible to model the negative values, it makes the inversion convergence more difficult. Therefore the methodology described above has been developed in order to achieve maximum optimization of data acquisition. Since it is necessary only one transmitter loop disposition in the surface for each series of soundings inside the loop. The algorithms were tested with synthetic data and the results were essential to the interpretation of the results with real data and will be useful in future situations. With the inversion of the real data acquired over the Paraná Sedimentary Basin (PSB) was successful realized a 2D TEM inversion. The results indicate a robust geoelectrical characterization for the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the PSB. Therefore, using a new and relevant approach for 2D TEM inversion, this research effectively contributed to map the most

  1. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments. (United States)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D; Zhang, Yong; Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian; Weihs, Timothy P


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10 3 /s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualizing DNA Nanoparticle Motion under Graphene Liquid Cell TEM (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Smith, Jessica; Park, Jungwon; Lee, Somin; Zettl, Alex; Alivisatos, Paul


    We think of a simple colloidal nanocrystal as one type of artificial atoms. They mutually interact, cluster into artificial molecules, and further arrange into macroscopically functional artificial solids. The ``atomic'' resolution dynamics of this bottom-up strategy in materials design is studied here in a system of artificial molecules composed of DNA and nanoparticle. The observation of dynamics in their liquid environment is recently enabled by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In comparison to conventional TEM, wherein the assembled 3D artificial structures are dried out during sample preparation and thus are collapsed, this graphene liquid cell introduces a special local liquid structure that retains the conformations as well as the dynamics of the assemblies. In situ imaging of correlated motions of DNA and nanoparticle provides insights into the design principles of artificial nanocrystal molecules and solids linked by DNA.

  3. Imaging of Transient Structures Using Nanosecond in Situ TEM (United States)

    Kim, Judy S.; LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Armstrong, Michael R.; King, Wayne E.; Browning, Nigel D.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.


    The microstructure and properties of a material depend on dynamic processes such as defect motion, nucleation and growth, and phase transitions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can spatially resolve these nanoscale phenomena but lacks the time resolution for direct observation. We used a photoemitted electron pulse to probe dynamic events with “snapshot” diffraction and imaging at 15-nanosecond resolution inside of a dynamic TEM. With the use of this capability, the moving reaction front of reactive nanolaminates is observed in situ. Time-resolved images and diffraction show a transient cellular morphology in a dynamically mixing, self-propagating reaction front, revealing brief phase separation during cooling, and thus provide insights into the mechanisms driving the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.

  4. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.


    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  5. Stable numerical wave field transforms of TEM data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slob, E.C. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); Habashy, T.M.; Torres-verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)


    Successful application of the wave field transform to diffusive electromagnetic (TEM) field data opens up the possibilities of processing the data with the well known seismic processing techniques. Since the time source functions used in field surveys are usually step-current switches, the fields in the wave field transform domain will be the response to a linear function, which is the q-domain equivalent source. Hence, the fields will in general be unbounded for large values of q and have delta-like and step-like discontinuities for those values of q that correspond to the arrivals of waves. It is exactly this correspondence principle that makes a numerical implementation of the transform very difficult. This consideration has recently led to a reformulation of the wave field transformation, where the q-domain field is convolved with a window function that is smooth function of q which has zero mean. The window function can be chosen freely as long as it has a zero mean. The convolved fields will then be smooth and vanish for large values of q. Hence, TEM data should be convolved with the time domain equivalent of the window function and then be transformed to the q-domain. Since we have control over the window function, we have a controlled convolution problem in the q-domain to find arrival times. Two numerical methods have been successfully tested, using the convolution, for single arrival data. Now we test it on more general TEM data. (author). 5 refs

  6. Nanoscale clusters in the thermoelectric AgPbmSbTem+2 and AgnSnmSbnTem+2n materials (United States)

    Lin, He; Bozin, Emil; Hoang, Khang; Mahanti, S. D.; Billinge, Simon; Quarez, Eric; Androula, John; Kanatzidis, Mercouri


    The local structure of the AgPbmSbTem+2 series of high performance thermoelectric materials has been studied using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of the m˜18 composition material was found to reach 1.7 at 700 kelvin, compared to the highest observed ZT of only 0.84 for PbTe at 648 kelvin in n-doped material. This is asurprisingly large enhancement in ZT for the addition of just 10%per formula-unit of silver and antimony ions. It is clearly of the greatest importance to trace the origin of the ZT enhancement. Three candidate-models were attempted for thestructure of this class of materials using either a one-phase or a two-phase modeling procedure. Combining modeling the PDF with HRTEM data we show that AgPbmSbTem+2 contains nanoscale inclusions with composition close to AgPb3SbTe5 randomly embedded in a PbTe matrix. We extended the local structural PDF study to AgnSnmSbnTem+2n, preliminary results of which suggest the presence of nanoscale inclusions in this system as well.

  7. Modeling of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines (United States)

    Antsos, Dimitrios; Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Bajuk, Louis J.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Cooley, Thomas W.


    An application of the phenomenological loss equivalence method (Lee and Itoh, 1989) in modeling the microwave behavior of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines is presented. For validation of the model, data are used from measurements of a YBCO superconducting thin-film coplanar-waveguide lowpass filter on a lanthanum aluminate substrate. Measured and modeled S-parameters of an existing superconducting coplanar waveguide lowpass filter agree to within 0.3 dB in magnitude and 0.5 radians in phase. Extracted values for penetration depth and real part of the conductivity of the superconducting film are within 10 percent of other researchers' findings.

  8. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J.


    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  9. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  10. In-situ TEM characterization of nanomaterials and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Moon


    Electrical properties of nano size devices were directly measured by TEM. Real time observation of phase transition behavior in PRAM revealed that the volume of the crystalline phase is the main factor in determining cell resistance. In the transistor device, we have identified the doping type and area by measuring the I-V curve at the individual nano contact on the specimen. The evolution of the graphene edge structure was controlled and monitored at and up to 1200°C in-situ. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. TEM investigation of a microcline from a nepheline syenite (United States)

    Smith, K. L.; McLaren, A. C.


    Chess-board (“tiled”) microcline crystals from a nepheline-bearing syenite from Ilimaussaq, W. Greenland, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and were found to consist of a mosaic of slightly misoriented domains, which bear no obvious relationship to the optical microstructure. Part of the misorientation of most pairs of neighbouring domains involves a small rotation about c. However, some are related to adjacent domains by the albite twin law, the pericline law, or diagonal association. This microcline could have crystallized with triclinic symmetry which could account for the differences between the microstructure of this microcline and M-twinned microcline. Metasomatism may explain both the optical microscope and TEM scale structures of this microcline. Examination of the electron diffraction patterns of areas of microcline which contain both diagonally associated and twinned domains draw attention to the fact that each of the few orientations in an M-twinned crystal is related to one of the other orientations by diagonal association. The formation of common cross-hatch twinned microstructures are discussed with reference to diagonal association.

  12. Correlation Analysis of TEM Images of Nanocrystal Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine; Zanchet, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Quantitative characterizataion of images of naocrystals and nanostructures is a challenging but important task. The development and optimization of methods for the construction of complex nanostructures rely on imaging techniques. Computer programs were developed to quantify TEM images of nanocrystal/DNA nanostructures, and results are presented for heterodimers annd trimers of gold nanocrystals. The programs presented here have also been used to analyze more complex trimers and tetramers linked by branched DNA, as well as for structures made from attaching gold nanocrystals to CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. This work has the additional goal of enabling others to quickly and easily adapt the methods for their own use.

  13. TSAR modeling of a TEM horn and surrounding structure (United States)

    Ng, W. C.; Pennock, S. T.


    Modeling of a TEM horn was performed with the TSAR FDTD electromagnetics code. The modeling was done in stages, beginning with the simplest case, the bare antenna itself. Complexity was added in the form of a dielectric lens, an enclosing cylinder, a layer of absorber inside the cylinder, resistive terminations between the horn and cylinder, and a flat plate over all, electrically separate from the cylinder. The final configuration included all of the above, plus a ring of ferrite inside the cylinder, just ahead of the horn. Predictions of the far-field were made at roughly ten degree increments, more closely spaced near boresight, in both vertical and horizontal planes, through the antenna's centerline. Time histories at those points were evaluated, and from the time histories power densities were calculated. Both time histories and power densities will be presented for the configurations modeled.

  14. Tem holder for sample transfer under reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    and temperature, which usually are far from the operando conditions of e.g. heterogeneous catalysis. Our efforts focus on bridging these gaps by establishing in situ sample transfer between complementary measurement techniques. To fully exploit the capabilities of ETEM complementary experiments...... and characterization techniques are beneficial. Normally, the complementary measurements are done in parallel with experiments separated in time and space [3] or by mimicking a reactor bed by changing the feed gas composition according to reactivity and conversion measured in dedicated catalyst set-ups [4......]. Furthermore, dedicated transfer holders have been used to transfer catalyst samples between reactor set-ups and TEM at room temperature in inert atmosphere [5]. To take the full advantage of complementary in situ techniques, transfer under reactions conditions is essential. This study introduces the in situ...

  15. Oxidation of nickel particles in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    challenging under these conditions. Here, nickel particles are oxidized under 3.2 mbar of O2 inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) equipped with a post-column filter [2]. Images, diffraction patterns and core-loss electron energy-loss spectra are acquired to monitor the structural and chemical evolution of Ni......The mechanisms controlling the growth of an oxide film during oxidation are subject to controversies at intermediate length scales (20-1000 nm) [1]. Relating rate-controlling mechanisms and resulting structural changes, which is essential to the understanding of oxidation processes, has proved...... nanometres in size. These domains impinge and cover the particles surface. As the temperature increases under O2, the NiO film grows and creates irregular structures composed of many crystallites. The reaction kinetics are inferred by EELS using different techniques analyzing changes in shapes of the Ni L2...

  16. Wideband TEM-TE11 mode convertor for HPM applications. (United States)

    Bykov, D. N.; Bykov, N. M.; Kurkan, I. K.


    The mode convertor design of fundamental coaxial TEM to the lowest asymmetric TE11-mode of a circular waveguide was proposed and optimized with ANSYS HFSS software. It includes axially aligned parts: the input coaxial line with the high voltage insulator, conical coaxial matching line, wave-coax transition section and output circular waveguide. The most losses in this type of convertor caused by the wave of coaxial TE11-mode running back to the microwave source. To minimize these losses, there is the matching conical coaxial line with the cut-off insertion for coaxial TE11-mode. Characteristics of the convertor are as follows: the maximum input peak power - 3GW, the input impedance - 28Ohm, the central operating frequency - 1.14GHz. The power conversion efficiency to the output mode is from 90% upto 100% in the frequency band of 20%.

  17. Você tem fome de quê?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gramacho Varela

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou pensar a obesidade à luz da teoria psicanalítica, focalizando-a como uma epidemia atual em ascendência, apesar de carregar uma antiga história. O conceito psicanalítico de pulsão, utilizado por Sigmund Freud, propiciou uma articulação teórica a partir de uma questão específica: "você tem fome de quê?", o que possibilitou um entendimento que vai além do corpo orgânico, entrando em cena o corpo pulsional. Considerando-se a abrangência em torno do conceito de pulsão, o presente estudo expressou apenas uma possibilidade de entender a obesidade, deixando em aberto questões para futuros estudos.

  18. Structure of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-72 inhibited by citrate


    Docquier, Jean-Denis; Benvenuti, Manuela; Calderone, Vito; Rossolini, Gian-Maria; Mangani, Stefano


    TEM-72 is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase properties. The present structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site and supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.

  19. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sequence analysis of TEM beta-lactamase isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns ... One TEM-116 P. aeruginosa (PA11) isolate was resistant to all available antibiotics. Conclusion: These results reveal increased antibiotic resistance in the TEM-116 ..... pertaining to claims relating to the content of this.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Soares Guazina


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos como se constitui a identidade profissional de um grupo de jornalistas experientes e atuantes no mercado, que, ao mesmo tempo, assinam blogs independentes para expressar sua opinião política e se assumem publicamente como  "progressistas" ou "sujos". Nosso objetivo é compreender como esses blogueiros definem e praticam o jornalismo em seus blogs, e como entendem sua própria atuação no contexto democrático. A partir de entrevistas, mapeamos os principais valores jornalísticos expressos por eles, delineando sua identidade profissional de jornalistas-blogueiros que defendem um jornalismo "que tem lado", isto é, de opinião. Os resultados mostram que esses jornalistas consideram seus blogs lugar de diversidade de opinião em oposição à mídia tradicional, e que sua principal função, enquanto jornalistas, é atuar de maneira vigilante em relação aos todos poderes políticos, incluindo a mídia, vista como ator político relevante.

  1. Cryo-TEM analysis of collagen fibrillar structure. (United States)

    Quan, Bryan D; Sone, Eli D


    Fibrillar collagens are important structural proteins and are known to be closely associated with mineral in the case of mineralized tissues. However, the precise role of collagen in the mineralization process remains unclear, and the evaluation of structural differences in collagen from mineralized and nonmineralized tissues may be instructive in this regard. Here, we review the use of cryo-transmission electron microscopy to investigate the axial structure of collagen fibrils in tissue sections from both mineralizing and nonmineralizing tissues. By examining collagen fibrillar structure in an unstained frozen-hydrated state, it is possible to avoid artifacts normally associated with staining and dehydration that are required for conventional TEM. We describe both sample preparation and image analysis with emphasis on the particular challenges of using image averaging techniques, which can be used to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio that is inherent in this technique. Detailed banding patterns can be obtained from averaged images, and these can be analyzed to obtain quantitative information on fibril periodicity and structure. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquifer characterisation in East Timor, with ground TEM (United States)

    Ley-Cooper, A.


    An assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Resources in East Timor led by Geosciences Australia is aimed at assisting East Timor's government to better understand and manage their groundwater resources. Form the current known information most aquifers in Timor-Leste are recharged by rainfall during the wet season. There is a concern that without a regular recharge, the stored groundwater capacity will decrease. Timor's population increase has caused a higher demand for groundwater which is currently been met by regulated pumping bores which are taped into deep aquifers, plus the sprouting of unregulated spear point bores in the shallow aquifers . Both groundwater recharge and the aquifers morphology need to be better understood in order to ensure supply and so groundwater can be managed for the future. Current weather patterns are expected to change and this could cause longer periods of drought or more intense rainfall, which in turn, would affect the availability and quality of groundwater. Salt water intrusions pose a threat on the low-lying aquifers as sea level rises. Australia's CSIRO has undertaken a series hydrogeophysical investigations employing ground TEM to assist in the characterisation of three aquifers near Dili, Timor Leste's capital. Interpreting ground water chemistry and dating; jointly with EM data has enhanced the understanding of the aquifers architecture, groundwater quality and helped identify potential risks of seawater intrusions.

  3. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  4. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, Przemyslaw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Polymer Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland); Broniszewski, Mieczyslaw [Environmental Protection Office, Lotos Group, Gdansk (Poland); Namiesnik, Jacek [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland)


    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from x 4,000 to x 80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 {mu}m) - these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 {mu}m). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}m made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery. (orig.)

  5. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM. (United States)

    Sielicki, Przemysław; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Broniszewski, Mieczysław; Namieśnik, Jacek


    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from ×4,000 to ×80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 μm)-these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 μm). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 μm made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery.

  6. (TEM) observations of shock damage in the Tenham chondrite (United States)

    Langenhorst, F.; Joreau, P.; Doukhan, J. C.


    Among the ordinary chondrites, the Tenham meteorite (L6) is an instructive example of strong shock metamorphism. It is randomly pervaded by pseudotachylite-like shock veins that contain ringwoodite and majorite, the high-pressure phases of olivine and pyroxene, respectively. According to the revised shock nomenclature of ordinary chondrites, this shock signature is characteristic for shock stage S6 with pressures in excess of 50-55 GPa. In contrast to previous transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies, concentrating on the formation of the high-pressure phases in shock veins, our goal was to characterize the shock defects in olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase occurring in the bulk of Tenham, i.e., outside shock veins. In olivine, shock has caused the formation of irregular and planar fractures as well as the activation of numerous dislocations. Planar fractures can be either filled with alteration products of Fe-Ni alloy. By far, diopside displays the greatest diversity of shock-induced defects; these are mechanical twins, numerous dislocations, and planar deformation features (PDFs). Diffuse scattering rings in electron diffraction patterns reveal that they consist of amorphous material. In analogy to quartz, it is reasonable to call them PDFs, too. The predominant shock effect in plagioclase is the formation of PDFs. Up to three crossing sets of such parallel, amorphous lamellae have been observed. It is concluded that almost all lattice defects observed in the silicate phases of Tenham are compatible with an impact origin. Some of the defects have been calibrated by shock experiments and, hence, give clues to the shock pressure.

  7. Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility and the Prevalence of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 Genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Thailand. (United States)

    Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pongpech, Pintip; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Lokpichart, Somchai; Srifuengfung, Somporn; Sonprasert, Suthatta


    We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of the blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Thailand. The isolates were tested using the disk diffusion method, and 100% of 370 isolates were found susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. Some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (88.0%), ofloxacin (97.4%), or tetracycline (89.1%). Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae accounted for 83.8% of isolates, with 70.0% of these further identified as penicillinase-producing plus tetracycline resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin are not recommended for treatment because of the high prevalence (89.7%) of multidrug resistant gonococci. A study of genes controlling enzyme of beta-lactamase production (blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135) was performed using mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR method and DNA sequencing. Beta-lactamase positive N. gonorrhoeae carried blaTEM-1 (69.6%) and blaTEM-135 (30.4%), indicating that there is a significant increase and spread of blaTEM-135 among gonococci in Thailand.

  8. The Lactamase Engineering Database: a critical survey of TEM sequences in public databases. (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Bös, Fabian; Pleiss, Jürgen


    TEM beta-lactamases are the main cause for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Sequence information about TEM beta-lactamases is mainly found in the NCBI peptide database and TEM mutation table at While the TEM mutation table is manually curated by experts in the lactamase field, who guarantee reliable and consistent information, the rapidly growing sequence and annotation information from the NCBI peptide database is sometimes inconsistent. Therefore, the Lactamase Engineering Database has been developed to collect the TEM beta-lactamase sequences from the NCBI peptide database and the TEM mutation table, systematically compare sequence information and naming, identify inconsistencies, and thus provide a versatile tool for reconciliation of data and for an investigation of the sequence-function relationship. The LacED currently provides 2399 sequence entries and 37 structure entries. Sequence information on 150 different TEM beta-lactamases was derived from the TEM mutation table which provides a unique number to each protein classified as TEM beta-lactamase. 293 TEM-like proteins were found in the NCBI protein database, but only 113 TEM beta-lactamase were common to both data sets. The 180 TEM beta-lactamases from the NCBI protein database which have not yet been assigned to a TEM number fall in three classes: (1) 89 proteins from microbial organisms and 35 proteins from cloning or expression vectors had a new mutation profile; (2) 55 proteins had inconsistent annotation in terms of TEM assignment or reported mutation profile; (3) 39 proteins are fragments. The LacED is web accessible at and contains multisequence alignments, structure information and reconciled annotation of TEM beta-lactamases. The LacED is weekly updated and supplies all data for download. The Lactamase Engineering Database enables a systematic analysis of TEM beta-lactamase sequence and annotation data from

  9. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. (United States)

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels


    To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase conferred CTX resistance on both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. A nitrocefin hydrolysis assay showed TEM-15 to be a less efficient enzyme compared to TEM-1. TEM-15 and PBP3 substitutions impose an additive effect on resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The effect of PBP3 substitutions on beta-lactam resistance in H. parainfluenzae can be addressed by transfer of ftsI genes in vitro.

  10. OSCE vs. TEM: Different Approaches to Assess Clinical Skills of Nursing Students. (United States)

    Jelly, Prasuna; Sharma, Rakesh


    Nurses are trained with specific clinical skills, and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) could be a better approach to assess clinical skills of nursing students. A comparative study was conducted by observational checklist regarding antenatal care and opinionnaire on the usefulness of OSCE and tradition evaluation method (TEM) was used to assess the clinical skills and to get opinion. The mean score of OSCE was more than TEM and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The opinion of students regarding the usefulness of OSCE was higher than TEM. The study concluded that implementing OSCE will overweigh the advantages of the TEM.

  11. TEM10 homodyne detection as an optimal small-displacement and tilt-measurement scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Treps, Nikolas; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard


    We report an experimental demonstration of optimal measurements of small displacement and tilt of a Gaussian beam - two conjugate variables - involving a homodyne detection with a TEM10 local oscillator. We verify that the standard split detection is only 64% efficient. We also show a displacemen...... measurement beyond the quantum noise limit, using a squeezed vacuum TEM10 mode within the input beam....

  12. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Purpose: To determine TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene prevalence in drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Pakistan. Methods: Sequence analysis of TEM beta-lactamase isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were carried out. Quantitative bacteriostatic concentrations for commonly ...

  13. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pension and heavy ones are settled. The TEM samples have been prepared using Wick's procedure. A drop of liquid is placed on a carbon film supported over copper grid. After the film is dried, the grid is introduced to TEM. 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 Absorption studies. The optical properties of materials are always ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The Morgagnian cataract lenses - pre-fixed with GA for SEM & TEM and post-fixed with tannic-acid-arginine-OsO4 for SEM and OsO4/K4Fe(CN)6 for TEM after staining with Ur-acetate/Pb-citrate - showed areas in the cortex with radial in stead of concentric running lensfibres, degeneration of lensfibres

  16. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning


    (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene. Detected IncI1 plasmids underwent further plasmid multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: RFLP profiles...... demonstrated dissemination of blaTEM-52 in Denmark (imported meat from Germany), France, Belgium and the Netherlands from 2000 to 2006 by mainly two different plasmids, one encoding blaTEM-52b (IncX1A, 45 kb) and the other blaTEM-52c (IncI1, 80 kb). In addition, blaTEM-52b was also found to be located...... on various other plasmids belonging to IncA/C and IncL/M, while blaTEM-52c was found on IncN-like as well as on IncR plasmids. In the majority of cases (n = 21) the blaTEM-52 gene was located on a Tn3 transposon. Seven out of 10 blaTEM-52 plasmids tested in conjugation experiments were shown to be capable...

  17. The RhoGEF TEM4 Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration by Suppressing Actomyosin Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitin

    Full Text Available Persistent cellular migration requires efficient protrusion of the front of the cell, the leading edge where the actin cytoskeleton and cell-substrate adhesions undergo constant rearrangement. Rho family GTPases are essential regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion dynamics. Here, we examined the role of the RhoGEF TEM4, an activator of Rho family GTPases, in regulating cellular migration of endothelial cells. We found that TEM4 promotes the persistence of cellular migration by regulating the architecture of actin stress fibers and cell-substrate adhesions in protruding membranes. Furthermore, we determined that TEM4 regulates cellular migration by signaling to RhoC as suppression of RhoC expression recapitulated the loss-of-TEM4 phenotypes, and RhoC activation was impaired in TEM4-depleted cells. Finally, we showed that TEM4 and RhoC antagonize myosin II-dependent cellular contractility and the suppression of myosin II activity rescued the persistence of cellular migration of TEM4-depleted cells. Our data implicate TEM4 as an essential regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that ensures proper membrane protrusion at the leading edge of migrating cells and efficient cellular migration via suppression of actomyosin contractility.

  18. Nanopipes in GaN : Photo-etching and TEM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, S.; Weyher, J.L.; Macht, L.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Zandbergen, H.W.


    Photochemical (PEC) etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to study the defects in hetero-epitaxial GaN layers. TEM proved that PEC etching reveals not only dislocations but also nanopipes in the form of protruding, whisker-like etch features. It is shown by diffraction

  19. Nanopipes in GaN: photo-etching and TEM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, S.; Weyher, J.L.; Macht, L.J.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Zandbergen, H.W.


    Photochemical (PEC) etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to study the defects in hetero-epitaxial GaN layers. TEM proved that PEC etching reveals not only dislocations but also nanopipes in the form of protruding, whisker-like etch features. It is shown by diffraction

  20. Towards an integrative structural biology approach: combining Cryo-TEM, X-ray crystallography, and NMR. (United States)

    Lengyel, Jeffrey; Hnath, Eric; Storms, Marc; Wohlfarth, Thomas


    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and particularly single particle analysis is rapidly becoming the premier method for determining the three-dimensional structure of protein complexes, and viruses. In the last several years there have been dramatic technological improvements in Cryo-TEM, such as advancements in automation and use of improved detectors, as well as improved image processing techniques. While Cryo-TEM was once thought of as a low resolution structural technique, the method is currently capable of generating nearly atomic resolution structures on a routine basis. Moreover, the combination of Cryo-TEM and other methods such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics modeling are allowing researchers to address scientific questions previously thought intractable. Future technological developments are widely believed to further enhance the method and it is not inconceivable that Cryo-TEM could become as routine as X-ray crystallography for protein structure determination.

  1. Development of a versatile TEM specimen holder for the characterization of photocatalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Langhammer, C.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research [1]. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is possible to obtain insight into their structure, composition and reactivity. Such insight can then be used for their further optimization [2]. Here, we combine...... conventional TEM analysis on photocatalysts with several in situ TEM techniques including environmental TEM (ETEM), in situ photo activation and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy [3-4]. These experiments are facilitated by the construction of a specimen holder capable of illuminating...... samples inside the TEM with a laser diode and an optical system to guide light onto the sample with maximum power transmission. The source can be changed and tuned between the visible and the UV range. The specimen holder is equipped with five electrical contacts that can be used to perform in situ...

  2. Chemical bioimaging for the subcellular localization of trace elements by high contrast TEM, TEM/X-EDS, and NanoSIMS. (United States)

    Penen, Florent; Malherbe, Julien; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Bertalan, Ivo; Gontier, Etienne; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Schaumlöffel, Dirk


    Chemical bioimaging offers an important contribution to the investigation of biochemical functions, biosorption and bioaccumulation processes of trace elements via their localization at the cellular and even at the subcellular level. This paper describes the combined use of high contrast transmission electron microscopy (HC-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (X-EDS), and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) applied to a model organism, the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. HC-TEM providing a lateral resolution of 1nm was used for imaging the ultrastructure of algae cells which have diameters of 5-10μm. TEM coupled to X-EDS (TEM/X-EDS) combined textural (morphology and size) analysis with detection of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn in selected subcellular granules using an X-EDS probe size of approx. 1μm. However, instrumental sensitivity was at the limit for trace element detection. NanoSIMS allowed chemical imaging of macro and trace elements with subcellular resolution (element mapping). Ca, Mg, and P as well as the trace elements Fe, Cu, and Zn present at basal levels were detected in pyrenoids, contractile vacuoles, and granules. Some metals were even localized in small vesicles of about 200nm size. Sensitive subcellular localization of trace metals was possible by the application of a recently developed RF plasma oxygen primary ion source on NanoSIMS which has shown good improvements in terms of lateral resolution (below 50nm), sensitivity, and stability. Furthermore correlative single cell imaging was developed combining the advantages of TEM and NanoSIMS. An advanced sample preparation protocol provided adjacent ultramicrotome sections for parallel TEM and NanoSIMS analyses of the same cell. Thus, the C. reinhardtii cellular ultrastructure could be directly related to the spatial distribution of metals in different cell organelles such as vacuoles and chloroplast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-voltage and high-voltage TEM observations on MWCNTs of rat in vivo. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Norihito; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Ichinose, Hideki


    In the present study, we focused on the optimal conditions for observation of morphology and atomic structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) in vivo by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Either low-voltage or high-voltage TEMs was chosen for the high-contrast or high-resolution imaging of subcutaneous tissue and the multi-wall CNT (MWCNT). The morphology and structure of each cell organelle were well recognized using the low-voltage TEM at 75 kV. Individual MWCNTs forming the cluster were also visible by the low-voltage TEM. On the contrary, the high-voltage TEM image at 1250 kV shows poor contrast on both the cell organelles and MWCNTs. However, graphene layers of MWCNT were clearly visible in the HRTEM image using the high-voltage TEM. The influence of the surrounding biological tissue can be disregarded by the high-energy electrons due to their weak scattering/absorption effect in the tissue. It was indicated that the usage of the high-voltage TEM is quite effective to the atomic structure analysis of nano-crystalline materials in vivo.

  4. Quantitative TEM analysis of Al/Cu multilayer systems prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen


    Thin films composed of alternating Al/Cu/Al layers were deposited on a (111) Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The thicknesses of the film and the individual layers, and the detailed internal structure within the layers were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy...... (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). Each Al or Cu layer consists of a single layer of nano-sized grains of different orientations. EFTEM results revealed a layer of oxide about 2 nm thick on the surface of the Si substrate, which is considered to be the reason...

  5. Growth of Ag-seeded III-V Nanowires and TEM Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Anna Helmi Caroline

    appropriate, the density and the vertical yield were obtained. The crystal structures for the grown nanowires have been investigated with TEM.We have also performed additional growths to further understand exactly how the nanowire growth proceeds as well as to understand the limitations of using Ag as a seed...... particle. The last chapter presents our results from combining TEM and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the possibility to use Raman spectroscopy to nd stacking faults and crystal defects in GaAs and InAs wurtzite nanowires. We performed TEM on both InAs nanowires and GaAs nanowires to deduce the stacking...

  6. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) for studying the morphology of colloidal drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Horst, Jennifer C; Bunjes, Heike


    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has evolved into an indispensable tool for the characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems. It can be applied to study the size, shape and internal structure of nanoparticulate carrier systems as well as the overall colloidal composition...... of the corresponding dispersions. This review gives a short overview over the instrumentation used in cryo-TEM experiments and over the sample preparation procedure. Selected examples of cryo-TEM studies on colloidal drug carrier systems, including liposomes, colloidal lipid emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles...

  7. Structure of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-72 inhibited by citrate. (United States)

    Docquier, Jean Denis; Benvenuti, Manuela; Calderone, Vito; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mangani, Stefano


    TEM-72, a class A β-lactamase identified in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 (Q39K, M182T, G238S and E240K) and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) properties arising from the G238S and E240K substitutions. Although many structures of TEM variants have been published, they do not include an enzyme with the simultaneous presence of both of the ESBL-conferring G238S and E240K substitutions. Furthermore, the structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site, where it interacts with all of the conserved residues of class A β-lactamases. The present structure supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.

  8. Fast FIB-milled Electron-transparent Microchips for in situ TEM Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Kallesøe, Christian

    In this work we present a fast approach to 50 nm resolution structures defined in a generic TEM-chip template in few minutes. While creating complex electrical and NEMS circuits for a specific insitu TEM experiment can be a cumbersome process, microchips with 100 nm thin flakes of single...... crystalline silicon and silicon nitride membrane templates suspended from the edge, can be patterned in less than 15 minutes using focused ion beam milling. This approach allows a FIB-SEM user to create free-form NEMS structures for nanoresonators, actuators, heaters, resistors or other structures for insitu...... TEM devices or materials research using the same template. We demonstrate insitu environmental TEM analysis of Au film migration on silicon during resistive heating of a microbridge, and show how the conductance of focused ion beam milled single crystalline silicon nanowires can be adjusted insitu...

  9. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative bacilli exhibiting extended spectrum β- lactamase phenotype isolated at University Hospital Center, Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

  10. Coarsening of Pd nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren


    air at 650 °C. Time-resolved TEM image series reveal that the Pd nanoparticles were immobile and that a few percent of the nanoparticles grew or shrank, indicating a coarsening process mediated by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. The TEM image contrast suggests that the largest nanoparticles tended...... for the Ostwald ripening process indicates that the observed change in the particle size distribution can be accounted for by wetting of the Al2O3 support by the larger Pd nanoparticles....

  11. Recent advances in cryo-TEM imaging of soft lipid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvig, Shen Yu; Mat Azmi, Intan Diana Binti; Moghimi, Seyed Moien


    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), and its technological variations thereof, have become a powerful tool for detailed morphological characterization and 3D tomography of soft lipid and polymeric nanoparticles as well as biological materials such as viruses and DNA without chemical...... fixation. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in Cryo-TEM analysis of lipid-based drug nanocarriers with particular emphasis on morphological and internal nanostructure characterization of lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles such as cubosomes and hexosomes....

  12. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd


    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respective....... The problems of incorporating new technology into standardization as well as the existence of parallel standardized test procedures are discussed...

  13. In situ TEM studies of local transport and structure in nanoscale multilayer films. (United States)

    Chiaramonti, A N; Thompson, L J; Egelhoff, W F; Kabius, B C; Petford-Long, A K


    This paper describes a novel technique for studying structure-transport correlations in nanoscale multilayer thin films. Here, local current-voltage characteristics from simplified magnetic tunnel junctions are measured in situ on cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples and correlated directly with TEM images of the microstructure at the tunneling site. It is found that local variations in barrier properties can be detected by a point probe method, and that the tunneling barrier height and width can be extracted.

  14. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography. (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao


    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×103, 6.624×103 and 2.244×103 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes (United States)

    Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Jenko, F.; Hacquin, S.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sabot, R.


    The observation of distinct peaks in tokamak core reflectometry measurements—named quasi-coherent-modes (QCMs)—are identified as a signature of trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence (Arnichand et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014037). This phenomenon is investigated with detailed linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code. A Tore-Supra density scan is studied, which traverses through a linear (LOC) to saturated (SOC) ohmic confinement transition. The LOC and SOC phases are both simulated separately. In the LOC phase, where QCMs are observed, TEMs are robustly predicted unstable in linear studies. In the later SOC phase, where QCMs are no longer observed, ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes are identified. In nonlinear simulations, in the ITG (SOC) phase, a broadband spectrum is seen. In the TEM (LOC) phase, a clear emergence of a peak at the TEM frequencies is seen. This is due to reduced nonlinear frequency broadening of the underlying linear modes in the TEM regime compared with the ITG regime. A synthetic diagnostic of the nonlinearly simulated frequency spectra reproduces the features observed in the reflectometry measurements. These results support the identification of core QCMs as an experimental marker for TEM turbulence.

  16. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  17. Atom-counting in High Resolution Electron Microscopy:TEM or STEM - That's the question. (United States)

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S


    In this work, a recently developed quantitative approach based on the principles of detection theory is used in order to determine the possibilities and limitations of High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR STEM) and HR TEM for atom-counting. So far, HR STEM has been shown to be an appropriate imaging mode to count the number of atoms in a projected atomic column. Recently, it has been demonstrated that HR TEM, when using negative spherical aberration imaging, is suitable for atom-counting as well. The capabilities of both imaging techniques are investigated and compared using the probability of error as a criterion. It is shown that for the same incoming electron dose, HR STEM outperforms HR TEM under common practice standards, i.e. when the decision is based on the probability function of the peak intensities in HR TEM and of the scattering cross-sections in HR STEM. If the atom-counting decision is based on the joint probability function of the image pixel values, the dependence of all image pixel intensities as a function of thickness should be known accurately. Under this assumption, the probability of error may decrease significantly for atom-counting in HR TEM and may, in theory, become lower as compared to HR STEM under the predicted optimal experimental settings. However, the commonly used standard for atom-counting in HR STEM leads to a high performance and has been shown to work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase TEM for biological imaging utilizing a Boersch electrostatic phase plate: theory and practice. (United States)

    Shiue, Jessie; Chang, Chia-Seng; Huang, Sen-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Tsai, Jin-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Hau; Wu, Yi-Min; Lin, Yen-Chen; Kuo, Pai-Chia; Huang, Yang-Shan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Kai, Ji-Jung; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Fu-Rong


    A Boersch electrostatic phase plate (BEPP) used in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) system can provide tuneable phase shifts and overcome the low contrast problem for biological imaging. Theoretically, a pure phase image with a high phase contrast can be obtained using a BEPP. However, a currently available TEM system utilizing a BEPP cannot achieve sufficiently high phase efficiency for biological imaging, owing to the practical conditions. The low phase efficiency is a result of the blocking of partial unscattered electrons by BEPP, and the contribution of absorption contrast. The fraction of blocked unscattered beam is related to BEPP dimensions and to divergence of the illumination system of the TEM. These practical issues are discussed in this paper. Phase images of biological samples (negatively stained ferritin) obtained by utilizing a BEPP are reported, and the phase contrast was found to be enhanced by a factor of approximately 1.5, based on the calculation using the Rose contrast criterion. The low gain in phase contrast is consistent with the expectation from the current TEM/BEPP system. A new generation of phase TEM utilizing BEPP and designed for biological imaging with a high phase efficiency is proposed.

  19. Structural characterization of amphiphilic homopolymer micelles using light scattering, SANS, and cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Kelley, Elizabeth G; Murphy, Ryan P; Moughton, Adam O; Robin, Mathew; Lu, Annhelen; Colombani, Olivier; Chassenieux, Christophe; Cheung, David; Sullivan, Millicent O; Epps, Thomas H; O'Reilly, Rachel K


    We report the aqueous solution self-assembly of a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) polymers end-functionalized with a hydrophobic sulfur-carbon-sulfur (SCS) pincer ligand. Although the hydrophobic ligand accounted for structural details were investigated using light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Radial density profiles extracted from the cryo-TEM micrographs suggested that the PNIPAM chains formed a diffuse corona with a radially decreasing corona density profile and provided valuable a priori information about the micelle structure for SANS data modeling. SANS analysis indicated a similar profile in which the corona surrounded a small hydrophobic core containing the pincer ligand. The similarity between the SANS and cryo-TEM results demonstrated that detailed information about the micelle density profile can be obtained directly from cryo-TEM and highlighted the complementary use of scattering and cryo-TEM in the structural characterization of solution-assemblies, such as the SCS pincer-functionalized homopolymers described here.

  20. Structure and Output Characteristics of a TEM Array Fitted to a Fin Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Chen, L. N.; Chen, Z. J.; Xiao, G. Q.; Liu, Z. J.


    In the design of a thermoelectric generator, both the heat transfer area and the number of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) should be increased accordingly as the generator power increases; crucially, both aspects need to be coordinated. A kilowatt thermoelectric generator with a fin heat exchanger is proposed for use in a constant-speed diesel generator unit. Interior fins enhance convective heat transfer, whereas an exterior fin segment increases the heat transfer area. The heat transfer surface is double that of a plane heat exchanger, and the temperature field over the exterior fins is constrained to a one-dimensional distribution. Between adjoining exterior fins, there is a cooling water channel with trapezoid cross-section, enabling compact TEMs and cooling them. Hence, more TEMs are built as a series-parallel array of TEMs with lower resistance and more stable output current. Under nonuniform conditions, to prevent circulation and energy loss, bypass diodes and antidiodes are added. Experiments and numerical calculations show that, with matching and optimization of the heat exchanger and TEM array, a stable maximum output power is obtainable from the interior of the thermoelectric generator system, which can be connected to an external maximum power point tracking system.

  1. Qualidade de vida do paciente submetido à Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM Quality of life after Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silveira Moraes


    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM é procedimento minimamente invasivo para o tratamento de tumores retais selecionados. Atualmente, existe crescente interesse médico na medida quantitativa da qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a TEM no Serviço de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional prospectivo e de coorte da avaliação da qualidade de vida após TEM. Trinta e quatro pacientes responderam a um questionário composto de 14 questões, abordando aspectos pós-operatórios e laborais. Dirigiam-se elas para levantar dados principalmente sobre: o consentimento informado; a dor experimentada após a operação; a capacidade de o paciente caminhar no período pós-operatório; o período para retorno às atividades habituais; a satisfação com a ausência de cicatriz pós-operatória; a incontinência no pós-operatório; se recomendaria a operação a um familiar ou conhecido. RESULTADOS: Todos os 34 pacientes relataram ter sido adequadamente informados sobre o procedimento. Ausência de dor pós-operatória foi observada em 82,5% e todos se mostraram capazes de deambular no 1º dia do pós-operatório. O retorno às atividades habituais deu-se em média sete dias após o procedimento. Somente cinco pacientes (14,70% apresentaram incontinência fecal transitória, não maior que uma semana. Três pacientes (8,82% necessitaram de re-internação, sendo dois por tumores residuais e outro por recidiva tumoral. Dois pacientes (5,88% referiram modificação temporária na vida sexual após a cirurgia e 97,05% indicariam a TEM a um familiar ou amigo. O período médio de internação foi de três dias. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentaram boa evolução, com pouca dor pós-operatória, curto período de internação e baixo índice de complicações, mostrando satisfação e adequada

  2. Combined interpretation of SkyTEM and high-resolution seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Lykke-Andersen, Holger; Jørgensen, Flemming Voldum


    on the resistivity log, synthetic SkyTEM responses were calculated with a varying number of gate-times in order to illustrate the effect of the noise-level. At the exploration well geophysical data were compared to the lithological log; in general there is good agreement. The same tendency was recognised when Sky...... made based on AEM (SkyTEM) and high-resolution seismic data from an area covering 10 km2 in the western part of Denmark. As support for the interpretations, an exploration well was drilled to provide lithological and logging information in the form of resistivity and vertical seismic profiling. Based......TEM results from the area were superposed onto seismic sections. Hence, comprehensive geological knowledge is necessary in order to introduce layer boundaries from one method interactively in the data handling of the other. However, in cases where resistivity transitions are positively correlated...

  3. Towards understanding the influence of electron-gas interactions on imaging in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Boothroyd, Chris; Beleggia, Marco


    improved the point resolution to the sub-Ångström level [1] and reduced image delocalization, allowing images of surface and interface structures to be interpreted more directly [2]. However, when gas is present in the microscope the path of electrons along the column is modified due to gas......-electron scattering [3]. In general there are two approaches for performing TEM experiments in the presence of gases. These approaches are based on a differential pumping scheme and the closed cell TEM holder approach and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In the closed cell approach, gas molecules...... are confined to a thin (typically 50-200 μm thick) slab around the sample, but the electrons interact with the window material (e.g. C, SiN) as well as with the gas and the sample. In addition, the field of view is typically smaller than in a conventional TEM and a limited range of sample geometries can...

  4. 2.5D Modeling of TEM Data Applied to Hidrogeological Studies in PARANÁ Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.


    The transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is used all over the world and has shown great potential in hydrological, hazardous waste site characterization, mineral exploration, general geological mapping, and geophysical reconnaissance. However, the behavior of TEM fields are very complex and is not yet fully understood. Forward modeling is one of the most common and effective methods to understand the physical behavior and significance of the electromagnetics responses of a TEM sounding. Until now, there are a limited number of solutions for the 2D forward problem for TEM. More rare are the descriptions of a three-component response of a 3D source over 2D earth, which is the so-called 2.5D. The 2.5D approach is more realistic than the conventional 2D source previous used, once normally the source cannot be realistic represented for a 2D approximation (normally source are square loops). At present the 2.5D model represents the only way of interpreting TEM data in terms of a complex earth, due to the prohibitive amount of computer time and storage required for a full 3D model. In this work we developed a TEM modeling program for understanding the different responses and how the magnetic and electric fields, produced by loop sources at air-earth interface, behave in different geoelectrical distributions. The models used in the examples are proposed focusing hydrogeological studies, once the main objective of this work is for detecting different kinds of aquifers in Paraná sedimentary basin, in São Paulo State - Brazil. The program was developed in MATLAB, a widespread language very common in the scientific community.

  5. A simple algorithm for measuring particle size distributions on an uneven background from TEM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Ozkaya, Dogan; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.


    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence...... of an uneven background. The approach is based on adaptive thresholding, making use of local threshold values that change with spatial coordinate. The algorithm allows particles to be detected and characterized with greater accuracy than using more conventional methods, in which a global threshold is used. Its...

  6. Environmental TEM in the in situ Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Studies of materials using in situ techniques usually involve a compromise of the in situ conditions in order to fulfil the requirements compatible with the instrumentation for characterization. These requirements include sample geometry, temperature, gas environment etc. Environmental TEM depends...... the techniques to the microscope. A dedicated custom TEM specimen holder containing two optical fibres, five electrical contacts, a fixed miniaturized optical bench for light handling and a heating element has been designed. A system of pre-aligned mirrors and a MEMS heater are implemented in the holder...

  7. Oxidation in ceria infiltrated metal supported SOFCs – A TEM investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter


    The oxidation resistance of the Fe–Cr alloy backbone structure of metal supported solid oxide fuel cells is significantly improved when infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) particles. The mechanism for the improved oxidation behaviour is elucidated using various analytical transmission...... electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of focus ion beamed TEM samples. The infiltrated CGO is predominately converted into CeFeO3 after high temperature processing, protecting the alloy. A thin layer of Cr-oxide is observed...

  8. Simulation of topography evolution and damage formation during TEM sample preparation using focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxleitner, W. E-mail:; Hobler, G.; Klueppel, V.; Cerva, H


    Our recently developed simulation code FIBSIM is applied to topics related to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation using focused ion beams (FIB). FIBSIM combines dynamic Monte Carlo simulation of collision cascades with two-dimensional, cell-based topography simulation. The influence of the scanning mode and of the beam current profile on the evolution of the surface contour is investigated. Furthermore, amorphous zones in silicon samples and damaged regions are predicted for different beam energies of 10, 30 and 50 keV. The thickness of the predicted amorphous regions is in good agreement with experimental TEM data.

  9. On the structural affinity of macromolecules with different biological properties: molecular dynamics simulations of a series of TEM-1 mutants. (United States)

    Giampaolo, Alessia Di; Mazza, Fernando; Daidone, Isabella; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Aschi, Massimiliano


    Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to provide a molecular rationalization of the biological and thermodynamic differences observed for a class of TEM β-lactamases. In particular we have considered the TEM-1(wt), the single point mutants TEM-40 and TEM-19 representative of IRT and ESBL classes respectively, and TEM-1 mutant M182T, TEM-32 and TEM-20 which differ from the first three for the additional of M182T mutation. Results indicate that most of the thermodynamic, and probably biological behaviour of these systems arise from subtle effects which, starting from the alterations of the local interactions, produce drastic modifications of the conformational space spanned by the enzymes. The present study suggests that systems showing essentially the same secondary and tertiary structure may differentiate their chemical-biological activity essentially (and probably exclusively) on the basis of the thermal fluctuations occurring in their physiological environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the system MoS{sub 2} + C, HAADF vs Tem conventional; Cracterizacion del sistema MoS{sub 2} + C, HAADF vs TEM convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, C.; Cruz, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santiago, P.; Rendon, L. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    A study is presented about the synthesis and characterization of unidimensional nano systems composed of MoS{sub 2} and C with potential use as solid lubricant. The synthesis process was developed for the mold method, via thermal decomposition, which uses a film of nano porous aluminium oxide. Such systems were characterized by two analysis methods that involve Transmission Electron Microscopy, HRTEM (Conventional TEM) and HAADF (Z Contrast). The results obtained in the structural and morphological characterization were supplemented to determine the structure type obtained in the unidimensional systems. (Author)

  11. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)


    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  13. XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Under the condition of tungsten inert gas shielded welding (TIG) + shielded metal arc welding. (SMAW) technology, the microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb (P91) heat-resisting steel is studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test.

  14. Comparative study of nanoscale surface structures of calcite microcrystals using FE-SEM, AFM, and TEM. (United States)

    Chien, Yung-Ching; Mucci, Alfonso; Paquette, Jeanne; Sears, S Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah


    The bulk morphology and surface features that developed upon precipitation on micrometer-size calcite powders and millimeter-size cleavage fragments were imaged by three different microscopic techniques: field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Pt-C replicas, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Each technique can resolve some nanoscale surface features, but they offer different ranges of magnification and dimensional resolutions. Because sample preparation and imaging is not constrained by crystal orientation, FE-SEM and TEM of Pt-C replicas are best suited to image the overall morphology of microcrystals. However, owing to the decoration effect of Pt-C on the crystal faces, TEM of Pt-C replicas is superior at resolving nanoscale surface structures, including the development of new faces and the different microtopography among nonequivalent faces in microcrystals, which cannot be revealed by FE-SEM. In conjunction with SEM, Pt-C replica provides the evidence that crystals grow in diverse and face-specific modes. The TEM imaging of Pt-C replicas has nanoscale resolution comparable to AFM. AFM yielded quantitative information (e.g., crystallographic orientation and height of steps) of microtopographic features. In contrast to Pt-C replicas and SEM providing three-dimensional images of the crystals, AFM can only image one individual cleavage or flat surface at a time.

  15. Improvement of microtome cutting process of carbon nanotube composite sample preparation for TEM analysis (United States)

    Trayner, Sarah

    As research progresses towards nanoscale materials, there has become a need for a more efficient and effective way to obtain ultra-thin samples for imaging under transmission electron microscope (TEM) for atomic resolution analysis. There are various methods used to obtain thin samples (resin and graphite crystalline packing. UD IM7/BMI composite TEM results did not reveal an interfacial region resulting in a need for even thinner sliced cross sections. TEM results for the single-layer CNT BP/epoxy nanocomposite revealed the alignment direction of the nanotubes and numerous stacks of CNT bundles. In addition, there was visible flattening of CNT packing into dumbbell shapes similar to results obtain by Alan Windle. TEM results for the 3-layer CNT BP/BMI nanocomposite revealed uniformly cut resin. However, when the diamond knife reached graphite crystalline regions, the nanotube either became deformed into a cone-like structure, was cut at a thicker thickness than the resin, or folded over onto itself. This is most likely a result of the nanotubes high mechanical properties in response to the stress of cutting.

  16. A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM micrographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Hongchu, E-mail: [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Jülich Research Centre, Jülich, 52425 (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074 (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich Research Centre, Jülich 52425 (Germany)


    Noise reduction of micrographs is often an essential task in high resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (HR(S)TEM) either for a higher visual quality or for a more accurate quantification. Since HR(S)TEM studies are often aimed at resolving periodic atomistic columns and their non-periodic deviation at defects, it is important to develop a noise reduction algorithm that can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is developed based on widely used techniques of low-pass filter and Wiener filter, which can efficiently reduce noise without noticeable artifacts even in HR(S)TEM micrographs with contrast of variation of background and defects. The developed nonlinear filtering algorithm is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy, and is also of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM. - Highlights: • A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM images is developed. • It can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. • It is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy. • It is of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM.

  17. Sub-nanometer stable precision MEMS clamping mechanism maintaining clamp force unpowered for TEM application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman; van Dijk, Johannes


    A design is presented for a relatively large force (0.5 mN) high-precision MEMS clamping mechanism. The clamp is a part of a MEMS transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample manipulator, which needs to be fixed unpowered once positioned. The elastic deformation of the clamp suspension has been

  18. In-Situ TEM Investigation of Deformation Behavior of Metallic Glass Pillars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C. Q.; Pei, Y. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Tamura, N; Minor, A; Murray, C; Friedman, L


    We show results of in situ TEM (transmission electron microscope) quantitative investigations on the compression behaviors of amorphous micropillars fabricated by focused ion beam from Cu(47)Ti(33)Zr(11)Ni(6)Sn(2)Si(1) metallic glass (MG) ribbon. Pillars with well defined gauge sections and tip

  19. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 8, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among. Gram negative bacilli exhibiting extended spectrum β- lactamase phenotype isolated at University Hospital. Center, Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, ...

  20. Progress in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens by ion-beam thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Strecker, A; Kelsch, M; Salzberger, U; Sycha, M; Gao, M; Richter, G; Benthem, K V


    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), often the preparation of samples is the most critical part. Specimens have to have disk geometries of 3 mm diameter laterally, and they have to be transparent for the electron beam vertically. Therefore, a specimen thickness in the range of some 1-10 nm has to be achieved by the preparation process. While shrinking the specimen dimensions, care has to be taken to recover the materials properties in the nm-regime. We report and shortly discuss some TEM specimen preparation techniques mainly used in the Stuttgart TEM specimen preparation laboratory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how more advanced techniques lead to a more reliable preparation of weakly-bonded metal/SrTiO sub 3 interfaces. In addition, the advantage of low-voltage ion-milling is demonstrated by a case study for bulk SrTiO sub 3. As a result, low-voltage ion polishing as a final step in the TEM specimen preparation by conventional ion-thinning turns out to significantly increase the specimen quality. In tu...

  1. TEM and EELS studies of microwave-irradiation synthesis of bimetallic platinum nanocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, NR


    Full Text Available to conventional methods. In this work, microwave-irradiation was used to produce platinum-cobalt (Pt-Co) and platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) nanoparticles for use as electrocatalysts in the methanol oxidation reaction. High resolution TEM imaging and EELS studies revealed...

  2. Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K; Boyes, E D; Gai, P L [York JEOL Nanocentre (United Kingdom); Shiju, N R; Brown, D R, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)


    We report highly active tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol by Beckmann rearrangement of 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime. Double aberration-corrected (2AC)-TEM/STEM studies were performed in a JEOL 2200FS FEG TEM/STEM at the 1 Angstrom (1 A = 0.1 nanometer) level. Observations at close to zero defocus were carried out using the AC-TEM as well as AC-STEM including high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, from the same areas of the catalyst crystallites. The studies from the same areas have revealed the location and the nanostructure of the polytungstate species (clusters) and the nanograins of zirconia. The AC (S)TEM was crucial to observe the nanostructure and location of polytungstate clusters on the zirconia grains. Polytungstate clusters as small as 0.5 nm have been identified using the HAADF-STEM. The nanostructures of the catalyst and the W surface density have been correlated with paracetamol reaction studies. The results demonstrate the nature of active sites and high activity of the tungstated zirconia nanocatalyst, which is an environmentally clean alternative to the current homogeneous process.

  3. TEM characterization of La/B4C multilayer systems by the geometric phase method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussler, D.; Spiecker, E.; Yang, S.; Jäger, W.; Störmer, M.; Bormann, R.; Zwicker, G.


    New La/B4C multilayer systems with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range have been deposited onto structured silicon (001) surfaces by magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By applying a geometric phase method which has been originally

  4. TEM and SEM studies of microstructural transformations of thin iron films during annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; Smithers, Mark A.; Smithers, M.A.


    High-temperature induced transformations of the bulk structure as well as the surface and bulk morphology of thin polycrystalline iron films have been investigated using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The polycrystalline Fe films were

  5. Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM. (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-zhen; Radtke, Guillaume; Botton, Gianluigi A


    The determination of the atomic structure and the retrieval of information about reconstruction and bonding of metal oxide surfaces is challenging owing to the highly defective structure and insulating properties of these surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers extremely high spatial resolution (less than one ångström) and the ability to provide systematic information from both real and reciprocal space. However, very few TEM studies have been carried out on surfaces because the information from the bulk dominates the very weak signals originating from surfaces. Here we report an experimental approach to extract surface information effectively from a thickness series of electron energy-loss spectra containing different weights of surface signals, using a wedge-shaped sample. Using the (001) surface of the technologically important compound strontium titanate, SrTiO(3) (refs 4-6), as a model system for validation, our method shows that surface spectra are sensitive to the atomic reconstruction and indicate bonding and crystal-field changes surrounding the surface Ti cations. Very good agreement can be achieved between the experimental surface spectra and crystal-field multiplet calculations based on the proposed atomic surface structure optimized by density functional calculations. The distorted TiO(6-x) units indicated by the proposed model can be viewed directly in our high-resolution scanning TEM images. We suggest that this approach be used as a general method to extract valuable spectroscopic information from surface atoms in parallel with high-resolution images in TEM.

  6. Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Shiju, N. R.; Brown, D. R.; Boyes, E. D.; Gai, P. L.


    We report highly active tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol by Beckmann rearrangement of 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime. Double aberration-corrected (2AC)-TEM/STEM studies were performed in a JEOL 2200FS FEG TEM/STEM at the 1 Angstrom (1 Å = 0.1 nanometer) level. Observations at close to zero defocus were carried out using the AC-TEM as well as AC-STEM including high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, from the same areas of the catalyst crystallites. The studies from the same areas have revealed the location and the nanostructure of the polytungstate species (clusters) and the nanograins of zirconia. The AC (S)TEM was crucial to observe the nanostructure and location of polytungstate clusters on the zirconia grains. Polytungstate clusters as small as 0.5 nm have been identified using the HAADF-STEM. The nanostructures of the catalyst and the W surface density have been correlated with paracetamol reaction studies. The results demonstrate the nature of active sites and high activity of the tungstated zirconia nanocatalyst, which is an environmentally clean alternative to the current homogeneous process.

  7. Soft nanomaterials analysed by in situ liquid TEM: Towards high resolution characterisation of nanoparticles in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Patterson


    Full Text Available In this article we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterisation of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerisation of an oxaliplatin analogue, designed for an ongoing programme in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point towards key design parameters that enable this new characterisation approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic nanoparticles together with their characterisation in liquid water. Finally, we provide a future perspective of this technique for the analysis of soft and dynamic nanomaterials and discussion the progress which needs to be made in order to bring in situ liquid TEM to its full potential.

  8. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images for all the oxides was conducted along with line spectra of planes. Results are discussed in light of correlation of these optical and mechanical parameters to their structural properties. Band gap has also been correlated to the conductivity of these ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  10. TEM study of continuous precipitation in Mg-9 Wt%Al-l Wt%Zn alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S


    The development of continuous precipitate morphology in heat-treated Mg-9 wt%Al-1 wt%Zn alloy (AZ91) for a range of ageing temperatures is investigated in detail using TEM. The matrix/precipitate orientation relationships (ORs), sizes, shapes and the number of precipitates per unit volume (N-V) are

  11. Operator Training and TEMS Support: A Survey of Unit Leaders in Northern and Central California. (United States)

    Young, Jason B; Galante, Joseph M; Sena, Matthew J


    Members of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams routinely work in high-risk tactical situations. Awareness of the benefit of Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) is increasing but not uniformly emphasized. To characterize the current regional state of tactical medicine and identify potential barriers to more widespread implementation. A multiple-choice survey was administered to SWAT team leaders of 22 regional agencies in northern and central California. Questions focused on individual officer self-aid and buddy care training, the use and content of individual first aid kits (IFAKs), and the operational inclusion of a dedicated TEMS provider. Respondents included city police (54%), local county sheriff (36%), state law enforcement (5%), and federal law enforcement (5%). RESULTS showed that 100% of respondents thought it was ?Very Important? for SWAT officers to understand the basics of self-aid and buddy care and to carry an IFAK, while only 71% of respondents indicated that team members actually carried an IFAK. In addition, 67% indicated that tourniquets were part of the IFAK, and 91% of surveyed team leaders thought it was ?Very Important? for teams to have a trained medic available onsite at callouts or high-risk warrant searches. Also, 59% of teams used an organic TEMS element. The majority of SWAT team leaders recognize the benefit of basic Operator medical training and the importance of a TEMS program. Despite near 100% endorsement by unit-level leadership, a significant proportion of teams are lacking one of the key components including Operator IFAKs and/or tourniquets. Tactical team leaders, administrators, and providers should continue to promote adequate Operator training and equipment as well as formal TEMS support. 2013.

  12. Characterization of isolated polyamide thin films of RO and NF membranes using novel TEM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Pacheco, Federico A.


    Achieving a better understanding of transport and rejection mechanisms in RO and NF membranes requires more detailed information of the nanostructure of polyamide thin films. This study reports on two novel transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for characterizing polyamide nanostructure. The first technique produces cross-sectional images of isolated polyamide thin films by removing the polysulfone support from regular TEM cross-sections. In the second technique called " projected area" TEM (PA-TEM), isolated polyamide thin films are placed with their surface perpendicular to the electron beam. The resulting images capture the thickness, morphology and mass density of the entire thin film. In combination, these new techniques provide information on polyamide nanostructure that is not evident using conventional methods. For the commercial RO membrane ESPA3, the cross-sectional view of the isolated polyamide thin film shows a 30-60. nm thick base of nodular polyamide (presumably the separation barrier) that forms a relatively smooth interface with the polysulfone support. Above this, a more open structure of loose polyamide extends outward giving rise to the ridge-and-valley surface structure. In PA-TEM images, the ridges and valleys correspond to the dark and bright regions, respectively; the polyamide nodular base appears as round features forming an irregular honeycomb pattern throughout the images. Membrane cross-sections were prepared with a simple resin embedding protocol using the acrylic resin LR White. The protocol did not require dehydration steps, and was applicable to both dry and wet membrane samples. Artifacts that may be produced during sample preparation were also documented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Simulation and analysis of the effect of ungrounded rectangular loop distributed parameters on TEM response (United States)

    Shi, Zongyang; Liu, Lihua; Xiao, Pan; Geng, Zhi; Liu, Fubo; Fang, Guangyou


    An ungrounded loop in the shallow subsurface transient electromagnetic surveys has been studied as the transmission line model for early turn-off stage, which can accurately explicate the early turn-off current waveform inconsistency along the loop. In this paper, the Gauss-Legendre numerical integration method is proposed for the first time to simulate and analyze the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response considering the different early turn-off current waveforms along the loop. During the simulation, these integral node positions along the loop are firstly determined by solving these zero points of Legendre polynomial, then the turn-off current of each node position is simulated by using the transfer function of the transmission line. Finally, the total TEM response is calculated by using the Gauss-Legendre integral formula. In addition, the comparison and analysis between the results affected by the distributed parameters and that generated by lumped parameters are presented. It is found that the TEM responses agree well with each other after current is thoroughly switched off, while the transient responses in turn-off stage are completely different. It means that the position dependence of the early turn-off current should be introduced into the forward model during the early response data interpretation of the shallow TEM detection of the ungrounded loop. Furthermore, the TEM response simulations at four geometric symmetry points are made. It shows that early responses of different geometric symmetry points are also inconsistent. The research on the influence of turn-off current position dependence on the early response of geometric symmetry point is of great significance to guide the layout of the survey lines and the transmitter location.

  14. The Cell Surface Structure of Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is Regulated by the Actin Cytoskeleton


    Yang, Mi Young; Chaudhary, Amit; Seaman, Steven; Dunty, Jill; Stevens, Janine; Elzarrad, Mohammed K.; Frankel, Arthur E.; St. Croix, Brad


    Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5’s ability to distinguish different forms of cell-surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding p...

  15. Sintering of oxide-supported Pt and Pd nanoparticles in air studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    at elevated temperatures. The time-resolved TEM images are presented and these offer direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nano-scale. For Pt, Pd and bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles it is shown that the sintering process is governed by the Ostwald ripening mechanism...... in an oxidizing environment. The observations compare well with predictions from mean-field kinetic models for ripening, but deviations are revealed for the timeevolution for the individual nanoparticles. A better description of the individual nanoparticle ripening is obtained by kinetic models that include local...... correlations between neighbouring nanoparticles in the atom-exchange process. The sintering process was also presented statistically by particle size distributions extracted from the TEM images. The statistical data agreed only partly with the mean-field kinetic models for ripening, but the deviations could...

  16. Reduction reactions and densification during in situ TEM heating of iron oxide nanochains (United States)

    Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Das, Gautom; Kennedy, Ian M.; van Benthem, Klaus


    The reduction reactions and densification of nanochains assembled from γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphological changes and reduction of the metal oxide nanochains were observed during in situ TEM annealing through simultaneous imaging and quantitative analysis of the near-edge fine structures of Fe L2,3 absorption edges acquired by spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy. A change in the oxidation states during annealing of the iron oxide nanochains was observed with phase transformations due to continuous reduction from Fe2O3 over Fe3O4, FeO to metallic Fe. Phase transitions during the in situ heating experiments were accompanied with morphological changes in the nanochains, specifically rough-to-smooth surface transitions below 500 °C, neck formation between adjacent particles around 500 °C, and subsequent neck growth. At higher temperatures, coalescence of FeO particles was observed, representing densification.

  17. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim


    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge......, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...

  18. Vacancy ordering and superstructure formation in dry and hydrated strontium tantalate perovskites: A TEM perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashok, Anuradha M.; Haavik, Camilla; Norby, Poul


    Crystal structures of Sr4(Sr2Ta2)O11 and Sr4(Sr1.92Ta2.08)O11.12, synthesized by solid state reaction technique in dry and hydrated state have been studied mainly using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Due to the lesser ability of X-rays to probe details in oxygen sublattice, the change in crystal...... symmetry due to ordering of oxygen vacancies could be detected better using Transmission Electron Microscopy. After detailed analysis through TEM, it was observed that no major change occurs in the cation sublattice. The TEM observations are compared with XRD data and discussed. The crystal symmetries...... structure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  19. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.


    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar...... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...... taken at tilted positions, can be transformed to the real macroscopic orientation of the planar structures with estimated error of about +/- 2 degrees. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Determination of Size Distributions in Nanocrystalline Powders by TEM, XRD and SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen, Jørgen Houe; Jørgensen, Jens Erik


    Crystallite size distributions and particle size distributions were determined by TEM, XRD, and SAXS for three commercially available TiO2 samples and one homemade. The theoretical Guinier Model was fitted to the experimental data and compared to analytical expressions. Modeling of the XRD spectra...... the size distribution obtained from the XRD experiments; however, a good agreement was obtained between the two techniques. Electron microscopy, SEM and TEM, confirmed the primary particle sizes, the size distributions, and the shapes obtained by XRD and SAXS. The SSEC78 powder and the commercially...... available powders showed different morphologies. The SSEC78 powder showed the narrowest sizes distribution while UV100 and TiO2_5nm consisted of the smallest primary particles. SSEC78, UV100, and TiO2_5nm consisted of both primary particles as well as a secondary structure comprised of nanosized primary...

  1. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres. (United States)

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N


    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Nanofluidic chip for liquid TEM cell fabricated by parylene and silicon nitride direct bonding (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Lee, Wonhee


    Despite the importance of nanofluidic transmission electron microscope (TEM) chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a silicon nitride (SiN) wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ˜3 MPa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carbon-oxygen bonds were generated by thermal activation. We demonstrated TEM imaging of gold nanoparticles suspended in liquid using the fabricated nanofluidic chip.

  3. Size Dependent Pore Formation in Germanium Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Delithiation Observed by In Situ TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaotang; He, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong-min; Korgel, Brian A.


    Germanium (Ge) nanowires coated with an amorphous silicon (Si) shell undergoing lithiation and delithiation were studied using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Delithiation creates pores in nanowires with diameters larger than ~25 nm, but not in smaller diameter nanowires. The formation of pores in Ge nanowires undergoing delithiation has been observed before in in situ TEM experiments, but there has been no indication that a critical diameter exists below which pores do not form. Pore formation occurs as a result of fast lithium diffusion compared to vacancy migration. We propose that a short diffusion path for vacancies to the nanowire surface plays a role in limiting pore formation even when lithium diffusion is fast.

  4. Deformation mechanisms in naturally deformed glaucophanes: A TEM and HREM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard, B.; Gillet, P.; Willaime, C. (Lab. de Mineralogie Physique, Centre Armoricain d' Etude Structurale des Socles, Univ. de Rennes, 35 (France))

    Deformation mechanisms of glaucophane have been investigated on two naturally deformed samples by optical and TEM microscopy. The two samples were deformed under eclogite facies conditions (15-18 kbar, 550-600 degC); one sample suffered in addition a later greenschist deformation (< 10 kbar, 350-450 degC). Under the optical microscope, the glaucophanes display intracrystalline deformation features (undulose extinction, subgrains). TEM observations reveal the operation of glide on several systems: (100)[001], [l brace]110[r brace][001], (010)[100], [l brace]110[r brace] 1/2<1anti 10> and (001) 1/2<110> at medium temperature (550-600 degC) and (010)[001] at low temperature (350-450 degC). Minor (100) twinning is associated. The presence of subgrains bounded by well-organized dislocation walls indicates that recovery processes are active.

  5. Microchip systems for imaging liquid and high temperature processes in TEM & SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Canepa, Silvia; Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad


    measurementson high temperature fuel cell systems. For imaging processes in liquids, our SEM system enables imaging on-chip microelectrodes andusing standard built-in reference electrodes [2]. To get higher resolution in TEM, we have createda monolithic chip system with suspended microfabricated channels [3......]. Both systems will allowhigh resolution imaging of heterogeneous electrochemical processes such as those in batteries.Based on the suspended microfluidic channels, we are also developing microchips that enableultrafast freezing of processes in liquids....

  6. TEM characterization of Cr-doped ZnS Thin Films for Solar Cell applications


    Seim, Eivind


    The morphology of three Cr-doped zinc sulfide thin films, one deposited by molec-ular beam epitaxy (MBE) and two by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), have beenstudied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Investigations of the poly-morphic crystal structure of ZnS have been done by analysis of diffraction, brightfield and high resolution images. Both similarities and differences in morphologybetween the three samples have been discovered. An unambiguous determinationof the crystal structure...

  7. Mode basis method for spherical TEM-transmission lines and antennas


    Butrym, Aleksander Yu.; Kochetov, Bogdan A.


    Mode basis method in spherical coordinate system is considered. Compared to the previous works in this field the method is generalized to take into consideration T-modes in conical lines and more general medium inhomogeneity that contains both radial and angular dependencies. A biconical and alike antennas (bow-tie, blade antenna, V-antenna, TEM-horn, etc.) can be rigorously analyzed with the proposed method.

  8. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears


    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  9. Thermal stress induced voids in nanoscale copper interconnects by in-situ TEM heating (United States)

    An, Jin Ho

    Stress induced void formation in Cu interconnects, due to thermal stresses generated during the processing of semiconductors, is an increasing reliability issue in the semiconductor industry as Cu interconnects are being downscaled to follow the demand for faster chip speed. In this work, 1.8 micron and 180 nm wide Cu interconnects, fabricated by Freescale Semiconductors, were subjected to thermal cycles, in-situ in the TEM, to investigate the stress relaxation mechanisms as a function of interconnect linewidth. The experiments show that the 1.8 micron Cu interconnect lines relax the thermal stresses through dislocation nucleation and motion while the Cu interconnect 180 nm lines exhibit void formation. Void formation in 180 nm lines occurs predominantly at triple junctions where the Ta diffusion barrier meets a Cu grain boundary. In order to understand void formation in 180 nm lines, the grain orientation and local stresses are determined. In particular, Nanobeam Diffraction (NBD) in the TEM is used to obtain the diffraction pattern of each grain, from which the crystal orientation is evaluated by the ACT (Automated Crystallography for TEM) software. In addition, 2D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are performed using the Object Oriented Finite Modeling (OOF2) software to correlate grain orientation with local stresses, and consequently void formation. According to the experimental and simulation results obtained, void formation in 180nm Cu interconnects does not seem to be solely dependent on local stresses, but a combination of diffusion paths available, stress gradients and possibly the presence of defects. In addition, based on the in-situ TEM observations, void growth seems to occur through grain boundary and/or interfacial diffusion. However, in-situ STEM observations of fully opened voids post-failure show pileup of material at the Cu grain surfaces. This means that surface or interface diffusion is also very active during void growth in the presence

  10. Automated determination of size and morphology information from soot transmission electron microscope (TEM)-generated images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Chan, Qing N., E-mail:; Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yeoh, Guan H. [UNSW, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia); Medwell, Paul R. [The University of Adelaide, Centre for Energy Technology (Australia)


    The thermophoretic sampling of particulates from hot media, coupled with transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, is a combined approach that is widely used to derive morphological information. The identification and the measurement of the particulates, however, can be complex when the TEM images are of low contrast, noisy, and have non-uniform background signal level. The image processing method can also be challenging and time consuming, when the samples collected have large variability in shape and size, or have some degree of overlapping. In this work, a three-stage image processing sequence is presented to facilitate time-efficient automated identification and measurement of particulates from the TEM grids. The proposed processing sequence is first applied to soot samples that were thermophoretically sampled from a laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame. The parameter values that are required to be set to facilitate the automated process are identified, and sensitivity of the results to these parameters is assessed. The same analysis process is also applied to soot samples that were acquired from an externally irradiated laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame, which have different geometrical characteristics, to assess the morphological dependence of the proposed image processing sequence. Using the optimized parameter values, statistical assessments of the automated results reveal that the largest discrepancies that are associated with the estimated values of primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and prefactor values of the aggregates for the tested cases, are approximately 3, 1, and 10 %, respectively, when compared with the manual measurements.

  11. An automatic algorithm for determination of the nanoparticles from TEM images using circular hough transform. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohsen; Rafsanjani, Hossein Khodabakhshi


    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology, and the size distribution of nanoparticles is one of the most important statistical properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction is commonly used for the characterization and measuring particle size distributions, but manual analysis of the micrographs is extremely labor-intensive. Here, we have developed an image processing algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of overlapped particles and uneven background. The approach is based on the modified circular Hough transform, and pre and post processing techniques on TEM image to improve the accuracy and increase the detection rate of the nano particles. Its application is presented through several images with different noises, uneven backgrounds and over lapped particles. The merits of this robust quantifying method are demonstrated by comparing the results with the data obtained through manual measurement. The algorithm allows particles to be detected and characterized with high accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The approaches to thin film preparation and TEM observations on slurry Si-modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, K. [Materials Eng. Group, Department of Design and Manufacturing, New Technologies Institute, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran 18815-3538 (Iran); Saremi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Amirabad, Tehran (Iran); Yamamoto, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used as a precision characterization tool to identify very small precipitates in diffusion aluminide coatings. However, in order to successfully prepare the appropriate samples for TEM observation, often non-traditional thin film preparation techniques need to be employed. In this work, two sample preparation methods of twin jet electro-polishing and ion milling were experienced to characterize fine precipitates (< 1 {mu}m), in Si-aluminide coatings applied on Ni-base superalloy In-738LC by slurry technique. These precipitates are concentrated throughout the topcoat zone. It was found that the preparation of thin film exactly from the outer zone of the coating is only possible using ion milling process. The ion-milled specimens were utilized to observe by JEOL high resolution TEM operating at an accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Electron diffraction patterns, bright field and EDS were used to identify the precipitate phases as well as the coating matrix. The results showed that the fine precipitates are typically chromium silicides in nature, mostly as Cr{sub 3}Si and CrSi, distributed in the {beta}-NiAl matrix phase. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L., E-mail:


    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM was used to oxidize samples of Zircaloy-4. • Similar behavior was found in the in-situ oxidized and autoclave-oxidized samples. • Precession diffraction was used to characterize oxide phase and texture.

  14. Microstructure of organic–inorganic composite coatings studied by TEM and XANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo Hamada, Masayasu Nagoshi, Kaoru Sato, Akira Matsuzaki, Takafumi Yamaji and Kotaro Kuroda


    Full Text Available Chromate coatings on Zn or Zn alloy coated steel sheets often include silica for the aim to improve corrosion resistance. In the case of dry-in-place chromate coatings containing acrylic resin (hereafter referred to as an organic–inorganic composite coating, an addition of silica, however, did not show an improvement in corrosion resistance. The microstructures of the organic–inorganic composite coatings were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the chemical states of Cr were investigated by the total electron yield X-ray absorption near edge structure (TEY-XANES method. TEM samples were successfully prepared by dry ultramicrotomy preventing water-soluble components in the coatings from dissolving out. TEY-XANES revealed the chemical states of components even in the organic matrix. Using these methods, it was found that the addition of silica changed just the morphology of the chromium compound in the organic–inorganic composite coating but not the chemical state of Cr. This is a reason for the addition of silica being not effective at improving corrosion resistance. The combination of dry ultramicrotomy-TEM and TEY-XANES spectroscopy was proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing organic–inorganic composite coatings.

  15. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Anne Taylor


    Full Text Available Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs: zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  16. Differential dependence on N-glycosylation of anthrax toxin receptors CMG2 and TEM8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Friebe

    Full Text Available ANTXR 1 and 2, also known as TEM8 and CMG2, are two type I membrane proteins, which have been extensively studied for their role as anthrax toxin receptors, but with a still elusive physiological function. Here we have analyzed the importance of N-glycosylation on folding, trafficking and ligand binding of these closely related proteins. We find that TEM8 has a stringent dependence on N-glycosylation. The presence of at least one glycan on each of its two extracellular domains, the vWA and Ig-like domains, is indeed necessary for efficient trafficking to the cell surface. In the absence of any N-linked glycans, TEM8 fails to fold correctly and is recognized by the ER quality control machinery. Expression of N-glycosylation mutants reveals that CMG2 is less vulnerable to sugar loss. The absence of N-linked glycans in one of the extracellular domains indeed has little impact on folding, trafficking or receptor function of the wild type protein expressed in tissue culture cells. N-glycans do, however, seem required in primary fibroblasts from human patients. Here, the presence of N-linked sugars increases the tolerance to mutations in cmg2 causing the rare genetic disease Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. It thus appears that CMG2 glycosylation provides a buffer towards genetic variation by promoting folding of the protein in the ER lumen.

  17. TEM nano-Moiré evaluation for an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Wen, Huihui; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Huimin


    Moiré technique is a powerful, important and effective tool for scientific research, from the nano-scale to the macro-scale, which is essentially the interference between two or more periodic structures with a similar frequency. In this study, an inverse transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-Moiré method has been proposed, for the first time, to reconstruct an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface, where only one kind of lattice structure and Moiré fringe were visible in a high resolution TEM (HRTEM) image simultaneously. The inversion process was performed in detail. Three rules were put forward to ensure the uniqueness of the inversion result. The HRTEM image of a top-coat/thermally grown oxide interface in a thermal barrier coating (TBC) structure was observed with coexisting visible lattice and Moiré fringes. Using the inverse TEM nano-Moiré method, the invisible lower layer lattice was inversed and a 3-dimensional structure near the interface was also reconstructed to some degree. The real strain field of oriented invisible and visible lattices and the relative strain field of the Moiré fringe in the grain and near the grain boundary were obtained simultaneously through the subset geometric phase analysis method. The possible failure mechanism and position of the TBC spallation from the nano-scale to the micro-scale were discussed.

  18. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravindra Reddy


    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  19. TEM heat transport and fluctuations in the HSX stellarator: experiments and comparison with gyrokinetic simulation (United States)

    Smoniewski, J.; Faber, B. J.; Sánchez, E.; Calvo, I.; Pueschel, M. J.; Likin, K. M.; Deng, C. B.; Talmadge, J. N.


    The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) has demonstrated reduced neoclassical transport in the plasma core with quasi-symmetry [Lore Thesis 2010], while outside this region the electron thermal diffusivity is well above the neoclassical level, likely due to the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) [Weir PoP 2015, Faber PoP 2015]. We compare gyrokinetic simulations of the TEM to experimental heat flux and density fluctuation measurements for two configurations: Quasi-Helical Symmetry (QHS) and broken symmetry (Mirror). Both experiment and simulation show that the heat flux for Mirror is larger than for QHS by about a factor of two. Initial interferometer measurements provide evidence that density-gradient-driven TEMs are driving turbulence. Calculations of the collisionless damping of zonal flows provide another perspective into the difference between geometries. Similar to other stellarators [Monreal PPCF 2016], the zonal flow residual goes to zero at long wavelengths in both configurations. Additionally, the very short time decay of the zonal flow due to neoclassical polarization is constant between configurations. However, the collisionless damping time is longer and the zonal flow oscillation frequency is smaller in QHS than Mirror, consistent with reduced radial particle drifts. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  20. U-shaped Ladder TEM-Coil Structure with Truncated Sensitivity Profile in z-Direction for High Field MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leussler, C.; Wirtz, D.; Wuelbern, J.H.; Vernickel, P.; Forthmann, P.


    Conventional TEM-coils [1] come with a sensitivity profile and field-of view (FOV) that is largely extended in the z-direction comparedwith birdcage coils (BC) [2]. There is an analog situation when comparing TEM coil arrays [3] and degenerate birdcages (DBC) [4]. The excess z-FOV leads to safety

  1. Analysis of Induced Polarization effects in airborne TEM data - a case study from central East Greenland (United States)

    Maack Rasmussen, Thorkild; Brethes, Anaïs; Pierpaolo Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Bauer, Tobias


    Data from a high-resolution airborne SkyTEM time-domain electromagnetic survey conducted in central East Greenland were analysed. An analysis based on utilization of a Self Organizing Map procedure for response curve characterization and analyses based on data inversion and modelling are presented. The survey was flown in 2013 along the eastern margin of the Jameson Land basin with the purpose of base metal exploration and with sulphide mineralization as target. The survey area comprises crystalline basement to the East and layered Early Triassic to Jurassic sediments to the West. The layers are dipping a few degrees towards West. The Triassic sequence is 1 to 2 km thick and mostly of continental origin. The fluviatile Early Triassic arkoses and conglomerates, the Upper Triassic grey limestone and black shale beds and overlying gypsiferous sandstones and mudstones are known to host disseminated sulphides. E-W oriented lines were flown with an average terrain clearance of 30m and a separation of 300m. The data were initially processed and inverted by SkyTEM Aps. The conductivity models showed some conductive layers as well as induced polarization (IP) effects in the data. IP effects in TEM data reflect the relaxation of polarized charges in the ground which can be good indicators of the presence of metallic particles. Some of these locations were drilled during the following field season but unfortunately did not reveal the presence of mineralization. The aim of this study is therefore to understand the possible causes of these IP effects. Electrical charge accumulation in the ground can be related to the presence of sulphides, oxides or graphite or to the presence of clays or fibrous minerals. Permafrost may also cause IP effects and is then expected to be associated with a highly resistive subsurface. Several characteristics of the transient curves (IP indicators) of the SkyTEM survey were extracted and analysed by using the Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM

  2. Benefits from bremsstrahlung distribution evaluation to get unknown information from specimen in SEM and TEM (United States)

    Eggert, F.; Camus, P. P.; Schleifer, M.; Reinauer, F.


    The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS or EDX) is a commonly used device to characterise the composition of investigated material in scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). One major benefit compared to wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (WDS) is that EDS systems collect the entire spectrum simultaneously. Therefore, not only are all emitted characteristic X-ray lines in the spectrum, but also the complete bremsstrahlung distribution is included. It is possible to get information about the specimen even from this radiation, which is usually perceived more as a disturbing background. This is possible by using theoretical model knowledge about bremsstrahlung excitation and absorption in the specimen in comparison to the actual measured spectrum. The core aim of this investigation is to present a method for better bremsstrahlung fitting in unknown geometry cases by variation of the geometry parameters and to utilise this knowledge also for characteristic radiation evaluation. A method is described, which allows the parameterisation of the true X-ray absorption conditions during spectrum acquisition. An ‘effective tilt’ angle parameter is determined by evaluation of the bremsstrahlung shape of the measured SEM spectra. It is useful for bremsstrahlung background approximation, with exact calculations of the absorption edges below the characteristic peaks, required for P/B-ZAF model based quantification methods. It can even be used for ZAF based quantification models as a variable input parameter. The analytical results are then much more reliable for the different absorption effects from irregular specimen surfaces because the unknown absorption dependency is considered. Finally, the method is also applied for evaluation of TEM spectra. In this case, the real physical parameter optimisation is with sample thickness (mass thickness), which is influencing the emitted and measured spectrum due to different absorption with TEM

  3. Ostwald ripening in a Pt/SiO2 model catalyst studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren


    by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. The in situ TEM images also provide information about the temporal evolution of the Pt particle size distribution and of the growth or decay of the individual nanoparticles. The observed Pt nanoparticle changes compare well with predictions made by mean-field kinetic models...... for ripening, but deviations are revealed for the time-evolution for the individual nanoparticles. A better description of the individual nanoparticle ripening is obtained by kinetic models that include local correlations between neighboring nanoparticles in the atom-exchange process....

  4. El territorio agrorrural no es un parque temático


    Segrelles, José Antonio


    Un parque natural agrario (PNA) y el territorio que lo alberga no son un parque temático o etnográfico, un museo viviente o una simple reserva natural. Tampoco son una forma de momificación del espacio agropecuario. Un PNA es un instrumento de gestión eficiente de las actividades agrícolas, ganaderas y forestales, además de un agroecosistema con entidad propia que ayuda a conservar el territorio, a garantizar la continuidad agrícola del suelo y a fomentar la ejecución de programas concretos d...

  5. Characterization of Explosive Weld Joints by TEM and SEM/EBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H.


    Full Text Available The layers near the interface of explosively welded plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy equipped with electron backscattered diffraction facility (SEM/EBSD. The metal compositions based on carbon or stainless steels (base plate and Ti, Zr and Ta (flyer plate were analyzed. The study was focused on the possible interdiffusion across the interface and the changes in the dislocation structure of bonded plates in the layers near-the-interface.

  6. Vídeo del Eje temático 2. Servicios y calidad


    Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI)


    Eje temático 2. Servicios y calidad Moderado por Ricardo Martínez de Madariaga, Biblioteca del Centro de Física Teórica y Matemáticas.- Comunicación: ¿De qué se habla cuando se habla de calidad de los servicios? (Carina Rey, profesora titular de la Universidad de Barcelona).- Indicadores y carta de servicios en las bibliotecas del CSIC (Juan Pedro López Monjón, Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación).- Servicios y calidad, la visión de las bibliotecas (Marina Gó...

  7. In-situ irradiation of cerium precursors in TEM to study nanocrystal formation (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Sajid Ali; Sabri, Mohammed Mohammed; Tian, Zijian; Möbus, Günter


    Three of the most commonly used precursor chemicals for wet-chemical nano-ceria synthesis are examined by means of direct dry electron irradiation in TEM. Transformation reactions of micron-size carbonate, chloride, and nitrate grains into nanocrystallites (internal or external) are recorded in situ. Progress of possible redox-changes of cerium is tracked by EELS. We find a straight local oxidation reaction for carbonates, but external nanorod formation by condensation in the case of chlorides, while nitrates show a multi-stage complex redox behaviour.

  8. TEM-based Pair Distribution Function study of interatomic distances in C-supported Pt (United States)

    Tran, D. T.; Ozkaya, D.


    The interatomic distances have been characterised for a Pt on Carbon based fuel cell catalyst studied by analysing the atomic pair distribution functions (PDF) obtained from electron diffraction (ED) data taken in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experimental PDFs have been compared with atomistic models to examine C-C and Pt-Pt interatomic distances. Further, the models have been refined by reverse Monte-Carlo simulations (RMC) based on the experimental PDF, enabling the investigation of Pt-C interatomic distances. This has demonstrated the existence of an interatomic contact between the Pt and C.

  9. Creation of a sharper focus by using a rectified TEM p0 beam (United States)

    Hasnaoui, A.; Bencheikh, A.; Fromager, M.; Cagniot, E.; Aït-Ameur, K.


    The superresolution technique is usually used in optical imaging for its ability to make the central diffractive spot smaller than the Airy spot. In this paper, we apply the superresolution technique for transforming a symmetrical TEMp0 Laguerre-Gauss beam into a Gaussian intensity distribution in the plane of a converging lens. The beam shaping is achieved by an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element having a transmittance, alternatively equal to -1 or + 1, modelled on the p light rings of the incident beam. It is observed that the rectified TEM30 beam at focus has a focal volume 170 times smaller than that of a Gaussian beam.

  10. In Situ Laser Synthesis of Si Nanowires in the Dynamic TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Reed, B; LaGrange, T; Browning, N


    Nanowires (NWs) are a crucial component in today's nanoscale devices and are vital to the further development of nanotechnology. To achieve reliable growth of NWs and uniform electronic properties, the specific mechanisms that control the structural development of NWs and the correlation between NWs and their nucleation and growth processes must be examined. Because imaging is not possible in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) chambers, in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) based growth methods provide a method for characterizing NW evolution. In this paper, we describe a new method of in situ synthesis and imaging of NWs using laser-assisted growth inside a TEM. The vapor-liquid solid (VLS) growth mechanism (Figure 1), first described by Wagner and co-workers, is a widely accepted description of how many 1D nanostructures are formed. VLS and similar models have been applied to such methods as hybrid pulsed-laser ablation/chemical vapor deposition (PLA/CVD) and laser assisted NW growth at elevated temperatures, in which a pulsed laser ablates a target with gas flowing through the reaction chamber held at elevated temperature. These methods have successfully produced semiconductor and conducting oxide NWs with size control determined by the catalyst droplet diameter. The VLS description of NW growth is a widely accepted model, but the exact role of vapor species and its interaction with the catalyst particle is not fully understood. For example, NW growth has been observed to occur far below predicted eutectic temperatures, which suggests that alternative mechanisms such as solid-liquid-solid growth (SLS) may play a role. Many NW fabrication techniques preclude direct in situ characterization of the growth process. Because of this need for direct observation during growth, TEM-based NW growth methods have become increasingly popular. Though progress has been made in the study of the VLS mechanism of NW growth using in situ TEM, conventional in situ growth

  11. Preparation and Imaging of Specialized ER Using Super-Resolution and TEM Techniques. (United States)

    Bell, Karen; Oparka, Karl; Knox, Kirsten


    The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms several specialized structures. These include the sieve element reticulum (SER) and the desmotubule formed as the ER passes through plasmodesmata. Imaging both of these structures has been inhibited by the resolution limits of light microscopy and their relatively inaccessible locations, combined with the fragile nature of the ER. Here we describe methods to view desmotubules in live cells under 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and methods to fix and prepare phloem tissue for both 3D-SIM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which preserve the fragile structure and allow the detailed imaging of the SER.

  12. Low-pressure Environmental TEM (ETEM) studies of Au assisted MgO nanorod growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    and interface structure of supported nanoparticles in a controlled environment [7]. This allows for a deeper understanding of the dynamic response of the surface and interface to changes in gas composition, pressure and temperature. Additionally, an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) TEM has been used in order to have...... about the crystal structure of their surfaces is often obtained from measurements that are averaged over large numbers of particles. Furthermore, the catalytic activity depends on the support and hence on the interaction between support and catalyst nanoparticle. Supported Au nanoparticles are active...

  13. Evaluation of TEG(®) and RoTEM(®) inter-changeability in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemo, Jostein S; Næss, Paal A; Johansson, Pär


    BACKGROUND: Massive haemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable deaths in trauma. Traumatic coagulopathy is frequently present early after trauma, and is associated with increased mortality. A number of recent trials suggest that viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHA), such as thromboelastography...... values for the two devices was 0.24 for the R-time vs CT in all centres combined. For the K-time vs CFT the correlation was 0.48, for the α-angle(TEG) vs α-angle(RoTEM) 0.44, and for MA vs MCF 0.76. Limits of agreement exceeded the preset clinically acceptable deviation of 10% for all variables in all...

  14. An in-situ TEM investigation of He bubble evolution in SiC


    Pawley, C J; Beaufort, M.F.; Oliviero, E.; Hinks, J. A.; Barbot, J F; Donnelly, S. E.


    This paper presents work using the capabilities of two TEM with in-situ ion\\ud irradiation facilities: Microscope and Ion Accelerator for Materials Investigation (MIAMI) at\\ud the University of Huddersfield and Joint Accelerators for Nano-science and Nuclear\\ud Simulation JANNuS at Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse\\ud (CSNSM), Orsay, France, to study the nucleation and growth of He bubbles in silicon carbide\\ud (SiC) and to carry out an investigation into bubble b...

  15. Descripción temática de los encuentros de asocolme, 2008-2010


    Gómez, Pedro; Cañadas, María C.; Restrepo, Ángela M.; Bracho, Rafael; Aristizábal, Guillermo


    En este trabajo presentamos un análisis temático de los trabajos publicados en las actas de los encuentros de la Asociación Colombiana de Matemática Educativa (ASOCOLME) entre 2008 y 2010. Estos trabajos fueron codificados con base en una clasificación conceptual específica a la Educación Matemática. Los resultados de la codificación se analizaron en términos de frecuencias y porcentajes, distinguiendo aquellos documentos que son de investigación de aquellos que no lo son. Los resultados mues...

  16. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L


    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ERDA, RBS, TEM and SEM characterization of microstructural evolution in helium-implanted Hastelloy N alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jie [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Bao, Liangman [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huang, Hefei, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lei, Qiantao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Deng, Qi [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Zhe; Yang, Guo [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, Liqun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Hastelloy N alloy was implanted with 30 keV, 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} helium ions at room temperature, and subsequent annealed at 600 °C for 1 h and further annealed at 850 °C for 5 h in vacuum. Using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the depth profiles of helium concentration and helium bubbles in helium-implanted Hastelloy N alloy were investigated, respectively. The diffusion of helium and molybdenum elements to surface occurred during the vacuum annealing at 850 °C (5 h). It was also observed that bubbles in molybdenum-enriched region were much larger in size than those in deeper region. In addition, it is worth noting that plenty of nano-holes can be observed on the surface of helium-implanted sample after high temperature annealing by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This observation provides the evidence for the occurrence of helium release, which can be also inferred from the results of ERDA and TEM analysis.

  18. Fabrication of thin TEM sample of ionic liquid for high-resolution ELNES measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Tomohiro, E-mail:; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail:


    Investigation of the local structure, ionic and molecular behavior, and chemical reactions at high spatial resolutions in liquids has become increasingly important. Improvements in these areas help to develop efficient batteries and improve organic syntheses. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) have excellent spatial resolution, and the electron energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES) measured by the accompanied electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is effective to analyze the liquid local structure owing to reflecting the electronic density of states. In this study, we fabricate a liquid-layer-only sample with thickness of single to tens nanometers using an ionic liquid. Because the liquid film has a thickness much less than the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of the electron beam, the fine structure of the C-K edge electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) can be measured with sufficient resolution to allow meaningful analysis. The ELNES spectrum from the thin liquid film has been interpreted using first principles ELNES calculations. - Highlights: • A fabrication method of thin liquid film samples for STEM-EELS observations is proposed. • The thickness of the fabricated thin liquid film is about 10 nm. • An ELNES is measured from the thin liquid with a high energy resolution. • The peaks of the ELNES are interpreted using first principles calculations.

  19. TEM Study of High-Temperature Precipitation of Delta Phase in Inconel 718 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moukrane Dehmas


    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is widely used because of its ability to retain strength at up to 650∘C for long periods of time through coherent metastable  Ni3Nb precipitation associated with a smaller volume fraction of  Ni3Al precipitates. At very long ageing times at service temperature,  decomposes to the stable Ni3Nb phase. This latter phase is also present above the  solvus and is used for grain control during forging of alloy 718. While most works available on precipitation have been performed at temperatures below the  solvus, it appeared of interest to also investigate the case where phase precipitates directly from the fcc matrix free of  precipitates. This was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. TEM observations confirmed the presence of rotation-ordered domains in plates, and some unexpected contrast could be explained by double diffraction due to overlapping phases.

  20. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polarsubstrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the 'seed' area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity are 10 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  1. Cryo-FIB specimen preparation for use in a cartridge-type cryo-TEM. (United States)

    He, Jie; Hsieh, Chyongere; Wu, Yongping; Schmelzer, Thomas; Wang, Pan; Lin, Ying; Marko, Michael; Sui, Haixin


    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a well-established technique for studying 3D structural details of subcellular macromolecular complexes and organelles in their nearly native context in the cell. A primary limitation of the application of cryo-ET is the accessible specimen thickness, which is less than the diameters of almost all eukaryotic cells. It has been shown that focused ion beam (FIB) milling can be used to prepare thin, distortion-free lamellae of frozen biological material for high-resolution cryo-ET. Commercial cryosystems are available for cryo-FIB specimen preparation, however re-engineering and additional fixtures are often essential for reliable results with a particular cryo-FIB and cryo-transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM). Here, we describe our optimized protocol and modified instrumentation for cryo-FIB milling to produce thin lamellae and subsequent damage-free cryotransfer of the lamellae into our cartridge-type cryo-TEM. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Determination of the activation energy in a cast aluminium alloy by TEM and DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovono Ovono, D. [Laboratoire Roberval, University of Technology of Compiegne, 60205 Compiegne (France)]. E-mail:; Guillot, I. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgie, UPR2801 CNRS, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Massinon, D. [Fonderie Montupet, 60181 Nogent-sur-Oise (France)


    The precipitation behaviour and microstructure development of the A319 alloy during ageing were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM). During T5 treatment, {theta}' precipitates with an average size of about 18 nm were observed by TEM. The precipitate sizes increased with ageing temperature and attained an average size of 107 nm. In addition, there was a linear relationship between precipitate growth temperature and the cube of the precipitate size. This indicates that precipitate growth of the A319 alloy belongs to a thermal activated process of the Arrhenius type. The activation energy for the precipitate growth was calculated to be 140.4 {+-} 13.3 kJ/mol. However, under continuous heating conditions, the activation energy for the precipitate growth obtained by Kissinger plot was determined to be 119.5 {+-} 8.3 kJ/mol. Allowing for experimental error, both values are comparable and are related to the diffusion of Cu and/or Si in Al.

  3. Metodología de la investigación temática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Bosco


    Full Text Available El origen histórico de la Investigación Temática está vinculado con el trabajo de la educación de adultos, del pedagogo brasileño Paulo Freire, en base a un método Psicosocial. Quienes están dedicados a la práctica de este método se han dado cuenta de su riqueza metodológica y han empezado a formular con mayor claridad sus supuestos teóricos y desglosar su desarrollo como metodología investigativa y como práctica social. Actualmente, se está utilizando la investigación temática en EE.UU., Colombia, Chile, Perú, Bolivia, Venezuela y otros países, la misma que nació en parte como fruto de una insatisfacción con las metodologías tradicionales de investigación social.

  4. Evaluation and mapping of Dead Sea coastal aquifers salinity using Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) resistivity measurements (United States)

    Ezersky, Michael G.; Frumkin, Amos


    Evaporite karst has intensively developed recently along the Dead Sea (DS) coastal area in Israel and Jordan. It takes place in very saline groundwater dissolving buried salt layers, causing collapse of the surface. In this paper, groundwater salinity throughout the DS coastal area is investigated using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method. Twenty-eight TEM soundings along the DS coastal area were carried out close to observation boreholes to calibrate resistivity-salinity relationships. Groundwater electrical conductivity was measured in these boreholes, and its salinity was analyzed at the laboratory by the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI). Quantitative relationships between bulk resistivity (ρx), water resistivity (ρw) and chloride concentration (Ccl) were derived in the resistivity range less than 1.0 Ω·m that enabled to evaluate the salinity of the aquifer in in situ conditions. Average values of the effective porosity of sandy sediments, φe = 0.32, and of silty ones, φe = 0.44, were used to generate the corresponding Archie equations. The study has shown that a DS aquifer with bulk resistivity in the range of 0.55-1.0 Ω·m contains in pores brine with 50-110 gchloride/l of (22-50% of that in saturated conditions, respectively), i.e. it keeps the potential to dissolve up to 114-174 g/l of salt.

  5. Microstructural observation of fuel cell catalyst inks by Cryo-SEM and Cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Shimanuki, Junichi; Takahashi, Shinichi; Tohma, Hajime; Ohma, Atsushi; Ishihara, Ayumi; Ito, Yoshiko; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo


    In order to improve the electricity generation performance of fuel cell electric vehicles, it is necessary to optimize the microstructure of the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The catalyst layer is formed by a wet coating process using catalyst inks. Therefore, it is very important to observe the microstructure of the catalyst ink. In this study, the morphology of carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) particles in catalyst inks with a different solvent composition was investigated by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). In addition, the morphology of the ionomer, which presumably influences the formation of agglomerated Pt/C particles in a catalyst ink, was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results of a cryo-SEM observation revealed that the agglomerated Pt/C particles tended to become coarser with a higher 1-propanol (NPA) weight fraction. The results of a cryo-TEM observation indicated that the actual ionomer dispersion in a catalyst ink formed a network structure different from that of the ionomer in the solvent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Fabrication of thin TEM sample of ionic liquid for high-resolution ELNES measurements. (United States)

    Miyata, Tomohiro; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu


    Investigation of the local structure, ionic and molecular behavior, and chemical reactions at high spatial resolutions in liquids has become increasingly important. Improvements in these areas help to develop efficient batteries and improve organic syntheses. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) have excellent spatial resolution, and the electron energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES) measured by the accompanied electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is effective to analyze the liquid local structure owing to reflecting the electronic density of states. In this study, we fabricate a liquid-layer-only sample with thickness of single to tens nanometers using an ionic liquid. Because the liquid film has a thickness much less than the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of the electron beam, the fine structure of the C-K edge electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) can be measured with sufficient resolution to allow meaningful analysis. The ELNES spectrum from the thin liquid film has been interpreted using first principles ELNES calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stereo-vision three-dimensional reconstruction of curvilinear structures imaged with a TEM. (United States)

    Oveisi, Emad; Letouzey, Antoine; De Zanet, Sandro; Lucas, Guillaume; Cantoni, Marco; Fua, Pascal; Hébert, Cécile


    Deriving accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structural information of materials at the nanometre level is often crucial for understanding their properties. Tomography in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful technique that provides such information. It is however demanding and sometimes inapplicable, as it requires the acquisition of multiple images within a large tilt arc and hence prolonged exposure to electrons. In some cases, prior knowledge about the structure can tremendously simplify the 3-D reconstruction if incorporated adequately. Here, a novel algorithm is presented that is able to produce a full 3-D reconstruction of curvilinear structures from stereo pair of TEM images acquired within a small tilt range that spans from only a few to tens of degrees. Reliability of the algorithm is demonstrated through reconstruction of a model 3-D object from its simulated projections, and is compared with that of conventional tomography. This method is experimentally demonstrated for the 3-D visualization of dislocation arrangements in a deformed metallic micro-pillar. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [Bacterial TEM-type serine beta-lactamases: structure and analysis of mutations]. (United States)

    Grigorenko, V G; Rubtsova, M Yu; Uporov, I V; Ishtubaev, I V; Andreeva, I P; Shcherbinin, D S; Veselovsky, A V; Egorov, A M


    Beta-lactamases (EC represent a superfamily containing more than 2,000 members: it includes genetically and functionally different bacterial enzymes capable to destroy the beta-lactam antibiotics. The most common are beta-lactamases of molecular class A with serine in the active center. Among them, TEM-type beta-lactamases are of particular interest from the viewpoint of studying the mechanisms of the evolution of resistance due to their broad polymorphism. To date, more than 200 sequences of TEM-type beta-lactamases have been described and more than 60 structures of different mutant forms have been presented in Protein Data Bank. We have considered the main structural features of the enzymes of this type with particular attention to the analysis of key drug resistance and the secondary mutations, their location relative to the active center and the surface of the protein globule. We have developed the BlaSIDB database ( which is an open information resource combining available data on 3D structures, amino acid sequences and nomenclature of the corresponding forms of beta-lactamases.

  9. Structural changes in collagen fibrils across a mineralized interface revealed by cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Quan, Bryan D; Sone, Eli D


    The structure of the mineralized collagen fibril, which is the basic building block of mineralized connective tissues, is critical to its function. We use cryo-TEM to study collagen structure at a well-defined hard-soft tissue interface, across which collagen fibrils are continuous, in order to evaluate changes to collagen upon mineralization. To establish a basis for the analysis of collagen banding, we compared cryo-TEM images of rat-tail tendon collagen to a model based on the X-ray structure. While there is close correspondence of periodicity, differences in band intensity indicate fibril regions with high density but lacking order, providing new insight into collagen fibrillar structure. Across a mineralized interface, we show that mineralization results in an axial contraction of the fibril, concomitant with lateral expansion, and that this contraction occurs only in the more flexible gap region of the fibril. Nevertheless, the major features of the banding pattern are not significantly changed, indicating that the axial arrangement of molecules remains largely intact. These results suggest a mechanism by which collagen fibrils are able to accommodate large amounts of mineral without significant disruption of their molecular packing, leading to synergy of mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. eV-TEM: Transmission electron microscopy in a low energy cathode lens instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelen, Daniël, E-mail: [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Thete, Aniket [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schaff, Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander [SPECS GmbH, Voltastrasse 5, D-13355 Berlin (Germany); Molen, Sense Jan van der [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Tromp, Rudolf [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)


    We are developing a transmission electron microscope that operates at extremely low electron energies, 0–40 eV. We call this technique eV-TEM. Its feasibility is based on the fact that at very low electron energies the number of energy loss pathways decreases. Hence, the electron inelastic mean free path increases dramatically. eV-TEM will enable us to study elastic and inelastic interactions of electrons with thin samples. With the recent development of aberration correction in cathode lens instruments, a spatial resolution of a few nm appears within range, even for these very low electron energies. Such resolution will be highly relevant to study biological samples such as proteins and cell membranes. The low electron energies minimize adverse effects due to radiation damage. - Highlights: • We present a new way of performing low energy transmission electron microscopy in an aberration corrected LEEM/PEEM instrument. • We show a proof of principle where we measure transmitted electrons through a suspended graphene monolayer with a preliminary setup. • We present an improved setup design that provides better control of the incident electron beam.

  11. SIMS and TEM investigation of hydrogen trapping on implantation defects in a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, Fanny, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loïc [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude du Comportement à Long Terme des Matériaux de conditionnement, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Sennour, Mohamed [MINES ParisTech, PSL – Research University – Centre des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7633, B.P. 87, 91003 Evry (France); Jomard, François [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (CNRS and University of Versailles Saint Quentin), 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chêne, Jacques [UMR 8587 CEA/CNRS, Équipe Hydrogène/Matériaux de structure, CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Étude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    This study aims at characterizing the interactions of hydrogen with point defects and their clusters in nickel-based superalloys. For this, nickel ion implantation was used to create defects in the sub-surface of alloy 690 coupons. The interaction of hydrogen with these defects was studied thanks to SIMS depth profile analysis performed after deuterium cathodic charging, and different annealing treatment. In parallel, TEM observations were carried out in order to qualify and quantify the defects responsible for the trapping, and to observe their evolution in the presence of hydrogen. All the results exhibit a strong interaction of hydrogen with implantation-defects, up to high temperatures (325 °C). Also, hydrogen is shown to assist defects reorganisation, in a way similar to the effect of temperature. The effect of hydrogen on the alloy atoms as explored by SIMS, combined with the TEM investigation of defects evolution in the presence of hydrogen, allows to suggest that the main mechanism for hydrogen-assisted motion of defects is by lowering the lattice friction, thus decreasing the activation volume for the unfaulting or motion of point defect clusters, up to dislocation loops.

  12. Quantitative Electrochemical Measurements using in situ ec-S/TEM Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gardiner, Daniel [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Walden II, Franklin S [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Damiano, John [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Nackashi, David P. [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC


    Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ ec-S/TEM, which utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry, choronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple using a [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and was found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10-5 cm2 s-1. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.

  13. In-situ TEM on the coalescence of birnessite manganese dioxides nanosheets during lithiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ke [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kuang, Min; Zhang, Yuxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Jiabin, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Hongtao, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Meng, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Highlights: • Evolution of MnO{sub 2} nanosheets during lithiation was in situ observed. • MnO{sub 2} was reacted with Li to form Mn and LiO{sub 2}. • Nanosheets expanded and aggregated due to lithiation. - Abstract: Nanostructure is believed to produce great benefits for anode materials in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by enhancing lithium ion transfer, accommodating large volume change and increasing surface area. Whether the nanostructure (especially the porous nanostructure) could be well held during charging/discharging process is one of the most commonly concerned issues in LIBs research. The dynamic evolution of birnessite manganese dioxides nanosheets during lithiation process is investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time. The TiO{sub 2}@MnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires are used as the anode and Li metal as the counter electrode inside the TEM. Interestingly, the lithiation process is confirmed as MnO{sub 2} and Li converting to Li{sub 2}O and Mn. The original porous structure of the nanosheets is hard to preserve during lithiation process due to lithiation-induced contact flattening.

  14. In Situ TEM Study of Interaction between Dislocations and a Single Nanotwin under Nanoindentation. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cui, Junfeng; Jiang, Nan; Lyu, Jilei; Chen, Guoxin; Wang, Jia; Liu, Zhiduo; Yu, Jinhong; Lin, Chengte; Ye, Fei; Guo, Dongming


    Nanotwinned (nt) materials exhibit excellent mechanical properties, and have been attracting much more attention of late. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanism of interaction between dislocations and a single nanotwin is not understood. In this study, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanoindentation is performed, on a specimen of a nickel (Ni) alloy containing a single nanotwin of 89 nm in thickness. The specimen is prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) technique from an nt surface, which is formed by a novel approach under indentation using a developed diamond panel with tips array. The stiffness of the specimen is ten times that of the pristine counterparts during loading. The ultrahigh stiffness is attributed to the generation of nanotwins and the impediment of the single twin to the dislocations. Two peak loads are induced by the activation of a new slip system and the penetration of dislocations over the single nanotwin, respectively. One slip band is parallel to the single nanotwin, indicating the slip of dislocations along the nanotwin. In situ TEM observation of nanoindentation reveals a new insight for the interaction between dislocations and a single nanotwin. This paves the way for design and preparation of high-performance nt surfaces of Ni alloys used for aircraft engines, gas turbines, turbocharger components, ducts, and absorbers.

  15. LDRD Final Report - In Operando Liquid Cell TEM Characterization of Nickel-Based Electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A commercial electrochemistry stage for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was tested to determine whether to purchase one for the microscopes at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Deposition of a nickel-based electrocatalyst was pursued as a material system for the purpose of testing the stage. The stage was found to be problematic with recurring issues in the electrical connections and vacuum sealing, which has thus far precluded a systematic investigation of the original material system. However, the electrochemical cells purchased through this FS will allow the Lawrence Fellow (Nielsen) to continue testing the stage. Furthermore, discussions with a second vendor, which released a similar electrochemical TEM stage during the course of this FS, have resulted in an upcoming longterm loan of their stage at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) for testing. In addition, low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements on nickel-bearing electrolyte solutions led to a broader EELS investigation of solvents and salt solutions. These measurements form the basis of a manuscript in preparation on EELS measurements of the liquid phase.

  16. Estudio del funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems en una Escala de Habilidades Sociales para Adolescentes


    Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Galindo Garre, Francisca; Inglés Saura, Cándido José; Campoy Menéndez, Guillermo; Ortiz Soria, Beatriz


    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el posible funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (DIF) que componen la Escala de Habilidades Sociales para Adolescentes (EHSPA) como una parte del proceso de análisis de ítems. Este estudio implementa dos procedimientos de detección del DIF (estadístico de Mantel-Haenszel y Modelos Logit) para examinar si los ítems de la EHSPA funcionan de forma distinta en grupos igualados en función del género.

  17. Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM

    KAUST Repository

    Cong, Chunxiao


    In-plane and out-of-plane arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers play critical roles in the fundamental physics and practical applications of these novel two-dimensional materials. Here, we report initial results on the edge/crystal orientations and stacking orders of bi-and tri-layer graphene (BLG and TLG) from Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments performed on the same sample. We introduce a new method of transferring graphene flakes onto a normal TEM grid. Using this novel method, we probed the BLG and TLG flakes that had been previously investigated by Raman scattering with high-resolution (atomic) TEM.

  18. Mitigating Curtaining Artifacts During Ga FIB TEM Lamella Preparation of a 14 nm FinFET Device. (United States)

    Denisyuk, Andrey; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Vincenc Oboňa, Jozef; Sharang; Petrenec, Martin; Michalička, Jan


    We report on the mitigation of curtaining artifacts during transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella preparation by means of a modified ion beam milling approach, which involves altering the incident angle of the Ga ions by rocking of the sample on a special stage. We applied this technique to TEM sample preparation of a state-of-the-art integrated circuit based on a 14-nm technology node. Site-specific lamellae with a thickness TEM, which showed a clear transistor structure and confirmed minimal curtaining artifacts. The results are compared with a standard inverted thinning preparation technique.

  19. Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM (United States)

    Cong, Chunxiao; Li, Kun; Zhang, Xi Xiang; Yu, Ting


    In-plane and out-of-plane arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers play critical roles in the fundamental physics and practical applications of these novel two-dimensional materials. Here, we report initial results on the edge/crystal orientations and stacking orders of bi- and tri-layer graphene (BLG and TLG) from Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments performed on the same sample. We introduce a new method of transferring graphene flakes onto a normal TEM grid. Using this novel method, we probed the BLG and TLG flakes that had been previously investigated by Raman scattering with high-resolution (atomic) TEM. PMID:23378926

  20. Comprehensive analysis of TEM methods for LiFePO4/FePO4 phase mapping: spectroscopic techniques (EFTEM, STEM-EELS) and STEM diffraction techniques (ACOM-TEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, X.; Kobler, A.; Wang, D.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used intensively in investigating battery materials, e.g. to obtain phase maps of partially (dis)charged (lithium) iron phosphate (LFP/FP), which is one of the most promising cathode material for next generation lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Due...... to the weak interaction between Li atoms and fast electrons, mapping of the Li distribution is not straightforward. In this work, we revisited the issue of TEM measurements of Li distribution maps for LFP/FP. Different TEM techniques, including spectroscopic techniques (energy filtered (EF)TEM in the energy...... with each other. Because of the strong difference in the imaging mechanisms, it proves the reliability of both the spectroscopic and STEM diffraction phase mapping. A comprehensive comparison of all methods is given in terms of information content, dose level, acquisition time and signal quality. The latter...

  1. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM: a minimally invasive procedure for treatment of selected rectal neoplasms Microcirurgia endoscópica transanal (TEM: um procedimento minimamente invasivo para o tratamento de neoplasias selecionadas do reto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio C. Nahas


    Full Text Available Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM provides a minimally invasive alternative to radical surgery for excision of benign and malignant rectal tumors. TEM aims to provide an alternative to conventional abdominal surgery (low anterior resection or abdominoperineal amputations, which carries not inconsiderable morbidity and mortality. Based on review of the literature and in the authors experience, this review present the method and indications for TEM.A microcirurgia endoscópica transanal (TEM é procedimento alternativo minimamente invasivo ao tratamento cirúrgico radical para excisão de tumores benignos e malignos do reto. Ela oferece possibilidade operatória aos procedimentos cirúrgicos convencionais (ressecção anterior baixa ou amputações abdominoperineais, as quais acarretam alta morbimortalidade. Baseada na revisão da literatura e na experiência própria dos autores, esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar o método e as indicações para a TEM.

  2. In situ TEM studies of the shape evolution of Pd nanocrystals under oxygen and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Meng, Jun; Zhu, Beien; Yu, Jian; Zou, Shihui; Zhang, Ze; Gao, Yi; Wang, Yong


    We demonstrate an atomic scale TEM observation of shape evolutions of Pd nanocrystals under oxygen and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure. Combined with multi-scale structure reconstruction model calculations, the reshaping mechanism is fully understood.

  3. In situ sputter cleaning of thin film metal substrates for UHV-TEM corrosion studies. (United States)

    Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.


    A prerequisite for conducting valid corrosion experiments by in situ electron microscopy techniques is not only the achievement of UHV background pressure conditions at the site of the specimen but also the ability to clean the surface of the thin metal substrate specimen before initiation of the corrosive interaction. A miniaturized simple ion gun has been constructed for this purpose. The gun is small enough to be incorporated into an UHV electron microscope specimen chamber with hot stage in such a way as to permit bombardment of the substrate specimen while observing it by transmission electron microscopy TEM. It is shown that the ion beam generated is confined well enough to cause a sputtering removal of substrate material at a rate of approximately 5-10 A/min and to prevent the sputter deposition of contaminating material from the specimen holder.

  4. Novel Time-domain Ultra-wide Band TEM Horn Antenna for Highway GPR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin De


    Full Text Available Based on transmission line theory and impedance transition, we design an ultra-wideband Transverse ElectroMagnetic (TEM horn antenna that takes advantage of index gradient structure and loading techniques and is optimized for highway Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR applications. We use numerical simulation to analyze the effects of different curved surfaces as an extension of the antenna and further improve the antenna performance by the use of a metallic reflective cavity and distributed resistor loading. We then fabricated an antenna based on the optimization results and determined the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR of the antenna to be less than 2 for bandwidths ranging from 0.9–12.6 GHz. The waveform fidelity of the antenna is also good and when we applied this antenna to highway scenarios, it achieved good results.

  5. The use of a central beam stop for contrast enhancement in TEM imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); College of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); Peters, Peter J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital NKI AVL, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division Cell Biology 2, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands)


    Dark field TEM imaging using a stop of the central beam (DF-000) is reported. It is shown that a strong enhancement in the contrast can be obtained for graphene as example of weak phase object and endocytic multivescilar body as example of an unstained biological sample. No charging or significant contamination of the central beam stop is observed. For graphene, a resolution beyond 1 Å{sup −1} was easily obtained. DF-000 imaging can be considered as a good and easy to use alternative of a phase plate. - Highlights: • Center stop DF imaging is a good method to improve contrast for weak phase object • Charging problem is avoided by using a Mercedes-star-like center stop • C{sub s} correction and CMOS camera improve the center stop DF imaging quality.

  6. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dám, Karel, E-mail: [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Lejček, Pavel, E-mail: [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Michalcová, Alena [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)


    Dynamic changes in microstructure of the superplastic ultrafine-grained Al–3Mg–0.2Sc (wt.%) alloy refined by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). were observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy at temperatures up to 300 °C (annealing and tensile deformation) in order to simulate the initial stages of superplastic testing. It was found that the microstructure changes significantly during the preheating before the superplastic deformation, which was accompanied by decreased microhardness. During the deformation at 300 °C, high dislocation activity as well as motion of low-angle grain boundaries was observed while high-angle grain boundaries did not move due to the presence of scandium in the alloy. - Highlights: ► We performed in situ TEM annealing and straining on superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy. ► We simulated the conditions of early stages of superplastic testing. ► Significant changes in microstructure occur during preheating before deformation.

  7. TEM characterization of organic nanocrystals grown in sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, Virginie; Bacia, Maria [CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut Neel (France); Putaux, Jean-Luc [ICMG-CNRS, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (France); Ibanez, Alain [CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut Neel (France)], E-mail:


    The tetracene molecule (2,3-benzanthracene, C{sub 8}H{sub 12}) was used to synthesize nanocrystals grown in sol-gel thin films, ranging from 10 to 100 nm of diameter. This confined nucleation and growth was compared to microcrystallizations of the same molecule in free solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize these two kinds of tetracene crystals. The observation was performed under low-dose illumination to avoid amorphization of the samples during electron irradiation. Spatial confinement and size distribution of micro- and nanocrystals were compared. Using electron microdiffraction and diffraction patterns simulations, we showed that free microcrystals and nanocrystals confined in gel glasses exhibit the same triclinic P-bar 1 structure. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy was used to record fluorescence decays, showing a monoexponential fluorescence decay for nanocrystals while microcrystals exhibit a multiexponential decay. The simple signature of nanocrystals luminescence is promising for the future development of chemical or biological sensors.

  8. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of enclosures using UWB pulses inside an open TEM waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann


    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Numerical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, a measurement procedure is introduced using ultra wideband (UWB electromagnetic field pulses. The procedure provides a quick way to determine the transient shielding effectiveness of an enclosure without performing time consuming frequency domain measurements. For demonstration, a cylindrical enclosure made of conductive textile is examined. The field pulses are generated inside an open TEM-waveguide. From the measurement of the transient electric and magnetic fields with and without the shield in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the shielding material as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are derived.

  9. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys (United States)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang


    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  10. La temática de Federico García Lorca en el Cante Jondo


    ZITOUNI, Torkia


    n No podemos estudiar la literatura española del siglo XX sin hablar sobre una figura màs famosa ,Federico García Lorca uno de los màs grandes representantes,uno de los màs leídos y comentados,nació en Fuente Vaqueros villa situada en Vega de Granada en 05 de junio de 1898. Con esta modesta tesina titulada (temàtica de Federico García Lorca en el Cante Jondo) hemos intentado acercanos a la obra poética de Federico García Lorca .Sin olvidar que nuestro poeta era miembro de un...

  11. Comparative IL-TEM study concerning the degradation of carbon supported Pt-based electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Katrin Gabriele; Hanzlik, Marianne; Arenz, Matthias


    responsible for the Pt surface area loss of carbon supported electrocatalysts. It is demonstrated that seemingly similar catalysts can exhibit under identical treatment pronounced differences in their degradation behaviour. As a consequence individual steps in the synthesis of electrocatalysts can have......In the present work the identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM) approach is used for a comparative study of the degradation of several standard Pt-based electrocatalysts for low temperature proton conducting membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The paper discusses the mechanisms...... a distinct effect on the degradation mechanism even if the base chemicals and materials used in their synthesis are identical. This finding sheds new light in the much debated issue if crystallite migration and coalescence or Pt dissolution and re-deposition are mainly responsible for the Pt surface area...

  12. SEM and TEM analyses of microstructural changes in creep degraded and tensile tested CMSX-4 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubiel, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Nazmy, M. [Alstom (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Lapin, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials and Machine Mechanics


    The effect of creep induced microstructural degradation caused by high temperature creep on mechanical properties of single crystal CMSX-4 superalloy was studied. Creep tests were performed at temperature 1050 C and stress of 68 MPa for 2500 h. Pre-crept specimens were subsequently tensile tested at room temperature (RT) and 950 C. Additionally, as a case study, microstructure of ex-service turbine blades after operation for 12700 hours in industrial gas turbine was investigated. Tensile tests of mini specimens cut from turbine blades were also performed. Microstructural analyses of {gamma}-{gamma}' microstructure were carried out using SEM and TEM. Observed microstructural degradation of both laboratory tested and ex-service CMSX-4 samples showed that morphological changes of {gamma}-{gamma}' microstructure associated with dislocation accumulation at {gamma}/{gamma}' interfaces influence the inhibition of deformation in {gamma} channels, what results in deterioration of CMSX-4 strength and ductility. (orig.)

  13. Image processing enhancement of high-resolution TEM micrographs of nanometer-size metal particles (United States)

    Artal, P.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Soria, F.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.


    The high-resolution TEM detectability of lattice fringes from metal particles supported on substrates is impeded by the substrate itself. Single value decomposition (SVD) and Fourier filtering (FFT) methods were applied to standard high resolution micrographs to enhance lattice resolution from particles as well as from crystalline substrates. SVD produced good results for one direction of fringes, and it can be implemented as a real-time process. Fourier methods are independent of azimuthal directions and allow separation of particle lattice planes from those pertaining to the substrate, which makes it feasible to detect possible substrate distortions produced by the supported particle. This method, on the other hand, is more elaborate, requires more computer time than SVD and is, therefore, less likely to be used in real-time image processing applications.

  14. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717 (United States)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  15. Quantification by aberration corrected (S)TEM of boundaries formed by symmetry breaking phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryvers, D., E-mail: [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Salje, E.K.H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Nishida, M. [Department of Engineering Sciences for Electronics and Materials, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); De Backer, A. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Idrissi, H. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe, 2, B-1348, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Van Aert, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)


    The present contribution gives a review of recent quantification work of atom displacements, atom site occupations and level of crystallinity in various systems and based on aberration corrected HR(S)TEM images. Depending on the case studied, picometer range precisions for individual distances can be obtained, boundary widths at the unit cell level determined or statistical evolutions of fractions of the ordered areas calculated. In all of these cases, these quantitative measures imply new routes for the applications of the respective materials. - Highlights: • Quantification of picometer displacements at ferroelastic twin boundary in CaTiO{sub 3.} • Quantification of kinks in meandering ferroelectric domain wall in LiNbO{sub 3}. • Quantification of column occupation in anti-phase boundary in Co-Pt. • Quantification of atom displacements at twin boundary in Ni-Ti B19′ martensite.

  16. TEM, SEM, and X-ray analysis of Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, A.C. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, Cba (Argentina); Cangiano, M. de los A.; Ojeda, M.W.; Ruiz, M. del C. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina)


    Full text: Cu-Ni alloys are extensively used in several metallurgical industries. The traditional methods for the synthesis of these alloys have some limitations, mainly related with manufacturing costs and with the homogeneity of the final product, which encourages the study and development of new methodologies to produce them. In our research group we have developed a new chemical route for the synthesis of Cu-Ni alloys [1,2]. The process involves four steps, including the precursor preparation by the citrate-gel method and the subsequent decomposition, calcination and reduction. In this work, the physicochemical characterization of Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticles synthesized by the new chemical route is presented. The sample characterization was performed by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of TEM and EDS analyses showed that Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticles with a good chemical homogeneity were obtained. The mean Cu/Ni atomic ratio was around 0.98. The XRD diagram showed the formation of a new phase with intermediate lattice parameter between the corresponding to pure Cu and Ni structures, and with an average grain size around 6 nm. The chemical homogeneity of the alloy obtained is discussed on the basis of the resolution of the analytical techniques used. [1] M. de los A. Cangiano, A. C. Carreras, M. W. Ojeda and M. del C. Ruiz, A new chemical route to synthesize Cu-Ni alloy nanostructured particles. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 458 (2008) 405-409. [2] M. de los A. Cangiano, M. W. Ojeda, A. C. Carreras, J. A. Gonzalez and M. del C. Ruiz, A study of the composition and microstructure of nanodispersed Cu-Ni alloy obtained by different routes from copper and nickel oxides. Materials Characterization, 61 (2010) 1135-1146. (author)

  17. Purity evaluation of carbon nanotube materials by thermogravimetric, TEM, and SEM methods. (United States)

    Trigueiro, João Paulo C; Silva, Glaura G; Lavall, Rodrigo L; Furtado, Clascidia A; Oliveira, Sérgio; Ferlauto, Andre S; Lacerda, Rodrigo G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Liu, Jiang-Wen; Frost, Ray L; George, Graeme A


    Raw and purified samples of carbon nanotubes are considered as multicomponent systems with a distribution of carbonaceous, amorphous, multishell graphitic particles and nanotubes, together with the particles of metal compounds from the catalyst. With respect to the carbon nanotube fractions, a distribution of size, defect concentrations, and functionalities needs to be taken into account. In order to address the problem of quantitative evaluation of purity it is necessary to measure the quality and distribution of the carbon nanotubes. In this research conventional and high resolution thermogravimetry are applied to quantify different fractions of carbonaceous and metallic materials in raw and moderately purified single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. For each oxidized fraction, defined by careful line shape analysis of the derivative thermogravimetric curves (DTG), the temperature of maximum rate of oxidation, the temperature range for this oxidation, related to the degree of homogeneity, and the amount of associated material is specified. The attribution of carbonaceous materials to each fraction in the distribution was based on SEM and TEM measurements and the literature. The MWNT purified sample with 1.6 wt% metal oxide was investigated by high resolution thermogravimetry (HRTG). The quantitative assessment for the carbonaceous fractions was 25 wt% of amorphous and high defect carbonaceous materials including nanotubes, 54 wt% MWNT and 20 wt% multishell graphitic particles. A qualitative evaluation of these fractions was obtained from the SEM and TEM images and supports these results. The accuracy of the values, taking into account other measurements performed on the same batch of material, should be more sensible than +/-4 wt%.

  18. In-depth TEM characterization of block copolymer pattern transfer at germanium surfaces (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Collins, Timothy W.; Kelly, Roisin A.; McCarthy, Eoin K.; Morris, Michael A.


    Dry plasma etching for the pattern transfer of mask features is fundamental to semiconductor processing and the development of device and electrically conducting elements becomes more challenging as features reach the deep nanoscale regime. In this work, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization were used to analyze the pattern transfer of graphoepitaxially aligned block copolymer (BCP) features to germanium (Ge) substrates as a function of time. The BCP patterns were converted into metal oxide hardmasks in order to affect good aspect ratios of the transferred features. An unusual interface layer between metal oxide nanowires and the germanium-on-insulator substrate was observed. EDX analysis shows that the origin of this interface layer is a result of the presence of a negative tone e-beam resist material, HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane). HSQ was employed as a guiding material to align line-space features of poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP with 16 nm half-pitch topography. Additionally, the existence of a metal oxide layer (from the initial PS-b-P4VP film) is also shown through ex situ TEM and EDX characterization. Three dimensional modeling of features is also provided giving a unique insight into the arrangement and structure of BCP features prior to and after the pattern transfer process. The results presented in this article highlight the accuracy of high resolution electron microscopy and elemental mapping of BCP generated on-chip etch masks to observe and understand through-film features affecting pattern transfer.

  19. TEM study of the morphology of Mn2+ -doped calcium hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate. (United States)

    Mayer, I; Cuisinier, F J G; Gdalya, S; Popov, I


    Mn-doped carbonated hydroxyapatites (HA) were prepared by precipitation method. Ca-deficient HA samples were obtained by this method with the characteristic hexagonal apatite structure. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of two HA samples with two different Mn content has shown that their morphology depends on their Mn content. In case of relatively low (0.73%) Mn content (HAMn1), platelet crystals about micron size and needle-like crystals up to 100 nm were observed, while with 1.23% Mn (HAMn2) crystals were smaller, needle-like and with sizes up to 400 nm only. Mn-doped TCP samples were prepared by two methods. In one case it was obtained by direct solid-state reaction with the characteristic rhombohedral structure of beta-TCP and with composition of Ca(2.7)Mn(0.3)(PO(4))(2). TEM pictures of crystals of this sample were tens of micron and submicron size with visible faces. Crystals of beta-TCP obtained by high temperature partial transformation of sample HAMn2 to beta-TCP were found by TEM to be smaller, micron sized, drop-like shaped, sensitive to beam radiation. These results indicate that the morphology of Mn doped beta-tricalcium phosphate samples depends on the method of their preparation. Morphological properties of HA and TCP are discussed and it is suggested that the smaller and less perfect HA crystals with the higher Mn-content as well as the less perfect TCP crystals obtained by transformation of HA to TCP might be of more biocompatible character.

  20. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grapentin

    Full Text Available Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI. 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM, to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Present status and future prospects of spherical aberration corrected TEM/STEM for study of nanomaterials

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    Nobuo Tanaka


    Full Text Available The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy.

  2. TEMs but not DKK1 could serve as complementary biomarkers for AFP in diagnosing AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Mao, Liping; Wang, Yueguo; Wang, Delin; Han, Gang; Fu, Shouzhong; Wang, Jianxin


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide. Despite its limitations, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) remains the most widely-used biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. This study aimed to assess whether measurement of peripheral plasma Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) could overcome the limitations of AFP and improve the diagnostic accuracy of HCC. Plasma DKK1 level and the percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes from HCC patients (n = 82), HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) patients (n = 29), chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infected patients (n = 28) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze a single biomarker, or a combination of two or three biomarkers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the significance of each marker in prediction of HCC and AFP-negative HCC from LC patients. The percentage of TEMs in peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes and plasma level of DKK1 in HCC group were significantly higher than those in LC, CHB and healthy control groups (all P-values AFP-negative HCC group than that in LC, CHB and healthy control groups (all P-values AFP-negative HCC and LC patients. ROC curves showed that the optimal diagnostic cutoff value was 550.93 ng/L for DKK1 and 4.95% for TEMs. There was no significant difference in AUC of DKK1, TEMs and AFP in HCC diagnosis between the four groups (all P>0.05). A combination of DKK1, TEMs and AFP measurements increased the AUC for HCC diagnosis as compared with either marker alone (0.833; 95%CI 0.768-0.886). The AUC for TEMs was 0.692 (95% CI 0.564-0.819) in differentiating AFP-negative HCC from LC, with a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 65.52%. Only TEMs prevailed as a significant predictor for AFP-negative HCC differentiating from LC patients in univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.016, P = 0.023). TEMs and DKK1 may

  3. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals (United States)

    Chisholm, Claire

    In this work, unirradiated and irradiated model body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) materials are investigated using advanced electron microscopy techniques to quantitatively measure local stresses and strains around defects, with the overarching goal of obtaining a fundamental understanding of defect physics. Quantitative in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests are performed with Molybdenum-alloy nano-fibers, functioning as a model BCC structural material. Local true stress and strain around an active Frank-Read type dislocation source are obtained using quantitative load-displacement data and digital image correlation. A mixed Frank-Read dislocation source, b=a/2[-1-11](112) with a line direction 20° from a screw orientation and length 177 nm, is observed to begin operating at a measured local stress of 1.38 GPa. The measured local true stress values compare very well to estimated stresses using dislocation radius of curvature, and a line-tension model of a large bow-out configuration, with differences of only ˜1%. The degree to which the local true stresses can be measured is highly promising. However, the ultimate failure mode of these fibers, sudden strain softening after dislocation starvation and exhaustion, cannot be captured at the typical camera frame rate of 30 frames per second. Thus, fibers are mechanically tested while under observation with the Gatan K2-IS direct electron detector camera, where the frame rate is an order of magnitude larger at 400 fps. Though the increase in frame rate adds to the overall understanding of the sudden failure, by definitively showing that the nano-fibers break rather than strain soften, the failure mechanism still operates too quickly to be observed. In the final investigation of this BCC model structural alloy, the mechanical behavior of heavily dislocated, but unirradiated, and He1+ and Ni 2+ irradiated nano-fibers are compared. Remarkable similarities are found in the

  4. Genetic and structural characterization of an L201P global suppressor substitution in TEM-1 beta-lactamase. (United States)

    Marciano, David C; Pennington, Jeanine M; Wang, Xiaohu; Wang, Jian; Chen, Yu; Thomas, Veena L; Shoichet, Brian K; Palzkill, Timothy


    TEM-1 beta-lactamase confers bacterial resistance to penicillin antibiotics and has acquired mutations that permit the enzyme to hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins or to avoid inactivation by beta-lactamase inhibitors. However, many of these substitutions have been shown to reduce activity against penicillin antibiotics and/or result in loss of stability for the enzyme. In order to gain more information concerning the tradeoffs associated with active site substitutions, a genetic selection was used to find second site mutations that partially restore ampicillin resistance levels conferred by an R244A active site TEM-1 beta-lactamase mutant. An L201P substitution distant from the active site that enhanced ampicillin resistance levels and increased protein expression levels of the R244A TEM-1 mutant was identified. The L201P substitution also increases the ampicillin resistance levels and restores expression levels of a poorly expressed TEM-1 mutant with a core-disrupting substitution. In vitro thermal denaturation of purified protein indicated that the L201P mutation increases the T(m) value of the TEM-1 enzyme. The X-ray structure of the L201P TEM-1 mutant was determined to gain insight into the increase in enzyme stability. The proline substitution occurs at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix and may stabilize the enzyme by reducing the helix dipole, as well as by lowering the conformational entropy cost of folding due to the reduced number of conformations available in the unfolded state. Collectively, the data suggest that L201P promotes tolerance of some deleterious TEM-1 mutations by enhancing the protein stability of these mutants.

  5. Genetic characterization of TEM-type ESBL-associated antibacterial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. (United States)

    Oduro-Mensah, Daniel; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Bonney, Evelyn Yayra; Oduro-Mensah, Ebenezer; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Osei, Yaa Difie; Sackey, Sammy Tawiah


    Antibiotic resistance due to the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Data from Ghana regarding this resistance mechanism is limited. This study was designed to investigate the presence of TEM-type ESBL genes, their locations and their conjugabilities in clinical isolates of enterobacteria collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Study isolates were characterized with respect to ESBL phenotype, TEM-type ESBL gene detection, location of the ESBL gene(s) and conjugability of the ESBL phenotype using nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12 as recipient. Phenotyping was by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion using cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime and their combinations with clavulanate. Gene detections were by PCR using blaTEM primers. Overall, 37.96 % of 137 clinical isolates showed ESBL phenotype. The ESBLs occurred mostly in Klebsiella spp. (42.3 %) and then Escherichia coli (34.6 %). The TEM gene was detected in 48.1 % of ESBL-positive isolates and was determined to be plasmid-borne in 24 of 25 blaTEM detections. Overall, 62.7 % of TEM-producing isolates transferred the ESBL phenotype by conjugation. The results highlight the presence of TEM-type ESBLs in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and show considerable risk of environmental contamination through the urine of infected persons. An inhibition zone chart was generated which indicates the possible presence of complex beta-lactamase types. The data points to the fact that the ESBL-producing bacteria may disseminate this resistance mechanism via conjugation.

  6. Correlated NanoSIMS, TEM, and XANES Studies of Presolar Grains (United States)

    Groopman, Evan Edward

    The objective of this thesis is to describe the correlated study of individual presolar grains via Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) utilizing X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), with a focus on connecting these correlated laboratory studies to astrophysical phenomena. The correlated isotopic, chemical, and microstructural studies of individual presolar grains provide the most detailed description of their formation environments, and help to inform astrophysical models and observations of stellar objects. As a part of this thesis I have developed and improved upon laboratory techniques for micromanipulating presolar grains and embedding them in resin for ultramicrotomy after NanoSIMS analyses and prior to TEM characterization. The new methods have yielded a 100% success rate and allow for the specific correlation of microstructural and isotopic properties of individual grains. Knowing these properties allows for inferences to be made regarding the condensation sequences and the origins of the stellar material that condensed to form these grains. NanoSIMS studies of ultramicrotomed sections of presolar graphite grains have revealed complex isotopic heterogeneities that appear to be primary products of the grains' formation environments and not secondary processing during the grains' lifetimes. Correlated excesses in 15N and 18O were identified as being carried by TiC subgrains within presolar graphite grains from supernovae (SNe). These spatially-correlated isotopic anomalies pinpoint the origin of the material that formed these grains: the inner He/C zone. Complex microstructures and isotopic heterogeneities also provide evidence for mixing in globular SN ejecta, which is corroborated by models and telescopic observations. In addition to these significant isotopic discoveries, I have also observed the first reported nanocrystalline core


    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül


    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  8. Shell structure of natural rubber particles: evidence of chemical stratification by electrokinetics and cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Rochette, Christophe N; Crassous, Jérôme J; Drechsler, Markus; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Eloy, Marie; de Gaudemaris, Benoît; Duval, Jérôme F L


    The interfacial structure of natural rubber (NR) colloids is investigated by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and electrokinetics over a broad range of KNO3 electrolyte concentrations (4-300 mM) and pH values (1-8). The asymptotic plateau value reached by NR electrophoretic mobility (μ) in the thin double layer limit supports the presence of a soft (ion- and water-permeable) polyelectrolytic type of layer located at the periphery of the NR particles. This property is confirmed by the analysis of the electron density profile obtained from cryo-TEM that evidences a ∼2-4 nm thick corona surrounding the NR polyisoprene core. The dependence of μ on pH and salt concentration is further marked by a dramatic decrease of the point of zero electrophoretic mobility (PZM) from 3.6 to 0.8 with increasing electrolyte concentration in the range 4-300 mM. Using a recent theory for electrohydrodynamics of soft multilayered particles, this "anomalous" dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration is shown to be consistent with a radial organization of anionic and cationic groups across the peripheral NR structure. The NR electrokinetic response in the pH range 1-8 is indeed found to be equivalent to that of particles surrounded by a positively charged ∼3.5 nm thick layer (mean dissociation pK ∼ 4.2) supporting a thin and negatively charged outermost layer (0.6 nm in thickness, pK ∼ 0.7). Altogether, the strong dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration suggests that the electrostatic properties of the outer peripheral region of the NR shell are mediated by lipidic residues protruding from a shell containing a significant amount of protein-like charges. This proposed NR shell interfacial structure questions previously reported NR representations according to which the shell consists of either a fully mixed lipid-protein layer, or a layer of phospholipids residing exclusively beneath an outer proteic film.

  9. Synthesis, TEM characterization and thermal behaviour of LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene (United States)

    Tribaudino, Mario; Bromiley, Geoffrey; Ohashi, Haruo; Nestola, Fabrizio


    A pyroxene with composition LiNiSi2O6 was synthesized at T = 1,473 K and P = 2.0 GPa; the cell parameters at T = 298 K are a = 9.4169(6) Å, b = 8.4465(7) Å, c = 5.2464(3) Å, β = 110.534(6)°, V = 390.78(3) Å3. TEM examination of the LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene showed the presence of h + k odd reflections indicative of a primitive lattice, and of antiphase domains obtained by dark field imaging of the h + k odd reflections. A HT in situ investigation was performed by examining TEM selected area diffraction patterns collected at high temperature and synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. In HTTEM the LiNiSi2O6 was examined together with LiCrSi2O6 pyroxene. In LiCrSi2O6 the h + k odd critical reflections disappear at about 340 K; they are sharp up to the transition temperature and do not change their shape until they disappear. In LiNiSi2O6 the h + k odd reflections are present up to sample deterioration at 650 K. A high temperature synchrotron radiation powder diffraction investigation was performed on LiNiSi2O6 between 298 and 773 K. The analysis of critical reflections and of changes in cell parameters shows that the space group is P-centred up to the highest temperature. The comparative analysis of the thermal and spontaneous strain contributions in P21/ c and C2/ c pyroxenes indicates that the high temperature strain in P-LiNiSi2O6 is very similar to that due to thermal strain only in C2/ c spodumene and that a spontaneous strain contribution related to pre-transition features is not apparent in LiNiSi2O6. A different high-temperature behaviour in LiNiSi2O6 with respect to other pyroxenes is suggested, possibly in relation with the presence of Jahn-Teller distortion of the M1 polyhedron centred by low-spin Ni3+.

  10. Ligand-induced structural changes in TEM-1 probed by molecular dynamics and relative binding free energy calculations. (United States)

    Pimenta, A C; Martins, J M; Fernandes, R; Moreira, I S


    The TEM family of enzymes has had a crucial impact on the pharmaceutical industry due to their important role in antibiotic resistance. Even with the latest technologies in structural biology and genomics, no 3D structure of a TEM-1/antibiotic complex is known previous to acylation. Therefore, the comprehension of their capability in acylate antibiotics is based on the protein macromolecular structure uncomplexed. In this work, molecular docking, molecular dynamic simulations, and relative free energy calculations were applied in order to get a comprehensive and thorough analysis of TEM-1/ampicillin and TEM-1/amoxicillin complexes. We described the complexes and analyzed the effect of ligand binding on the overall structure. We clearly demonstrate that the key residues involved in the stability of the ligand (hot-spots) vary with the nature of the ligand. Structural effects such as (i) the distances between interfacial residues (Ser70-Oγ and Lys73-Nζ, Lys73-Nζ and Ser130-Oγ, and Ser70-Oγ-Ser130-Oγ), (ii) side chain rotamer variation (Tyr105 and Glu240), and (iii) the presence of conserved waters can be also influenced by ligand binding. This study supports the hypothesis that TEM-1 suffers structural modifications upon ligand binding.

  11. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM in the treatment of postoperative colorectal stenosis Microcirurgia endoscópica transanal (TEM no tratamento de estenose colorretal pós-operatória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silveira Moraes


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strictures of low colorectal anastomosis are increasing by use the anastomotic stapler. There are many kinds of treatments like dilation, transanal rectotomy, and resection with linear or circular stapler. Other methods includes endoscopic knifes, absorbable sutures and laparotomy. The Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM has been used to treat postoperative anastomotic stenosis. CASES REPORT: Three cases of anastomotic strictures after low colorectal anastomosis were treated with TEM with success in medium follow-up. They had a good postoperative evolution without recurrence of symptoms and stenosis. CONCLUSION: The new TEM surgical approach seems to be a safe choice for the treatment of the postoperative colorectal stenosis.INTRODUÇÃO: Estenoses de anastomoses colônicas baixas estão sendo mais relatadas devido ao maior uso de anastomoses mecânicas. Existem vários processos de tratamento como dilatações, retotomia transanal e ressecções com re-anastomoses mecânicas. Outros métodos incluem secções endoscópicas, secções com anastomoses com suturas absorvíveis e laparotomia. A Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM está sendo proposta para o tratamento das estenoses anastomóticas. RELATO DOS CASOS: Três casos de estenoses anastomóticas foram tratados pela TEM com bom resultado em relação ao seguimento a médio prazo sem recurrência de sintomas. CONCLUSÃO: A TEM parece ser boa opção para o tratamento das estenoses resultantes das anastomoses coloretais baixas.

  12. Coplas de Chauen (norte de Marruecos. Temática y lenguaje formulaico

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    Francisco Moscoso García


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We present in this article the theme and the formulaic language of the four-line stanzas collected in Chauen by the Spanish Governor Carlos Pereda Roig. These stanzas belong to the genre of the poetry and traditional songs from the Yebala region (northern Morocco. The language employed is the Moroccan Arabic. They are divided into the following sections: repeated stanzas, stanzas with variations, stanzas with different verses but a common metric structure and repeating verses. RESUMEN: Recogemos en este artículo la temática y el lenguaje formulaico de las coplas de Chauen que recogió el interventor español Carlos Pereda Roig. Estas pertenecen al género de la poesía cantada tradicional de la región de Yebala (norte de Marruecos y la lengua en la que se entonan es el árabe marroquí. Están divididas en los siguientes apartados: coplas idénticas, coplas con variantes, coplas con algún verso diferente y versos que se repiten.

  13. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  14. TEM and FESEM investigation of lanthanum nickelate thin films obtained by chemical solution deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Branković


    Full Text Available Lanthanum nickelate (LNO is a perovskite oxide material with metallic conductivity in a wide temperature range which makes it suitable for application as electrode material for thin films. In this paper LNO thin films were prepared by polymerizable complex method from the diluted citrate solutions. Precursor solutions were spin coated onto Si-substrates with amorphous layer of SiO2. Deposited layers were thermally treated from the substrate side with low heating rate (1 °/min up to 700 °C and finally annealed for 10 hours. Results of AFM and FESEM showed that films are very smooth (Ra = 4 nm, dense, crack-free and with large square-shaped grains (170 nm. According to FESEM and TEM results the obtained four-layered film was only 65 nm thin. EBSD and XRD analyses confirmed polycrystalline microstructure of the films without preferential orientation. It was concluded that the presence of SiO2 layer on Si substrate prevents epitaxial or oriented growth of LNO.

  15. TEM, FISH and molecular studies in infertile men with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. (United States)

    Collodel, G; Moretti, E; Capitani, S; Piomboni, P; Anichini, C; Estenoz, M; Baccetti, B


    Pericentric inversions involving the secondary constriction (qh) region of chromosome 9 are considered to be normal variants of human karyotype. A number of investigators have suggested that chromosomal anomalies can contribute to human infertility causing spermatogenetic derangement. The present study was aimed at verifying the influence of chromosome 9 inversion on human spermatogenesis. Semen samples of 18 male carriers of chromosome 9 inversion, analysed by light microscopy, revealed that five patients were azoospermic. PCR analysis demonstrated that two of them also had Y microdeletions. The other 13 showed generally normal sperm concentrations and reduced motility. The morphological characteristics of sperm were studied by TEM and the data were elaborated by a mathematical formula. Sperm pathologies resulted more frequently in the studied group compared to controls, particularly apoptosis. Partial sequences of the A-kinase anchoring protein (Akap) 4 and 3 genes were performed in all patients, as a previous study by our group highlighted Dysplasia of Fibrous Sheath (DFS) defect in two men with inv 9 investigations. The possible effect of chromosome 9 inversion on meiotic chromosome segregation was investigated by FISH, which showed an increased incidence of diploidy. We hypothesized that this inversion could have variable effects on spermatogenesis, from azoospermia to severely altered sperm morphology, motility and meiotic segregation.

  16. TEM Nanostructural Study of Al-6Si-3Cu-Mg Melt-Spun Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeli Alfonso López


    Full Text Available Three quaternary Al-6Si-3Cu-xMg (x = 0.59, 3.80, and 6.78 wt.% alloys were produced by melt-spun and characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and microhardness techniques. Obtained second phases were Al2Cu( for the alloy with 0.59% Mg and Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 (Q for the alloys with 3.80 and 6.78% Mg. These phases are present as 30–50 nm or as 5–10 nm nanoparticles. Alloying elements content in solid solution increased, mainly for Si and Mg. The high alloying elements content in solid solution and the small -Al cell size for melt-spun alloys leads to microhardness values about 2 times higher than those of ingot counterparts. The microhardness increase for melt-spun alloys with 3.80 and 6.78% Mg depends on Mg content in solid solution.

  17. TEM studies of high temperature corrosion behaviour of TiAl intermetallics with surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, H.L.; Rose, S.R.; Xiang, Z.D.; Datta, P.K. [University of Northumbria, Advanced Materials Research Institute, Ellison Building, Ellison Place, NE1 8 ST Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Li, X.Y. [Ion Engieneering Research Institute Corporation, 2-8-1, Tsudayamate, Hirakata, Osaka 513-0128 (Japan)


    The oxidation/sulphidation behaviour of a Ti-46.7Al-1.9W-0.5Si alloy with a TiAl{sub 3} diffusion coating was studied in an environment of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2}O at 850{sup o}C. The kinetic results demonstrate that the TiAl{sub 3} coating significantly increased the high temperature corrosion resistance of Ti-46.7Al-1.9W-0.5Si. The SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM analysis reveals that the formation of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale on the surface of the TiAl{sub 3}-coated sample was responsible for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance. The Ti-46.7Al-1.9W-0.5Si alloy was also modified by Nb ion implantation. The Nb ion implanted and as received samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation in an open air at 800{sup o}C. The Nb ion implantation not only increased the oxidation resistance but also substantially improved the adhesion of scale to the substrate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs


    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  19. Analysis of polycrystalline SrRuO3 by TEM and EELS (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo; Klamut, Piotr; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Maxwell, Mike


    Analysis of polycrystalline SrRuO3 by TEM and EELS Y. Ito, P. W. Klamut , B. Dabrowski, M. Maxwell Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL Two polycrystalline SrRuO3 samples were prepared (1) in the conventional manner (Curie temperature TC = 165K) and (2) at high pressure of oxygen resulting in substantially lower TC (= 90K). The Mössbauer Ru (99) analysis of the sample (1) showed a unique hyperfine magnetic field and, corresponding to one Ru site (+4) and a broad single line above the TC (96K), indicating the presence of multiple sites and/or electric quadrupole interaction for the sample (2) [1]. Here, we investigate the microscopic origins of the above differences and the relationship between microstructure, composition, and electronic structure of these two polycrystalline SrRuO3 by using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). [1] M. DeMarco, P.W. Klamut, B. Dabrowski, S. Toorongian and M. Haka, see abstract of this meeting. Supported by NSF-DMR-0105398, and HECA.

  20. TEM monitoring of silver nanoparticles formation on the surface of lead crystal glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C. [Fundacion Centro Nacional del Vidrio, Real Fabrica de Cristales, Po Pocillo, 1. 40100 La Granja de San Ildefonso, Segovia (Spain); Villegas, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8. 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Navarro, J.M. Fernandez [Instituto de Optica Daza de Valdes, CSIC, C. Serrano, 121. 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Silver nanoparticles have been formed on the surface of lead crystal glass by means of (i) ion-exchange of alkaline ions from the glass by Ag{sup +} ions from a molten salts bath, and (ii) silica based sol-gel coatings containing silver. All experimental variables concerning both ion-exchange process and sol-gel coatings application were combined and studied as main parameters governing the reduction of Ag{sup +} ions to Ag{sup 0} atoms and further aggregation to form nanosized colloids. The content of thermoreducing agents (arsenic or antimony oxides) in the lead crystal glass was essential to favour the reduction of silver ions to form nanoparticles. Optimal experimental conditions to be used for the obtaining of surface silver nanoparticles were determined. TEM was used as the principal characterisation technique for direct observation of the nanoparticles generated. The size of silver colloids varied in the 20-300 nm range for ion-exchanged samples and in the 10-80 nm range for sol-gel coated samples.

  1. Comparison Between Eight- and Sixteen-Channel TEM Transceive Arrays for Body Imaging at 7 Tesla (United States)

    Snyder, CJ; DelaBarre, L; Moeller, S; Tian, J; Akgun, C; Van De Moortele, P-F; Bolan, PJ; Ugurbil, K; Vaughan, JT; Metzger, GJ


    Eight- and sixteen-channel transceive stripline/TEM body arrays were compared at 7 tesla (297 MHz) both in simulation and experimentally. Despite previous demonstrations of similar arrays for use in body applications, a quantitative comparison of the two configurations has not been undertaken to date. Results were obtained on a male pelvis for assessing transmit, SNR and parallel imaging performance and to evaluate local power deposition versus transmit B1 (B1+). All measurements and simulations were conducted after performing local B1+ phase shimming in the region of the prostate. Despite the additional challenges of decoupling immediately adjacent coils, the sixteen-channel array demonstrated improved or nearly equivalent performance to the eight-channel array based on the evaluation criteria. Experimentally, transmit performance and SNR were 22% higher for the sixteen-channel array while significantly increased reduction factors were achievable in the left-right direction for parallel imaging. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated similar results with respect to transmit and parallel imaging performance, however a higher transmit efficiency advantage of 33% was predicted. Simulations at both 3T and 7T verified the expected parallel imaging improvements with increasing field strength and showed that, for a specific B1+ shimming strategy employed, the sixteen-channel array exhibited lower local and global SAR for a given B1+. PMID:22102483

  2. TEM characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He Ken [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morin, Gregory; Griffiths, Malcolm [Deformation Technology Branch, AECL – Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada)


    The irradiation induced defects in CANDU Inconel X-750 spacers, which were removed from reactors after about 14 effective full power years, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The spacers in the form of garter springs were reported to operate at various temperatures depending on locations. Two samples from different locations with different estimated irradiation temperatures were tested: (1) ∼180 °C at 6 o’clock position and (2) ⩾300 °C at 12 o’clock position. Obvious temperature effects were observed. In the ∼180 °C irradiated sample, a high density of small lattice defects (1–3 nm) developed during irradiation, including stacking fault tetrahedra and both 1/3 〈1 1 1〉 and ½ 〈1 1 0〉 type dislocation loops. A uniform distribution of small cavities (∼1–3 nm) was observed. In >300 °C irradiated sample, apart from small point defect clusters, large Frank type interstitial loops presented. The sizes of the cavities were also greater than those in the ∼180 °C irradiated sample. The distribution of cavities was more heterogeneous and an obvious agglomeration of cavities to grain boundaries and phase boundaries were observed. In both samples, dissolution of the primary strengthening phase γ′ was noted.

  3. 3D-TEM study on the novel bicontinuous microdomain structure. (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chin; Wakabayashi, Midori; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Mikihito


    An ordered bicontinuous double-diamond (OBDD) morphology was found in polystyrene-block-(poly-4-vinylphenyldimethylvinylsilane-graft-polyisoprene), PS-b-(PVS-g-PI), block-graft copolymer. We obtained a 3D image of the microdomain structure formed in PS-b-(PVS-g-PI) using 3D-TEM. The 3D image shows that the polystyrene (PS) phase consists of two independent and interwoven networks. The structures of the two networks are identical and include tetrapod units that form planar six-membered rings. The features of the networks agree with those in the OBDD morphology, indicating that PS-b-(PVS-g-PI) exhibits ordered three-dimensional OBDD networks with the PS phase in the polyisoprene (PI) matrix phase. The grafted PI chains induce the frustration of the PS chains; thus, the effects of the specific interface are more dominant than those of packing frustration in the formation of the morphology, and the OBDD phase is stabilized.

  4. EPR, TEM and cell viability study of asbestiform zeolite fibers in cell media. (United States)

    Cangiotti, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca


    Human monocyte U937 cell line was used as a model to verify the toxicity of erionite and offretite asbestiform zeolite fibers. As a presumed non-toxic reference, a fibrous scolecite zeolite was also used. To analyze the process of fiber ingestion into cells and the cells-fibers interactions, a spin-probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was performed supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cell viability measurements as a function of the incubation time. Erionite fibers were fast internalized in the membrane mainly as aggregates with radical-solution drops trapped inside, and were found in the cytosol and at the nucleus. In 24h, first erionite fibers rich in sodium and potassium, and then calcium-rich erionite fibers, induced cell necrosis. The offretite fibers formed rounding electron-dense filaments which transformed in curved filaments, initially perturbing the cell structure and interacting at the external surface more than erionite fibers. Such interactions probably diminished the toxic effect of offretite on cells. Interestingly, the presumed non-toxic scolecite fibers were partially internalized, inducing formation of swollen mitochondria and squared cells. Overall, the toxic effect of the fibrous zeolites was related to fiber morphology, chemical distribution of sites, structural variations and formation of aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Through Focused ION Beam (FIB from Vitrified Chromium Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros-Elizondo


    Full Text Available This study shows how the Focused Ion Beam (FIB has been applied to vitrified materials obtained from chromiumwastes. Due to the issues arising during conventional Ar+ ion milling, it was necessary to thin these samples usingFIB. Difficulties came from the heterogeneous size between chromium spinels and the residual glass phase. The FIBwas applied to obtain thin foils from vitrified materials. These brittle and heterogeneous samples result in specimenswith many perforations and chipping when using conventional thinning below 100 nanometers. Alternatively, FIBallowed thinning in the range of 60 - 80 nanometers from specifically selected areas such as the areas containingspinel crystals Mg(Al,Cr2O4 in order to facilitate the final Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM observations. Inthis paper, FIB is shown to be a very powerful microtool as a brittle samples preparation method as well as providingan alternative way for performing conventional ceramography and Ar+ ion milling. FIB is a much less destructivemethod with greater observed capacity in the quantity and analysis of microcrystalline phases.

  6. Morphological studies of microcrystalline silicon for thin-film solar cells by raman spectroscopy and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Vitalij; Hachmann, Wiebke; Sacher, Marc; Heinzmann, Ulrich [University of Bielefeld (Germany); Janzen, Daniel; Gruss, Stefan; Stiebig, Helmut [Malibu GmbH and Co. KG, Bielefeld (Germany)


    Thin-film amorphous and microcrystalline silicon are promising materials for photovoltaics as they have the potential to reduce the solar cell costs. In case of microcrystalline silicon the crystalline volume fraction is an important issue for the quality of solar cells as it is related to the microstructure of the material and the defect density. Using an AKT PECVD system optimized for amorphous silicon layer deposition we deposited microcrystalline silicon diodes on 1300 mm x 1100 mm glass-TCO superstrates under variation of deposition time, RF power, silane concentration and distance of the electrodes. Focusing on the crystalline fraction and especially its lateral homogeneity over the 1.4 m{sup 2} area we analyzed the intrinsic layer by Raman spectroscopy on different positions. Two excitation wavelength (473 nm and 633 nm) are used in ordner to get depth dependent information of the crystallinity. TEM observations of cross-section of chosen samples confirmed the spectroscopy given results. Based on the lateral information achieved the process was optimized, and a correlation between crystalline volume fraction and local cell efficiency is discussed.

  7. Implementation of a Light Source in a TEM Sample Holder for In-situ Studies of Photocatalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research [1]. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) it is possible to obtain insight into the structure, composition and reactivity of photocatalysts. Such insight can be used for their further optimization [2]. We have...... can be used inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) allowing specimens to be analyzed during exposure to a controlled gas atmosphere and illumination. The holder is presently being used to study a variety of photoreactive materials and structures, including photocatalysts, photonic devices and solar cells...... constructed a specimen holder capable of shining light onto samples inside the TEM. The holder contains a laser diode and an optical system that guides light onto a sample with maximum power transmission. The source can be changed and tuned, in principle spanning the whole visible and UV spectrum. The device...

  8. In vitro selection and characterization of mutants in TEM-1-producing Escherichia coli by ceftazidime and ceftibuten. (United States)

    Perilli, M; Segatore, B; Tavio, M; Setacci, D; Celenza, G; De Santis, F; Pellegrini, C; Rossolini, G M; Amicosante, G


    The present work was undertaken to study the ability of ceftazidime and ceftibuten to selectin vitro Escherichia coli HB101 harboring bla(TEM-1) beta-lactamase gene. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ceftazidime and ceftibuten were increased by a factor of 32, overcoming in the case of ceftazidime the breakpoint for clinical resistance. Outer membrane protein analysis and PCR for bla(TEM )alleles revealed that ceftazidime and ceftibuten select for different resistance mechanisms. Ceftazidime created mutants that encode an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-12) and exhibit decreased expression of OmpF. Ceftibuten was unable to select for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase expressing mutants but reduced the expression of two porins, OmpC and OmpF. The stability of ceftibuten to hydrolysis and the difference in the structure of these beta-lactam antibiotics could be responsible for the selection of different mechanisms of resistance.

  9. Estudo das propriedades psicométricas do Teste de Memória de Reconhecimento – TEM-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda


    Full Text Available The purpose was to verify the psychometric qualities of the Memory Test of Recognition (TEM-R. In a first moment an initial version of the TEM-R was applied at 137 college students. It was found that from the 64 initial items, 15 did not show any frequency response. Based on this it was proceeded a reconfiguration of the instrument, fixing the number of 49 items. It was accomplished a new enforcement where participated 531 college students. The results of the internal structure showed an adequacy to the Rasch model, a absence of bias in the items through the analysis of differential items functioning, and an appropriate factor structure. We observed satisfactory reability indexes. Thus, the TEM-R presented adequate psychometric properties for use in the Brazilian reality.   Keywords: memory; psychological tests; psychometry; validity; reability.

  10. Investigation of C3S hydration mechanism by transmission electron microscope (TEM) with integrated Super-XTMEDS system. (United States)

    Sakalli, Y; Trettin, R


    Tricalciumsilicate (C 3 S, Alite) is the major component of the Portland cement clinker. Hydration of Alite is decisive in influencing the properties of the resulting material. This is due to its high content in cement. The mechanism of the hydration of C 3 S is very complicated and not yet fully understood. There are different models describing the hydration of C 3 S in various ways. In this work for a better understanding of hydration mechanism, the hydrated C 3 S was investigated by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and for the first time, the samples for the investigations were prepared by using of focused ion beam from sintered pellets of C 3 S. Also, an FEI Talos F200x with an integrated Super-X EDS system was used for the investigations. FEI Talos F200X combines outstanding high-resolution S/TEM and TEM imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy signal detection, and 3D chemical characterization with compositional mapping. TEM is a very powerful tool for material science. A high energy beam of electrons passes through a very thin sample, and the interactions between the electrons and the atoms can be used to observe the structure of the material and other features in the structure. TEM can be used to study the growth of layers and their composition. TEM produces high-resolution, two-dimensional images and will be used for a wide range of educational, science and industry applications. Chemical analysis can also be performed. The purpose of these investigations was to get the information about the composition of the C-S-H phases and some details of the nanostructure of the C-S-H phases. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Mixing states of soot and BC particles measured using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and single particle soot photometer (SP2) (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Moteki, N.; Kondo, Y.; Igarashi, Y.


    Soot and black carbon (BC) aerosol particles largely affect global climate and commonly mix with other materials such as organic materials and sulfate. Their optical, chemical, and hygroscopic properties largely depend on the coatings. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) measure mixing states of soot particles and BC, respectively, with different approaches. Here we use the term 'soot' for TEM and 'BC' for SP2 analyses because they have different definitions although soot and BC would be essentially the same material. TEM visually shows mixing states of each particle, i.e., since soot and its coating have different interferences to an electron beam, we can directly observe how soot and its coating mix within particles. SP2, on the other hand, measures aerosol light scattering and BC incandescence signals and analyzes the entire particle sizes and the amounts of BC if internally mixed. SP2 also has a capability to distinguish BC in the center of other materials and on that on the surface. Although TEM directly observes particle configurations particle by particle, it is off-line measurements and analyzes limited particles. SP2 does on-line analysis and thus measures ambient particles continuously, but it needs interpretations to evaluate the mixing states. In this study, we aim to compare the both instruments and use their advantages for better approaches to measure the mixing states of soot and BC particles. Here, we collected aerosol samples from the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan during August 2012. TEM aerosol samples and SP2 measurements were done simultaneously. The results show good agreements between soot and BC mass and the changes of the mixing states. We will also discuss the diurnal changes of the mixing states from the data obtained using TEM and SP2. The knowledge of detailed soot and BC mixing states will contribute to accurate evaluations of the global climate modeling.

  12. Synthesis, SAR and molecular docking study of novel non-β-lactam inhibitors of TEM type β-lactamase. (United States)

    Antipin, Roman L; Beshnova, Daria A; Petrov, Rostislav A; Shiryaeva, Anna S; Andreeva, Irina P; Grigorenko, Vitaly G; Rubtsova, Maya Yu; Majouga, Alexander G; Lamzin, Victor S; Egorov, Alexey M


    The novel classes of acylated phenoxyanilide and thiourea compounds were investigated for their ability to inhibit TEM type β-lactamase enzyme. Two compounds 4g and 5c reveal the inhibition potency in micromolar range and show their action by non-covalent binding in the vicinity of the TEM-171 active site. The structure activity relationship around carbon chain length and different substituents in ortho- and para-positions of acylated phenoxyanilide as well as molecular modelling study has been performed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influencia de la direccionalidad de los ítem en los resultados de instrumentos de medición


    Viviana Marycel Céspedes Cuevas; Agustín Tristán-López


    El trabajo ilustra los aspectos principales donde la direccionalidad de los ítems incide en la validez, la objetividad y la confiabilidad de los instrumentos de medición utilizados en educación, psicología y salud. Se trata de un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el diseño del modelo de evaluación, en la definición de las variables, la elaboración del banco de ítems para la construcción del instrumento y la forma de presentar e interpretar los reportes. La direccionalidad no depende solam...

  14. Targetting the hemozoin synthesis pathway for antimalarial drug and detected by TEM (Transmission electron microscope) (United States)

    Abbas, Jamilah; Artanti, Nina; Sundowo, Andini; Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Hanafi, Muhammad; Lisa, Syafrudin, Din


    Malaria is a major public health problem mainly due to the development of resistance by the most lethal causative parasite species, the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drug available now. Therefore it is important to discover new antimalarial drug. Malaria is caused by a singlecelled parasite from the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum parasite infect red blood cells, ingesting and degradation hemoglobin in the acidic food vacuola trough a sequential metabolic process involving multiple proteases. During these process, hemoglobin is utilized as the predominant source of nutrition. Proteolysis of hemoglobin yields amino acid for protein synthesis as well as toxic heme. Massive degradation of hemoglobin generates large amount of toxic heme. Malaria parasite has evolved a distinct mechanism for detoxification of heme through conversion into insoluble crystalline pigment, known as hemozoin (β hematoin). Hemozoin synthesis is an indispensable process for the parasite and is the target for action of several known antimalarial drug. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) technology for hemozoin formation in vitro assay was done in this research. Calophyllum aerophyllum Lauterb as medicinal plants was used as a source of antimalarial drug. Acetone extracts of C. lowii showed growth inhibition against parasite P. falciparum with IC50 = 5.2 µg/mL. Whereas from hexane, acetone and methanol fraction of C. aerophyllum showed growth inhibition with IC50 = 0.054, 0.055 and 0.0054 µg/mL respectively. New drug from Calophyllum might have potential compounds that have unique structures and mechanism of action which required to develop new drug for treatment of sensitive and drug resistant strain of malaria.

  15. CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Xu, Yifei; Moradi, Mohammad-Amin; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Friedrich, Heiner


    Morphology plays an essential role in chemistry through the segregation of atoms and/or molecules into different phases, delineated by interfaces. This is a general process in materials synthesis and exploited in many fields including colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, and functional molecular systems. To rationally design complex materials, we must understand and control morphology evolution. Toward this goal, we utilize cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), which can track the structural evolution of materials in solution with nanometer spatial resolution and a temporal resolution of materials. These three different research areas are at the heart of our approach to materials chemistry where we take inspiration from the myriad examples of complex materials in Nature. Biological materials are formed using a limited number of chemical components and under ambient conditions, and their formation pathways were refined during biological evolution by enormous trial and error approaches to self-organization and biomineralization. By combining the information on what is possible in nature and by focusing on a limited number of chemical components, we aim to provide an essential insight into the role of structure evolution in materials synthesis. Bone, for example, is a hierarchical and hybrid material which is lightweight, yet strong and hard. It is formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of collagen into a macromolecular template with nano- and microscale structure. This template then directs the nucleation and growth of oriented, nanoscale calcium phosphate crystals to form the composite material. Fundamental insight into controlling these structuring processes will eventually allow us to design such complex materials with predetermined and potentially unique properties.

  16. Hydrogeological mapping of the island of Gotland, Sweden, using SkyTEM (United States)

    Dahlqvist, P.; Bastani, M.; Persson, L.; Triumf, C. A.; Erlström, M.; Bach, T.


    In 2013 and 2015 the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) conducted a total of 1100 km2 airborne transient electromagnetic survey (ATEM) on the island of Gotland situated in the Baltic Sea 100 km from the mainland of Sweden. The focus of the study is hydrogeological, and the main purpose to find and delimit new groundwater resources, and to map the depth to the interface between fresh and saline groundwater. The 2013 survey has been reported earlier (Dahlqvist el al 2015). In 2016 one of the designated areas is used for withdrawal of groundwater to the inhabitants on the island. Results from the 2015 survey is presented here. Inhabitants and visitors on the Island encounter major seasonal problems during the summer with the supply of drinking water. The cause of shortage is due to the fact that the main groundwater reservoirs used for production are located in thin soil layers and in the fractured sedimentary bedrock with a limited reservoir volume. The thin overburden and shallow bedrock causes most of the precipitation not to form groundwater but to run off the soil surface. Groundwater recharge during the summer period is also very limited. In addition to shortage of aquifers it is fairly common with saline groundwater (often relict). The SkyTEM survey on the Island of Gotland shows that the method is well suited for this kind of geology. The result indicates several areas where high potential for groundwater extraction is expected. The new data also reveal new and previously unknown information regarding the subsurface geology on the island down to approximately 200 m depth. With the results the geological survey has been able to point out areas with a high potential for groundwater withdrawal, saltwater depth-maps, localizing faults and to update soil depth maps.The results is of importance for the municipality of Gotland when localizing pumpingwells to increase the total amount of groundwater withdrawal especially during high preassure during the tourism season.

  17. A maioria sempre tem razão: ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson José Machado


    Full Text Available NESTE ARTIGO são examinados os contextos, os âmbitos, as circunstâncias em que o recurso à regra da maioria é um procedimento adequado, em contraposição a outros em que ele não faz sentido. A associação automática de tal regra ao funcionamento dos regimes democráticos é certamente indevida, uma vez que neles convivem harmoniosamente eleições e indicações. Também parece indevido recurso a tal regra em temas relativos à ciência, em situações que envolvem patente irreversibilidade, em questões de consciência ou de integridade pessoal. A temática é complexa e toda tentativa de fechamento de questão, ainda que sedutora, conduz a aporias do tipo sugerido no título do presente artigo.IN THIS ARTICLE, several contexts, scopes and circumstances in which the use of the majority rule seems to be a proper use, in opposition to others in which it makes no sense. The automatic association of majority rule to democratic political systems is certainly inappropriate, because these systems ordinarily aggregate both elections and appointments. The rule also seems improper when it involves questions of science, irreversibility, consciousness and personal integrity. It is a very complex thematic and an attempt in order to undervalue it may drive only to aporias, as suggested by the title of this article.

  18. Correlated XANES, TEM, and NanoSIMS of presolar graphite grains (United States)

    Groopman, Evan E.; Nittler, Larry R.


    We report correlated XANES, TEM, and NanoSIMS measurements of twelve presolar graphite grains extracted from primitive meteorites and for which isotopic data indicate predominantly Type-II supernovae origins. We find continued evidence for isotopic heterogeneities in presolar graphite grains, including the first observation of a radial gradient in the inferred initial 26Al/27Al within a presolar graphite grain. The XANES spectra of these samples show a variety of minor absorbances near the C K-edge, attributable to vinyl-keto, aliphatic, carboxyl, and carbonate molecules, as well as possible damage during sample preparation. Each sample exhibits homogeneous C K-edge XANES spectra within the graphite, however, showing no correlation with isotopic heterogeneities. Gradients in the isotope ratios of C, N, O, and Al could be due to both processes during condensation, e.g., mixing in stellar ejecta and granular transport, and post-condensation effects, such as isotope dilution and exchange with isotopically normal material in the early Solar System or laboratory, the latter of which is a significant issue for high-density presolar graphite grains. It remains unknown whether the mechanisms behind isotope exchange would also affect the local chemistry and therefore the XANES spectra. Ti L-edge XANES from most Ti-rich subgrains match standard spectra for TiC and potentially TiCN. A rare rutile (TiO2) subgrain has been identified, though it lacks the lowest energy L3 peak typically seen in standard spectra. Ca has also been identified by EDXS in TiC subgrains, likely due to the decay of live 44Ti at the time of formation. Future NanoSIMS measurements will determine the variability of initial 44Ti in TiC subgrains, an important constraint on mixing in the ejecta of the grains' parent supernovae.

  19. Genetic diversity of blaTEM alleles, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiological characteristics of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae from England and Wales. (United States)

    Cole, Michelle J; Unemo, Magnus; Grigorjev, Vlad; Quaye, Nerteley; Woodford, Neil


    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of blaTEM alleles, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiological characteristics of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates collected in 2012 from England and Wales. PPNG isolates were from the 2012 Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GRASP). Their susceptibility to seven antimicrobials was determined using agar dilution methodology. β-Lactamase production was detected using a nitrocefin test. β-Lactamase plasmid types were determined and blaTEM genes were sequenced. Isolates were also typed by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Seventy-three PPNG isolates were identified in the 2012 GRASP collection (4.6%, 73/1603). Three different blaTEM alleles were identified, encoding three TEM amino acid sequences: TEM-1 (53%), TEM-1 with a P14S substitution (19%) and TEM-135 (27%). The blaTEM-135 allele was present in nine different NG-MAST types and was found mostly on Asian (60%) and Toronto/Rio (35%) plasmids. By contrast, most TEM-1-encoding plasmids were African (98%). All the TEM-135 isolates displayed high-level ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance. The high proportion of blaTEM-135 alleles (27%) demonstrates that this variant is circulating within several gonococcal lineages. Only a single specific mutation near the β-lactamase active site could result in TEM-135 evolving into an ESBL. This is concerning particularly because the TEM-135 isolates were associated with high-level ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance. It is encouraging that no further TEM alleles were detected in this gonococcal population; however, vigilance is vital as an ESBL in N. gonorrhoeae would render the last remaining option for monotherapy, ceftriaxone, useless. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  20. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Huang, Yamin; Liu, Binghai; Zhu, Lei; Lam, Jeffrey; Mai, Zhihong


    Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB) milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1˜2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  1. Practical workflow for cryo focused-ion-beam milling of tissues and cells for cryo-TEM tomography. (United States)

    Hsieh, Chyongere; Schmelzer, Thomas; Kishchenko, Gregory; Wagenknecht, Terence; Marko, Michael


    Vitreous freezing offers a way to study cells and tissue in a near-native state by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), which is important when structural information at the macromolecular level is required. Many cells - especially those in tissue - are too thick to study intact in the cryo-TEM. Cryo focused-ion-beam (cryo-FIB) milling is being used in a few laboratories to thin vitreously frozen specimens, thus avoiding the artifacts and difficulties of cryo-ultramicrotomy. However, the technique is challenging because of the need to avoid devitrification and frost accumulation during the entire process, from the initial step of freezing to the final step of loading the specimen into the cryo-TEM. We present a robust workflow that makes use of custom fixtures and devices that can be used for high-pressure-frozen bulk tissue samples as well as for samples frozen on TEM grids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Studying the TEM response of a 3-D conductor at a geological contact using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Tripp, A.C.; Hohmann, G.W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics


    Many mineral targets are located near contact zones. Since the change of resistivity across the contact can distort or obscure the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response of the target, it is important to understand the possible effects. Previous investigators have examined similar problems using scale models. For example, Spies and Parker (1984) studied the TEM responses of fixed-loop and moving-loop configurations to geological contacts with lateral resistivity variations. More recently, Wilt (1991) systematically studied TEM soundings near a geological contact and observed that different survey systems respond to the contact in different ways. This paper will illustrate the use of the finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) algorithm of Wang and Hohmann (1993) for calculating the TEM response of a 3-D conductive body at a geological contact. The algorithm is based on the Yee staggered grid FDTD method for solving the transient electrical nonmagnetic field responses of a 3-D model. On a suitable computer, a wide range of model responses can be readily calculated, a versatility that scale modeling does not share. This study uses a fixed transmitter loop, roving-receiver configuration. Many other configurations can be regarded as special cases of this survey. It is commonly employed, for instance, by the Newmont EMP (Body and Wiles, 1984), UTEM (West et al., 1984), and Geonics EM37 systems. The configuration also facilitates finite-difference, time-domain modeling because it does not require frequent movement of the source.

  3. First detection of TEM-116 extended-spectrum β-lactamase in a Providencia stuartii isolate from a Tunisian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Lahlaoui


    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Providencia stuartii strain isolated from hospitalized patient in Tunisia and to identify the responsible genes Materials and Methods: This strain was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify the genes responsible for the β-lactamase resistance phenotypes. The transferability of the phenotypes was tested by conjugation to Escherichia coli J53. The isoelectric point was determinate by isoelectrofocalisation. Results: This resistance was carried by a 60 kb plasmid that encoded a β-lactamase with a pI of 5.4. This β-lactamase revealed identity with the blaTEM-1 gene encoding the TEM-1 β-lactamase, except for a replacement of the Val residue at position 84 by Ile, and the Ala residue at position 184 by Val. These two mutations were encountered in TEM-116 β-lactamase. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the first description of TEM-116 in the P. stuartii species in the world and the first one in a Tunisian hospital.

  4. Evolution of drug resistance: insight on TEM β-lactamases structure and activity and β-lactam antibiotics. (United States)

    Pimenta, A C; Fernandes, R; Moreira, I S


    Since the discovery of the first penicillin bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics has spread and evolved promoting new resistances to pathogens. The most common mechanism of resistance is the production of β-lactamases that have spread thorough nature and evolve to complex phenotypes like CMT type enzymes. New antibiotics have been introduced in clinical practice, and therefore it becomes necessary a concise summary about their molecular targets, specific use and other properties. β-lactamases are still a major medical concern and they have been extensively studied and described in the scientific literature. Several authors agree that Glu166 should be the general base and Ser70 should perform the nucleophilic attack to the carbon of the carbonyl group of the β-lactam ring. Nevertheless there still is controversy on their catalytic mechanism. TEMs evolve at incredible pace presenting more complex phenotypes due to their tolerance to mutations. These mutations lead to an increasing need of novel, stronger and more specific and stable antibiotics. The present review summarizes key structural, molecular and functional aspects of ESBL, IRT and CMT TEM β-lactamases properties and up to date diagrams of the TEM variants with defined phenotype. The activity and structural characteristics of several available TEMs in the NCBI-PDB are presented, as well as the relation of the various mutated residues and their specific properties and some previously proposed catalytic mechanisms.

  5. In situ TEM analysis of a symmetric solid oxide cell in oxygen and vacuum–cation diffusion observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal


    In order to establish the use of solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells (SOFC/SOEC) in the energy market, a deeper understanding of degradation effects during operation is necessary. This study apply in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a symmetric model cell composed by two oxygen...

  6. Variations in fixation techniques for field emission SEM and TEM of zebrafish (Branchydanio rerio) embryo inner and outer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL; Rawson, DM; Zhang, TT


    The morphology of embryos of the fresh water teleost, Brachydania rerio (zebrafish), was examined in a parallel FE-SEM/TEM study, after various pre- and post-fixation regimes. Special attention was paid to the chorion, the contents of the peri-vitelline space, the plasma membrane, the syncytial

  7. Optimized pre-thinning procedures of ion-beam thinning for TEM sample preparation by magnetorheological polishing. (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Yin, Shaohui; Zhang, Guanhua; Liu, Chunhui; Tang, Qingchun; Guo, Meijian


    Ion-beam-thinning is a well-established sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but tedious procedures and labor consuming pre-thinning could seriously reduce its efficiency. In this work, we present a simple pre-thinning technique by using magnetorheological (MR) polishing to replace manual lapping and dimpling, and demonstrate the successful preparation of electron-transparent single crystal silicon samples after MR polishing and single-sided ion milling. Dimples pre-thinned to less than 30 microns and with little mechanical surface damage were repeatedly produced under optimized MR polishing conditions. Samples pre-thinned by both MR polishing and traditional technique were ion-beam thinned from the rear side until perforation, and then observed by optical microscopy and TEM. The results show that the specimen pre-thinned by MR technique was free from dimpling related defects, which were still residual in sample pre-thinned by conventional technique. Nice high-resolution TEM images could be acquired after MR polishing and one side ion-thinning. MR polishing promises to be an adaptable and efficient method for pre-thinning in preparation of TEM specimens, especially for brittle ceramics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic BCG Immunization Induces Persistent Lung Mucosal Multifunctional CD4 TEM Cells which Expand Following Virulent Mycobacterial Challenge (United States)

    Kaveh, Daryan A.; Bachy, Véronique S.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Hogarth, Philip J.


    To more closely understand the mechanisms of how BCG vaccination confers immunity would help to rationally design improved tuberculosis vaccines that are urgently required. Given the established central role of CD4 T cells in BCG induced immunity, we sought to characterise the generation of memory CD4 T cell responses to BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in a murine challenge model. We demonstrate that a single systemic BCG vaccination induces distinct systemic and mucosal populations of T effector memory (TEM) cells in vaccinated mice. These CD4+CD44hiCD62LloCD27− T cells concomitantly produce IFN-γ and TNF-α, or IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α and have a higher cytokine median fluorescence intensity MFI or ‘quality of response’ than single cytokine producing cells. These cells are maintained for long periods (>16 months) in BCG protected mice, maintaining a vaccine–specific functionality. Following virulent mycobacterial challenge, these cells underwent significant expansion in the lungs and are, therefore, strongly associated with protection against M. bovis challenge. Our data demonstrate that a persistent mucosal population of TEM cells can be induced by parenteral immunization, a feature only previously associated with mucosal immunization routes; and that these multifunctional TEM cells are strongly associated with protection. We propose that these cells mediate protective immunity, and that vaccines designed to increase the number of relevant antigen-specific TEM in the lung may represent a new generation of TB vaccines. PMID:21720558

  9. The Use Of Satellite Remote Sensing And Helicopter Tem Data For The Identification And Characterization Of Contaminated Landfill Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Edsen, Anders; Auken, Esben

    , satellite remote sensing has been successfully used to identify numerous candidate sites that are most likely to host waste materials. This result was the basis for further monitoring activities based on the use of an helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system, to be carried out at end of April 2009...

  10. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang


    Full Text Available Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1∼2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  11. An Assessment of Clinical Interchangeability of TEG (R) and RoTEM (R) Thromboelastographic Variables in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, L.F.; Post, W.J.; Hendriks, H.G.D.; Huet, R.C.G.; de Wolf, J.T.W.; de Vries, A.J.

    BACKGROUND: Bedside thromboelastography is increasingly used, but an assessment of the clinical interchangeability of the 2 major systems, TEG (R) (Hemoscope) and RoTEM (R) (Pentapharm), has not been performed. METHODS: We measured blood samples from 46 cardiac surgical patients after induction of

  12. A temática cultura organizacional nos estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Marisa Antonini Ribeiro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre a temática cultura organizacional apontando os pressupostos subjacentes às diferentes concepções teórico-metodológicas. Focaliza os estudos na área da saúde a da enfermagem.

  13. Comparative studies of thin film growth on aluminium by AFM, TEM and GDOES characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jiantao, E-mail:; Thompson, George E.


    Highlights: • Coating initiation was evidenced after conversion treatment for only 30 s and the uniform cross section revealed a chemical deposition process of electrolyte anions on aluminium. • A proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment was found for the first time, indicating non-inhibitive kinetics of anodic reactions. • Coating growth on aluminium was determined by the availability of electrolyte anions and the prolonged conversion treatment crated a significant concentration gradient to limit growth. • Coating shrinkage either in the microscope or after post-coating treatment in the air was clarified, especially for the coating after prolonged conversion treatments. - Abstract: In this present study, comparative studies of trivalent chromium conversion coating formation, associated with aluminium dissolution process, have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). High-resolution electron micrographs revealed the evident and uniform coating initiation on the whole surface after conversion treatment for only 30 s, although a network of metal ridges was created by HF etching pre-treatment. In terms of conversion treatment process on electropolished aluminium, constant kinetics of coating growth, ∼0.30 ± 0.2 nm/s, were found after the prolonged conversion treatment for 600 s. The availability of electrolyte anions for coating deposition determined the growth process. Simultaneously, a proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment, of ∼0.11 ± 0.02 nm/s, was found for the first time, indicating constant kinetics of anodic reactions. The distinct process of aluminium consumption was assigned with loss of corrosion protection of the deposited coating material as evidenced in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on the present data, a new mechanism of coating growth on aluminium

  14. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM (United States)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.


    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  15. Thermal and shock metamorphism of the Tenham chondrite: A TEM examination (United States)

    Langenhorst, Falko; Joreau, Pascal; Doukhan, Jean Claude


    During the early episode Of the solar system, the L6 chondrite Tenham has been affected by intense thermal metamorphism. Microanalytical data reveal homogeneous compositions Of Olivine (F O 75Fa 25), enstatite (En 79Fs 19W O 2), and diopside (En 47Fs 8W O 45). Using these data, empirical pyroxene thermometers yield temperature estimates for this thermal metamorphism, ranging from 810 to 870°C. Due to the presence of thin shock veins, which contain the high-pressure phases majorite and ringwoodite, the L6 chondrite Tenham is an instructive example for strong shock metamorphism. In contrast to previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, which concentrated on these shock veins, we also systematically characterized the shock signature of the silicates occurring in the bulk Of Tenham. Plagioclase is either pervaded by thin (200 nm), amorphous lamellae, so-called planar deformation features ("PDFs"), or it is transformed to maskelynite, a diaplectic glass Of feldspar composition. In olivine, shock deformation has caused the formation of irregular and planar fractures and the activation of numerous (2 × 10 14 m -2) c dislocations in the glide planes (100) and {110}; energetically favorable but less mobile a dislocations are totally absent. Fracturing in olivine is interpreted as the cause of dislocation formation. A low dislocation density (shock origin is most reasonable in this case because of the presence of strong shock damage in the other silicates. Diopside displays the greatest diversity of shock defects: mechanical twins parallel to (100) and (001), numerous dislocations, and PDFs. The predominant glide system of dislocations is (100)[001], but the {110}[001] glide system is also present to a lesser extent. To our knowledge, we report here on the first evidence of thin (≤50 nm), amorphous lamellae in naturally shocked diopside. These PDFs are oriented parallel to {221} and {221}. Fine-grained (ringwoodite, were observed in a thin shock vein

  16. El lenguaje cartográfico en los mapas temáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Membrado, Joan Carles


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effectiveness of maps as transmitters of information. To this end, some basic concepts concerning the properties of cartographic language are examined, with the aim of helping the reader design maps conveying geographic information as clearly as possible. It also describes the innate taste of geographers for maps –how these attract and stimulate them. Then it deals with the emergence of the Internet and the new technologies allowing massive map visualization, downloading and production. The paper is illustrated with ten thematic maps, in which visual variables (i.e. size, shape, value, color, orientation and texture are combined with the different marks (points, lines, areas used by mapmakers to represent data.Este artículo analiza la eficacia del mapa como transmisor de información. Para ello examina algunos conceptos básicos acerca de las propiedades del lenguaje cartográfico, con el objetivo de diseñar mapas en que la información geográfica se trasmita de la manera más clara posible. También describe el gusto innato de los geógrafos por los mapas –la atracción y el estímulo que estos suponen para ellos–, para ocuparse luego de la irrupción de Internet y las nuevas tecnologías que permiten la consulta, descarga y producción masivas de mapas. El artículo está ilustrado con once mapas temáticos, en cada uno de los cuales una o varias variables visuales (tamaño, forma, valor, tono, orientación, textura se combinan con alguno de los grafismos con que el cartógrafo puede plasmar una información (punto, línea, área. [fr] Cet article analyse l’efficacité de la carte comme transmetteur d’informations. À cet effet, on y examine certains concepts de base sur les propriétés du langage cartographique, afin de faciliter la conception de cartes où l’information géographique soit transmise le plus clairement possible. On y décrit également le goût inné des cartes qu’éprouvent les g

  17. TEM Study of the Growth Mechanism, Phase Transformation, and Core/shell Structure of Semiconductor Nanowires (United States)

    Wong, Tai Lun

    In this thesis, the fabrication and characterization of one-dimensional nanostructures have been studied systematically to understand the growth mechanism and structure transformation of one-dimensional nanostructures. The growth behavior of the ultrathin ZnSe nanowires with diameter less than 60 nm was found to be different from classical vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The growth rate increases when the diameter of nanowires decreases, in contrast to the classical VLS process in which the growth rate increases with the diameter. The nucleation, initial growth, growth rates, defects, interface structures and growth direction of the nanowires were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We found the structure and growth direction of ultra-thin nanowires are highly sensitive to growth temperatures and diameters of nanowires. At a low growth temperature (380°C), the growth direction for most nanowires is along . Planar defects were found throughout the nanowires. At a high growth temperature (530°C), uniform nanowires with diameters around 10nm were grown along and directions, and the nanowires with diameters larger than 20nm were mainly grown along direction. The possible growth mechanism of ultrathin nanowires was proposed by combining the solid catalytic growth with the interface diffusion theory, in order to explain how the growth temperature and the size of the catalysts influent the morphology, growth direction and growth rate of ultrathin nanowires. Structural and phase transformation of a nickel coated Si nanowire to NiSi2/SiC core-shell nanowire heterostructures has been investigated by the in-situ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The phase transformation is a single-site nucleation process and therefore a single crystalline NiSi2 core resulted in the core-shell nanowire heterostructures. The transformation of the Si nanowire to NiSi2/SiC core-shell nanowire heterostructures was extremely fast and completed

  18. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach. (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique


    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callisen, Thomas Hønger; Talmon, Y.


    increase our insight into the function of PLA2 under physiological conditions as well as into general interfacial catalysis. In the present study we apply for the first time cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the PLA2...... hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become...... perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag...

  20. TEM observation and study of three-layer Al2O3/ZrO2 ceramics. (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Cheng, Chuan; Chen, Bin


    The micrograph and the crystal orientation relationship of Al2O3/ZrO2 laminated ceramics were studied with the help of transmission electronic microscope (TEM). The experiment results showed that: the Al2O3 and ZrO2 grain sizes were small and the links among the crystals were good. No flaws such as pores or micro-cracks were observed in the micro-structure. Further TEM analyses and electronic diffraction spot calculation proved that interface compressive stress could greatly restrain the transformation of the tetragonal phase and increase the contents of transformable tetragon, but did not change the orientation relation between the tetragonal and monoclinic phase, while (100),m//(010), still exist in the three-layer ZrO2 ceramics.

  1. Funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en pruebas de matemática para educación media


    Tania Elena Moreira-Mora


    El tema de esta investigación concierne al funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (FDI) y sus posibles fuentes en la población de estudiantes reportados con conductas del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), en la prueba de Matemática de Bachillerato en Educación Media del sistema educativo formal. En la actualidad, esta temática del FDI es fundamental en el proceso de validación de pruebas con propósitos de selección, promoción y certificación. A pesar de tal relevan...

  2. Subgrain boundary analyses in deformed orthopyroxene by TEM/STEM with EBSD-FIB sample preparation technique (United States)

    Kogure, Toshihiro; Raimbourg, Hugues; Kumamoto, Akihito; Fujii, Eiko; Ikuhara, Yuichi


    High-resolution structure analyses using electron beam techniques have been performed for the investigation of subgrain boundaries (SGBs) in deformed orthopyroxene (Opx) in mylonite from Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, Hokkaido, Japan, to understand ductile deformation mechanism of silicate minerals in shear zones. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of Opx porphyroclasts in the mylonitic rock indicated that the crystal orientation inside the Opx crystals gradually changes by rotation about the b-axis by SGBs and crystal folding. In order to observe the SGBs along the b-axis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM), the following sample preparation protocol was adopted. First, petrographic thin sections were slightly etched with hydrofluoric acid to identify SGBs in SEM. The Opx crystals whose b-axes were oriented close to the normal of the surface were identified by EBSD, and the areas containing SGBs were picked and thinned for (S) TEM analysis with a focused ion beam instrument with micro-sampling system. High-resolution TEM imaging of the SGBs in Opx revealed various boundary structures from a periodic array of dissociated (100) [001] edge dislocations to partially or completely incoherent crystals, depending on the misorientation angle. Atomic-resolution STEM imaging clearly confirmed the formation of clinopyroxene (Cpx) structure between the dissociated partial dislocations. Moreover, X-ray microanalysis in STEM revealed that the Cpx contains a considerable amount of calcium replacing iron. Such chemical inhomogeneity may limit glide motion of the dislocation and eventually the plastic deformation of the Opx porphyroclasts at a low temperature. Chemical profiles across the high-angle incoherent SGB also showed an enrichment of the latter in calcium at the boundary, suggesting that SGBs are an efficient diffusion pathway of calcium out of host Opx grain during cooling.

  3. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED (United States)


    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  4. Systemic BCG immunization induces persistent lung mucosal multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells which expand following virulent mycobacterial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryan A Kaveh

    Full Text Available To more closely understand the mechanisms of how BCG vaccination confers immunity would help to rationally design improved tuberculosis vaccines that are urgently required. Given the established central role of CD4 T cells in BCG induced immunity, we sought to characterise the generation of memory CD4 T cell responses to BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in a murine challenge model. We demonstrate that a single systemic BCG vaccination induces distinct systemic and mucosal populations of T effector memory (T(EM cells in vaccinated mice. These CD4+CD44(hiCD62L(loCD27⁻ T cells concomitantly produce IFN-γ and TNF-α, or IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α and have a higher cytokine median fluorescence intensity MFI or 'quality of response' than single cytokine producing cells. These cells are maintained for long periods (>16 months in BCG protected mice, maintaining a vaccine-specific functionality. Following virulent mycobacterial challenge, these cells underwent significant expansion in the lungs and are, therefore, strongly associated with protection against M. bovis challenge. Our data demonstrate that a persistent mucosal population of T(EM cells can be induced by parenteral immunization, a feature only previously associated with mucosal immunization routes; and that these multifunctional T(EM cells are strongly associated with protection. We propose that these cells mediate protective immunity, and that vaccines designed to increase the number of relevant antigen-specific T(EM in the lung may represent a new generation of TB vaccines.

  5. Quantitative TEM-based phase retrieval of MgO nano-cubes using the transport of intensity equation. (United States)

    Petersen, Tim C; Keast, Vicki J; Paganin, David M


    Through focus series of images are collected from MgO nano-cube crystals in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experimental data is used to solve the transport of intensity equation (TIE) to retrieve phase maps, which portray the morphology of the cubes and are quantified by the mean inner potential V(0). Particular attention is given to the practical difficulties associated with TIE phase retrieval of non-conducting polyhedron particles.

  6. Los nuevos paraísos. Historia y evolución de los parques temáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ten, Antonio E.


    Full Text Available Not available.Europa está descubriendo en los últimos años una moda cuyas raíces arraigaron primero en su territorio pero cuyo florecimiento se produjo en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. La actual proliferación de parques temáticos y su indudable impacto cultural y económico los convierte en un fenómeno social digno de estudio. Pese a ello, la bibliografía a ellos dedicada es todavía muy escasa. El presente artículo describe los orígenes de este fenómeno de nuestro tiempo, desde los primeros jardines y exposiciones universales, que pueden considerarse como sus antecesores, hasta los grandes parques de atracciones de principios de este siglo; resalta el carácter educativo no formal que distingue la filosofía de los parques temáticos y destaca el papel de la industria del entretenimiento americana en su popularización. Por fin, como una de las vías de evolución actual del concepto, se presenta la noción de «parque temático abierto» y se estudian sus posibilidades en los ámbitos del ocio y de la educación del siglo XXI.

  7. Comparative study of helium effects on EU-ODS EUROFER and EUROFER97 by nanoindentation and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldán, M., E-mail: [National Fusion Laboratory – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernández, P. [National Fusion Laboratory – CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rams, J. [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales y Tecnología Electrónica, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Jiménez-Rey, D. [Centre for Micro-Analysis of Materials (CMAM, UAM), C/Faraday 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Materna-Morris, E.; Klimenkov, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Advanced Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Highlights: • EU-ODS EUROFER has been studied before and after He implantation by nanoindentation. • Specimens implanted in stair-like profile from 15 to 2 MeV (750 to 350 appm He). • Exhaustive comparison of nanoindentation results with EUROFER97 is presented. • TEM on EUROFER97 and EU-ODSEUROFER to correlate microstructure with hardness results. - Abstract: Helium effects on EU-ODS EUROFER were studied by means of nanoindentation and TEM. The results were compared with those of EUROFER97. Both steels were implanted in a stair-like profile configuration using energies from 2 MeV (maximum He content ∼750 appm He) to 15 MeV (minimum He ∼350 appm He) at room temperature. The nanoindentation tests on He implanted samples showed a hardness increase that depended on the He concentration. The maximum hardness increase observed at 5 mN was 21% in EU-ODS EUROFER and 41% in EUROFER97; it corresponded with the zone with the highest He concentration which was around 750 appm, according to MARLOWE simulation. In addition, FIB lamellae were prepared from EUROFER97 and EU-ODS EUROFER containing the aforementioned zones with maximum (750 appm) and minimum (300 appm) He. TEM investigations carried out showed small and homogeneously distributed He nanobubbles on both alloys in the zone corresponding with maximum He content. These microstructural features seem to be the cause of the hardness increase measured by nanoindentation.

  8. Inactivation of TEM-1 by avibactam (NXL-104): insights from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics metadynamics simulations. (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Grazioso, Giovanni; De Amici, Marco; Colombo, Giorgio


    The fast and constant development of drug-resistant bacteria represents a serious medical emergence. To overcome this problem, the development of drugs with new structures and modes of action is urgently needed. In this context, avibactam represents a promising, innovative inhibitor of beta-lactamases with a novel molecular structure compared to previously developed inhibitors, showing a promising inhibitory activity toward a significant number of beta-lactamase enzymes. In this work, we studied, at the atomistic level, the mechanisms of formation of the covalent complex between avibactam and TEM-1, an experimentally well-characterized class A beta-lactamase, using classical and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations combined with metadynamics. Our simulations provide a detailed structural and energetic picture of the molecular steps leading to the formation of the avibactam/TEM-1 covalent adduct. In particular, they support a mechanism in which the rate-determining step is the water-assisted Glu166 deprotonation by Ser70. In this mechanistic framework, the predicted activation energy is in good agreement with experimental kinetic measurements. Additionally, our simulations highlight the important role of Lys73 in assisting the Ser70 and Ser130 deprotonations. While based on the specific case of the avibactam/TEM-1, the simple protocol we present here can be immediately extended and applied to the study of covalent complex formation in different enzyme-inhibitor pairs.

  9. Stable TEM00-mode Nd:YAG solar laser operation by a twisted fused silica light-guide (United States)

    Bouadjemine, R.; Liang, D.; Almeida, J.; Mehellou, S.; Vistas, C. R.; Kellou, A.; Guillot, E.


    To improve the output beam stability of a TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser, a twisted fused silica light-guide was used to achieve uniform pumping along a 3 mm diameter and 50 mm length Nd:YAG rod. The concentrated solar power at the focal spot of a primary parabolic mirror with 1.18 m2 effective collection area was efficiently coupled to the entrance aperture of a 2D-CPC/2V-shaped pump cavity, within which the thin laser rod was pumped. Optimum solar laser design parameters were found through ZEMAX© non-sequential ray-tracing and LASCAD© laser cavity analysis codes. 2.3 W continuous-wave TEM00-mode 1064 nm laser power was measured, corresponding to 1.96 W/m2 collection efficiency and 2.2 W laser beam brightness figure of merit. Excellent TEM00-mode laser beam profile at M2 ≤ 1.05 and very good output power stability of less than 1.6% were achieved. Heliostat orientation error dependent laser power variation was considerably less than previous solar laser pumping schemes.

  10. A Generalized Transformed Eulerian Mean (TEM) Based on Non-neutral Waves in a Boussinesq Stratified Fluid (United States)

    Noda, A.; Kawatani, Y.


    A general transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) set of equations are derived based on non-neutral (unstable/dissipative) waves including those excited by eddy forcing and/or diabatic heating in a Boussinesq stratified fluid. All the 9 components of the 3-dimensional eddy diffusion tensor are derived. The symmetric part of the eddy diffusion tensor is proportional to a growth rate of non-neutral waves, so that the sign can be negative when and where dissipative waves are dominant. The divergence of the inhomogeneous symmetric part as well as the anti-symmetric part contributes as Stokes drift, although the former induced velocity filed is generally divergent while the latter induced is exactly non-divergent by definition. Although the generalized TEM is derived assuming a WKB wave form and the Hilbert transformation is needed for the eddy forcing and heating terms, no explicit information of wave frequency and wave number is required for the application to real atmospheric or ocean data analyses. Some novel points of the generalized TEM are illustrated by using high-frequency sampled-data from a GCM experiment.

  11. Fecal Carriage of ESbL types TEM, SHV, CTX Producing Genera Proteus, Morganella, Providencia in Patients of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Akhi


    Full Text Available Diseases like urinary tract infection, wound infections, bacteremia and other infections are mainly caused by the members of the genus Proteus, Morganella and Providencia which are mainly either found freely in the environment or in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. We studied Fecal carriage of ESbL producing species in carrier patients.Stool samples obtained from outpatients and inpatients not suffering from diarrhea and were cultured in CTX-MC-Conkey agar. Lactose negative and cefotaxime resistant bacteria were identified by biochemical tests and ESbL-producing isolates were detected using Combined Test. TEM, SHV and CTX genes were investigated by PCR.Total 15 (7.35% isolates of 204 stool samples were identified as ESBL producing Proteus spp. (n=4, 1.96%, Morganella spp. (n=5, 2.45% and Providencia spp. (n=6, 2.94%. Further, amongst or of the 15 ESbL producing strains, blaTEM was the commonest genotype (86.66%, followed by blaSHV (26.66% and blaCTX-M (20%. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and cefotaxime whereas all Providencia and Morganella spp. were found to resist ceftazidime. Although the number of ESbL-producing Proteus, Morganella and Providencia isolates from fecal carriers were low, but still, they can be considered as a reservoir of TEM, SHV and CTX genes and capable to transfer these resistant bacteria to hospitals.

  12. Hollow nitrogen-containing core/shell fibrous carbon nanomaterials as support to platinum nanocatalysts and their TEM tomography study (United States)

    Zhou, Cuifeng; Liu, Zongwen; Du, Xusheng; Mitchell, David Richard Graham; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Yan, Yushan; Ringer, Simon


    Core/shell nanostructured carbon materials with carbon nanofiber (CNF) as the core and a nitrogen (N)-doped graphitic layer as the shell were synthesized by pyrolysis of CNF/polyaniline (CNF/PANI) composites prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline on CNFs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared and Raman analyses indicated that the PANI shell was carbonized at 900°C. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were reduced by formic acid with catalyst supports. Compared to the untreated CNF/PANI composites, the carbonized composites were proven to be better supporting materials for the Pt nanocatalysts and showed superior performance as catalyst supports for methanol electrochemical oxidation. The current density of methanol oxidation on the catalyst with the core/shell nanostructured carbon materials is approximately seven times of that on the catalyst with CNF/PANI support. TEM tomography revealed that some Pt nanoparticles were embedded in the PANI shells of the CNF/PANI composites, which might decrease the electrocatalyst activity. TEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles in the inner tube of N-doped hollow CNFs could be accessed by the Nafion ionomer electrolyte, contributing to the catalytic oxidation of methanol.

  13. Development of a National Consensus for Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) Training Programs--Operators and Medical Providers. (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Lerner, Brooke; Llwewllyn, Craig; Pennardt, Andre; Wedmore, Ian; Callaway, David; Wightman, John; Casillas, Raymond; Eastman, Alex; Gerold, Kevin; Giebner, Stephen; Davidson, Robert; Kamin, Richard; Piazza, Gina; Bollard, Glenn; Carmona, Phillip; Sonstrom, Ben; Seifarth, William; Nicely, Barbara; Croushorn, John; Carmona, Richard


    Tactical teams are at high risk of sustaining injuries. Caring for these casualties in the field involves unique requirements beyond what is provided by traditional civilian emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Despite this need, the training objectives and competencies are not uniformly agreed to or taught. An expert panel was convened that included members from the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, and Health and Human Services, as well as federal, state, and local law-enforcement officers who were recruited through requests to stakeholder agencies and open invitations to individuals involved in Tactical Emergency Medical Services (TEMS) or its oversight. Two face-to-face meetings took place. Using a modified Delphi technique, previously published TEMS competencies were reviewed and updated. The original 17 competency domains were modified and the most significant changes were the addition of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC), Tactical Familiarization, Legal Aspects of TEMS, and Mass Casualty Triage to the competency domains. Additionally, enabling and terminal learning objectives were developed for each competency domain. This project has developed a minimum set of medical competencies and learning objectives for both tactical medical providers and operators. This work should serve as a platform for ensuring minimum knowledge among providers, which will serve enhance team interoperability and improve the health and safety of tactical teams and the public. 2014.

  14. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.


    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  15. Local probing of structure and property in dimensionally confined amorphous and crystalline structures by S/TEM (United States)

    Yan, Aiming

    The characterization of materials' microstructure has been brought up to a new level since the invention and broad application of transmission electron microscope (TEM) thanks to the high-energy electron beam source which guarantees an unsurpassable spatial resolution and theoretical study of interaction between electron and matter. The advent of nano-world has imposed an urgent request to characterize nano-assemblies in nano- or even sub-nano-scale and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which typically utilizes an electron probe with a size of 1nm or even smaller has found its unique advantage to unravel the local structure, chemical and physical properties of these emerging nanostructures. Dimensionally constrained nanostructures such as thin films and nanopatterned systems have attracted people's attention for decades due to their novel chemical and physical properties and popularity in energy storage, biological integration and etc. This dissertation focuses on the unique characterization capability of S/TEM to study the local order in amorphous transparent conducting oxide thin films, disordering in 2-D layered materials, localized surface plasmons in nanoporous gold patterns on 2-D layered structures and crystallization process in dimensionally and spatially constrained oxide nanopatterns observed by in-situ TEM. Electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction are commonly used techniques to study the crystallinity in a certain material - crystalline or amorphous. In amorphous materials which lack long-range order, normal electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction techniques won't be able to extract any useful information regarding the ordering or disordering in the materials. We have developed a unique set of electron diffraction methods in both TEM and STEM, combined with density functional theory molecular dynamics of liquid quench to study the short-range (< 1 nm) and medium-range order (between 1 nm and 3 nm) in amorphous transparent oxide films

  16. TEM study of the nucleation of bubbles induced by He implantation in 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S., E-mail: [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Lescoat, M.-L. [EDF R& D, Groupe Métallurgie, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Fortuna, F. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Legras, L. [EDF R& D, Groupe Métallurgie, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Li, X.; Gentils, A. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)


    10 keV He ions were implanted in-situ in a TEM into thin foils of 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 200 to 550 °C. As a result, overpressurized nanometric bubbles are created with density and size depending strongly on both the temperature and fluence of implantation. An investigation on their nucleation and growth is reported through a rigorous statistical analysis whose procedure, including the consideration of free surface effects, is detailed. In the parameter range considered, the results show that an increase of fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of the bubbles whilst an increase of temperature enhances the growth of the bubbles at the expense of their nucleation. The confrontation of resulting activation energies with existing models for bubble nucleation enables the identification of the underlying mechanisms. In spite of slight differences resulting from different conditions of implantation among which the He concentration, He production rate and He/dpa ratio, it appears that the dominating mechanisms are the same as those obtained in metals in previous studies, which, in addition to corroborating literature results, shows the suitability of in-situ TEM experiments to simulate the production of helium in nuclear materials. - Highlights: • A rigorous TEM statistical analysis, including free surface effects, is reported. • Increasing He fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of bubbles. • Increasing implantation temperature enhances the growth of bubbles. • Activation energies describing the evolution of the bubble population are obtained. • A He diffusion controlled nucleation through a replacement mechanism is suggested.

  17. Determination of Morphological Parameters of Supported Gold Nanoparticles: Comparison of AFM Combined with Optical Spectroscopy and Theoretical Modeling versus TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hubenthal


    Full Text Available The morphology of small gold particles prepared by Volmer–Weber growth on sapphire substrates have been investigated by two different characterization techniques. First, by non-extensive atomic force microscopy (AFM in combination with optical spectroscopy and modeling of the optical properties using a theoretical model, recently developed in our group. Second, by extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Comparing the results obtained with both techniques demonstrate that for small gold nanoparticles within the quasistatic limit, the morphological properties can be precisely determined by an appropriate theoretical modeling of the optical properties in combination with simple AFM measurements. The apparent mean axial ratio of the nanoparticles, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the center frequency of the ensemble plasmon resonance, is obtained easily from the extinction spectrum. The mean size is determined by the nanoparticle number density and the amount of deposited material, measured by AFM and a quartz micro balance, respectively. To extract the most probable axial ratio of the nanoparticle ensemble, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the most probable nanoparticle size in the ensemble, we apply the new theoretical model, which allows to extract the functional dependence of the nanoparticle shape on its size. The morphological parameters obtained with this procedure will be afterwards compared to extensive TEM measurements. The results obtained with both techniques yield excellent agreement. For example, the lateral dimensions of the nanoparticles after deposition of 15.2 × 1015 atoms/cm2 of gold has been compared. While a mean lateral diameter of (13 ± 2 nm has been extracted from AFM, optical spectroscopy and modeling, a value of (12 ± 2 nm is derived from TEM. The consistency of the results demonstrate the precision of our new model. Moreover, since our theoretical model allows to extract the functional

  18. Sub-surface microstructure of single and polycrystalline tungsten after high flux plasma exposure studied by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, A., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Terentyev, D. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bakaeva, A. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hernández-Mayoral, M. [Division of Materials, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Buzi, L. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst. Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Unterberg, B. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst. Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich (Germany)


    Highlights: • Plasma exposure induces dislocation-dominated microstructure as indicated by TEM. • Plasma exposure increases surface dislocation density by an order of magnitude in the polycrystalline tungsten. • Intensive dislocation-grain boundary interaction observed in polycrystalline tungsten. • Dislocation loops are observed in both polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten. - Abstract: We have performed high flux plasma exposure of tungsten and subsequent microstructural characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The aim was to reveal the nanometric features in the sub-surface region as well as to compare the microstructural evolution in tungsten single crystal and ITER-relevant specification. In both types of samples, TEM examination revealed the formation of a dense dislocation network and dislocation tangles. The estimated dislocation density in the sub-surface region was of the order of 10{sup 14} m{sup −2} and it gradually decreased with a depth position of the examined sample. Besides individual dislocation lines, networks and tangles, the interstitial dislocation loops have been observed in all examined samples only after the exposure. Contrary to that, examination of the pristine single crystal W and backside of the plasma-exposed samples did not reveal the presence of dislocation loops and tangles. This clearly proves that high flux plasma exposure induces severe plastic deformation in the sub-surface region irrespective of the presence of initial dislocations and sub-grains, and the formation of dislocation tangles, networks and interstitial loops is a co-product of thermal stress and intensive plasma particles uptake.

  19. Overexpression and biosynthetic deuterium enrichment of TEM-1 beta-lactamase for structural characterization by magnetic resonance methods. (United States)

    Sosa-Peinado, A; Mustafi, D; Makinen, M W


    An expression system has been developed that allows high levels of production of TEM-1 beta-lactamase with ease of biosynthetic incorporation of nuclear isotopes. The gene for mature TEM-1 beta-lactamase fused to the leader sequence of the ompA protein was subcloned into the pET-24a(+) vector by introduction of an NdeI restriction site at the first codon of the fused genes and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. With protein induction at 25 degrees C supported by LB medium supplemented with osmolytes (300 mM sucrose and 2.5 mM betaine), the extracellular, mature form of wild-type TEM-1 beta-lactamase was recovered at a level of 140 mg/L. The production level of E166N, E240C, E104C, and M272C mutants depended on the mutation but was invariably higher than reported by others for expression systems of the wild-type enzyme. Comparison of different carbon sources on the efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of covalent deuterium showed maximal (90%) incorporation with minimal medium containing 99% (2)H(2)O and sodium d(3)-acetate (99 atom% (2)H). The yield of deuterium-enriched wild-type enzyme was 80 mg/L with yields for mutants proportionally reduced. The high level of protein deuteration achieved with this system allowed detection of the hyperfine coupling between the paramagnetic nitroxyl group of a spin-labeled penicillin substrate and hydrogens on the penicillin moiety in a cryokinetically isolated acylenzyme reaction intermediate because of the decrease in overlapping resonances of active site residues. The overexpression system is readily adaptable for other target proteins and facilitates studies requiring large quantities of protein in isotopically enriched forms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Use of Transient Electromagnetic Soundings (tem) to Locate Urban Solid Wastes Disposal Sites, in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moran, T.; Hurtado, M.


    Anthropogenic activities and their impact cause complex alterations in the natural quality of superficial and groundwater. Urban solid waste disposal represented an important source of contamination of groundwater. One of the main problems of the Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz area is the urgent necessity to close some dumps, actually in operation. At present, the municipal government has the project of selecting an urban waste disposal site that fulfills the official ecological norms, with appropriate geologic conditions and a useful life of 15 years. Study area, El Rebozo 1, is covered for sandy - clays from Filisola Formation. Also has outcrops of shales belonging to the Nanchital Formation. This Formation presents low porosity and permeability. It could serve as container in the construction of the landfill. We carried out 6 transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM), to determine the thickness and distribution of this formation in depth and to establish the existence of aquifers. The geophysical studies were carried out along a line of 680 m, with variable separation among stations between 150 m to 250 m, crossing the study area in SW direction. Results of TEM survey, geological, hydrological information and drilling survey confirmed the wide distribution in the studied area of the shale layer from the Nanchital Formation. The average thickness of the shale layer is 70 m and it presents low possibilities of storing an important aquifer. It could be considered as an impermeable layer that can be used as base for the construction of the landfill. Underlying the shale layer there are sandy-clays that could reduce the possible lixiviation from the landfill. Use of TEM provides larger advantages than the conventional electric methods (SEV's) and also more detailed information on the geologic and hydro-geologic conditions from the underground. The integration of geophysical methods with other disciplines allows more integrated systematic research in hydrogeology and

  1. Influencia de la direccionalidad de los ítem en los resultados de instrumentos de medición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Marycel Céspedes Cuevas


    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra los aspectos principales donde la direccionalidad de los ítems incide en la validez, la objetividad y la confiabilidad de los instrumentos de medición utilizados en educación, psicología y salud. Se trata de un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el diseño del modelo de evaluación, en la definición de las variables, la elaboración del banco de ítems para la construcción del instrumento y la forma de presentar e interpretar los reportes. La direccionalidad no depende solamente de los fundamentos teórico-conceptuales asociados con el modelo de medición y con la propia práctica (educativa o clínica, por ejemplo, sino que está regida por un comportamiento o res - puesta “típica” de las personas que integran la pobla - ción focal en estudio. Se muestra que la codificación de los ítems no debe hacerse en términos de “presencia-ausencia”, sino del crecimiento de la variable de “poco” a “mucho” del rasgo medido en términos de respuesta “típica-atípica”, “apropiada-no apropiada” u otro atributo distintivo de la variable unidimensional que puede representarse en un eje cartesiano. Se aplican los elementos del modelo de direccionalidad a un instrumento diseñado para medir la experiencia de los síntomas de mujeres con Síndrome Coronario Agudo a partir del Modelo Conceptual del Manejo del Síntoma.

  2. Proyecto de atracción y merchandising sobre Nikola Tesla para un parque temático.




    Aquí expongo mi Trabajo Final de Grado de tipología práctica, en el que, partiendo de Nikola Tesla se ha desarrollado un proyecto de atracción y se ha creado merchandising para un parque temático. Debido a la gran envergadura y a las distintas disciplinas que participan en el diseño de una atracción, me he centrado únicamente en la fase inicial y en el diseño de souvenirs, que vienen siendo las partes más creativas de los proyectos. La principal finalidad de este trabajo es tener una primera ...

  3. Asesinos en serie: definición, tipologías y estudios sobre esta temática


    Jiménez Serrano, Jorge


    El tema de los asesinos múltiples es tan atrayente como complicado para su estudio. Desde hace décadas, la ciencia ha tratado de abordar esta temática desde diversas perspectivas como la biología, la psicología o la sociología , tratando de identificar los factores que e xplique su existencia. Desde un enfoque policial y criminológico se ha tratado de identificar aquellas conductas y modus operandi que los describen, dando lugar a distintas clasificaciones y tipología ...

  4. Development of an ultrafast electron source based on a cold-field emission gun for ultrafast coherent TEM (United States)

    Caruso, Giuseppe Mario; Houdellier, Florent; Abeilhou, Pierre; Arbouet, Arnaud


    We report on the design of a femtosecond laser-driven electron source for ultrafast coherent transmission electron microscopy. The proposed architecture allows introducing an ultrafast laser beam inside the cold field emission source of a commercial TEM, aligning and focusing the laser spot on the apex of the nanoemitter. The modifications of the gun assembly do not deteriorate the performances of the electron source in conventional DC mode and allow easy switching between the conventional and ultrafast laser-driven emission modes. We describe here this ultrafast electron source and discuss its properties.

  5. Observation of microstructural changes in polymer-coated Kompeito-type platinum particles by in situ heating TEM. (United States)

    Narushima, Takashi; Makino, Takuya; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu


    We have successfully prepared Kompeito-like platinum particles by hydrogen reduction of Pt4+ in the presence of sodium polyacrylate. We performed in situ TEM observation of these platinum particles at high temperatures. At 300 degrees C, a thin carbon layer due to polyacrylate formed on the particle surface. The detailed structure of the particles did not change with temperatures up to 700 degrees C. Continuous heating up to 800 degrees C blunted the particles' edges and also sintering of the particles was observed. This result strongly indicates that the shape change and sintering of platinum particles are exclusively controlled by the carbon layer, which is generated from a surface stabilizer polymer.

  6. TEM prospection on quaternary faults: the case of San Ramón Fault (SRF), Central Chile (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yanez, G. A.; Maringue, J. I.


    Quaternary faults are relevant study objects in geosciences to better estimation of seismic risk. Nowadays main efforts are focused on the improvement of paleoseismology and geophysics techniques. At this regard, we present here a TEM prospection of the San Ramón quaternary fault in the southern Andes. This fault has no record of historic activation, however, given its proximity to the Chilean capital, hazardous estimate is mandatory. Evidences of the SRF are restricted to geomorphologic features, and associated secondary faults on the hanging wall block, but any outcrop of the main fault have been identified. To observe the main fault in the basement rock, cover by a 30-100 m sedimentary basin, we carried out a TEM experiment. The best advantage of the TEM methodology compared to other near-surface electrical methods is it capacity to reach greater penetration depth compared to its spatial sampling rate. Taking this advantage, we define a 25x25 m transmitter loop (Tx) and 5x5 m receiver loop (Rx), allowing the suitable resolution to observe the fault core. To reach a deeper penetration depth but keeping high resolution of the shallow parts, we made two complementary measurements, the first with one-turn transmitter loop, and the second with 4-turn transmitter loops, to resolve the early and late times properly. As result we define vertical profiles of 100-150m depth, and including 48 measures (24 of one-turn transmitter loop, and 24 of four-turn transmitter loop), the resulting pseudo 2D image is a 500m profile with depth extent of 150m. In this section we can observe different resistivity domain, with a horizontal continuity in many measures. The experiment allows to cross the sedimentary cover, and observe the top of the basement rock. In the rock domain, it can be observed a high resistivity body, interpreted as a pristine rock, and some extremely low resistivity bodies, that are interpreted as a fractured rock saturated with water, and eventually mapping a

  7. Delineation of tunnel valley across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørgensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    of on- and offshore 2D seismic data, TEM (Transient Electro-Magnetic) soundings, Schlumberger soundings, and boreholes. The valleys are observed as discrete incisions with three overall orientations: SSE – NNW, ESE – WNW, and SSW – NNE. They have depths between 75 and 185 m, widths up to 1.8 km......, and lengths from 7 to 25 km. The infill comprises till, glaciofluvial sand, and glaciolacustrine clay and silt. Younger tunnel valleys are found to often re-use pre-established valleys generating cut-and-fill structures which are clearly revealed on the reflection seismic profiles. Cross-cutting relations...

  8. Delineation of tunnel valleys across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørdensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    of on- and offshore 2D seismic data, TEM (Transient Electro-Magnetic) soundings, Schlumberger soundings, and boreholes. The valleys are observed as discrete incisions with three overall orientations: SSE – NNW, ESE – WNW, and SSW – NNE. They have depths between 75 and 185 m, widths up to 1.8 km......, and lengths from 7 to 25 km. The infill comprises till, glaciofluvial sand, and glaciolacustrine clay and silt. Younger tunnel valleys are found to often re-use pre-established valleys generating cut-and-fill structures which are clearly revealed on the reflection seismic profiles. Cross-cutting relations...

  9. Pesquisas temáticas no Laboratório de Arqueologia Romana Provincial (LARP/MAE/USP)


    Fleming, Maria Isabel D’Agostino


    Esta comunicação apresenta as pesquisas temáticas do Laboratório de Arqueologia Romana Provincial do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de São Paulo (LARP), tendo em vista suas atividades em duas frentes, a acadêmica e a de cunho educativo, esta última veiculada por seus Projetos Piloto, através de web site próprio, voltados para a comunidade de educadores e alunos de todas as faixas etárias e formações escolares.As pesquisas individuais dos membros do LARP, voltadas para uma am...

  10. Micromechanical and in situ shear testing of Al–SiC nanolaminate composites in a transmission electron microscope (TEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, C. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Li, N.; Mara, N. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chawla, N., E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)


    Nanolaminate composites show promise as high strength and toughness materials. However, due to the limited volume of these materials, micron scale mechanical testing methods must be used to determine the properties of these films. To this end, a novel approach combining a double notch shear testing geometry and compression with a flat punch in a nanoindenter was developed to determine the mechanical properties of these films under shear loading. To further elucidate the failure mechanisms under shear loading, in situ TEM experiments were performed using a double notch geometry cut into the TEM foil. Aluminum layer thicknesses of 50 nm and 100 nm were used to show the effect of constraint on the deformation. Higher shear strength was observed in the 50 nm sample (690±54 MPa) compared to the 100 nm sample (423±28.7 MPa). Additionally, failure occurred close to the Al–SiC interface in the 50 nm sample as opposed to failure within the Al layer in the 100 nm sample.

  11. Agglomeration of MoO{sub 3} doped into organic thin films studied by TEM-spectroscopy and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donhauser, Daniela; Schultheiss, Katrin; Dieterle, Levin; Kroeger, Michael; Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); InnovationLab GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Pfannmoeller, Martin; Schroeder, Rasmus R. [CellNetworks, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Glaser, Tobias [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); InnovationLab GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Lunkenheimer, Bernd [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); InnovationLab GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Electrochemical doping is essential to overcome limitations in organic devices imposed by low intrinsic conductivity and high injection barriers at the contacts. Materials with very deep lying HOMO-levels like CBP (4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl) can be doped with transition metal oxides, e.g. MoO{sub 3}. In such systems a very low doping efficiency has been found for which the physical origin is not understood. With TEM spectroscopy we could show that agglomeration of MoO{sub 3} in the CBP-matrix is most likely the reason for the low doping efficiency. Using TEM tomography we observed that MoO{sub 3} forms filament-like structures perpendicular to the substrate. Combining our results with FTIR-measurements, which indicate a charge carrier localization at single molecules, we can model the charge transport to occur at the interface of the MoO{sub 3} filaments and the organic matrix.

  12. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown in polar and non-polar directions (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.; Wagner, B.; Davis, R. F.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the "seed" area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates and wings grown with Ga polarity are 17 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity, making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found in the wings. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  13. Combination of in situ straining and ACOM TEM: a novel method for analysis of plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals. (United States)

    Kobler, A; Kashiwar, A; Hahn, H; Kübel, C


    Nanocrystalline metals are expected to exhibit different deformation mechanisms when compared to their coarse grained counterparts because the dislocation storage capacity decreases and the grain boundary mediated processes become more pronounced with decreasing grain size. As a new approach to directly image and quantify the plastic deformation processes in nanocrystalline thin films, a combination of automated crystal orientation mapping in microprobe STEM mode with in situ straining inside a TEM was developed. ACOM-TEM closes the gap between EBSD and BF/DFTEM by providing full orientation maps with nanometer resolution. The novel combination with in situ straining provided for the first time the possibility to directly image and quantify the structural changes of all crystallites in the ensemble of a thin film at the nanometer scale during mechanical deformation. It was used to characterize the metallographic changes during tensile deformation of a nanocrystalline Au thin film prepared by magnetron sputtering. The investigation of the grain size, grain orientation and twinning on a global (grain average over a micron sized area) and local (assembly of selected grains) scale allowed for the development of an in depth picture of the deformation processes. Grain boundary motion and local grain rotation were two of the processes acting to dissipate the applied stress. Additionally, twinning/detwinning occurred simultaneously during straining. These processes, which occurred locally already in the micro-plastic regime, led to global grain growth starting at the transition to the macro-plastic deformation regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interações Espaciais: Uma Reflexão Temática - SPATIAL INTERACTIONS: A THEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Castro Catão


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma abordagem analítica quanto à trajetória científica dos estudos relacionados às interações espaciais, que tem, há muitos anos, permeado a literatura produzida na Geografia. Parte-se da origem do termo para, ao final, privilegiar-se os estudos produzidos no Brasil, dedicando-se atenção ao método utilizado nas abordagens. Edward Ullman empregou o termo interações espaciais em 1954 para indicar interdependência entre duas ou mais áreas geográficas distintas. Entre as décadas de 1970 e 1980, os estudos de interações espaciais passaram a ser orientados por análises quantitativas, ilustradas pelo uso enfático de Modelos Gravitacionais. Por outro lado, num sentido sociológico, as interações espaciais passaram a ser definidas como configurações espaciais dos contatos sociais, sentido utilizado por Roberto Lobato Corrêa. A gênese dos estudos foi orientada pelo método hipotético-dedutivo. Atualmente parte dos estudos desenvolvidos, especialmente aqueles relacionados à temática das redes geográficas, trazem a análise das interações espaciais como auxiliares de pesquisas orientadas pelo método dialético ou fenomenológico-hermenêutico.

  15. Using the in situ lift-out technique to prepare TEM specimens on a single-beam FIB instrument (United States)

    Lekstrom, M.; McLachlan, M. A.; Husain, S.; McComb, D. W.; Shollock, B. A.


    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens are today routinely prepared using focussed ion beam (FIB) instruments. Specifically, the lift-out method has become an increasingly popular technique and involves removing thin cross-sections from site-specific locations and transferring them to a TEM grid. This lift-out process can either be performed ex situ or in situ. The latter is mainly carried out on combined dual-beam FIB and scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems whereas conventional single-beam instruments often are limited to the traditional ex situ method. It is nevertheless desirable to enhance the capabilities of existing single-beam instruments to allow for in situ lift-out preparation to be performed since this technique offers a number of advantages over the older ex situ method. A single-beam FIB instrument was therefore modified to incorporate an in situ micromanipulator fitted with a tungsten needle, which can be attached to a cut-out FIB section using ion beam induced platinum deposition. This article addresses the issues of using an ion beam to monitor the in situ manipulation process as well as approaches that can be used to create stronger platinum welds between two objects, and finally, views on how to limit the extent of ion beam damage to the specimen surface.

  16. Shallow groundwater investigation using time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) method at Itay El-Baroud, Nile Delta, Egypt (United States)

    Shaaban, H.; El-Qady, G.; Al-Sayed, E.; Ghazala, H.; Taha, A. I.


    The Nile Delta is one of the oldest known ancient delta, largest and most important depositional complex in the Mediterranean sedimentary basin. Furthermore, it is a unique site in Egypt that is suitable for accumulation and preservation of the Quaternary sediments. In this work we applied time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) method to investigate the Quaternary sediments sequence as well as detecting the groundwater aquifer in the area of study. A suite of 232 TEM sounding at 43 stations were carried out using a ;SIROTEM MK-3; time-domain electromagnetic system. A simple coincident loop configuration, in which the same loop transmits and receives signals, was employed with loop side length of 25 m. The 1-D modeling technique was applied to estimate the depth and the apparent resistivity of the interpreted geoelectrical data. Based on the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data, four geoelectric cross-sections were constructed. These sections show that the Upper Quaternary sequence consists of three geoelectric layers. The Holocene Nile mud is separated into two layers: the agricultural root zone (Layer 1) and thick water saturated mud (Layer 2). The Upper Pleistocene sandy aquifer (Layer 3) is very complicated non-linear boundary. This aquifer is the most important unit since it is considered as the main water bearing unit in the study area.

  17. TEM study of the nucleation of bubbles induced by He implantation in 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel (United States)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Lescoat, M.-L.; Fortuna, F.; Legras, L.; Li, X.; Gentils, A.


    10 keV He ions were implanted in-situ in a TEM into thin foils of 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 200 to 550 °C. As a result, overpressurized nanometric bubbles are created with density and size depending strongly on both the temperature and fluence of implantation. An investigation on their nucleation and growth is reported through a rigorous statistical analysis whose procedure, including the consideration of free surface effects, is detailed. In the parameter range considered, the results show that an increase of fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of the bubbles whilst an increase of temperature enhances the growth of the bubbles at the expense of their nucleation. The confrontation of resulting activation energies with existing models for bubble nucleation enables the identification of the underlying mechanisms. In spite of slight differences resulting from different conditions of implantation among which the He concentration, He production rate and He/dpa ratio, it appears that the dominating mechanisms are the same as those obtained in metals in previous studies, which, in addition to corroborating literature results, shows the suitability of in-situ TEM experiments to simulate the production of helium in nuclear materials.

  18. Visualizing the electrochemical reaction of ZnO nanoparticles with lithium by in situ TEM: two reaction modes are revealed (United States)

    Su, Qingmei; Dong, Zimin; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui; Xu, Bingshe


    The lithiation reaction of ZnO as an anode in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) is unclear. The electrochemical behavior of ZnO was investigated inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) by constructing a nano-LIB using an individual ZnO/graphene sheet as the electrode. The lithiation reaction of ZnO/graphene was monitored by simultaneous determination of the structure with high-resolution TEM, electron diffraction pattern and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Two kinds of reaction modes were revealed in terms of different reaction rates. One was the violent reaction mode, in which one particle can evolve into an aggregate of many nanoparticles within the Li2O matrix in 1-2 min. The other was the peaceful evolution mode, in which each ZnO nanoparticle evolves into a core-shell particle with multi-domains constituted of Zn and LiZn nanograins. Abnormally large Zn nanocrystals grow quickly in the violent reaction mode, which can suppress the formation of LiZn and impair the reversible capacity. Our observations give direct evidence and important insights for the lithiation mechanism of metal oxide anodes in LIBs.

  19. Recombination-related properties of a-screw dislocations in GaN: A combined CL, EBIC, TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, O. S., E-mail:; Mikhailovskii, V. Yu. [V.A. Fok Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); IRC for Nanotechnology, Research Park, St.-Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Vyvenko, O. F.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Ubyivovk, E. V. [V.A. Fok Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Peretzki, P.; Seibt, M. [IV. Physikalisches Institut Georg-August Universität Göttingen (Germany)


    Cathodoluminescence (CL), electron beam current (EBIC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have been applied to investigate recombination properties and structure of freshly introduced dislocations in low-ohmic GaN crystals. It was confirmed that the only a-screw dislocations exhibited an intense characteristic dislocation-related luminescence (DRL) which persisted up to room temperature and was red-shifted by about 0.3 eV with respect to the band gap energy not only in HVPE but also in MOCVD grown samples. EBIC contrast of the dislocations was found to be temperature independent indicating that the dislocation-related recombination level is situated below 200 meV with respect of conduction band minimum. With the increasing of the magnification of the dislocation TEM cross-sectional images they were found to disappear, probably, due to the recombination enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) under electron beam exposure which was immediately observed in CL investigations on a large scale. The stacking fault ribbon in the core of dissociated a-screw dislocation which form a quantum well for electrons was proposed to play an important role both in DRL spectrum formation and in REDG.

  20. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation. (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  1. Directorios temáticos especializados: definición, características y perspectivas de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Bonilla, Diego


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept and characteristics of web subject gateways. Seven subject gateways are examined, comparing their information processing for information resources, quality and user interface in order to establish their main characteristics, and proposes development guidelines for performances and services. The work concludes with the need of developing standards, collaboration and user interfaces for the next generation of subject gateways.

    Este trabajo revisa el planteamiento, concepto y características de los directorios temáticos especializados. Examina siete de ellos, comparando sus procedimientos de tratamiento de recursos de información, calidad e interfaz de usuario, para determinar sus características, y propone líneas de desarrollo de prestaciones y servicios. El trabajo concluye que será necesario desarrollar aspectos de estándares, colaboración e interfaces de usuario en la próxima generación de directorios temáticos.

  2. Funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en pruebas de matemática para educación media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Elena Moreira-Mora


    Full Text Available El tema de esta investigación concierne al funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (FDI y sus posibles fuentes en la población de estudiantes reportados con conductas del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH, en la prueba de Matemática de Bachillerato en Educación Media del sistema educativo formal. En la actualidad, esta temática del FDI es fundamental en el proceso de validación de pruebas con propósitos de selección, promoción y certificación. A pesar de tal relevancia, en Costa Rica no existen estudios en este campo. Por ello, dentro de este contexto y necesidades, se pretende brindar, por un lado, un aporte metodológico al demostrar las potencialidades estadísticas del método Mantel Haenszel para identificar el FDI y, por el otro, aportar algunos presupuestos teóricos sobre FDI en la población reportada con conductas del TDAH, así como generar hipótesis para prevenir el FDI en futuras pruebas de matemática.

  3. In-situ heating TEM observation of microscopic structural changes of size-controlled metallic copper/gelatin composite. (United States)

    Narushima, Takashi; Hyono, Atsushi; Nishida, Naoki; Yonezawa, Tetsu


    Copper/gelatin composite particles with controlled sizes were prepared at room temperature from cupric sulfate pentahydrate in the presence of gelatin as a protective reagent by using hydrazine monohydrate as a reducing agent. The formed particles with the size between 190-940 nm were secondary aggregated particles which were composed of smaller nanosized particles ("particle-in-particle"), the presence of which was established by XRD patterns and a cross-sectional TEM image. The sintering behavior of these copper/gelatin composite particles was demonstrated by in-situ heating TEM under a high vacuum (approximately 10(-5) Pa) and separately with the oxygen partial pressure controlled at the 10(-4) Pa level. It was established that the particles began to sinter at about 330 degrees C with the oxygen and that they sublimate above 450 degrees C both in the vacuum and oxygen conditions. This result shows that the introduction of an adequate amount of oxygen was effective to remove the gelatin surrounding the particles. It can also be concluded that the sintering of the copper/gelatin composite particles occurred even in the absence of a reducing agent such as hydrogen gas.

  4. Comparison of ultramicrotomy and focused-ion-beam for the preparation of TEM and STEM cross section of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Gnaegi, Helmut


    resolution, enabling further studies of phase separation of P3HT:PCBM by means of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The sample prepared by FIB shows good structure preservation, but reduced resolution due to non-optimal thicknesses achieved after treatment. Degradation studies of samples prepared......The challenge of preparing cross sections of organic photovoltaics (OPV) suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) is addressed. The samples were polymer solar cells fabricated using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing methods on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate...

  5. Summing up of the measured wind power. Quarterly information bulletin about the ToTem project; Totalisation de l'energie eolienne mesuree. Bulletin d'information trimestriel sur le projet ToTem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to validate the objectives established for 2005 and 2010 in the framework of the French national programs of development of wind power (Eole) and of improvement of energy efficiency (PNA2E), it is necessary to analyze precisely the real performances of the wind farms already connected to the national grid. This is the main goal of the ToTem project which aims at summing-up the measured power produced by the different French wind farms. This dossier presents the historical context of the project, its main steps (feasibility study, field studies, production and performances follow-up, data diffusion and exploitation), its actors, and answers some practical questions. A presentation of similar programs in Europe is briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  6. Novel critical point drying (CPD) based preparation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of protein specific molecularly imprinted polymers (HydroMIPs)


    Hawkins, DM; Ellis, EA; Stevenson, D.; Holzenburg, A; Reddy, Subrayal M.


    We report the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of a hydrogel-based molecularly imprinted polymer (HydroMIP) specific to the template molecule bovine haemoglobin (BHb). A novel critical point drying based sample preparation technique was employed to prepare the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) samples in a manner that would facilitate the use of TEM to image the imprinted cavities, and provide an appropriate degree of both magnification and resolution to image polymer architec...

  7. β-lactamases produced by amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant enterobacteria isolated in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a new blaTEM gene. (United States)

    Di Conza, José A; Badaracco, Alejandra; Ayala, Juan; Rodríguez, Cynthia; Famiglietti, Angela; Gutkind, Gabriel O


    Resistance to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors in enterobacteria is a growing problem that has not been intensively studied in Argentina. In the present work, 54/843 enterobacteria collected in a teaching hospital of Buenos Aires city were ampicillin-sulbactam-resistant isolates remaining susceptible to second- and third-generation cephalosporins. The enzymatic mechanisms present in the isolates, which were also amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant (18/54) were herein analyzed. Sequencing revealed two different variants of blaTEM-1, being blaTEM-1b the most frequently detected allelle (10 Escherichia coli, 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Raoultella terrigena) followed by blaTEM-1a (1 K. pneumoniae). Amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance seems to be mainly associated with TEM-1 overproduction (mostly in E. coli) or co-expressed with OXA-2-like and/or SHV β-lactamases (K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis). A new blaTEM variant (TEM-163) was described in an E. coli strain having an AMC MIC value of 16/8μg/ml. TEM-163 contains Arg275Gln and His289Leu amino acid substitutions. On the basis of the high specific activity and low IC50 for clavulanic acid observed, the resistance pattern seems to be due to overproduction of the new variant of broad spectrum β-lactamase rather than to an inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT)-like behavior. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria. (United States)

    Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane


    We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins.

  9. A study on the microstructure of Pt/TaN/Si films by high resolution TEM analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, K N; Oh, J E; Park, C S; Lee, S I; Lee, M Y


    The microstructure change of Pt/amorphous TaN/Si films after various heat treatments has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. TaN thin films are deposited by remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) using pentakis-dimethyl-amino-tantalum (PDMATa) and radical sources, hydrogen and ammonia plasma. Deposited TaN thin film shows excellent barrier properties such as good resistance against oxidation after post-heat treatment at high temperature. In the case of hydrogen plasma, however, diffusion of Pt into TaN layer was observed, which was caused by the out-diffusion of carbon through the grain boundaries of Pt. In the case of ammonia plasma, the formation of thin oxide layer at the Pt/TaN interface was observed.

  10. Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties. (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei


    Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.

  11. In-situ TEM studies of nanostructured thermoelectric materials: An application to Mg-doped Zn4Sb3 alloy. (United States)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Le, Hung Thanh; Ngo, Nong Van


    We demonstrate an advanced approach using advanced in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to understand the interplay between nanostructures and thermoelectric (TE) properties of high-performance Mg-doped Zn4Sb3 TE system. With the technique, microstructure and crystal evolutions of TE material have been dynamically captured as a function of temperature from 300 K to 573 K. On heating, we have observed clearly precipitation and growth of a Zn-rich secondary phase as nanoinclusions in the matrix of primary Zn4Sb3 phase. Elemental mapping by STEM-EDX spectroscopy reveals enrichment of Zn in the secondary Zn6Sb5 nanoinclusions during the thermal processing without decomposition observed. Such nanostructure strongly enhances the phonon scattering resulting in the decrease in the thermal conductivity leading to a zT value of 1.4 at 718 K. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Problems at the Leading Edge of Space Weathering as Revealed by TEM Combined with Surface Science Techniques (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R. A.


    Both transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) and surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were instrumen-tal in making the first characterizations of material generated by space weathering in lunar samples [1,2]. Without them, the nature of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe0) correlated with the surface of lunar regolith grains would have taken much longer to become rec-ognized and understood. Our groups at JSC and UVa have been using both techniques in a cross-correlated way to investigate how the solar wind contributes to space weathering [e.g., 3]. These efforts have identified a number of ongoing problems and knowledge gaps. Key insights made by UVa group leader Raul Barag-iola during this work are gratefully remembered.

  13. Avaliação da qualidade percebida em um restaurante temático-típico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Para garantir a satisfação dos clientes, faz-se necessário conhecer suas necessidades. Nessa ótica, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a percepção da qualidade do cliente externo de um restaurante temático-típico, localizado na praça de alimentação “Bodódromo” da cidade de Petrolina, interior de Pernambuco. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso, no qual as informações foram colhidas por meio do modelo servqual, de Parasuraman et al (1985. Os resultados indicaram a necessidade de melhoria nos serviços prestados.

  14. O objeto nulo no português rural baiano : teoria temática e elipse de DP.


    Silva, Maria Cristina Vieira de Figueiredo


    Esta tese trata da não realização do objeto direto correferencial, um fenômeno denominado objeto nulo (ON), no português rural baiano (PBR), a partir do quadro teórico da gramática gerativa. Secundariamente, analisa-se o uso do pronome ELE, levando em conta a alternância desse pronome com o ON. São investigados os contextos em que uma e outra estratégia são requeridas e os fatores que as condicionam. Tem-se considerado o traço de animacidade do DP antecedente o fator mais relevante na escolha...

  15. Los contenidos temáticos y socioculturales de los manuales de F.L.E. para primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bonachía Caballero


    Full Text Available El aspecto sociocultural de la lengua extranjera adquiere nueva relevancia en la enseñanza-aprendizaje en las nuevas leyes educativas como consecuencia de la publicación del MERC en 2001. Teniendo en cuenta los nuevos objetivos, este artículo pretende analizar los contenidos temáticos y socioculturales de algunos manuales de F.L.E. para Primaria, de manera general y, de tres documentos en particular: Le Poisson d’avril, Menu cantine y La famille de Théo. La conclusión es que el material sigue siendo válido teniendo en cuenta que en esta etapa educativa la labor del profesor es fundamental para actualizar, matizar e integrar los contenidos en el aula.

  16. SEM, TEM, and IHC Analysis of the Sinus Node and Its Implications for the Cardiac Conduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mandrioli


    Full Text Available More than 100 years after the discovery of the sinus node (SN by Keith and Flack, the function and structure of the SN have not been completely established yet. The anatomic architecture of the SN has often been described as devoid of an organized structure; the origin of the sinus impulse is still a matter of debate, and a definite description of the long postulated internodal specialized tract conducting the impulse from the SN to the atrioventricular node (AVN is still missing. In our previously published study, we proposed a morphologically ordered structure for the SN. As a confirmation of what was presented then, we have added the results of additional observations regarding the structural particularities of the SN. We investigated the morphology of the sinus node in the human hearts of healthy individuals using histochemical, immunohistochemical, optical, and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM. Our results confirmed that the SN presents a previously unseen highly organized architecture.

  17. Tem Observation Of Age-Hardening Precipitation In Mg-Gd-Y Alloys As Different Gd/Y Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Y.


    Full Text Available In this study, the early stage of aging in Mg-Gd-Y alloys has been observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high angle annular dark field – scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM and calculations of images and electron density and bond overlap population (BOP by first principal to understand the origin of precipitation in this alloy. The small hexagon of 0.37 nm is the first precipitate in this alloy, and this is the evidence of short range ordering of D019 structure. This is referred as the pre β”-phase. In the peak aged condition, β’ phase with bco structure was mainly observed.

  18. Report on the Installation and Preparedness of a Protochips Fusion in-situ Heating Holder for TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This brief report documents the procurement and installation of a Protochips Fusion (formerly Aduro) high-temperature, high stability transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen holder that allows for the high spatial resolution characterization of material specimens at high temperature in situ of an electron microscope. This specimen holder was specifically procured for use with The FEI Talos F200X Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis (LAMDA) Laboratory. The Protochips Fusion holder will enable high-resolution structural and chemical analysis of irradiated materials at high temperature, becoming a unique capability worldwide, and would encourage high-quality in situ experiments to be conducted on irradiated materials.

  19. The mandibular ridge oral mucosa model of stromal influences on the endothelial tip cells: an immunohistochemical and TEM study. (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Stănescu, Ruxandra; Pop, Florinel; Mănoiu, Valentina Mariana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Vâlcu, Marek


    This study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the morphological features of the oral mucosa endothelial tip cells (ETCs) and to determine the immune and ultrastructural patterns of the stromal nonimmune cells which could influence healing processes. Immune labeling was performed on bioptic samples obtained from six edentulous patients undergoing surgery for dental implants placement; three normal samples were collected from patients prior to the extraction of the third mandibular molar. The antibodies were tested for CD34, CD117(c-kit), platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α), Mast Cell Tryptase, CD44, vimentin, CD45, CD105, alpha-smooth muscle actin, FGF2, Ki67. In light microscopy, while stromal cells (StrCs) of the reparatory and normal oral mucosa, with a fibroblastic appearance, were found positive for a CD34/CD44/CD45/CD105/PDGFR-α/vimentin immune phenotype, the CD117/c-kit labeling led to a positive stromal reaction only in the reparatory mucosa. In TEM, non-immune StrCs presenting particular ultrastructural features were identified as circulating fibrocytes (CFCs). Within the lamina propria CFCs were in close contact with ETCs. Long processes of the ETCs were moniliform, and hook-like collaterals were arising from the dilated segments, suggestive for a different stage migration. Maintenance and healing of oral mucosa are so supported by extensive processes of angiogenesis, guided by ETCs that, in turn, are influenced by the CFCs that populate the stromal compartment both in normal and reparatory states. Therefore, CFCs could be targeted by specific therapies, with pro- or anti-angiogenic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Análisis factorial de ítems de respuesta forzada: una revisión y un ejemplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Calderón Carvajal


    Full Text Available Los test de respuesta forzada son ampliamente utilizados para reducir el efecto de los diferentes tipos de sesgo en la respuesta asociados a los test psicológicos (por ejemplo, la aquiescencia o la deseabilidad social. Sin embargo, este tipo de test genera los denominados datos ipsativos, los cuales poseen propiedades que hacen desaconsejable la aplicación de las técnicas clásicas de análisis factorial para su evaluación psicométrica. Pese a ello, en la práctica, muchos investigadores siguen empleando estos procedimientos para analizar los ítems de repuesta forzada; esto lleva necesariamente a conclusiones erróneas. El presente trabajo expone las propiedades analíticas de los ítems de respuesta forzada, así como un ejemplo que ilustra c ó mo afectan estas propiedades a la aplicación de las técnicas estadísticas clásicas y conducen a interpretaciones erróneas. Adicionalmente, se presenta una de las principales alternativas para analizar este tipo de datos basada en el modelo de juicio comparativo de Thurstone, así como los resultados de un estudio de simulación que ilustra su aplicación y efectividad en la recuperación de la estructura factorial original. Copyright © 2012, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND (

  1. Structure and dynamics of poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether wormlike micelles: rheometry, SAXS, and cryo-TEM studies. (United States)

    Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Danino, Dganit; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko


    In this article, we provide direct evidence for 1-D micellar growth and the formation of a network structure in an aqueous system of poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(20)) and lauryl diethanolamide (L-02) by rheometry, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The ChEO(20) self-assembles into spheroid micelles above the critical micelle concentration and undergoes a 1-D microstructural transition upon the incorporation of L-02, which because of its lipophilic nature tends to be solubilized into the micellar palisade layer and reduces the micellar curvature. The elongated micelles entangle with each other, forming network structures of wormlike micelles, and the system shows viscoelastic properties, which could be described by the Maxwell model. A peak observed in the zero-shear viscosity (η(0)) versus L-02 concentration curve shifted toward higher L-02 concentrations and the value of maximum viscosity (η(0 max)) increased with the increasing ChEO(20) mixing fraction with water. We observed that η(0 max) increased by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude as a function of the ChEO(20) concentration. The Maxwell relaxation time (τ(R)) shows a maximum value at a concentration corresponding to η(0 max) (i.e., τ(R) increases with L-02 concentration and then decreases after attaining a maximum value, whereas the plateau modulus (G(0)) shows monotonous growth). These observations demonstrate microstructural transitions in two different modes: L-02 first induces 1-D micellar growth and as a result the viscosity increases, and finally after the system attains its maximum viscosity, L-02 causes branching in the network structures. The microstructure transitions are confirmed by SAXS and cryo-TEM techniques.

  2. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang


    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m² (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m².

  3. PER, CTX-M, TEM and SHV Beta-lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nasehi


    Full Text Available Objective(sDifferent types of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs are encountered in the clinical settings worldwide. There are a few studies regarding the prevalence of ESBL genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates at Tehran especially those of blaPER and blaCTX. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of blaSHV, blaTEM ,blaPER and blaCTX genes among clinical K. pneumoniae of different hospitals in Tehran.Materials and MethodsTwo hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were received from different clinical specimens. The susceptibility of the isolates to 10 different antibiotics was examined by disk diffusion test. The MICs for ceftazidime were also determined using micro-broth dilution assay. Isolates showing MIC 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime were screened for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT and subjected to PCR for studied genes. Variation among four amplified genes was evaluated using PCR-RFLP.ResultsBy disk diffusion test, resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime were 34.7% and 33.5% respectively. However, all strains were susceptible to imipenem. Eighty isolates showed MICs≥ 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime of which 77 (96% were positive for ESBL in PCT. The prevalence of blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaPER among these isolates were 26%, 24.5%, 18% and 7.5%, respectively. No variation was detected in the genes by PCR-RFLP.ConclusionAs far as we know this is the first report of the blaPER-1 in K. pneumoniae in Iran. The blaCTX-M was the second most common gene detected among the ESBL positive isolates of K. pneumoniae. For rapid identification of ESBL producing isolates it was recommended that clinical laboratories adopt simple test based on CLSI recommendation for confirming ESBL production in enterobacterial species.

  4. Systematic approaches for targeting an atom-probe tomography sample fabricated in a thin TEM specimen: Correlative structural, chemical and 3-D reconstruction analyses. (United States)

    Baik, Sung-Il; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N


    Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip. In addition to "coupling APT to TEM", the technique presented here allows for targeting the preparation of an APT tip based on TEM observation of a much larger area than what is captured in the APT tip. The correlative methods have synergies for not only high-resolution structural analyses but also for obtaining chemical information. Chemical analyses in a TEM, both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are performed and compared with the APT chemical analyses of a carbide phase (M 7 C 3 ) precipitate at a grain boundary in a Ni-based alloy. Additionally, a TEM image of a sharpened APT nanotip is utilized for calculation of the detection area ratio of an APT nanotip by comparison with a TEM image for precise tomographic reconstructions. A grain-boundary/carbide precipitate triple junction is used to attain precise positioning of an APT nanotip in an analyzed TEM specimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

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    J. V. Niemi


    Full Text Available Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m−3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east, intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-east and clean period (PM1~2 µg m−3, backtrajectories from north-west/north. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2–1 samples were 1 soot and 2 (ammoniumsulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2–1 samples were 0–12% and 83–97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26–48% in the PM1–3.3 and PM3.3–11 samples, while the PM0.2–1 and PM1–3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22–33%, metal oxides/hydroxides (1–9% and tar balls (1–4%. These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1–3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67–89% with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3−. During the intermediate period, the PM1–3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like Na-rich particles (35% with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments

  6. On strain state and pseudo-moire TEM contrast of InSb quantum dots coherently grown on InAs surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, N.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Freidin, A.B.; Kolesnikova, A.L.; Korolev, I.K. [Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering, Bolshoj 61, Vas. Ostrov, 199178 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Romanov, A.E. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polytechnique School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)


    In this article, we report on the theoretical analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of surface InSb quantum dots (QDs) coherently grown on InAs substrate. A finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate elastic fields and total displacements in a QD and an adjusted region of the substrate. The effects of QD form factor and QD aspect ratio {delta} on displacements and TEM images are analyzed. A quasilinear dependence of radial displacements on radial coordinate for spherical, elliptical, and truncated spherical QDs is demonstrated. It has been found that the displacement field does not depend on the shape and aspect ratio for QDs with {delta}>{delta}{sub c1}, and the upper part of a QD remains practically undistorted for QDs with {delta}{>=}{delta}{sub c2}. For InSb/InAs heterosystem these critical values are {delta}{sub c1}{approx} 0.13 and {delta}{sub c2}{approx} 0.33. The total displacements are used for computation of TEM diffraction contrast associated with QDs. To achieve this the Howie-Whelan dynamic approach is utilized. Calculated TEM images of heavily strained QDs demonstrate the picture of pseudo-moire with a strong dependence of moire-like fringe distance {delta} on aspect ratio {delta}. This dependence gives the possibility to determine the aspect ratio and height of QDs from the results of TEM experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules (United States)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.


    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  8. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI (United States)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.


    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction, by TEM Tomography, of the Ultrastructural Modifications Occurring in Cucumis sativus L. Mitochondria under Fe Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Vigani

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, as recently suggested, might be involved in iron sensing and signalling pathways in plant cells. For a better understanding of the role of these organelles in mediating the Fe deficiency responses in plant cells, it is crucial to provide a full overview of their modifications occurring under Fe-limited conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the ultrastructural as well as the biochemical changes occurring in leaf mitochondria of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants grown under Fe deficiency.Mitochondrial ultrastructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron tomography techniques, which allowed a three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of cellular structures. These analyses reveal that mitochondria isolated from cucumber leaves appear in the cristae junction model conformation and that Fe deficiency strongly alters both the number and the volume of cristae. The ultrastructural changes observed in mitochondria isolated from Fe-deficient leaves reflect a metabolic status characterized by a respiratory chain operating at a lower rate (orthodox-like conformation with respect to mitochondria from control leaves.To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a 3D reconstruction of plant mitochondria. Furthermore, these results suggest that a detailed characterization of the link between changes in the ultrastructure and functionality of mitochondria during different nutritional conditions, can provide a successful approach to understand the role of these organelles in the plant response to Fe deficiency.

  10. TEM Studies of Boron-Modified 17Cr-7Ni Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steel via Rapid Solidification Route (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhargava, A. K.; Tewari, R.; Tiwari, A. N.


    Commercial grade 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel has been modified by adding boron in the range 0.45 to 1.8 wt pct and using the chill block melt-spinning technique of rapid solidification (RS). Application of RS has been found to increase the solid solubility of boron and hardness of 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel. The hardness of the boron-modified rapidly solidified alloys has been found to increase up to ~280 pct after isochronal aging to peak hardness. A TEM study has been carried out to understand the aging behavior. The presence of M23(B,C)6 and M2(B,C) borocarbides and epsilon-carbide in the matrix of austenite and ferrite with a change in heat treatment temperature has been observed. A new equation for Creq is also developed which includes the boron factor on ferrite phase stability. The study also emphasizes that aluminum only takes part in ferrite phase stabilization and remains in the solution.

  11. TEM studies of GaN layers grown in non-polar direction: Laterally overgrown and pendeo-epitaxial layers (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.


    The formation of structural defects in GaN grown in non-polar directions is reviewed based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Stacking faults (SFs) formed on c-planes and also on prismatic planes bounded by partial dislocations, in addition to full dislocations, are major defects in these layers. Since c-planes are arranged perpendicular to the substrate, these defects propagate to the sample surface through the active areas of the devices and become detrimental for device applications. An established method to decrease the defect density is lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) and pendeo-epitaxy. The measured density of SFs in the seed areas is ˜1.3×10 6 cm -1and in the 'wing' areas ˜1.2×10 4 cm -1; a decrease of almost of two orders of magnitude. For overgrown samples, two opposite wings grow in opposite polar directions: [0 0 0 1] (Ga-growth polarity) and [0 0 0 1] (N-growth polarity) confirmed by convergent beam electron diffraction. Ga-polar wings are wider and often have different height than those grown with N-polarity, therefore planarity of these layers and cracking at the meeting front of two wings often occur. It is shown that two-step growth using MOCVD leads to satisfactory layer planarity.

  12. Airborne inorganic fibre level monitoring by transmission electron microscope (TEM): comparison of direct and indirect sample transfer methods. (United States)

    Sahle, W; Laszlo, I


    The direct and indirect sample transfer techniques for measuring airborne inorganic fibres concentrations were studied by TEM for airborne rockwool fibres, chrysotile, amosite and tungsten oxide whiskers. The number and mass concentrations of fibres with aspect ratios > or = 5, prepared by these two techniques for fibres longer than 0.5 mu m and 5 mu m, and the aspect ratios were evaluated and compared. It was found that the indirect sample transfer technique affects the fibre size distribution of different materials differently, and that the mass concentrations did not relate to fibre number concentrations of ambient air, irrespective of the sample transfer method used or the materials studied. It is concluded that the direct sample transfer method incorporating the etching stage should be preferred over the indirect method. Moreover, a need for an extra stage in-between the etching and carbon coating stages for the direct sample transfer method is suggested; this would be a stage where soluble materials could be removed.

  13. TEM and XAS investigation of fission gas behaviors in U-Mo alloy fuels through ion beam irradiation (United States)

    Zang, Hang; Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Wang, Kunpeng; Mohamed, Walid; Kirk, Marquis A.; Velázquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Logan, Kevin; Terry, Jeffrey; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Yedong; Du, Yang; Liu, Jing


    In this study, smaller-grained (hundred nano-meter size grain) and larger-grained (micro-meter size grain) U-10Mo specimens have been irradiated (implanted) with 250 keV Xe+ beam and were in situ characterized by TEM. Xe bubbles were not seen in the specimen after an implantation fluence of 2 × 1020 ions/m2 at room temperature. Nucleation of Xe bubbles happened during heating of the specimen to a final temperature of 300 °C. By comparing measured Xe bubble statistics, the nucleation and growth behaviors of Xe bubbles were investigated in smaller-grained and larger-grained U-10Mo specimens. A multi-atom kind of nucleation mechanism has been observed in both specimens. X-ray Absorption spectroscopy showed the edge position in the bubbles to be the same as that of Xe gas. The size of Xe bubbles has been shown to be bigger in larger-grained specimens than in smaller-grained specimens at the same implantation conditions.

  14. TEM examination of the interface between Bioglass {sup trademark} /polyethylene composites and human osteoblast cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J. [London Univ. (United Kingdom). IRC Biomedical Materials; Silvio, L. di; Kayser, M. [Inst. of Orthopaedics, Univ. Coll. London Medical School (United Kingdom); Bonfield, W. [London Univ. (United Kingdom). IRC Biomedical Materials; Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The interface between Bioglass {sup trademark} reinforced polyethylene (PE) composite and human osteoblast (HOB) cells was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after 6 weeks in vitro culture. It was found that apatite crystals had been formed around Bioglass {sup trademark} particles of the composite, and there was a direct bonding between the composite and the cells. By contrast, the HOB cell layer was detached from unfilled PE during the sample preparation, although PE was able to support the growth and proliferation of the HOB cells. The results demonstrated that in vitro culture using human osteoblast cells provides valuable information relating to the biological response of the biomaterials. PE is a biocompatible material, but lack of bioactivity. The formation of apatite on Bioglass {sup trademark} provided bonding between the composite and HOB cells, similar to that found on bulk Bioglass {sup trademark} in vivo. Therefore, it is anticipated that the bioactivity of Bioglass {sup trademark} in the Bioglass {sup trademark} /PE composite is retained in vivo. (orig.)

  15. Nanoscale characterization of the thermal interface resistance of a heat-sink composite material by in situ TEM. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Kakefuda, Yohei; Mori, Takao; Hirose, Kenji; Mitome, Masanori; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri


    We developed an original method of in situ nanoscale characterization of thermal resistance utilizing a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The focused electron beam of the HRTEM was used as a contact-free heat source and a piezo-movable nanothermocouple was developed as a thermal detector. This method has a high flexibility of supplying thermal-flux directions for nano/microscale thermal conductivity analysis, and is a powerful way to probe the thermal properties of complex or composite materials. Using this method we performed reproducible measurements of electron beam-induced temperature changes in pre-selected sections of a heat-sink α-Al(2)O(3)/epoxy-based resin composite. Observed linear behavior of the temperature change in a filler reveals that Fourier's law holds even at such a mesoscopic scale. In addition, we successfully determined the thermal resistance of the nanoscale interfaces between neighboring α-Al(2)O(3) fillers to be 1.16 × 10(-8) m(2)K W(-1), which is 35 times larger than that of the fillers themselves. This method that we have discovered enables evaluation of thermal resistivity of composites on the nanoscale, combined with the ultimate spatial localization and resolution sample analysis capabilities that TEM entails.

  16. Simulación del haz de electrones en un TEM como flujo de partículas cargadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández-Valle


    Full Text Available Se simuló el comportamiento de un haz de electrones en un Microscopio Electrónico de Transmisión (TEM en función del voltaje de aceleración, la corriente de excitación de las lentes y la permeabilidad relativa de las piezas polares, por medio del software COMSOL Multiphysics versión 4.2a. Los resultados mostraron una baja velocidad vertical en los electrones dispersos, los cuales fueron filtrados por los diafragmas. Además, los gráficos expusieron que la densidad del flujo magnético aumentó con el incremento en la permeabilidad magnética de las piezas polares. Además, un aumento en la densidad del flujo magnético incrementó el ángulo de los electrones divergentes y redujo su velocidad vertical. Finalmente, las observaciones demostraron que el número de electrones que entran en el sistema no afecta el comportamiento general del haz ni la magnitud de la densidad del flujo magnético.

  17. In-situ TEM-investigations of mass transport in ``near-bamboo'' Al-interconnects due to electromigration (United States)

    Heinen, Dirk; Schroeder, Herbert; Schilling, Werner


    Electromigration (EM)-driven mass transport in "near-bamboo" Al-lines, which consist mostly of "blocking grains," is an important topic of research on ULSI-metallizations. Because the most easy diffusion path, i.e. grain boundaries parallel to the line, is suppressed in bamboo-like Al-lines other paths have to be considered. In this work two other possible paths of diffusion were examined by in-situ observations in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For these experiments a special sample holder had to be constructed. One path is EM-driven intragranular diffusion in Al-lines. In this experiment, inert gas-filled voids with a mean diameter of about 10 nm, so-called bubbles, which were created after gas implantation and annealing of the Al-lines, serve as indicators of mass (or vacancy) transport. The in-situ EM-tests reveal no intragranular void motion over a period of more than 100 h at current densities of 1-1.75 MA/cm2 and temperatures of 150-225 °C. This leads to an estimation of the maximum void diffusion velocity which was compared with calculated values of surface and volume diffusion controlled void motion, respectively. The second point of interest was the behavior of dislocations in Al-lines under an applied EM-force. The importance of their observed motion for intragranular mass transport will be discussed.

  18. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S


    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  19. Probing structure in submicronic aqueous assemblies of emulsified microemulsions and charged spherical colloids using SANS and cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Muller, François; Dégousée, Thibault; Degrouard, Jéril; Brûlet, Annie; Salonen, Anniina


    The spatial distribution of charged spherical colloids when used as stabilizers of phytantriol-based emulsified microemulsions (EME, L2 symmetry group) is investigated. The coverage of the lipid-based mesophases by the colloids is monitored using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in contrast matching conditions and visualized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) imaging. The results demonstrate that, despite the stability of the emulsion droplets, very few colloids are ever found on the droplets. The stability of the EMEs is suggested to arise from the very slow ripening rates combined with punctual repulsion against coalescence from the isolated charged colloids on the bigger droplet surfaces. We show the possibility of creating a dense cover around the droplets by partially hydrophobizing the colloids by adsorbing a cationic surfactant on their surface. This opens up the possibilities for further modulation of the colloidal coverage in these systems. This is an interesting route for the design of new Colloid-ISAsome assemblies in which dense protective armors could be advantageous such as controlled delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In Situ Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon for TFT Applications: Controlled Ultrafast Studies in the Dynamic TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Teslich, N; Lu, J P; Morgan, D; Browning, N


    An in situ method for studying the role of laser energy on the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline Si is presented. By monitoring both laser energy and microstructural evolution simultaneously in the dynamic transmission electron microscope, information on grain size and defect concentration can be correlated directly with processing conditions. This proof of principle study provides fundamental scientific information on the crystallization process that has technological importance for the development of thin film transistors. In conclusion, we successfully developed a method for studying UV laser processing of Si films in situ on nanosecond time scales, with ultimate implications for TFT application improvements. In addition to grain size distribution as a function of laser energy density, we found that grain size scaled with laser energy in general. We showed that nanosecond time resolution allowed us to see the nucleation and growth front during processing, which will help further the understanding of microstructural evolution of poly-Si films for electronic applications. Future studies, coupled with high resolution TEM, will be performed to study grain boundary migration, intergranular defects, and grain size distribution with respect to laser energy and adsorption depth.

  1. A TEM study of strained SiGe/Si and related heteroepitaxial structures Semiconductor devices; Quantum wells; Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, A


    The role of SiGe/Si heterostructures and related materials has become increasingly important within the last few decades. In order to increase the scale of integration, however, devices with active elements not larger than few tens of nanometer have been recently introduced. There is, therefore, a strong need for an analytical technique capable of giving information about submicron-sized components. An investigation on a nanometre scale can be performed by the combination of a fully equipped Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with a Field Emission Gun (PEG) electron source, which enables one to use a wide range of analytical techniques with an electron probe as small as 0.5 nm. In this work, two different types of SiGe/Si-based devices were investigated. Strained-Si n-channel MOSFETs. The use of Strained-Si n-channel grown on SiGe should improve both carrier mobility and transconductance with respect to conventional MOSFETs. Materials analysed in this work showed an extremely high transconductance but a r...

  2. Investigation of the agglomeration and amorphous transformation effects of neutron irradiation on the nanocrystalline silicon carbide (3C-SiC) using TEM and SEM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynov, Elchin M., E-mail: [Department of Nanotechnology and Radiation Material Science, National Nuclear Research Center, Inshaatchilar pr. 4, AZ 1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, B.Vahabzade 9, AZ 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan)


    Nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles irradiated by neutron flux during 20 h in TRIGA Mark II light water pool type research reactor. Silicon carbide nanoparticles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) devices before and after neutron irradiation. The agglomeration of nanoparticles was studied comparatively before and after neutron irradiation. After neutron irradiation the amorphous layer surrounding the nanoparticles was analyzed in TEM device. Neutron irradiation defects in the 3C-SiC nanoparticles and other effects investigated by TEM device. The effect of irradiation on the crystal structure of the nanomaterial was studied by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and electron diffraction patterns (EDP) analysis.

  3. Ten-year observation of dentin bonding durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement--a SEM and TEM study. (United States)

    Aoki, Kanako; Kitasako, Yuichi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Burrow, Michael F; Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji


    This study aimed to assess dentin bond durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement over ten years, by evaluating the tensile bond strength, and SEM and TEM observations. Tensile bond strength of Super Bond C&B (SB) to bovine dentin was evaluated at 1 day and after 10 years. The mode of failure after debonding was observed by SEM. Interfacial ultrastructure and nanoleakage was observed by TEM at the baseline and after 10 y. The tensile bond strength significantly dropped after 10 y. The failure pattern shifted from cohesive failure in resin towards adhesive failure or cohesive failure in dentin. TEM observation revealed degradation of both resin and collagen networks within the hybrid layer and nanoleakage at the base of the hybrid layer after 10 y. The bond strength of SB to dentin significantly decreased, and the hybrid layer degraded, while the overlying hydrophobic resin layer showed little disintegration over 10 y.

  4. 5.5 W continuous-wave TEM00-mode Nd:YAG solar laser by a light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity (United States)

    Almeida, J.; Liang, D.; Vistas, C. R.; Bouadjemine, R.; Guillot, E.


    A significant progress in TEM00-mode solar laser power and efficiency with heliostat-parabolic mirror system is reported here. A double-stage light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity is used to efficiently couple and redistribute the concentrated pump light from a 2-m-diameter parabolic mirror to a 4-mm-diameter, 30-mm-length, 1.1 at.% Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The light guide with large rectangular cross section enables a stable uniform pumping profile along the laser rod, resulting also in an enhanced tracking error compensation capacity. 5.5 W cw TEM00-mode solar laser power was measured at the output of a thermally near unstable asymmetric resonator. 150 and 157 % improvement in TEM00-mode solar laser collection efficiency and slope efficiency were obtained, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the physical properties of the Iranian temporary cement, Tem Band, and the foreign one, Temp Bond, compared to ISO 3107

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltan Karimy V.


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Iranian temporary cement, Tem Band, has been manufactured by Golchai company, and introduced to market as a suitable material but its properties have not been tested yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the setting time, film thickness, compressive strength, disintegration and arsenic content of Tem Band and Temp bond temporary cements and compare them to ISO 3107. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 12 samples from each cement were obtained and setting time, film thickness, compressive strength, solubility and disintegration were tested according to ISO 3107. In addition, arsenic content was tested based on ASTM 6052. Data were analyzed with t-test and p<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: The average setting time of Tem Band was 5 minutes and 47 seconds (4.17 minutes for Temp Bond, the average film thickness was 6.67 micrometer for Tem Band and 4.08 micrometer for Temp Bond. There was no difference between two cements regarding setting time and film thickness and for both was at the standard range. Compressive strength of Tem Band was 5.67 MPa and 8.5 MPa for Temp Bond. The difference was statistically significant but for both cements was less than standard (35 MPa. There was no significant difference regarding the solubility and disintegration tests. In both samples, the solubility and disintegration values were in standard ranges. Both cements did not contain arsenic but lead level was at the maximum standard range in Tem Band. Conclusion: Considering these results, both cements are applicable to different clinical situations based on their physical properties. Studies on the biocompatibility of the Iranian cement is recommended.

  6. Structural insight into the kinetics and DeltaCp of interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP). (United States)

    Wang, Jihong; Palzkill, Timothy; Chow, Dar-Chone


    In a previous study, we examined thermodynamic parameters for 20 alanine mutants in beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) for binding to TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Here we have determined the structures of two thermodynamically distinctive complexes of BLIP mutants with TEM-1 beta-lactamase. The complex BLIP Y51A-TEM-1 is a tight binding complex with the most negative binding heat capacity change (DeltaG = approximately -13 kcal mol(-1) and DeltaCp = approximately -0.8 kcal mol(-1) K(-1)) among all of the mutants, whereas BLIP W150A-TEM-1 is a weak complex with one of the least negative binding heat capacity changes (DeltaG = approximately -8.5 kcal mol(-1) and DeltaCp = approximately -0.27 kcal mol(-1) K(-1)). We previously determined that BLIP Tyr51 is a canonical and Trp150 an anti-canonical TEM-1-contact residue, where canonical refers to the alanine substitution resulting in a matched change in the hydrophobicity of binding free energy. Structure determination indicates a rearrangement of the interactions between Asp49 of the W150A BLIP mutant and the catalytic pocket of TEM-1. The Asp49 of W150A moves more than 4 angstroms to form two new hydrogen bonds while losing four original hydrogen bonds. This explains the anti-canonical nature of the Trp150 to alanine substitution, and also reveals a strong long distance coupling between Trp150 and Asp49 of BLIP, because these two residues are more than 25 angstroms apart. Kinetic measurements indicate that the mutations influence the dissociation rate but not the association rate. Further analysis of the structures indicates that an increased number of interface-trapped water molecules correlate with poor interface packing in a mutant. It appears that the increase of interface-trapped water molecules is inversely correlated with negative binding heat capacity changes.

  7. What is the best tool for transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM)? A case-matched study in 74 patients comparing a standard platform and a disposable material. (United States)

    Mege, Diane; Bridoux, Valérie; Maggiori, Léon; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Panis, Yves


    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is the gold standard for local excision of rectal lesions, but no study exists concerning the best material. The objective was to compare TEM using a disposable material vs a standard platform through a case-matched study. Patients who underwent TEM for rectal neoplasms were identified from prospective databases in two tertiary referral centers and matched according to four criteria (sex, tumor location, size, distance from the anal verge): TEM using a disposable material (GelPoint Applied®; group A) and TEM using a standard TEO® platform (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany; group B). A total of 74 patients were included and divided into group A (n = 33) and group B (n = 41). Full-thickness resection was less frequent in group A (85%) than B (100%; p = 0.01). Adenocarcinoma was less frequent in group A than B: 27 vs 42% (p = 0.03). No difference was noted regarding median operative time (53 vs 53 min; p = 0.6) and a peritoneal perforation rate (6 vs 20%; p = 0.17). Median length of stay was shorter in group A than B (4 vs 5 days; p study suggested that TEM can be performed using either a TEO® platform or a disposable material, with similar surgical results. The TEO® platform seems to be superior to obtain full-thickness and R0 resection.

  8. Double-tilt in situ TEM holder with multiple electrical contacts and its application in MEMS-based mechanical testing of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Rodrigo A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Espinosa, Horacio D., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); iNfinitesimal LLC, Skokie, IL 60077 (United States)


    MEMS and other lab-on-a-chip systems are emerging as attractive alternatives to carry out experiments in situ the electron microscope. However, several electrical connections are usually required for operating these setups. Such connectivity is challenging inside the limited space of the TEM side-entry holder. Here, we design, implement and demonstrate a double-tilt TEM holder with capabilities for up to 9 electrical connections, operating in a high-resolution TEM. We describe the operating principle of the tilting and connection mechanisms and the physical implementation of the holder. To demonstrate the holder capabilities, we calibrate the tilting action, which has limits of ±15°, and establish the insulation resistance of the electronics to be 36 GΩ, appropriate for measurements of currents down to the nano-amp (nA) regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate tensile testing of silver nanowires using a previously developed MEMS device for mechanical testing, using the implemented holder as the platform for electronic operation and sensing. The implemented holder can potentially have broad application to other areas where MEMS or electrically-actuated setups are used to carry out in situ TEM experiments. - Highlights: • We implement a double-tilt in-situ TEM holder with 9 electrical connections. • The holder can operate in a HRTEM with 2 mm pole-piece gap and has tilt up to ±15°. • Insulation resistance of 36 GΩ allows measurement of small currents. • The setup is showcased by testing silver nanowires using MEMS in-situ TEM. • Broad application to other electrically-actuated in-situ experiments is possible.

  9. Analiza in izboljšava skladišča gotovih izdelkov v podjetju TEM Čatež d.d.


    Liber, Alen


    V prvem delu diplomskega dela smo predstavili eno izmed vodilnih podjetji v Sloveniji na področju elektromateriala, to je podjetje TEM Čatež d.d.. V prvem delu diplomskega dela smo torej predstavili zgodovino podjetja TEM Čatež d.d., kako se je podjetje razvijalo vse do današnjega stanja in prepoznavnosti. Predstavili pa smo tudi potek proizvodnje in jo na kratko opisali. Prav tako pa smo bolj podrobno predstavili skladišče gotovih izdelkov katero je v nadaljevanju tudi obravnavano. V d...

  10. Do árido, a estética: a representação temática e formal da seca em Galileia


    Andrade, Ana Carolina Negrão Berlini de [UNESP


    Este texto tem como objetivo estudar as representações da aridez, leimotiv recorrente na produção artística brasileira, no romance contemporâneo Galileia (2009), de Ronaldo Correia de Brito, no qual percebemos que a aridez exerce papel fundamental, na medida em que não é apenas tema, mas elemento estrutural que reitera – e amplia – a aridez temática. Desse modo, a aridez, metafórica, estrutural ou literal é reelaborada pelo romance em questão, no qual as figuras relacionadas à seca e ao cenár...

  11. Correlation of superconducting properties and microstructure in MgB{sub 2} using SEM, EPMA and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birajdar, Balaji I.


    This thesis can be subdivided as follows: (I) Development of the quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods essential for the microstructural analysis of MgB{sub 2} and thereby assess the performance of two energy-filtered TEMs. (II) Application of these methods to few selected samples: (a) Pure and Al-alloyed MgB{sub 2} bulk samples prepared by solid-state reaction or by mechanical alloying, (b) In-situ and ex-situ MgB{sub 2} wires and tapes with and without SiC additives prepared by different variants of the powder-in-tube technology. Quantitative B analysis by EDX spectroscopy was applied in the SEM and TEM, which is a major achievement. (III) Establishing a model which quantitatively explains the correlation between microstructure and critical current density as a function of magnetic field. The actual Al mole fraction in the MgB{sub 2} matrix was found to be less than the nominal Al mole fraction and the difference increased with increasing Al mole fraction. Al is incorporated into MgB{sub 2} grains of {approx}1{mu}m size by substitution of Mg atoms causing T{sub c} and c lattice parameter to decrease at a rate of 1.56 K and 1.15 pm per at.% of Al alloying. Precipitation of Al was not detected up to highest Al mole fractions but Al was inhomogeneously distributed in the sample, which explained the broadening of the superconducting transition width ({delta}T{sub c}) with increasing Al mole fraction. For wires and tapes, significant differences were observed in the microstructure of in-situ and ex-situ samples. This holds particularly if SiC was added and yielded Mg{sub 2}Si for in-situ samples annealed at 600 -650 C and Mg-Si-O phases for ex-situ samples annealed between 900 -1050 C. Four microstructural parameters were identified as relevant for the I{sub c} of wires and tapes and these were: 1) MgB{sub 2} grain size which lies in the range of 20-1000 nm, 2) colony size (colony is a dense arrangement of MgB{sub 2} grains) which lies in the range

  12. Cryo-FE-SEM & TEM immuno-techniques reveal new details for understanding white-rot decay of lignocellulose. (United States)

    Daniel, Geoffrey; Volc, Jindrich; Niku-Paavola, Marja-Leena


    High-resolution Cryo-Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-Cryo-FE-SEM) and immuno-cytochemistry were used to reveal novel details on the morphological events and spatial distribution of oxidoreductive enzymes during the degradation of birch wood by the white-rot fungi Phlebia radiata and mutant strain P radiata Cel 26. Cryo-observations of fractured fibres showed degradation across the cell wall by P. radiata (wild) to progress by delamination and removal of concentric orientated aggregates from the secondary S2 cell wall. Decay by P radiata Cel 26 progressed by removal of materials (lignin and hemicelluloses) between the aggregates (primarily cellulose) that remained even after advanced decay. With both decay patterns, extracellular slime materials were present uniting lumina hyphae with the attacked fibre wall. The extracellular slime material had two morphological forms: viz a fibrillar (often tripartite) and a 'gel-form', the former found in discrete bands progressing across the lumen onto the fibre wall. Using TEM immunocytochemistry, laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and diarylpropane enzymes were localized in the periplasmic space of luminal hyphae, in association with the cell membrane, periplasmic vesicles and fungal cell wall. Extracellularly, the three enzymes were found associated with the slime and tripartite membranes and with the birch cell walls at all stages of attack through to middle lamella corner decay. Enzyme distribution was correlated with morphological changes in cell wall structure. The association of extracellular slime with these enzymes and sites of decay strongly suggests a major role for this matrix in fibre cell wall decomposition.

  13. Determining the thickness of atomically thin MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} in the TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ryan J.; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre, E-mail:


    Multislice simulations were used to analyze the reliability of annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) imaging and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) for determining the thicknesses of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} specimens in the aberration-corrected TEM. Samples of 1 to 4 layers in thickness for both 2H and 1T polymorphs were studied and tilts up to 500 mrad off of the [0001] zone axis were considered. All thicknesses including the monolayer showed distortions and intensity variations in their ADF-STEM images and SAED patterns as a result of tilt. Both techniques proved to be applicable to distinguish monolayers from multilayers using tilt. Without tilt, neither technique allows unambiguous thickness determination solely by comparing relative intensities of atomic columns in ADF-STEM images or diffraction patterns oriented along at [0001] zone axis, with the exception of monolayer 2H WS{sub 2}. However, differentiation is possible using absolute intensities in ADF-STEM images. The analysis of ADF-STEM images and SAED patterns also allows identification of the 2H and 1T polymorphs of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We performed multislice ADF-STEM image and SAED pattern simulations of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. • We analyzed intensity variations in the image and patterns of tilted samples. • We determined ADF-STEM and SAED can be used to distinguish thickness up to 4 layers. • Both techniques can also be used to distinguish 2H and 1T polymorphs.

  14. Habitação e políticas públicas: o que se tem pesquisado a respeito?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pazolini Dias Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este artigo analisar a produção científica sobre a política habitacional brasileira, a partir de 1964 até 2014, de forma a compreender como essa questão tem sido estudada pela Administração e por outras áreas das Ciências Sociais Aplicadas. Para tanto, realizou-se um metaestudo, que foi sistematizado em três momentos: (i a escolha da literatura a ser analisada; (ii o levantamento das informações; (iii a análise, a interpretação e a apresentação dos resultados. A técnica de análise de conteúdo, subdivida nas etapas de pré-análise, exploração do material e tratamento dos resultados, deu suporte à construção da proposta. Alguns resultados interessantes foram: predomínio dos pesquisadores gaúchos e paulistas, pertencentes, principalmente, à Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul e Universidade de São Paulo; o emprego de pesquisas de cunho avaliativo que envolviam programas habitacionais de abrangência nacional, como o Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida e o Programa de Arrendamento Residencial, executados a nível local. No entanto, algumas lacunas foram identificadas: o direcionamento de estudos à provisão habitacional, isto é, à construção de casas, com pouca produção envolvendo outras perspectivas da política de habitação, como a reforma e a regularização de assentamentos precários; o predomínio das pesquisas em âmbito urbano indicando a carência de estudos direcionados à habitação rural.

  15. A novel approach for preparation and in situ tensile testing of silica glass membranes in the TEM (United States)

    Mačković, Mirza; Przybilla, Thomas; Dieker, Christel; Herre, Patrick; Romeis, Stefan; Stara, Hana; Schrenker, Nadine; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann


    The mechanical behavior of glasses in the micro- and/or nanometer regime increasingly gains importance in nowadays modern technology. However, suitable small scale preparation and mechanical testing approaches for a reliable assessment of the mechanical properties of glasses still remain a big challenge. In the present work, a novel approach for site-specific preparation and quantitative in situ tensile testing of thin silica glass membranes in the transmission electron microscope is presented. Thereby, advanced focused ion beam techniques are used for the preparation of nanoscale dog bone shaped silica glass specimens suitable for in situ tensile testing. Small amounts of gallium are detected on the surface of the membranes resulting from redeposition effects during the focused ion beam preparation procedure. Possible structural changes of silica glass upon irradiation with electrons and gallium ions are investigated by controlled irradiation experiments, followed by a structural analysis using Raman spectroscopy. While moderate electron beam irradiation does not alter the structure of silica glass, ion beam irradiation results in minor densification of the silica glass membranes. In situ tensile testing of membranes under electron beam irradiation results in distinctive elongations without fracture confirming the phenomenon of superplasticity. In contrast, in situ tensile testing in the absence of the electron beam reveals an elastic/plastic deformation behavior, and finally leads to fracture of the membranes. The Young’s moduli of the glass membranes pulled at beam off conditions in the TEM are comparable with values known for bulk fused silica, while the tensile strength is in the range of values reported for silica glass fibers with comparable dimensions. The impact of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of silica glass membranes is further discussed. The results of the present work open new avenues for dedicated preparation and

  16. Tratamiento externo de los cerramientos del parque temático de "Terra Mítica", Alicante

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    López Morales, Aurelio


    Full Text Available One of the more emblematic building constructed in the last 2000, was the one of "TERRA MITICA'S" Thematic Park, in Benidorm (Alicante. Independently of the attractions concerning a Fairground (the genuine stars in the Park, the functionality and the aesthetic of the buildings assigned to leisure areas, are also very important concerning the comfort and relaxation after the adventure. In the present article, you will find the adopted decisions concerning the building faces in the whole different areas included in the Park. A detailed exhibition of the different ornamental details and of the different techniques used in the facing, will be also exposed.Una de las obras más emblemáticas, de carácter lúdico, que se han construido en el año 2000 es la que corresponde al Parque Temático " TERRA MÍTICA ", situado en la localidad alicantina de Benidorm. Con independencia de que sean las atracciones -Montaña Rusa, Rápidos, Caída Libre, etc.: las verdaderas estrellas del Parque, la funcionalidad y estética de los edificios destina dos a zona s de ocio juegan también un papel importante en el confort y la relajación después de la aventura. En el presente artículo se expondrán las tematizaciones adoptadas, tales como los revestimientos en los edificios de las distintas áreas que componen el conjunto del Parque. Asimismo, se hará una exposición detallada de diferentes motivos decorativos y de las técnicas empleadas para la ejecución del revestimiento.


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    Elesa Vanessa Kaiser da Silva


    Full Text Available The contact with Children’s Literature, especially with fairy tales, allows the reader to know classical characters that have survived over the years. And, among these, some stand out: princesses, princes, Little caps, wolves and witches, since these are the ones that inhabit, also very often, contemporary stories and continue attracting the attention of children. Thus, this study aims to specifically analyze the representation of the wolf in contemporary children’s books that compose the collection of the National Program of School’s Library (Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola – PNBE – 2012. Works that dialogue with the classical fairy tales were selected, in order to analyze if the parodistic creation allows an innovation in relation to the possibilities of new ways to be taken by the characters. Thus, this paper aims to analyze “Chapeuzinhos Coloridos”, José Roberto Torero and Marcus Aurelius Pimenta (2010; “Chapeuzinho Vermelho: uma aventura borbulhante”, Lynn Roberts (2009; “De quem tem medo o Lobo Mau?”, Silvana de Menezes (2009; “Cuidado com o menino!”, Tony Blundell (2011; and ”Mamãe, por que os dinossauros não vão à escola?”, Quentin Greban (2010, which were selected from the reading of 150 (one hundred fifty literary works of 2012 PNBE collection. For this purpose, works of Linda Hutcheon (1985 Robert Darnton (2011, Ana Maria Machado (2002, Vera Teixeira de Aguiar and Alice Áurea Penteado Martha (2012 were used especially, for theoretical basis, among others.

  18. An Ultrahigh Resolution Structure of TEM-1 beta-Lactamase Suggests a Role for Glu166 as the General Base in Acylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasov, George; Wang, Xiaojun; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    Although TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. To investigate this problem, the structure of TEM-1 in complex with an acylation transition-state analogue was determined at ultrahigh resolution (0.85 {angstrom}) by X-ray crystallography. The quality of the data was such as to allow for refinement to an R-factor of 9.1% and an R{sub free} of 11.2%. In the resulting structure, the electron density features were clear enough to differentiate between single and double bonds in carboxylate groups, to identify multiple conformations that are occupied by residues and loops, and to assign 70% of the protons in the protein. Unexpectedly, even at pH 8.0 where the protein was crystallized, the active site residue Glu166 is clearly protonated. This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. This structure suggests that Glu166 acts through the catalytic water to activate Ser70 for nucleophilic attack on the {beta}-lactam ring of the substrate. The hydrolytic mechanism of class A {beta}-lactamases, such as TEM-1, appears to be symmetrical, as are the serine proteases. Apart from its mechanistic implications, this atomic resolution structure affords an unusually detailed view of the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen-bonding networks of TEM-1, which may be useful for the design of inhibitors against this key antibiotic resistance target.

  19. Molecular detection of TEM and AmpC (Dha, mox broad spectrum β-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

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    Soltan Dallal MM


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Beta- lactamase enzymes are the most important resistant factors to beta lactam antibiotics among gram negative bacteria. Nowadays, the prevalence of beta- lactamase infection is increasing worldwide and drawn the scientists attention as an important subject. Due to high prevalence of bacteria contained TEM beta lactamase and AmpC enzymes, using molecular methods especially designing universal primers could be valuable to detect all of them. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of TEM and AmpC (Dha and MOX beta- lactamase genes using universal primers. "nMethods: A total of 500 clinical specimens from various Hospitals in Tehran, Iran were collected and analyzed for E. coli based on biochemical tests. These clinical specimens were also screened by Disk diffusion agar, combined disk method and PCR to detect the samples producing extended- spectrum beta- lactamase. "nResults: Overall 200 isolates of Escherichia coli were collected from the 500 clinical specimens out of which 128(64% isolates were positive by PCR assay and showed bla- TEM, bla- AmpC (Dha, MOX genes, 74(57.8% and 5(3.9% to have bla- TEM and bla Dha, respectively. Mox gene was not detected in any of the specimens. "nConclusions: Our results revealed that using the molecular methods with phenotype methods is very essential for complete detection of Beta- lactamases. There is the need for updating the treatment protocol because the prevalence of this resistance is increasing.

  20. Componentes de dificultad de ítems para la evaluación de operaciones lógicas. Una aplicación del modelo LLTM

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    María Silvia Galibert


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los componentes cognitivos implicados en la resolución de ítems de razonamiento deductivo mediante la aplicación del Modelo Logístico Lineal de Rasgo Latente (LLTM de Fischer. Los ítems fueron aplicados a una muestra de 538 estudiantes de Psicología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires.Se describe el procedimiento de depuración del conjunto inicial de 47 ítems, del cual finalmente quedaron 27 a los que se ajustó el modelo. La correlación lineal de las estimaciones obtenidas bajo los modelos LLTM y Rasch fue r = 0,8851. El orden de dificultad de los componentes considerados, desde más difícil a más fácil, fue: Falacias de Negación del Antecedente y de Afirmación del Consecuente, Negación de la Conjunción y de la Disyunción, Silogismos, Cuantificadores, Doble Negación, Tipo de Contenido y Argumentos Modus Ponens y Tollens. Se discuten los alcances y limitaciones de la aplicación de este modelo a los ítems elaborados.

  1. Análise da temática sexualidade no contexto escolar com professores da educação básica

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    Laine Gomes Chaveiro


    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar contenidos relacionados con la temática sexualidad en las redes municipal y estatal de enseñanza; e identificar dificultades y necesidades de los docentes en el enfoque temático. Métodos: estudio transversal con 79 docentes de las instituciones educativas mediante cuestionario auto administrado. Para análisis, se utilizó como criterio pertenecer a la red municipal o estatal. Resultado: mayoría de los profesores trabaja en la red estatal de enseñanza. La temática sexualidad no es trabajada según el Parámetro Curricular Nacional. Profesores de la red municipal trabajan más el tema embarazo (p=0,04, y más citado por profesores del sistema estatal para formación (p=0,03. Mayoría sin experiencia y formación en la temática (p=0,04. Conclusión: son necesarias alianzas con el área de la salud para instrumentalización del profesor. Es importante reconocer la actuación del enfermero en el trabajo de la educación sexual como componente esencial en la atención integral para fortalecer el área de la salud escolar.

  2. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method


    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.; Blicharski M.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam).

  3. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

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    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam.

  4. Comparison of ultramicrotomy and focused-ion-beam for the preparation of TEM and STEM cross section of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simonsen, Søren B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gnaegi, Helmut [Diatome Ltd., Biel-Bienne (Switzerland); Thydén, Karl T.S.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Gevorgyan, Suren A. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)


    Highlights: • Comparison of flexible solar cell sections prepared by ultramicrotomy and by FIB. • Energy filtered TEM analysis of phase separation in the P3HT:PCBM active layer. • Imaging of aging effects on solar cell cross section prepared by ultramicrotomy. • Ultramicrotomy provides great details while FIB better preserves the structure. - Abstract: The challenge of preparing cross sections of organic photovoltaics (OPV) suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) is addressed. The samples were polymer solar cells fabricated using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing methods on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Focused ion beam (FIB) and ultramicrotomy were used to prepare the cross sections. The differences between the samples prepared by ultramicrotomy and FIB are addressed, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. The sample prepared by ultramicrotomy yielded good resolution, enabling further studies of phase separation of P3HT:PCBM by means of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The sample prepared by FIB shows good structure preservation, but reduced resolution due to non-optimal thicknesses achieved after treatment. Degradation studies of samples prepared by ultramicrotomy are further discussed, which reveal particular effects of the ISOS-L-3 aging test (85 °C, 50% R.H., 0.7 Sun) onto the sample, especially pronounced in the silver layer.

  5. A detailed description of the development of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii using SEM, TEM, Histology and 3D-reconstructions. (United States)

    Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Stach, Thomas


    Traditionally, the origin of the third germ layer and its special formation of coelomic cavities by enterocoely is regarded to be an informative character in phylogenetic analyses. In early deuterostomes such as sea urchins, the mesoderm forms through a single evagination pinching off from the apical end of the archenteron which then gives off mesocoela and metacoela on each side. This echinoid-type coelom formation has conventionally been assumed to be ancestral for Deuterostomia. However, recent phylogenetic analyses show that Echinodermata hold a more derived position within Deuterostomia. In this regard a subgroup of Hemichordata, namely enteropneusts, seem to host promising candidates, because they are supposed to have retained many ancestral deuterostome features on the one hand, and furthermore share some characteristics with chordates on the other hand. In enteropneusts a wide range of different modes of coelom formation has been reported and in many cases authors of the original observations carefully detailed the limitations of their descriptions, while these doubts disappeared in subsequent reviews. In the present study, we investigated the development of all tissues in an enteropneust, Saccoglossus kowalevskii by using modern morphological techniques such as complete serial sectioning for LM and TEM, and 3D-reconstructions, in order to contribute new data to the elucidation of deuterostome evolution. Our data show that in the enteropneust S. kowalevskii all main coelomic cavities (single protocoel, paired mesocoela and metacoela) derive from the endoderm via enterocoely as separate evaginations, in contrast to the aforementioned echinoid-type. The anlagen of the first pair of gill slits emerge at the late kink stage (~96 h pf). From that time onwards, we documented a temporal left-first development of the gill slits and skeletal gill rods in S. kowalevskii until the 2 gill slit juvenile stage. The condition of coelom formation from separate

  6. A quasi-time-resolved CryoTEM study of the nucleation of CaCO3 under langmuir monolayers. (United States)

    Pichon, Benoît P; Bomans, Paul H H; Frederik, Peter M; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M


    Calcium carbonate biomineralization uses complex assemblies of macromolecules that control the nucleation, growth, and positioning of the mineral with great detail. To investigate the mechanisms involved in these processes, for many years Langmuir monolayers have been used as model systems. Here, we descibe the use of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy in combination with selected area electron diffraction as a quasi-time-resolved technique to study the very early stages of this process. In this way, we assess the evolution of morphology, polymorphic type, and crystallographic orientation of the calcium carbonate formed. For this, we used a self-assembled Langmuir monolayer of a valine-based bisureido surfactant (1) spread on a CaCl2-containing subphase and deposited on a holey carbon TEM grid. In a controlled environment, the grid is exposed to an atmosphere containing NH3 and CO2 (the (NH4)2CO3 diffusion method) for precisely determined periods of time (reaction times 30-1800 s) before it was plunged into melting ethane. This procedure allows us to observe amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles growing from a few tens of nanometers to hundreds of nanometers and then crystallizing to form [00.1] oriented vaterite. The vaterite in turn transforms to yield [10.0] oriented calcite. We also performed the reaction in the absence of monolayer or in the presence of a nondirective monolayer of surfactant containing an oligo(ethylene oxide) 2 head group. Both experiments also showed the formation of a transient amorphous phase followed by a direct conversion into randomly oriented calcite crystals. These results imply the specific though temporary stabilization of the (00.1) vaterite by the monolayer. However, experiments performed at higher CaCl2 concentrations show the direct conversion of ACC into [10.0] oriented calcite. Moreover, prolonged exposure to the electron beam shows that this transformation can take place as a topotactic process. The formation of


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    Sergio Alexis Dominguez-Lara


    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la actualidad el uso de medidas breves en la evaluación psicológica se extiende con rapidez, pero en muchas ocasiones el análisis de la confiabilidad de sus puntajes se ve limitado por las condiciones que deben superarse para utilizar determinados coeficientes (p.e., el coeficiente α. El cumplimiento del modelo tau-equivalente es una de las más importantes que exige el coeficiente α y al no alcanzarse, la estimación puede estar sesgada. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el coeficiente Angoff-Feldt (rAF para la estimación de la confiabilidad, que pueda ser usado en medidas congenéricas, es decir, que no cumplan con las exigencias del coeficiente α (p.e., modelo tau-equivalente. Si bien el rAF se pensó inicialmente para dos mitades congenéricas, en el artículo se presenta la aplicación para medidas de dos ítems, asumiendo que cada uno es una mitad. Se brindó un ejemplo sobre su utilidad, y se discute la posibilidad de implementar su uso. ABSTRACT Nowadays, the use of brief measurements in psychological evaluations is extending rapidly, but many times the reliability analysis of the scores is limited by the conditions which must be overcome to use certain coefficients (e.g. α coefficient. The compliance of the tau equivalent measurement model is one of the most important the α coefficient demands, and as it is not achieved, the estimate may be biased. The aim of this paper is to present the Angoff-Feldt (rAF coefficient for reliability estimate, to be used in congeneric measures, that is, those that do not comply with the demands of the α coefficient (e.g. tau equivalent model. Although rAF was initially thought for two congeneric halves, this paper presents the application for the measurement of two items, assuming each is a half. An example of its usefulness is provided and the possibility of implementing its use discussed.

  8. Occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M β lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus species in a tertiary care center. (United States)

    Chaubey, Mohit; Shenoy, Suchitra


    Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) are responsible for increased resistance to third generation cephalosporins. Proteus species is an important cause of both community acquired and nosocomial infections. The Proteus spp is usually susceptible to beta lactam drugs but there is progressive increase in beta lactam resistance and recently ESBLs are also fast spreading to this species. This study was conducted to study ESBL production and occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX M beta lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus spp in a tertiary care centre. This prospective hospital based study was carried out in Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore over 9 months. All non-duplicate consecutive proteus isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing done. ESBL detection was done by double disk synergy method and TEM, SHV, CTX M genes were detected by PCR. 84 proteus isolates from urine (29), blood (1), respiratory secretions (2), tissue (20) and exudates (47) were included in the study. 20.2% (17) were ESBL positive by disk synergy method. CTX M was present in 6, TEM in 2 and both in 9 isolates. SHV was not present in any isolate. Our findings showed that 20% of clinical isolates of proteus spp were ESBL producers. 52% of ESBL positive isolates carried both TEM and CTX M genes followed by CTX M alone (35%) and only 11% had TEM alone. This stresses on the fact that ESBL detection should be done routinely in proteus isolates and the genotype surveyed periodically for better management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  9. Sistema de registro de termos: proposta de contribuição à pesquisa terminológica temática

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    José Carlos Mardegan


    Full Text Available A pesquisa terminológica temática é o ponto de partida para a criação de vocabulários controlados. Apresenta uma proposta de construção de um sistema de registro de termos com base em um banco de dados relacional para automatizar algumas das etapas da pesquisa terminológica temática. Para concretizar essa experiência foi necessária a elaboração de uma pesquisa terminológica temática que serviu de teste para a ferramenta proposta. Este estudo tem natureza exploratória, e o corpus da coleta foi composto por vinte duas referências, incluindo os dicionários e glossários usados na validação dos termos. A fundamentação teórica foi direcionada à compreensão dos conceitos capazes de explicar os pressupostos teóricos envolvidos tanto na pesquisa terminológica temática quanto na construção do sistema de registro de termos. Cento e onze termos foram extraídos do corpus da coleta durante a pesquisa terminológica temática, obtendo-se um índice de validação de 72% número considerado relevante no contexto geral. O sistema de registro de termos demonstrou-se eficiente apresentando soluções de recuperação dos termos cadastrados em várias opções de buscas e emissão de relatórios. O estudo enunciou, ainda, procedimento visando à continuidade do projeto com a criação de outros mecanismos para a manutenção da base de dados, disponibilizando-a, inclusive, para a comunidade em geral por meio da internet.

  10. Enhanced effects of nonisotopic hafnium chloride in methanol as a substitute for uranyl acetate in TEM contrast of ultrastructure of fungal and plant cells. (United States)

    Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Kanako; Kanematsu, Satoko; Horiuchi, Yoshitaka; Park, Pyoyun


    This ultrastructural study showed that nonisotopic methanolic hafnium chloride and aqueous lead solution was an excellent new electron stain for enhancing TEM contrasts of fungal and plant cell structures. The ultrastructural definition provided by the new stain was often superior to that provided by conventional staining with uranyl acetate and lead. Definition of fine ultrastructure was also supported by quantitative data on TEM contrast ratios of organelles and components in fungal and plant cells. In particular, polysaccharides, which were localized in cell walls, glycogen particles, starch grains, and plant Golgi vesicle components, were much more reactive to the new stain than to the conventional one. The new nonisotopic stain is useful for enhancing the contrast of ultrastructure in biological tissues and is a safer alternative to uranyl acetate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Aprovechamiento didáctico de un parque temático para generar actitudes positivas hacia el aprendizaje de las ciencias naturales.


    Londoño Villamil, Germán


    RESUMEN Diseñar e implementar una propuesta didáctica para Optimizar el uso y el aprovechamiento didáctico de la temática tratada en el Parque Nacional de la Cultura Agropecuaria PANACA, que genere actitudes positivas hacia el aprendizaje de las ciencia naturales en los estudiantes de 6º, 7º, 8º y 9º (edades entre los 11 y 15 años) de la Educación Básica, 10º y 11º (edades entre 16 y 18 años) de la Educación Media. - Diagnosticar la utilización didáctica del Parque Temático PANACA por p...

  12. Dynamic study of carbon nanotube growth and catalyst morphology evolution during acetylene decomposition on Co/SBA-15 in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    s Aires, F. J. Cadete Santo; Epicier, T.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal


    post mortem TEM measurements and real-time in situ ETEM observations. In situ observation of the formation of the carbon nanotubes was performed in an FEI Titan 80-300 ETEM equipped with an objective lens spherical aberration corrector [3]. Prior to acetylene decomposition, the catalyst nanoparticles...... were reduced in situ in a flow of hydrogen (1 mbar, ~500°C). Electron energy-loss spectra taken before and during reduction showed that the Co oxide nanoparticles were reduced to metallic Co. In situ high resolution TEM images are consistent with cubic Co. A first attempt to study carbon nanotube......-3/10-2 mbar range was used to decrease the growth rate to allow real-time observation of the formation of CNTs over several minutes. These conditions also reduced the coking of the nanoparticles and favoured the formation of tubular structures. Two types of CNTs following the tip-growth mechanism...

  13. Oficina temática: uma proposta metodológica para o ensino do modelo atômico de Bohr

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    Giovanna Stefanello Silva


    Full Text Available A pesquisa apresentada neste artigo é de caráter qualitativo e investigou a aprendizagem dos conceitos relacionados ao modelo atômico de Bohr pelos alunos de uma turma da primeira série do Ensino Médio, durante o desenvolvimento de uma oficina temática. Nessa oficina, foi realizada uma atividade experimental que abordou a emissão de luz proveniente dos saltos eletrônicos que ocorrem em compostos contidos nas lightsticks, pulseiras distribuídas em festas, e teve por objetivo relacionar os fundamentos propostos por Bohr com aspectos do cotidiano dos estudantes. A pesquisa foi aplicada em uma escola de Ensino Médio da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e os resultados obtidos nos permitem afirmar que a oficina temática desenvolvida contribuiu para a aprendizagem dos conceitos relacionados ao modelo atômico de Bohr.

  14. Molecular Detection of TEM-1 Type Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Ardabil, Iran

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    N Danesh far


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Resistant microbial strains are a serious threat to public health in different societies. A mong the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains the Enterobacteriaceae family which is considered as the main factors producing urinary tract infections, have created many problems in treatment of this kind of infections. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of β-lactamase TEM-1 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine samples in Ardabil city.   Methods: Within 6 months, 400 urinary isolates of Enterobacteriaceae of inpatients and outpatients were collected in Ardabil hospitals and were identified by standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by disk diffusion method, and ESBL producer confirmatory test was conducted using combined disk. Finally, the frequency of β-lactamase TEM-1 gene in producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases strains was investigated using PCR.   Results: From 400 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 150 cases (37.5% were ESBL producing. PCR results showed presence of the TEM-1 gene in 69 cases (46%. The frequency of this gene in isolates of Enterobacter (Aerogenes, Cloacae, Klebsiella (Pneumoniae, Oxytoca and E. coli was obtained to be 62.5%, 54.5% and 44.8%, respectively. Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens strains were lacking these genotypes.   Conclusion: As regards the presence of TEM-1 gene, there is also increasing in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family including Klebsiella and Enterobacter in addition to E. coli, therefore sufficient identification of this strains is necessary to prescribe the right medicine.

  15. TEM investigation of the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} of the single NiTi crystal modified by the Si-ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsova, S. L., E-mail:; Poletika, T. M., E-mail: [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, S. N., E-mail:; Meisner, L. L., E-mail: [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)


    The study was carried on for the single NiTi crystals subjected to the Si-ion beam implantation. Using the transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} was examined for the treated material. The modified near-surface sublayers were found to have different composition. Thus the uppermost sublayer contained mostly oxides; the lower-lying modified sublayer material was in an amorphous state and the thin underlying sublayer had a defect structure.

  16. Correlation of the same fields imaged in the TEM, confocal, LM, and microCT by image registration: from specimen preparation to displaying a final composite image. (United States)

    Keene, Douglas R; Tufa, Sara F; Wong, Melissa H; Smith, Nicholas R; Sakai, Lynn Y; Horton, William A


    Correlated imaging is the process of imaging a specimen with two complementary modalities and then registering and overlaying the fields obtained in each modality to create a composite view. One of the images is made somewhat transparent, allowing detail in the underlying image to be visible and assisting in the registration of the two images. As an example, an image localizing a specific tissue component by fluorescence may be overlaid atop a TEM image of the same field. The resulting composite image would demonstrate specific ultrastructural features in the high-resolution TEM field, which are colorized in the overlay. Other examples include composites from MicroCT or soft X-ray images overlaid atop light microscopy or TEM images. Automated image registration may be facilitated by a variety of sophisticated computer programs utilized by high-throughput laboratories. This chapter is meant for the more occasional user wishing to align images manually. ImageJ is a public domain, image processing program developed at the National Institutes of Health and is available to anyone as a free download. ImageJ performs marvelously well for the purpose of image registration; therefore, step-by-step instructions are included here. Specimen handling, including fixation and choice of embedding media, is not straightforward for correlative imaging. A step-by-step description of the protocols which work in our laboratory is included for simultaneous localization in LM, EM and micro-CT, as well as maintaining GFP emission in tissue embedded for TEM. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ceftazidime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Three Polish Hospitals: Identification of Three Novel TEM- and SHV-5-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases


    Gniadkowski, Marek; Schneider, Ines; Jungwirth, Renate; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Bauernfeind, Adolf


    Twelve ceftazidime-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (11 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 1 Escherichia coli isolate) were collected in 1995 from three Polish hospitals located in different cities. All were identified as producers of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Detailed analysis of their β-lactamase contents revealed that six of them expressed SHV-5-like ESBLs. The remaining six were found to produce three different TEM enzymes, each characterized by a pI value...

  18. Análisis de ítems y evidencias de fiabilidad de la Escala sobre Representación Cognitiva de la Enfermedad (ERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena De los Santos-Roig


    Full Text Available La Escala sobre Representación Cognitiva de la Enfermedad, ERCE (De los Santos-Roig, 2009 ha sido elaborada para evaluar las creencias de los pacientes sobre su enfermedad. El modelo de Sentido Común, donde se inserta el constructo, ha sido puesto a prueba en numerosas ocasiones, encontrándose evidencia sobre la importancia de la Representación Cognitiva en los procesos de adaptación a la enfermedad (Hagger y Orbell, 2003; Leventhal et al., 1997. Su medida en nuestro ámbito cultural es necesaria, tanto desde un punto de vista teórico, como desde una perspectiva aplicada. Lo que aquí se muestra es la continuación a un trabajo previo (De los Santos-Roig, 2009; De los Santos-Roig y Pérez-Meléndez, 2013 donde se concretó la definición semántica del constructo RCE y las Tablas de Especificaciones del Test y de los Ítems, que finalmente culminó con la presentación de los primeros ítems construidos. Siguiendo con lo establecido en los estándares (AERA, APA y NCME, 1999, se muestran ahora los resultados del análisis estadístico de los ítems correspondientes a las cinco escalas que componen la ERCE, así como los obtenidos sobre sus evidencias de fiabilidad. Al final, se concluye sobre la idoneidad de los ítems que conforman la escala.

  19. 50 Anos da Revista DADOS: Uma Análise Bibliométrica do seu Perfil Disciplinar e Temático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Campos

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo traça o perfil autoral, disciplinar, bibliográfico e temático da revista DADOS por meio de uma análise bibliométrica de todos os textos publicados pelo periódico nos seus 50 anos de existência (1966-2015. A composição da base se deu pelo processamento dos textos indexados na plataforma SciELO e da leitura e codificação manual dos volumes mais antigos da revista. Diferentes técnicas para o estudo de corpora linguísticos foram utilizadas para delinear o perfil das bibliografias recorrentes, mormente a Análise de Correspondências Simples, e o perfil temático dos textos, sobretudo a Modelagem de Tópicos. Os resultados sugerem que a revista privilegiou artigos sobre as temáticas públicas prementes de cada momento histórico, aliando rigor metodológico ao compromisso com as questões públicas mais candentes no país e no mundo.

  20. Investigation and Optimization of the Performance of an Air-Coil Sensor with a Differential Structure Suited to Helicopter TEM Exploration. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Wang, Yanzhang


    An air-coil sensor (ACS) is a type of induction magnetometer used as a transducer to measure the variations of a magnetic field. This device is widely applied in helicopter transient electromagnetic method (TEM) exploration. Most helicopter TEM explorations generate common-mode noise and require extreme ACS specifications, both of which inevitably challenge geophysical explorations. This study proposes a differential air-core coil combined with a differential pre-amplifier to reduce the common-mode noise induced in exploration surveys. To satisfy the stringent performance requirements, including the geometric parameters and electrical specifications, the physical calculations in theory and the equivalent schematic of an ACS with noise location are investigated, respectively. The theory calculation and experimental result for the optimized ACS are then compared on the basis of a differential structure. Correspondingly, an ACS is constructed with a mass, resultant effective area, 3 dB bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and normalized equivalent input noise of 2.5 kg, 5.5 m² (diameter is 0.5 m), 71 kHz, 20 (the varying magnetic field strength is 1 nT/s), and 5.43 nV/m², respectively. These data are superior to those of the traditional induction sensor 3D-3. Finally, a field experiment is performed with a fabricated sensor to show a valid measurement of the time-varying magnetic field of a helicopter TEM system based on the designed ACS.

  1. Fine structure of bacterial adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the filiform papillae of tongue and palatine mucosa of rodents: a morphometric, TEM, and HRSEM study. (United States)

    Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Ogawa, Koichi; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki


    The palatine mucosa and filiform papillae of the dorsal tongue mucosae of rodents were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). In the HRSEM method, the samples were fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in alcohol, critical point-dried, and coated with gold-palladium. In addition, the HRSEM technique was used for morphometric analysis (length, width, and length/width ratio of cocci and bacilli). For the TEM method, the tissues were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution (2.5% glutaraldehyde, 2% formalin in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and embedded in Spurr resin. The results demonstrated that there are thick polygonal keratinized epithelial cells where groups of bacteria are revealed in three-dimensional images on the surface of filiform papillae in these animals. The bacterial membranes are randomly attached to the microplicae surface of epithelial cells. Morphometrics showed higher values of length and width of cocci in newborn (0 day) as compared to newborn (7 days) and adults animals, the bacilli showed no differences in these measurements. At high magnification, the TEM images revealed the presence of glycocalyx microfilaments that constitute a fine adhesion area between bacterial membranes and the membranes of epithelial microplicae cells. In conclusion, the present data revealed the fine fibrillar structures of bacteria that facilitate adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the oral cavity and morphometric changes in newborn (0 day) rats as compared with other periods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Estrutura temática e representação em “As Intermitências da Morte”/Death with Interruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Saraiva Frio


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os padrões de estrutura temática observados no romance “As Intermitências da Morte”, do escritor português José Saramago, e em sua retextualização para a língua inglesa, realizada por Margaret Jull Costa e intitulada Death with Interruptions, tomando como aporte teórico a Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (HALLIDAY e MATTHIESSEN, 2014. O corpus foi digitalizado, anotado através de etiquetas (tags e posteriormente processado no programa WordSmith Tools 7.0. Na sequência, foi alinhado em um template do MS Excel (FLEURI, 2013, para que a análise não fosse baseada somente em números absolutos. Dos resultados encontrados, destacam-se, na rextextualização, o uso de Processos existenciais em posição temática para indicar não agenciamento do Sujeito, o número mais baixo de ocorrências de Temas comentário, maior número de Temas equativos e maior número de continuativos em posição temática. Os demais resultados refletem diferenças sistêmicas entre as línguas trabalhadas.

  3. A Relevância da Gastronomia em Restaurantes Temáticos: Um estudo de caso em Balneário Camboriú-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Carvalho Mendes


    Full Text Available Na configuração atual do setor de serviços, incluindo o mercado da restauração, observa-se que os restaurantes caracterizados como temáticos através da  ambiência, da gastronomia e  do serviço oferecido, vem se destacando em sua atratividade em meio à concorrida oferta gastronômica,. Neste contexto, o presente artigo se propôs a analisar a relevância da gastronomia e de outros fatores presentes na concepção de um restaurante como: localização; serviço; preço; propaganda e caracterização temática, diante da escolha dos clientes. A pesquisa, de natureza empírica, teve aporte teórico em bibliografia contemporânea sobre o tema e caracterizou-se como exploratória e descritiva, adotando como estudo de caso um restaurante temático localizado na cidade de Balneário Camboriú, SC, consolidada como um representativo polo turístico no sul do Brasil. Os resultados obtidos propiciaram o conhecimento dos fatores relevantes para a atratividade de um restaurante caracterizado como temático, relacionados diretamente à sua gastronomia, à ênfase da caracterização temática e ao serviço oferecido. The Relevance of Gastronomy in Themed Restaurants: a case study in Balneário Camboriú, SC. In the current configuration of the service sector, including the restaurant market, it is seen that restaurants characterized as themed, due to the ambience, gastronomy, and the service offered, have stood out, in terms of attractiveness, from the competitive gastronomic offer, In this context, this article proposes to analyze the importance of gastronomy and other factors that comprise the concept of a restaurant, such as: localization; service; price; advertising and theme characterization, and how these affect the customer’s decision-making.The research, of an empirical nature, drew technical support from the contemporary literature on the theme, and is characterized as exploratory and descriptive, adopting as a case study a restuaruant

  4. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; DaBoit, Kátia; Flores, Deolinda; Kronbauer, Marcio A; Silva, Luis F O


    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ TEM observation on the interface-type resistive switching by electrochemical redox reactions at a TiN/PCMO interface. (United States)

    Baek, Kyungjoon; Park, Sangsu; Park, Jucheol; Kim, Young-Min; Hwang, Hyunsang; Oh, Sang Ho


    The interface-type resistive switching devices exhibiting bipolar and multi-level resistive switching have been considered as the key component for neuromorphic device applications. To directly observe the microscopic details of underlying electrochemical redox reactions occuring at a metal/oxide interface, we implemented in situ resistive switching of TiN/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)/Pt junction devices in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The in situ TEM observations directly show that an intermediate reaction layer (TiOxNy), growing and shrinking in the thickness range of a few nanometers at the TiN/PCMO interface in response to the applied voltage, mainly determines the device resistance by limiting the transport of charge carriers via the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. A detailed analysis of in situ TEM observations demonstrates that electrochemical redox reactions at the TiN/PCMO interface are facilitated by the electric field driven drift of oxygen as well as Ti ions with a much stronger influence of the oxygen ions. As such, the reaction kinetics are governed by the electric field acting across the TiOxNy reaction layer. This layer defines the critical field for the onset of switching, which is measured to be of the order of 106 V cm-1, a typical value at which the ionic drift velocity starts increasing exponentially with the field according to the nonlinear ionic drift model. The present results indicate that understanding the nature of the electric field driven drift of ions in a nanoscale solid electrolyte is a key to the precise control of the resistive switching of metal/insulator/metal junction devices via voltage stimulations.

  6. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

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    El sayed Hamdy Mohammed


    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1% Escherichia coli, (26.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7% Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8% were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7% carried blaVIM, 24(72.7% had blaTEM, and 5(15% showed blaSHV, while 12(36%, 6(18.2%, and 0(0.00% harbored blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and blaCTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences.

  7. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)


    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  8. Mutual influence of secondary and key drug-resistance mutations on catalytic properties and thermal stability of TEM-type β-lactamases. (United States)

    Grigorenko, Vitaly; Uporov, Igor; Rubtsova, Maya; Andreeva, Irina; Shcherbinin, Dmitrii; Veselovsky, Alexander; Serova, Oksana; Ulyashova, Maria; Ishtubaev, Igor; Egorov, Alexey


    Highly mutable β-lactamases are responsible for the ability of Gram-negative bacteria to resist β-lactam antibiotics. Using site-directed mutagenesis technique, we have produced in vitro a number of recombinant analogs of naturally occurring TEM-type β-lactamases, bearing the secondary substitution Q39K and key mutations related to the extended-spectrum (E104K, R164S) and inhibitor-resistant (M69V) β-lactamases. The mutation Q39K alone was found to be neutral and hardly affected the catalytic properties of β-lactamases. However, in combination with the key mutations, this substitution resulted in decreased K M values towards hydrolysis of a chromogenic substrate, CENTA. The ability of enzymes to restore catalytic activity after exposure to elevated temperature has been examined. All double and triple mutants of β-lactamase TEM-1 bearing the Q39K substitution showed lower thermal stability compared with the enzyme with Q39 intact. A sharp decrease in the stability was observed when Q39K was combined with E104K and M69V. The key R164S substitution demonstrated unusual ability to resist thermal inactivation. Computer analysis of the structure and molecular dynamics of β-lactamase TEM-1 revealed a network of hydrogen bonds from the residues Q39 and K32, related to the N-terminal α-helix, towards the residues R244 and G236, located in the vicinity of the enzyme's catalytic site. Replacement of Q39 by lysine in combination with the key drug resistance mutations may be responsible for loss of protein thermal stability and elevated mobility of its secondary structure elements. This effect on the activity of β-lactamases can be used as a new potential target for inhibiting the enzyme.

  9. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joana [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); DaBoit, Kátia [Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Flores, Deolinda [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil)


    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis. - Highlights: ► We examine changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles of coal mining. ► Increasing geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Electron bean and Tof-SIMS increase area information.

  10. Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala Morisky de Adherencia a los Medicamentos (MMAS-8-ítems en pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos De las Cuevas


    Full Text Available La Escala de Adherencia a la Medicación de Morisky-8 ítems (MMAS-8 es una medida auto-informada estructurada de la conducta de toma de la medicación ampliamente utilizada en diferentes culturas. No existen estudios en España que analicen sus propiedades psicométricas en población psiquiátrica. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de la MMAS-8 en una muestra de 967 pacientes psiquiátricos en régimen ambulatorio. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada validez de constructo, con una clara tendencia a una solución monofactorial, donde todos los ítems colaboraron en el índice final de adherencia. La MMAS-8 alcanzó correlaciones significativas con el Inventario de Actitudes hacia la Medicación-10 ítems, con la forma C de la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control sobre la Salud, y la Escala de Reactancia Psicológica. También la MMAS-8 permitió diferenciar el nivel de adherencia entre diferentes trastornos psicopatológicos. Los hallazgos de este estudio indican que la MMAS-8 es una medida fiable y válida para medir la adherencia a la medicación y que puede ser utilizada con muestras de pacientes psiquiátricos.

  11. Estigma e ciberespaço : desafios da netnografia como metodologia para pesquisa de redes temáticas na blogosfera


    Herrera, Miguel Hexel; Passerino, Liliana Maria


    O estigma é uma situação (em muitos casos, permanente) presente na sociedade na qual o indivíduo é impossibilitado de ser aceito por seus pares. O objetivo de nossa pesquisa é utilizar a netnografia na blogosfera na busca de redes temáticas que nos permitam mapear e estabelecer critérios para análise sociabilidade em espaços virtuais estabelecidos entre pessoas com deficiência (neste caso visual) e familiares ou amigos. Em particular, pretendemos compreender como o cego utiliza-se dos blogs, ...

  12. Temáticas en construcción: El desarrollo de los estudios LGBT en Costa Rica, 1980-2013


    Jiménez Bolaños, José Daniel


    Debido a la ausencia de un balance bibliográfico que sistematice el desarrollo que ha experimentado la diversidad sexual como temática de investigación aplicada al caso de Costa Rica, se hizo una revisión con el fin de procesar los textos a través de una base de datos, buscando describir y analizar sus características. Se encontró que durante el periodo analizado se ha incrementado el número de las investigaciones, cuya publicación se da principalmente en Costa Rica, proviniendo la mayor cant...

  13. Characterization by SEM, TEM and Quantum-Chemical Simulations of the Spherical Carbon with Nitrogen (SCN Active Carbon Produced by Thermal Decomposition of Poly(vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene Copolymer

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    Vladyslav V. Lisnyak


    Full Text Available Amorphous Spherical Carbon with Nitrogen (SCN active carbon has been prepared by carbonization of poly(vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene (PVPDVB copolymer. The PVPDVB dehydrogenation copolymer has been quantum chemically (QC simulated using cluster and periodic models. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX studies of the resulting product have conformed the QC computation results. Great structural similarity is found both at the nano- and micro-levels between the N-doped SCN carbon and its pure carbonic SKS analog.

  14. Instituciones de enseñanza superior de España y Brasil: temática sobre las personas con discapacidad


    SALERNO, Marina Brasiliano; TORRALBA JORDAN, Miguel Angel; Araújo, Paulo Ferreira de


    Las discusiones acerca de la población con discapacidades fueron insertadas en los cursos de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte y Educación Física como forma de atender a las disposiciones acordadas en diferentes documentos legales elaborados a lo largo de discusiones sobre el proceso de inclusión. Este proceso resultó en una mayor participación de ese grupo en otros ámbitos sociales entre ellos el deporte, el ocio y las competiciones. Eso nos llevó a preguntarnos cómo esta temática es...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance testing of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and first description of TEM-52 extended-spectrum β-lactamase in serogroup O26. (United States)

    Buvens, Glenn; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis


    We have investigated the antimicrobial resistance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains isolated from humans, animals, food, and the environment in Belgium. Resistance was more frequent in non-O157 strains from humans than in O157 strains from humans or other sources, and among non-O157 VTEC strains, intimin-positive strains were more resistant than intimin-negative strains. We also report the first VTEC strain producing an IncI1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoded by plasmid-borne bla(TEM-52); this β-lactamase was previously associated with Salmonella enterica and E. coli isolates from different origins.

  16. Temáticas, Metodologías y autorías en revistas de acceso abierto de Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pacheco Silva


    Full Text Available Las revistas científicas en Comunicación en Latinoamérica han experimentado una evolución en términos cuantitativos y cualitativos, derivando desde la ensayística hacia la investigación científica. Si bien el estado del arte sobre el tema deja de evidencia que la discusión se ha centrado en los índices de impacto, un número menor ha volcado su enfoque en las tendencias temáticas y metodológicas sin llegar, en profundidad, a estudiar la realidad latinoamericana. En este contexto, el presente estudio de carácter cuantitativo se propone determinar, a través del análisis de contenido, las tendencias de autoría, temáticas y metodológicas en 983 artículos en revistas científicas universitarias de comunicación en Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y México, indexadas en Latindex, entre los años 2007 y 2011.  Los resultados, en relación a las autorías, arrojan bajos índices en el trabajo colaborativo inter-universitario y en publicaciones derivadas de proyectos de investigación. Respecto a las temáticas, el tópico “Comunicación y medios” concentra el mayor número de manuscritos. En tanto, en el aspecto metodológico predominan los estudios cualitativos, descriptivos de carácter empírico con técnicas de investigación, predominando la discusión bibliográfica y documental, seguido de los análisis de contenido, entrevistas y análisis de discurso. Este escenario plantea nuevos derroteros temáticos y metodológicos, teniendo presente aquellos agujeros negros de la investigación en comunicación en Latinoamérica, cuyos desafíos deben ser asumidos por los investigadores desde el trabajo colaborativo y transdiciplinario.

  17. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.


    having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected...... advancements in fusion materials research, e.g. by applying synchrotron X-ray and neutron tomography to novel materials and components. Deeper understanding of radiation effects is achieved by in situ TEM of materials under irradiation. Modeling of irradiation effects is closely linked to activities...

  18. O Teste de Apercepção Temática (TAT) em adultos: dados normativos para o sistema morvaliano


    Alessandro Antonio Scaduto


    No contexto da pesquisa e utilização prática das técnicas de autoexpressão, o Teste de Apercepção Temática (TAT) apresenta reconhecidas vantagens. Apesar de linhas de pesquisa bastante desenvolvidas internacionalmente, não existem estudos atuais sobre as propriedades deste instrumento no Brasil, levantando a necessidade de conhecer seus alcances e limites nesse contexto cultural. Desse modo, o desenvolvimento de normas que descrevam o desempenho típico de uma população não clínica se mostra u...

  19. Calidad científica, temáticas e impacto nacional de las publicaciones radiológicas en Colombia (2005 -2013)


    Ávila Meneses, Nelson Ricardo; Burgos Ayala, Aracely; Céspedes, Nelly Yolanda


    Objetivos. (i) Caracterizar la ciencia radiológica que se produce en Colombia, durante el periodo en estudio, (ii) Evidenciar las temáticas radiológicas más estudiadas y, (iii) Reconocer la credibilidad entre colegas científicos radiólogos colombianos (impacto nacional). Metodología: se revisaron las publicaciones de la RCR entre 2005 – 2013; para el primero y segundo objetivo se totalizó y hallaron porcentajes; para el tercero, se aplicó el índice de impacto. Resultados: Se encontró que en ...

  20. Creació automàtica de diccionaris multilingües especialitzats en noves àrees temàtiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré


    Full Text Available En aquest article presentem una eina que genera automàticament diccionaris d'equivalències multilingües especialitzats en noves àrees temàtiques. L'eina explota recursos presents a la xarxa per a cercar les equivalències i verificar-ne la idoneïtat. Aquests recursos són, d'una banda, les viquipèdies, que es poden baixar i processar de manera lliure, i, de l'altra, els materials que institucions terminològiques de referència deixen disponibles. Aquesta eina pot ser útil per als docents que elaboren materials didàctics i per als investigadors que preparen tesis, articles o manuals de referència. També pot ser útil per als traductors i per als terminòlegs que s'ocupen de la normalització terminològica d'una nova àrea temàtica en una llengua determinada, els quals estan interessats a conèixer els conceptes que encara no tenen una denominació normalitzada.

  1. A study in the computation time required for the inclusion of strain field effects in Bloch-wave simulations of TEM diffraction contrast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulong, B.J. [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada); Haynes, R.D. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada); Robertson, M.D. [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada)], E-mail:


    As transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging techniques continue to become more quantitative, interpretation of the experimental images demands that accurate image simulations be computed incorporating all important aspects of the image including: compositional, crystallographic and microscope effects, as well as contrast due to strain fields arising from stresses created by lattice misfit or defects. Incorporation of the effects of strain fields in the simulation of diffraction-contrast TEM images in the Bloch-wave formalism requires the integration of a system of first-order differential equations in order to modify the excitation amplitudes and produce contrast in the image. This integration is computationally demanding with the time for integration scaling as the cube of the number of beams included in the calculation. In order to investigate the computational requirements of the integration, a variety of numerical integration packages were evaluated with respect to timing and accuracy in the simulation of quantum dot, spherical inclusion and screw dislocation images. It was determined that a class of Adams-multistep methods can provide a decrease in computation time ranging from 2 to 4 as compared to the standard Runge-Kutta 4(5) approach depending on the simulation conditions.

  2. A study in the computation time required for the inclusion of strain field effects in Bloch-wave simulations of TEM diffraction contrast images. (United States)

    Dulong, B J; Haynes, R D; Robertson, M D


    As transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging techniques continue to become more quantitative, interpretation of the experimental images demands that accurate image simulations be computed incorporating all important aspects of the image including: compositional, crystallographic and microscope effects, as well as contrast due to strain fields arising from stresses created by lattice misfit or defects. Incorporation of the effects of strain fields in the simulation of diffraction-contrast TEM images in the Bloch-wave formalism requires the integration of a system of first-order differential equations in order to modify the excitation amplitudes and produce contrast in the image. This integration is computationally demanding with the time for integration scaling as the cube of the number of beams included in the calculation. In order to investigate the computational requirements of the integration, a variety of numerical integration packages were evaluated with respect to timing and accuracy in the simulation of quantum dot, spherical inclusion and screw dislocation images. It was determined that a class of Adams-multistep methods can provide a decrease in computation time ranging from 2 to 4 as compared to the standard Runge-Kutta 4(5) approach depending on the simulation conditions.

  3. Contextos, Impulsos e Temáticas da Criação Coreográfica Contemporânea Nacional. Que Tendências?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Monteiro


    Full Text Available A nossa reflexão procura sistematizar algumas questões que se prendem com os processos de criação coreográfica contemporânea e que nos revelam aspetos da sua dimensão conceptual, motivacional e contextual. Dada a complexidade e abrangência da temática, centrámo-nos no percurso de três coreógrafos nacionais de referência – Clara Andermatt, Paulo Ribeiro e Victor Hugo Pontes – no período entre 2011 e 2014. Esta reflexão apoia-se na análise documental de entrevistas e sinopses artísticas, informação divulgada através das estruturas que acolheram os processos criativos em questão e pelas salas de espetáculos onde se apresentaram estas obras. Concluímos que o contexto de criação é amplo e diversificado; que o impulso para a criação pode contemplar dimensões distintas, uma centrada na vontade do próprio coreógrafo e outra que dá forma a um desafio exterior; diferentes processos para a definição temática da obra coreográfica foram identificados.

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Observations of Female Oocytes From Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): Antibiotic Jinggangmycin (JGM)-Induced Stimulation of Reproduction and Associated Changes in Hormone Levels. (United States)

    Xu, Bing; You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Ding, Jun; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai


    Previous studies have demonstrated that the agricultural antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) stimulates reproduction in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and that the stimulation of brown planthopper reproduction induced by JGM is regulated by the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) genes. However, a key issue in the stimulation of reproduction induced by pesticides involves the growth and development of oocytes. Therefore, the present study investigated oocyte changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and changes in hormone levels (juvenile hormones (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20 E)) in JGM-treated females. TEM observations showed that the size of the lipid droplets in the oocytes of JGM-treated females, compared with those in the oocytes of the control females, significantly reduced by 32.6 and 29.8% at 1 and 2 d after emergence (1 and 2 DAE), respectively. In addition, the JH levels of JGM-treated females at 1 and 2 DAE were increased by 49.7 and 45.7%, respectively, whereas 20 E levels decreased by 36.0 and 30.0%, respectively. We conclude that JGM treatments lead to substantial changes in lipid metabolism, which are directly and indirectly related to stimulation of reproduction of brown planthopper together with our previous findings. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. Los parques temáticos como estrategia didáctica para la enseñanza de la ciencia

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    Ana Patricia León Urquijo


    Full Text Available La enseñanza de la ciencia en los últimos años ha cobrado importancia, por los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología. La educaciónha utilizado diferentes estrategias didácticas que ha ido evolucionando a través de los tiempos. Se analiza la importancia delos parques temáticos como recursos didácticos aprovechables para la generación de actitudes positivas en el aprendizaje de laciencia; y confirma la utilidad que representa, para los profesores, preparar el aprendizaje, utilizando estrategias didácticas, antes,durante y después de la visita a estos sitios que, por sí mismos, son lugares que motivan la participación activa de los estudiantes.Por esta razón se presentan los resultados del diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de guías didácticas realizadas por profesores de cienciasde un colegio oficial, para estudiantes de secundaria que visitaron un parque temático.

  6. TEM observations of Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 12}Co{sub 16} decagonal quasicrystal subjected to high-temperature indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Arakaki, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Sugawara, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Shindo, R. [Akita Prefecture Industrial Technology Center, Akita 010-1623 (Japan); Guo, J.Q. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsai, A.P. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)


    The effect of high-temperature indentation testing on the microstructural change of a single-grained Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 12}Co{sub 16} decagonal quasicrystal (d-QC) has been investigated by transmission electron diffraction and microscopy (TEM) technique. A definite surface normal to the 10-fold axis of the d-QC was subjected to Vickers indentation test at an elevated temperature of 800 deg. C with a load of 1 kgf. The TEM investigation of this sample has evidently shown that there are specific types of defects densely distributed in the indented-region, such as grain-boundaries, dislocations and phason-related defects. Furthermore, high-resolution electron microscopy observations have revealed the widespread distribution of nanocrystalline domains in the indented-region, where groups of decagonal atom clusters have a periodic arrangement to form a rhombic lattice. On the basis of these observations, possible deformation mechanisms of the d-QC during high-temperature indentation will be discussed.

  7. Bioaccumulation and localization of exogenous cadmium in a teleost by electron microscopy (TEM) and its specific quantitation by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). (United States)

    Tayal, A K; Kaur, I; Mathur, R P


    A cadmium bioconcentration study was carried out in a fresh water teleost, Colisa fasciatus, to study the bioaccumulation kinetics and fate of exogenous cadmium (Cd) in biological tissues. Study shows that on exposure of the fish to a sublethal concentration of cadmium in test water, Cd uptake results in its bioconcentration in gills, liver and muscle tissues. To explore whether the accumulated Cd reaches the membranes or inside the cells, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the thin sections of tissues was done after histochemical localization of Cd in cells by modified SST method. TEM studies of sections of gills, liver and muscle tissues showed the deposits of exogenous Cd (visualized as dense clouds) in biological cells. This suggests the presence of free or loosely bound Cd on the membranes and inside the cells, which in the presence of Na2S is converted into insoluble metal sulfides. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) studies confirmed the presence of Cd on the membrane surface as well as inside the cells of bioindicator organs suggesting involvement of membrane transport of exogenous Cd inside the cells and its deposition as loosely bound insoluble metal complexes.

  8. Morphostructural Damage in Food-Spoiling Bacteria due to the Lemon Grass Oil and Its Vapour: SEM, TEM, and AFM Investigations (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Malik, Anushree


    In this study, antimicrobial activity and morphostructural damages due to lemon grass oil (LGO) and its vapour (LGOV) against Escherichia coli strains were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of LGO were determined by broth-dilution method to be 0.288 mg/mL and 0.567 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the zone of inhibition (45 mm) due to the vapour phase antimicrobial efficacy evaluated using disc volatilization assay was compared with that using disc diffusion assay (i.e., 13.5 mm for the same dose of oil). The morphological and ultrastructural alterations in LGO- and LGOV-treated E. coli cells were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). In SEM observation, LGO-treated cells appeared to be aggregated and partially deformed, while LGOV-treated cells lost their turgidity, and the cytoplasmic material completely leaked from the cells. In TEM observation, extensive intracytoplasmic changes and various abnormalities were observed in LGOV-treated cells more than LGO-treated cells. Significant variations in the height and root mean square values of untreated, LGO-, and LGOV-treated E. coli cells were noticed by AFM. Present results indicate that LGO is highly effective against E. coli in vapour phase. PMID:23082083

  9. Currículo, escola e letramento: o que isso tem a ver com a formação do cidadão?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Ferreira Barbosa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações sobre currículo e sua importância para a adoção de uma prática educativa que rompa com velhos paradigmas, tendo em vista que o conceito adotado e praticado nas escolas tem se tornado um empecilho para a realização de um trabalho que leve os alunos a serem agentes da sua própria aprendizagem e, consequentemente, cidadãos conscientes, inseridos num mundo em constante transformação. Aborda ainda a questão do letramento como prática cotidiana nas escolas, tendo como reflexo a formação para o exercício da cidadania. Procura apresentar também que o domínio das habilidades linguísticas é uma condição, sem a qual, a aprendizagem fica comprometida e que essas habilidades, que vão muito além do simples ato codificar e decodificar palavras, é uma tarefa da responsabilidade de todos os professores, não apenas dos de língua materna.

  10. A inclusão social tem influência nas práticas museais? O acesso dos públicos com deficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roque Martins


    Full Text Available Ao longo dos últimos dez anos a agenda europeia tem colocado em evidência a inclusão social na campo das suas políticas prioritárias, através de medidas e planos de ações, que têm vindo a contribuir não só para as alterações legislativas mas também ao nível da sensibilização dos vários agentes sociais. Para responder aos desafios impostos na prática da inclusão social, são cada vez mais os museus interessados, ou preocupados, em refletir acerca das suas relações com os públicos, que no panorama museal da atualidade, exigem novas formas de abordagem. Uma delas é, sem dúvida, o conceito de acessibilidades, como resultado do modelo social da deficiência. Consequentemente, algumas questões imperam na aceção desta temática. Que desafios coloca este modelo às práticas museais tradicionalmente estabelecidas? Que transformações se processam no conceito de acesso ao museu? Quais as consequências do impacto europeu na ação dos museus nacionais? São estas questões–chave que se procurará desenvolver ao longo do presente artigo.

  11. Application of TEM and XPS in the interpretation of the kinetics of deuterium evolution from ultrathin TiD(y)/Pd films evaporated on quartz. (United States)

    Lisowski, W; Keim, E G


    The kinetics of thermal evolution of deuterium from ultrathin TiD(y)/Pd bilayer films has been studied by means of thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS). Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we made a study of the complex structural and chemical transformations of the TiD(y)/Pd film as a result of TDMS-induced evolution of deuterium and simultaneous annealing of this film. Both preparation and TDMS processing of the TiD(y)/Pd bilayer films were performed in situ under UHV conditions. It was found that the high-temperature TDMS processing of an ultrathin TiD(y)/Pd film, which was carried out in a relatively short time, leads to a significant film structure transformation. Energy-filtered TEM mapping of cross-section images and EDX analysis revealed extensive interdiffusion of Ti and Pd within the Ti-Pd bi-layer film. This process leads to a progressive change in chemical composition within the surface and subsurface area of the film during the TDMS processing. As the temperature of TDMS heating increases, segregation of Ti at the Pd top layer surface becomes significant. As a result, the kinetics of deuterium desorption is progressively changed during TDMS; at lower temperatures, the kinetics is limited by recombinative processes at the Pd surface, at temperatures beyond 500 K, it becomes dominated by interdiffusion of Ti into the Pd surface.

  12. Resistive switching mechanism in the one diode-one resistor memory based on p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure revealed by in-situ TEM. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong


    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory is an effective architecture to suppress the crosstalk interference, realizing the crossbar network integration of resistive random access memory (RRAM). Herein, we designed a p + -Si/n-ZnO heterostructure with 1D1R function. Compared with the conventional multilayer 1D1R devices, the structure and fabrication technique can be largely simplified. The real-time imaging of formation/rupture process of conductive filament (CF) process demonstrated the RS mechanism by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, we observed that the formed CF is only confined to the outside of depletion region of Si/ZnO pn junction, and the formation of CF does not degrade the diode performance, which allows the coexistence of RS and rectifying behaviors, revealing the 1D1R switching model. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the CF is consisting of the oxygen vacancy by in-situ TEM characterization.

  13. The 3D structure of the apical complex and association with the flagellar apparatus revealed by serial TEM tomography in Psammosa pacifica, a distant relative of the Apicomplexa. (United States)

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J


    The apical complex is one of the defining features of apicomplexan parasites, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium, where it mediates host penetration and invasion. The apical complex is also known in a few related lineages, including several non-parasitic heterotrophs, where it mediates feeding behaviour. The origin of the apical complex is unclear, and one reason for this is that in apicomplexans it exists in only part of the life cycle, and never simultaneously with other major cytoskeletal structures like flagella and basal bodies. Here, we used conventional TEM and serial TEM tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of the apical complex in Psammosa pacifica, a predatory relative of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates that retains the archetype apical complex and the flagellar apparatus simultaneously. The P. pacifica apical complex is associated with the gullet and consists of the pseudoconoid, micronemes, and electron dense vesicles. The pseudoconoid is a convex sheet consisting of eight short microtubules, plus a band made up of microtubules that originate from the flagellar apparatus. The flagellar apparatus consists of three microtubular roots. One of the microtubular roots attached to the posterior basal body is connected to bypassing microtubular strands, which are themselves connected to the extension of the pseudoconoid. These complex connections where the apical complex is an extension of the flagellar apparatus, reflect the ancestral state of both, dating back to the common ancestor of apicaomplexans and dinoflagellates.

  14. [Investigation the role of mutations M182T and Q39K in structure of beta-lactamase TEM-72 by molecular dynamics method]. (United States)

    Shcherbinin, D S; Rubtsova, M Yu; Grigorenko, V G; Uporov, I V; Veselovsky, A V; Egorov, A M


    Synthesis of b-lactamases is one of the common mechanisms of bacterial resistance to b-lactam antibiotics including penicillins and cephalosporins. The widespread use of antibiotics results in appearance of numerous extended-spectrum b-lactamase variants or resistance to inhibitors. Mutations of 92 residues of TEM type were found. Several mutations are the key mutations that determine the extension of spectrum of substrates. However, roles of the most associated mutations, located far from active site, remain unknown. We have investigated the role of associated mutations in structure of b-lactamase TEM-72, which contain two key mutation (G238S, E240K) and two associated mutations (Q39K, M182T) by means of simulation of molecular dynamics. The key mutation lead to destabilization of the protein globule, characterized by increased mobility of amino acid residues at high temperature of modelling. Mutation M182T lead to stabilization protein, whereas mutation Q39K is destabilizing mutation. It seems that the last mutation serves for optimization of conformational mobility of b-lactamase and may influence on enzyme activity.

  15. TEM and STEM Studies on the Cross-sectional Morphologies of Dual-/Tri-layer Broadband SiO2Antireflective Films. (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyue; Yan, Hongwei; Li, Dengji; Qiao, Liang; Han, Shaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiaotao


    Dual-layer and tri-layer broadband antireflective (AR) films with excellent transmittance were successfully fabricated using base-/acid-catalyzed mixed sols and propylene oxide (PO) modified silica sols. The sols and films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). FTIR and TEM results suggest that the PO molecules were covalently bonded to the silica particles and the bridge structure existing in PO modified silica sol is responsible for the low density of the top layer. The density ratio between different layers was measured by cross-sectional STEM, and the results are 1.69:1 and 2.1:1.7:1 from bottom-layer to top-layer for dual-layer and tri-layer films, respectively. The dual-layer film demonstrates good stability with 99.8% at the central wavelength of 351 nm and nearly 99.5% at the central wavelength of 1053 nm in laser system, and for the tri-layer AR film, the maximum transmittance reached nearly 100% at both the central wavelengths of 527 and 1053 nm.

  16. Mössbauer, XRD and TEM Study on the Intercalation and the Release of Drugs in/from Layered Double Hydroxides

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    E. Kuzmann


    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are one of the very important nano-carriers for drug delivery, due to their many advantageous features, such as the ease and low-cost of preparation, low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, protection for the intercalated drugs, and the capacity to facilitate the uptake of the loaded drug in the cells. In our previous studies, Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor structural changes occurring during the incorporation of Fe(III in MgFe- and CaFe-LDHs, and the intercalation of various organic compounds in anionic form. Recently, we have successfully elaborated a protocol for the intercalation and release of indol-2-carboxylate and L-cysteinate in CaFe-LDH. The corresponding structural changes in the LDH samples were studied by XRD, HR-TEM and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectra reflected small but significant changes upon both the intercalation and the release of drugs. The changes in the basal distances could be followed by XRD measurements, and HR-TEM images made these changes visible.

  17. Direct In-situ TEM Observation Of Modification Of Oxidation By The Injected Vacancies For Ni-4Al Alloy Using A Microfabricated Nanopost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baer, Donald R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bruemmer, Stephen M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Vacancy injection and selective oxidation of one specie in bimetallic alloy at high temperature is a well-known phenomenon. However, detailed understanding of the behavior of the injected vacancies and consequently their behavior and effect on oxidation remains elusive. The current research examines the oxidation of high-purity Ni doped with 4.1 at% Al using in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Experiments are performed on nanoposts fabricated from solution-annealed bulk material that are essentially single crystal samples. Initial oxidation is observed to occur by multi-site oxide nucleation, formation of an oxide shell followed by cavity nucleation and growth at the metal/oxide interface. One of the most interesting in-situ TEM observations is the formation of a cavity that leads to the faceting of the metal on (111) surface and subsequent oxidation occurring by an atomic ledge migration mechanism on the faceted metal surface. Further, it is directly observed that metal atoms diffuse through the oxide layer to combine with oxygen at the outer surface of the oxide. The present work indicates that injection of vacancies and formation of cavity will lead to a situation where the oxidation rate is essentially controlled by the low surface energy plane of the metal, rather than by the initial terminating plane at the metal surface exposed to the oxidizing environment.

  18. High tolerance to simultaneous active-site mutations in TEM-1 beta-lactamase: Distinct mutational paths provide more generalized beta-lactam recognition. (United States)

    De Wals, Pierre-Yves; Doucet, Nicolas; Pelletier, Joelle N


    The diversity in substrate recognition spectra exhibited by various beta-lactamases can result from one or a few mutations in the active-site area. Using Escherichia coli TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a template that efficiently hydrolyses penicillins, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis simultaneously on two opposite faces of the active-site cavity. Residues 104 and 105 as well as 238, 240, and 244 were targeted to verify their combinatorial effects on substrate specificity and enzyme activity and to probe for cooperativity between these residues. Selection for hydrolysis of an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, cefotaxime (CTX), led to the identification of a variety of novel mutational combinations. In vivo survival assays and in vitro characterization demonstrated a general tendency toward increased CTX and decreased penicillin resistance. Although selection was undertaken with CTX, productive binding (K(M)) was improved for all substrates tested, including benzylpenicillin for which catalytic turnover (k(cat)) was reduced. This indicates broadened substrate specificity, resulting in more generalized (or less specialized) variants. In most variants, the G238S mutation largely accounted for the observed properties, with additional mutations acting in an additive fashion to enhance these properties. However, the most efficient variant did not harbor the mutation G238S but combined two neighboring mutations that acted synergistically, also providing a catalytic generalization. Our exploration of concurrent mutations illustrates the high tolerance of the TEM-1 active site to multiple simultaneous mutations and reveals two distinct mutational paths to substrate spectrum diversification.

  19. Investigation of the Interaction between Nafion Ionomer and Surface Functionalized Carbon Black Using Both Ultrasmall Angle X-ray Scattering and Cryo-TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Xin, Le; Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Qiu, Yang; Stanciu, Lia; Ilavsky, Jan; Li, Wenzhen; Xie, Jian


    In making a catalyst ink, the interaction between Nafion ionomer and catalyst support are the key factors that directly affect both ionic conductivity and electronic conductivity of the catalyst layer in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA). One of the major aims of this investigation is to understand the behavior of the catalyst support, Vulcan XC-72 (XC-72) aggregates, in the existence of the Nafion ionomer in a catalyst ink to fill the knowledge gap of the interaction of these components. The dispersion of catalyst ink not only depends on the solvent, but also depends on the interaction of Nafion and carbon particles in the ink. The interaction of Nafion ionomer particles and XC-72 catalyst aggregates in liquid media was studied using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and cryogenic TEM techniques. Carbon black XC-72) and functionalized carbon black systems were introduced to study the interaction behaviors. A multiple curve fitting was used to extract the particle size and size distribution from scattering data. The results suggest that the particle size and size distribution of each system changed significantly in Nafion + XC-72 system, Nafion + NH2-XC72 system, and Nafion + SO3H-XC-72 system, which indicates that an interaction among these components (i.e. ionomer particles and XC-72 aggregates) exists. The cryogenic TEM, which allows for the observation the size of particles in a liquid, was used to validate the scattering results and shows excellent agreement.

  20. Demonstration measurements with the transient electromagnetic (TEM) depth sensing process in problem areas of hydrocarbon exploration in India and China. Final report; Demonstrationsmessungen mit dem Transient Elektromagnetischen Tiefensondierungsverfahren in Problemgebieten der Kohlenwasserstoffexploration in Indien und China. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The practical use of the TEM sensing method in China and India is described. In this electromagnetic process, the electrical resistance and the thickness of geological structures can be measured with high accuracy down to great depths. As geophysical standard methods, such as seismics, supply results difficult to interpret for the explored areas, the TEM sensing method was used to good effect there. (MSK) [Deutsch] Der praktische Einsatz der TEM Sondierungsmethode in China und Indien wird beschrieben. Bei diesem elektromagnetischen Verfahren kann der elektrische Widerstand und die Dicke geologischer Strukturen bis in grosse Tiefen mit hoher Genauigkeit gemessen werden. Da geophysikalische Standartmethoden, wie Seismik in den untersuchten Gebieten schwer interpretierbare Ergebnisse lieferten, wurde die TEM Sondierungsmethode gezielt dort eingesetzt. (MSK)

  1. Revista educação temática digital: aproximação entre educação e ciência da informaçãoRevista educação temática digital: approach between education and information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidra Viana Sorribas


    Full Text Available Análise do periódico Educação Temática Digital. Discorre sobre o histórico da revista desde a criação, em 1999, como Revista Online da Biblioteca Prof. Joel Martins. Examina o conteúdo temático dessa produção, enfatizando as aproximações entre a educação e a ciência da informação. Apresenta a distribuição dos 147 artigos por ano e por título da revista. Para discutir as tendências temáticas presentes nos artigos, realiza padronização dos termos da base de dados, com posterior reunião em grupos temáticos mais abrangentes e representativos de um espectro amplo de assuntos. Identifica como tema mais freqüente, entre o universo de descritores, a educação (incluindo-se os termos compostos como educação a distância, básica, colonial, cultural, entre outros seguida de ensino (ensino a distância, ensino inclusivo etc. e formação. Evidencia a contribuição da revista como expressão planejada de iniciativas editoriais interessadas nas questões da educação.This paper discusses Educação Temática Digital. It presents its historic since the start in 1999 as Revista Online da Biblioteca Prof. Joel Martins. It analyses the subject contents of that production, and points out the approach between Education and Information Science. It presents the distribution per year and per title of 147 articles. The terms of the database are standardized and then classified into major thematic groups in order tocomment on the subject contents trends, Education is revelead the most recurrent descriptor. It emphasyzes the contribution of the serial as a planned expression of editorial works on education issues.

  2. Non-inferiority multicenter prospective randomized controlled study of rectal cancer T2-T3s(superficial) N0, M0undergoing neoadjuvant treatment and local excision (TEM) vs total mesorectal excision (TME). (United States)

    Serra-Aracil, X; Pericay, C; Golda, T; Mora, L; Targarona, E; Delgado, S; Reina, A; Vallribera, F; Enriquez-Navascues, J M; Serra-Pla, S; Garcia-Pacheco, J C


    The standard treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma is total mesorectal excision (TME), in many cases requires a temporary or permanent stoma. TME is associated with high morbidity and genitourinary alterations. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows access to tumors up to 20 cm from the anal verge, achieves minimal postoperative morbidity and mortality rates, and does not require an ostomy. The treatment of T2, N0, and M0 cancers remains controversial. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in association with TEM reduces local recurrence and increases survival. The TAU-TEM study aims to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the oncological outcomes and the improvement in morbidity and quality of life achieved with TEM compared with TME. Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial includes patients with rectal adenocarcinoma less than 10 cm from the anal verge and up to 4 cm in size, staged as T2 or T3-superficial N0-M0. Patients will be randomized to two areas: CRT plus TEM or radical surgery (TME). Postoperative morbidity and mortality will be recorded and patients will complete the quality of life questionnaires before the start of treatment, after CRT in the CRT/TEM arm, and 6 months after surgery in both arms. The estimated sample size for the study is 173 patients. Patients will attend follow-up controls for local and systemic relapse. This study aims to demonstrate the preservation of the rectum after preoperative CRT and TEM in rectal cancer stages T2-3s, N0, M0 and to determine the ability of this strategy to avoid the need for radical surgery (TME). identifier: NCT01308190. Número de registro del Comité de Etica e Investigación Clínica (CEIC) del Hospital universitario Parc Taulí: TAU-TEM-2009-01.

  3. Una unidad didáctica en torno a un ámbito temático: La mujer en la sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bermejo Alonso


    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha generalizado entre los profesores de idiomas el uso de unidades didácticas basadas en el enfoque por tareas. Un enfoque que ha hallado un enorme eco tanto en la comunidad científica como en la educativa (Nunan, 1996; Peris, 2001; R. Ellis, 2003, 2005 desarrollando y sofisticando sus planteamientos y puesta en práctica. Centrar la secuencia de actividades en un ámbito temático de interés para los aprendientes está entre los aspectos de este enfoque a los que se ha dado mayor relevancia, por sus implicaciones en el aprendizaje. La unidad didáctica que presentaremos en este artículo se centra en este aspecto y es producto de una experiencia que se desarrolló con enorme éxito en la Universidad de Passau (Alemania.

  4. Una unidad didáctica en torno a un ámbito temático: La mujer en la sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bermejo Alonso


    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha generalizado entre los profesores de idiomas el uso de unidades didácticas basadas en el enfoque por tareas. Un enfoque que ha hallado un enorme eco tanto en la comunidad científica como en la educativa (Nunan, 1996; Peris, 2001; R. Ellis, 2003, 2005 desarrollando y sofisticando sus planteamientos y puesta en práctica. Centrar la secuencia de actividades en un ámbito temático de interés para los aprendientes está entre los aspectos de este enfoque a los que se ha dado mayor relevancia, por sus implicaciones en el aprendizaje. La unidad didáctica que presentaremos en este artículo se centra en este aspecto y es producto de una experiencia que se desarrolló con enorme éxito en la Universidad de Passau (Alemania.

  5. Nanoscale intracellular mass-density alteration as a signature of the effect of alcohol on early carcinogenesis: A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study

    CERN Document Server

    Ghimire, Hemendra M; Sahay, Peeyush; Almabadi, Huda; Tripathi, Vibha; Skalli, Omar; Rao, R K; Pradhan, Prabhakar


    Alcohol consumption interferes with the functioning of multiple organ systems, causing changes in the chemistry, physiology and pathology of tissues and cellular organelles. Although epigenetic modifications underlie the development of cancer, exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, such as alcohol, can also contribute to disease development. However, the effects of chronic alcoholism on normal or pre-carcinogenic cells/tissues in different organelles are not well understood. Therefore, we herein study the effect of alcohol consumption on colonic nucleus using control and azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treated carcinogenic mice. Previous studies showed that progression of carcinogenesis is associated with increase in the degree of intranuclear nanoscale structural disorder. In the present work, we quantify the degree of nanostructural disorder as a measure of carcinogenesis. To accomplish this, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of respective colonic epithelial cell nuclei are use...

  6. Estudio sobre la temática actual en el cine español de no ficción


    Bernabéu Rodríguez, Carmen


    Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado (TFG) pretende llevar a cabo un análisis de la temática que podemos encontrar en la no ficción del reciente panorama del cine español, dada la falta de estudios al respecto en nuestro país. La concepción del género documental ha ido cambiando con el paso de los años debido a sus amplias posibilidades. En los últimos años venimos observando una reinvención de dicho género gracias a la concepción posmoderna del mismo, encontrando así el llamado cine d...

  7. Diretrizes para o design de interação em redes sociais temáticas com base na visualização do conhecimento


    Lindner, Luís Henrique


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Gestão do Conhecimento, Florianópolis, 2015. O avanço das tecnologias digitais tem impulsionado a sociedade em rede, intensificando a conexão entre pessoas e informações. Mídias como sites de rede social já se consolidaram como forma de comunicação e colaboração, tornando-se um potencial recurso para construção de conhecimento. Nesse cenário surge o conceito de Red...

  8. A temática do álcool e outras drogas na produção científica de enfermagem


    Rosa, Malena Storani Gonçalves; Tavares, Claudia Mara de Melo


    Este trabalho analisa a inserção do enfermeiro na prática de atenção ao usuário de álcool e outras drogas através da revisão sistemática de artigos em periódicos científicos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura nas bases de dados virtuais BDENF, SCIELO, LILACS e BIREME no período de 2001 a 2006. Foram encontrados 29 artigos relacionados com a temática. Os dados foram agrupados nas seguintes categorias: formação do enfermeiro para lidar com usuários de álcool e outras drogas; d...

  9. Fundamental insight in soot oxidation over a Ag/Co3O4 catalyst by means of Environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Christiansen, J. M.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    locally and globally. Removal of these particles from the exhaust gas is normally carried out by filtration through a ceramic filter. A major disadvantage of this technique is the need for periodic regenerations involving temperature increases in order to oxidize the collected soot. In an effort......A novel Ag/Co3O4 catalyst for low-temperature soot oxidation has been studied by means of environmental TEM in order to get fundamental insight in the oxidation mechanism. Soot particles generated in diesel engines are responsible for respiratory diseases, lung cancer and affect the climate both...... to minimize the filter regeneration temperature – ideally down to the normal temperature of the exhaust gas - a new catalyst for soot oxidation consisting of Ag nanoparticles supported on Co3O4 has been synthesized using flame spray pyrolysis and characterized using electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction...

  10. "A Luta não Tem Fim": una experiencia del movimiento social y de educación popular en el Brasil entre 1985 y 1987


    Ermida Barbosa, Vera Lucia; Roly Cunha, Hélia


    A partir de la década de 1980 América Latina presentó una fuerte tendencia de crecimiento de los movimientos de masas. En el caso brasileño los referentes teóricos y morales de la teología de liberación y de la educación popular tenían un papel determinante en la redemocratización tras la dictadura militar que se instaló en el país en 1964. En este escenario político e ideológico se desarrolló la lucha por vivienda que dio origen al documental titulado “A Luta não Tem Fim”. Analizar esta expe...

  11. Correlation of TEM data with confined phonons to determine strain and size of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SixNy matrix (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, Rahim; Gündoğdu, Sinan; Aydinli, Atilla


    Models that use phonon confinement fail to provide consistent results for nanocrystal sizes in differing dielectric matrices due to varying stress experienced by nanocrystals in different dielectric environments. In cases where direct measurement of stress is difficult, the possibility of stress saturation as a function of size opens up a window for the use of phonon confinement to determine size. We report on a test of this possibility in Ge: SixNy system. Ge nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in silicon nitride matrix have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) followed by post annealing in Ar ambient. Nanocrystal size dependence of Raman spectra was studied taking into account associated stress and an improved phonon confinement approach. Our analysis show same stress for NCs which have sizes below 7.0 nm allowing the use of phonon confinement to determine the nanocrystal size. The results are compared with TEM data and good agreement is observed.

  12. La actividad de juego temático de roles en la formación del pensamiento reflexivo en preescolares


    González Moreno, Claudia Ximena; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Solovieva, Yulia; Benemérita Universidad Autónoma De Puebla; Quintanar Rojas, Luis; Benemérita Universidad Autónoma De Puebla


    Actualmente, la neuropsicología infantil aporta la elaboración de métodos útiles para la solución de problemas del desarrollo. Este artículo presenta los resultados de la aplicación del método de juego de roles, en una población colombiana del último nivel de preescolar (48 niños entre los 5 y 6 años de una institución educativa regular privada), en la formación del pensamiento reflexivo. Al grupo experimental se le aplicó el método de juego temático de roles que, de acuerdo con la concepción...

  13. Análisis de la competencia científica de alumnado de secundaria: respuestas y justificaciones a ítems de PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Crujeiras Pérez


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo de la competencia científica de alumnado de secundaria examinando: asus respuestas y justificaciones a ítems de opción de respuesta múltiple utilizados en la evaluación PISA; y b elefecto que tiene la realización de actividades de laboratorio de indagación que abordan los desempeños evaluadosen PISA sobre la adquisición de la competencia.Los participantes son 21 estudiantes de un centro público cursando la materia de Física y Química en 3º y 4º deESO. Se analizan las respuestas escritas a los ítems PISA al principio y al final del estudio a través de una rúbricarelacionada con los niveles de desempeño establecidos en PISA (OCDE, 2008 para las competencias científicasde identificar cuestiones científicas y usar pruebas científicas. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos al inicio y alfinal del estudio en porcentajes de las opciones de respuesta seleccionadas y de las justificaciones a cada opciónde respuesta. Se identifican diferencias en los resultados obtenidos en la selección de opción de respuesta correctay en la justificación de la misma, así como en los resultados y justificaciones al principio y al final del estudio.

  14. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy; (Baylor)


    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  15. TEM study of 〈110〉-type 35.26° dislocations specially induced by polishing of SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L., E-mail: [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Guo, X. [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Laboratory of Solid State Ionics, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jia, C.L. [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    The dislocations created by mechanical polishing of SrTiO{sub 3} (100) single crystals were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques combined with scanning TEM (STEM) techniques. A high density of dislocations was observed in the surface layer with a thickness of about 5 μm. These dislocations were found to be straight and highly aligned along the 〈111〉 directions. In most cases they appear in pairs or as a bundle. The nature of the dislocations was determined as mixed 〈110〉-type with the line vector t=〈111〉. They are 〈110〉-type 35.26° dislocations. The isolated 〈110〉-type 35.26° dislocations possess a compact core structure with a core spreading of ∼0.5 nm. Dissociation of the dislocation occurs on the {1−10} glide plane, leading to the formation of two b=a/2〈110〉 partials separated by a stacking fault. The separation of the two partials was estimated to be 2.53±0.32 nm based on a cross-correlation analysis of atomic-resolution images. Our results provide a solid experimental evidence for this special type of dislocation in SrTiO{sub 3}. The high density of straight and highly 〈111〉-orientated dislocations is expected to have an important influence on the anisotropy in electrical and mass transport properties. - Highlights: • Mechanical polishing introduces a high density of 〈111〉-aligned dislocations in SrTiO{sub 3}. • Systematic contrast analysis was performed to determine the nature of the dislocations. • The core structures of both isolated and dissociated dislocations were investigated. • Separation of the two partial dislocations was estimated based on a cross-correlation analysis. • The configuration of the dislocation pairs was discussed.

  16. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils. (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela


    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto


    Full Text Available Resumen:La presente investigación hace un estudio psicométrico de un nuevo sistema de calificación de la Prueba Gestáltica del Bendermodificada para niños, que es el Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa (Brannigan y Brunner, 2002, en un muestra de 244 niñosingresantes a primer grado de primaria en cuatro colegios públicos, ubicados en Lima. El enfoque usado es un análisis noparamétrico de ítems mediante el programa Testgraf (Ramsay, 1991. Los resultados indican niveles apropiados deconsistencia interna, identificándose la unidimensionalidad, y el buen nivel discriminativo de las categorías de calificación deeste Sistema Cualitativo. No se hallaron diferencias demográficas respecto al género ni la edad. Se discuten los presenteshallazgos en el contexto del potencial uso del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa y del análisis no paramétrico de ítems en lainvestigación psicométrica.AbstracThis research designs a psychometric study of a new scoring system of the Bender Gestalt test modified to children: it is theQualitative Scoring System (Brannigan & Brunner, 2002, in a sample of 244 first grade children of primary level, in four public school of Lima. The approach aplied is the nonparametric item analysis using The test graft computer program (Ramsay, 1991. Our findings point to good levels of internal consistency, unidimensionality and good discriminative level ofthe categories of scoring from the Qualitative Scoring System. There are not demographic differences between gender or age.We discuss our findings within the context of the potential use of the Qualitative Scoring System and of the nonparametricitem analysis approach in the psychometric research.

  18. O contexto sociocognitivo do indexador no processo de representação temática da informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Casari Boccat


    Full Text Available O foco deste estudo é a interdisciplinaridade entre as vertentes cognitivas e a Ciência da Informação, com destaque para a Psicologia Cognitiva, como campo científico colaborativo no delineamento do contexto sociocognitivo do indexador, visto como elemento norteador na representação temática adequada para a recuperação por assunto em catálogos online de áreas científicas especializadas. Os resultados demonstram que o contexto sociocognitivo do bibliotecário indexador é um elemento de suma importância na adequada representação da informação para a busca por assunto em catálogos online. Conclui-se que as visões holística e coletiva do bibliotecário indexador são privilegiadas, contribuintes para a definição de um tratamento temático da informação e na modelagem de sistemas de recuperação da informação. A partir dessa concepção, a área de Ciência da Informação volta-se para uma dimensão teórica focada por abordagens interpretativas, centradas no aspecto semântico e no contexto social da informação, do bibliotecário indexador e do usuário.

  19. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2. Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+IL-2(+TNF-α(+ and IFN-γ(+ TNF-α(+ response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hiCD45RO(+CD62L(lo T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future.

  20. PD-1 expression on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA subsets closely correlated with HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weidong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight correlation between host circulating CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response and control of viral replication is classical characteristic of long-term HCV infection. CD8+ T cell maturation/activation markers are expected to be associated with viral replication and disease progression in chronic HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to explore novel markers on CD8+ T cells with ability to evaluate HCV viral replication and disease progression. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 37 chronic HCV-infected patients and 17 healthy controls. Distributed pattern of CD8+ T cells subsets and expression of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD127 were analyzed by flow cytometry. The correlation between expression of surface markers and HCV viral load or ALT was studied. Results Declined naïve and increased TEMRA CD8+ T subsets were found in HCV-infected individuals compared with healthy controls. Percentage and MFI of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR on all CD8+ T cell subsets were higher in HCV-infected patients than healthy controls. In contrast, CD127 expression on CD8+ TCM showed an opposite trend as PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR did. In chronic HCV infection, MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ TEM (p Conclusion PD-1 level on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made PD-1 a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  1. Environmental TEM in Materials Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Over the last decades, electron microscopy has played a large role in materials research. The increasing use of particularly environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides new possibilities for investigating nanoscale components at work. Careful experimentation....... Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast provides a means for understanding the issues involved with imaging in the presence of a gas. In this work, capabilities, possibilities and challenges of using ETEM...

  2. Environmental TEM for Materials Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum

    Over the last decades, electron microscopy has played a large role in materials research. The increasing use of particularly environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides new possibilities for investigating nanoscale components at work. Careful experimentation...... not spatially localized. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast provides a means for understanding the issues involved with imaging in the presence of a gas.In this work, capabilities, possibilities and challenges...

  3. Protocolo eletrônico de coleta de dados clínicos da microcirurgia endoscópica transanal (TEM: desenvolvimento e aplicação Electronic protocol of clinical data collection in transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM: development and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Martinelli de Oliveira


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A coleta de dados na forma prospectiva melhora a assistência ao paciente e o acesso à informação. Os registros feitos em prontuários de papel geralmente não trazem informação satisfatória, pois os dados acabam sendo perdidos ou não coletados adequadamente. A informática na saúde possibilita o melhor uso da informação, servindo, inclusive, como suporte para pesquisas científicas. OBJETIVOS: 1 - Criar, informatizar e armazenar uma base de dados clínicos da Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM, incorporando-a ao SINPE© e realizando coleta de dados; 2 - apresentar estudo descritivo dos resultados da coleta de dados realizada em 59 pacientes submetidos a TEM. MÉTODOS: Primeiro foi realizada a criação da base teórica de dados da TEM, que foi a seguir informatizada e incorporando-a ao SINPE© e realizou-se a coleta de dados. Segundo, efetuou-se estudo descritivo com interpretação das informações obtidas através de estatísticas e gráficos pelo módulo SINPE©Analisador. RESULTADOS: A utilização do software possibilitou a criação do protocolo da TEM. Os dados armazenados pela coleta de 59 pacientes submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico foram resgatados e analisados pelo módulo SINPE Analisador©, gerando gráficos e estudos descritivos automaticamente. Verificou-se que 74,55% (41 dos pacientes apresentavam, antes do procedimento operatório, o diagnóstico de adenoma. No estadiamento pré-operatório realizado por ultrassonografia transrretal, notou-se que a maioria dos tumores apresentaram estadiamento pré-operatório de adenoma (uT0. Em relação ao acometimento linfonodal dois foram avaliados no ultrassom como comprometidos. Quanto à profundidade de ressecção da parede retal verificou-se que mais de 60% dos pacientes submetidos à TEM realizaram ressecção em bloco de toda a parede retal, ou seja, até a gordura perirretal. Verificou-se, que o número total de pacientes portadores de

  4. A temática do desenvolvimento sustentável em grupos de pesquisa The sustainable development thematic in the research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Piumbato Innocentini Hayashi


    Full Text Available A inovação tecnológica trouxe para o debate a questão do desenvolvimento tecnológico sustentável. O artigo apresenta um conjunto de reflexões teóricas sobre os temas ciência,tecnologia e desenvolvimento sustentável e aponta as contribuições da Ciência da Informação, enquanto ciência interdisciplinar, para a compreensão do desenvolvimento sustentável. Com base neste referencial foi realizada uma investigação, de natureza exploratória descritiva comabordagem quanti-qualitativa, tendo como objetivo principal identificar a presença da temática do desenvolvimento sustentável em grupos de pesquisa da UFSCar cadastrados noDiretório de Grupos de Pesquisa no Brasil/CNPq. Os resultados apontaram que a temática do desenvolvimento sustentável está presente em onze grupos de pesquisa da UFSCar distribuídas em diferentes áreas de conhecimento. Comparando os dados obtidos com os grupos de pesquisa do país que participaram do Censo 2004 do Diretório de Grupos de Pesquisa no Brasil/CNPq verificou-se que há similaridade entre ambos os achados. De acordo com a literatura científica, confirma-se que a temática do desenvolvimento sustentável é interdisciplinar e que a produção de conhecimento dos grupos de pesquisa é fruto de saberesarticulados entre várias áreas do conhecimento.The technological innovation brought for the debate the question of the sustainable technological development. The article presents an entirety of theoretical reflections on the science, technology and sustainable development themes and to aim the contributions of the Information Science, while interdisciplinary science, with respect to the understanding of the sustainable development. With basis in this reference it was carried through the investigation of descriptive exploratory nature with quanti-qualitative boarding, having as main objective to identify the presence of the sustainable development thematic in research groups of the UFSCar

  5. Instituciones de enseñanza superior de España y Brasil: temática sobre las personas con discapacidad

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    Marina Brasiliano SALERNO


    Full Text Available Las discusiones acerca de la población con discapacidades fueron insertadas en los cursos de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte y Educación Física como forma de atender a las disposiciones acordadas en diferentes documentos legales elaborados a lo largo de discusiones sobre el proceso de inclusión. Este proceso resultó en una mayor participación de ese grupo en otros ámbitos sociales entre ellos el deporte, el ocio y las competiciones. Eso nos llevó a preguntarnos cómo esta temática es abordada en los cursos citados. Para comprender este factor analizamos los planes docentes o programas de asignaturas de dos instituciones, una de Brasil y otra de España, que ofrecen estos cursos y que se destacan por la relevancia en el área en sus países. Observamos que la cantidad de horas de trabajo dedicado a la discusión sobre las personas con discapacidad es prácticamente la misma en los dos países, aunque la institución brasileña ofrezca mayor cantidad de asignaturas. Además notamos que la institución brasileña presenta repeticiones de temas que tratan específicamente de la etiología de la discapacidad. Las lecturas específicas indicadas en los programas pueden ser más diversificadas en algunas asignaturas. Por fin, notamos que apenas las asignaturas con temática específica sobre las personas con discapacidad las abordan. Creemos que los cursos pueden ofrecer más posibilidades de discusión sobre esta población en otras asignaturas, ya que las personas con discapacidad participan activamente de diversos espacios donde los profesionales de la Educación Física actúan.

  6. Vacancy ordered γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles functionalized with nanohydroxyapatite: XRD, FTIR, TEM, XPS and Mössbauer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Guivar, Juan A., E-mail: [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P. O. Box 14- 0149, Lima 14 (Peru); Sanches, Edgar A., E-mail: [Federal University of Amazonas, Department of Physics, Manaus/AM (Brazil); Bruns, Florian, E-mail: [Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38110 Braunschweig (Germany); Sadrollahi, Elaheh, E-mail: [Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38110 Braunschweig (Germany); Morales, M.A., E-mail: [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, UFRN, Natal, RN 59078- 970 (Brazil); López, Elvis O., E-mail: [Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); Litterst, F. Jochen, E-mail: [Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38110 Braunschweig (Germany); Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: Possible bonding configuration in the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles functionalized with nanoHAp. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation in alkaline medium for the synthesis of vacancy ordered γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@HAp nanocomposite. • Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, TEM, VSM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. • The functionalization is explained with the binding of two oxygens of chemisorbed H{sub 2}O molecules at the common interface of HAp/C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Vacancy ordered maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles functionalized with nanohydroxyapatite (HAp – Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}) {sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) have been successfully synthesized using an inexpensive co-precipitation chemical route. Evidence for the presence of vacancy order in maghemite was shown by the superstructure lines observed in X-ray diffraction. The adsorption of carboxyl groups of citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}) onto γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was investigated by FTIR, XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopy. From XPS surface analysis, two binding energies related to oxygen were attributed to bindings between C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}/γ- Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}/HAp from an interfacial reaction promoted by strongly adsorbed H{sub 2}O molecules at the surface of these nanomaterials. Le Bail refinement of the XRD patterns showed the formation of well-crystallized pure tetragonal maghemite before and after functionalization with nanoHAp. The temperature dependence of hyperfine parameters of pure and functionalized γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was investigated via Mössbauer spectroscopy. TEM revealed the formation of quasi-spherical γ- Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with an average diameter of ca. 12 nm and 16 nm before and after functionalization with nanoHAp in agreement with Le Bail refinement. Magnetometry measurements showed a saturation magnetization of 12 emu/g and a blocking

  7. Determination of the Projected Atomic Potential by Deconvolution of the Auto-Correlation Function of TEM Electron Nano-Diffraction Patterns

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    Liberato De Caro


    Full Text Available We present a novel method to determine the projected atomic potential of a specimen directly from transmission electron microscopy coherent electron nano-diffraction patterns, overcoming common limitations encountered so far due to the dynamical nature of electron-matter interaction. The projected potential is obtained by deconvolution of the inverse Fourier transform of experimental diffraction patterns rescaled in intensity by using theoretical values of the kinematical atomic scattering factors. This novelty enables the compensation of dynamical effects typical of transmission electron microscopy (TEM experiments on standard specimens with thicknesses up to a few tens of nm. The projected atomic potentials so obtained are averaged on sample regions illuminated by nano-sized electron probes and are in good quantitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Contrary to lens-based microscopy, here the spatial resolution in the retrieved projected atomic potential profiles is related to the finer lattice spacing measured in the electron diffraction pattern. The method has been successfully applied to experimental nano-diffraction data of crystalline centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric specimens achieving a resolution of 65 pm.

  8. Instituição de longa permanência para idosos: um lugar de cuidado para quem não tem opção?

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    Janine Melo de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa, com abordagem compreensiva, que teve por objetivo compreender o significado da instituição de longa permanência para idosos institucionalizados. Os dados foram coletados com 13 idosos institucionalizados, no período de 5 de abril a 25 de maio de 2013 por meio da entrevista narrativa, e submetidos a análise de conteúdo, na modalidade de análise temática. Os resultados indicam que ser idoso institucionalizado significa ter suas necessidades de cuidado atendidas, no que concerne a suas necessidades básicas; ao acesso a serviços e recursos de saúde, e a ter um lugar onde possam envelhecer e morrer. O estudo permitiu concluir que a instituição aparece como um lugar ambíguo para os idosos, pois ao mesmo tempo em que os acolhe, abriga e atende suas necessidades, é um ambiente que inviabiliza a vida independente e autônoma.

  9. Compreensão de contos após leitura dialógica com perguntas baseadas em dimensões temáticas da narrativa

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    Fabio Hernandez Medeiros

    Full Text Available RESUMO Investigou-se o efeito da leitura dialógica - leitura em voz alta intercalada com perguntas e feedback baseados em dimensões temáticas (funções da narrativa - sobre a compreensão de contos dos Irmãos Grimm. Vinte e dois contos foram lidos individualmente a três crianças, sendo duas com oito anos de idade e uma com treze, de forma simples (sem intervenções adicionais e dialógica, em um delineamento de linha de base múltipla por participante. A compreensão foi avaliada por meio da porcentagem de eventos do enredo e funções da narrativa verbalizadas em tarefas de reconto. A correspondência entre as histórias e os recontos foi superior na condição Leitura Dialógica, especialmente para funções narrativas. Discute-se o papel das perguntas, do reforçamento diferencial e do texto nos efeitos encontrados.

  10. Lei da gravitação universal e os satélites: uma abordagem histórico-temática usando multimídia

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    Elvis Vilela Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Examina-se, neste artigo, o desenvolvimento de aulas de Física em que, usando-se uma multimídia, a Lei da Gravitação Universal é abordada de forma contextualizada a partir da História da Ciência e de um tema atual (os satélites. O objetivo foi examinar como estudantes de Ensino Médio aceitam e se envolvem nesse estudo. Usando uma abordagem metodológica qualitativa, a multimídia apresenta o que são e como funcionam os satélites artificiais, trazendo uma narrativa histórica desde as ideias de movimento do sistema planetário de Ptolomeu até as de Isaac Newton sobre o movimento dos corpos, culminando na Lei da Gravitação Universal. Entrevistas, observações de sala de aula e documentos produzidos pelos estudantes mostram que as imagens, os filmes e os textos contidos na multimídia enriquecem, de modo significativo, o conteúdo, facilitando o entendimento de conceitos da Física. A contextualização histórico-temática, por sua vez, produz maior envolvimento dos alunos no estudo da Física.

  11. La Biblioteca de la Universidad de Heidelberg y su colección temática especializada de Historia del Arte

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    Effinger, Maria


    Full Text Available La Biblioteca de la Universidad de Heidelberg participa en el sistema nacional cooperativo de adquisición de libros financiado por la Asociación Alemana de Investigación (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, en adelante DFG. Esta institución financia la construcción de fondos bibliográficos académicos con el doble fin de tejer una red de fuentes de información y hacer que éstas sean accesibles desde cualquier punto de la nación. Más de sesenta de las más eficientes bibliotecas universitarias alemanas participan en este sistema de cooperación. Las colecciones especializadas sed distribuyen de acuerdo con criterios académicos y regionales. La finalidad de este sistema de adquisición cooperativa es construir colecciones temáticas especializadas y comprensivas de recursos impresos y electrónicos y hacerlas accesibles de un modo fácil, pensando en el usuario. La DFG financia la adquisición de la producción completa de las obras más relevantes que se publican en el extranjero, mientras que a las bibliotecas les corresponde el pago de la literatura extranjera más común y de los documentos publicados en Alemania.

  12. Direct observations of dynamic PtCo interactions in fuel cell catalyst precursors at the atomic level using E(S)TEM. (United States)

    Ward, M R; Theobald, B; Sharman, J; Boyes, E D; Gai, P L


    Reduction reactions in practical bimetallic platinum-cobalt electrode catalyst precursors containing platinum, cobalt and cobalt oxides in hydrogen at 200, 450 and 700 °C for 6 h have been studied in situ using an aberration corrected environmental (scanning) transmission electron microscope (AC E(S)TEM). Little difference was observed in reduction at 200 °C but during and after reduction at 450 °C, small nanoparticles less than 3 nm in diameter with tetragonal PtCo structures were observed and limited Pt 3 Co ordering could be seen on the surfaces of larger nanoparticles. During and after reduction at 700 °C, fully ordered Pt 3 Co and PtCo nanoparticles larger than 4 nm were produced and the average nanoparticle size almost trebled relative to the fresh precursor. After reduction at 450 and 700 °C, most nanoparticles were disordered platinum/cobalt alloys with fcc structure. After reduction at 700 °C many of the smallest nanoparticles disappeared suggesting Ostwald ripening had occurred. Mechanisms concerning the thermal transformation of mixed cobalt and platinum species are discussed, offering new insights into the creation of bimetallic platinum-cobalt nanoparticles in fuel cell catalysts. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Functionalization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite with copper(II) compounds as pesticide: in situ TEM and ESEM observations of treated Vitis vinifera L. leaves. (United States)

    Battiston, Enrico; Salvatici, Maria C; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Gatti, Antonietta; Di Marco, Stefano; Mugnai, Laura


    The present study evaluates a biocompatible material for plant protection to reduce the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively due its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four copper(II) compounds applied in Vitis vinifera L. leaves as pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterised by XRD, DLS, electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify the particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen, Plasmopara viticola. XRD showed a different interaction between HA and the copper(II) compounds, DLS showed a granular distribution ranging out of the nanometer range and in all formulations, TEM and ESEM microscopy showed large aggregates which were partially nanostructured and were recognised as stable in their micrometric dimension. Such particles did not show phytotoxic effects after their application in planta. A formulation based on HA and the soluble copper(II) compound showed promising results in the control of the fungal pathogen, confirming the potential role of HA an as innovative delivery system of Cu(II) ions. The present work indicates the possibility to improve the biological activity of a bioactive substance by modifying its structure through an achievable formulation with a biocompatible material. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Juan Pablo Abal


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue exponer los factores que explicanla escasa aplicación de la Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem(TRI en tests de ejecución típica. Una revisión exploratoriade la literatura psicométrica permitió identificar dos factores:el histórico, que remite a problemas en la difusión de la TRIpor fuera del campo educativo y a las demandas sociales queprivilegiaron su aplicación en el contexto educativo; y el factorasociado a la aplicación, que describe los obstáculos que enla actualidad dificultan la puesta en práctica de los modelosen tests de ejecución típica. Aunque ambos factores fueronrelativamente superados, el impacto de estos en la produccióncientífica del área es aún significativo.

  15. Análisis temático sobre la fibromialgia en la prensa escrita Argentina: descripciones generales y el rol de la psicología

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    Mercedes Sarudiansky


    Full Text Available Desde su conceptualización en 1990, la Fibromialgia (FM ha sido discutida en términos de su validez como diagnóstico, su definición como enfermedad y sus tratamientos. Estas cuestiones han sido abordadas por diferentes disciplinas biomédicas y sociales, entre las cuales se incluyen la psicología, la psiquiatría, la antropología y la sociología. En este trabajo, indagaremos cómo se difunden los saberes respecto de la FM en Argentina, a través de un análisis temático de los artículos referentes a este síndrome publicados en la prensa escrita. Analizaremos la manera en que las notas periodísticas describen a la FM – características generales, hipótesis causales, y tratamientos – y reflexionaremos respecto de cómo estos medios abordan el rol de la psicología en el tratamiento de esta dolencia.

  16. La actividad de juego temático de roles en la formación del pensamiento reflexivo en preescolares

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    Full Text Available Actualmente, la neuropsicología infantil aporta la elaboración de métodos útiles para la solución de problemas del desarrollo. Este artículo presenta los resultados de la aplicación del método de juego de roles, en una población colombiana del último nivel de preescolar (48 niños entre los 5 y 6 años de una institución educativa regular privada, en la formación del pensamiento reflexivo. Al grupo experimental se le aplicó el método de juego temático de roles que, de acuerdo con la concepción de Vygotsky y Elkonin, garantiza la adquisición de las neoformaciones psicológicas de la edad preescolar. El análisis pre-test / post-test permitió observar cambios importantes en la actividad escolar de los niños del grupo experimental después de la intervención.

  17. Iberian wolf as a reservoir of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli of the TEM, SHV, and CTX-M groups. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Estepa, Vanesa; Pacheco, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Brito, Francisco; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia


    The intensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, associated with mechanisms of bacterial genetic transfer, caused a selective pressure that contributed to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in different bacteria groups and throughout different ecosystems. Iberian wolf, due to his predatory and wild nature, may serve as an important indicator of environmental contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates within the fecal microbiota of Iberian wolf. Additionally, the identification of other associated resistance genes, phylogenetic groups, and the detection of virulence determinants were also focused on in this study. From 2008 to 2009, 237 fecal samples from Iberian wolf were collected in Portugal. E. coli isolates with TEM-52, SHV-12, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-14-type ESBLs were detected in 13 of these samples (5.5%). This study reveals the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, in a wild ecosystem, which could be disseminated through the environment. Moreover, the presence of resistant genes in integrons and the existence of virulence determinants were shown. The association between antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants should be monitored, as it constitutes a serious public health problem.

  18. Betalactamasas de espectro extendido tipo TEM y CTX-M en Klebsiella spp y Escherichia coli aisladas de superficies de ambientes hospitalarios

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    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el genotipo BLEE de 15 cepas de enterobacterias resistentes a betalactámicos, aisladas de superficies inanimadas y caracterizadas fenotípicamente como productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Previa evaluación y tamizaje de las cepas bacterianas, se hizo un PCR para amplificar fragmentos de 1078 pb y 544 pb correspondientes a BLEE tipo TEM y CTX-M. Once cepas presentaron ambos fragmentos a la vez y tres presentaron solamente blaCTX-M. En conclusión, se demostró la presencia de genes BLEE en cultivos de origen ambiental, algunos de los cuales podrían pertenecer a más de un tipo; esta información podría servir de base para implementar medidas de prevención que eviten la trasmisión de bacterias multirresistentes desde superficies inanimadas a los pacientes, principalmente en áreas hospitalarias críticas

  19. Estados emocionais de idosas a partir do Teste de Apercepção Temática = Emotional states of elderly women using the Thematic Apperception Test

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    Dallagnol, Claudia


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar estados emocionais em 10 idosas de 70 a 80 anos, participantes de um grupo de terceira idade. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo tendo como instrumentos: Teste de Apercepção Temática, Mini Exame do Estado Mental e um questionário sociodemográfico. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo conforme método de Bellak. Como resultado as idosas expressaram necessidades internas de cumprimento do papel materno e emoções que apontaram para o desejo de se manterem ativas, felizes e altruístas, com necessidade de valorização, apoio e ajuda. Revelaram ansiedades vinculadas ao medo de perdas, solidão, dependência, sentimento de incapacidade e preocupação em relação ao futuro. Demonstraram estruturação de ego saudável e superego flexível. Concluiu-se também que o TAT permite a investigação e análise de aspectos emocionais da personalidade em idosas e possibilita uma compreensão psicodinâmica do funcionamento psicológico presente no envelhecimento

  20. High-power narrow-linewidth QCW diode-pumped TEM00 1319 nm Nd:YAG oscillator using twisted-mode technique (United States)

    Bian, Qi; Zhong, Qing-Shuang; Chang, Jin-Quan; Guo, Chuan; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Yuan, Lei; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Chen, Hong-Bin; Xu, Zu-Yan


    We demonstrated a high-average-power, narrow-linewidth, quasi-continuous-wave diode-side-pumped 1319 nm Nd:YAG twisted-mode laser oscillator with a linearly polarized TEM00 mode. The resonator is based on a symmetrical convex-convex structure with a two-rod configuration for birefringence compensation, working in a thermally near-unstable cavity. With an optimum cavity length of 940 mm, a 39.4 W linear polarized 1319 nm laser is obtained with a good beam quality of M 2  =  1.21 and a linewidth of ~250 MHz, and the corresponding brightness is as high as 1.55 GW cm-2. The laser is operated at a repetition rate of 500 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power 1319 nm laser with narrow-linewidth from diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and is the first report on the twisted-mode laser operation at the 1.3 µm region.

  1. Microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Manfred; Triffo, W.J.; Palsdottir, H.; McDonald, K.L.; Inman, J.L.; Bissell, M.J.; Raphael, R.M.; Auer, M.; Lee, J.K.


    High-pressure freezing is the preferred method to prepare thick biological specimens for ultrastructural studies. However, the advantages obtained by this method often prove unattainable for samples that are difficult to handle during the freezing and substitution protocols. Delicate and sparse samples are difficult to manipulate and maintain intact throughout the sequence of freezing, infiltration, embedding, and final orientation for sectioning and subsequent TEM imaging. An established approach to surmount these difficulties is the use of cellulose microdialysis tubing to transport the sample. With an inner diameter of 200 micrometers, the tubing protects small and fragile samples within the thickness constraints of high-pressure freezing, and the tube ends can be sealed to avoid loss of sample. Importantly, the transparency of the tubing allows optical study of the specimen at different steps in the process. Here, we describe the use of a micromanipulator and microinjection apparatus to handle and position delicate specimens within the tubing. We report two biologically significant examples that benefit from this approach, 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells and cochlear outer hair cells. We illustrate the potential for correlative light and electron microscopy as well as electron tomography.

  2. Análisis cultural de los ítems de dos listas de verificación quirúrgica de España y Argentina

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    Blanca Torres-Manrique

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Comparar la concordancia entre dos listas de verificación quirúrgica implantadas en dos hospitales en España y Argentina utilizando como marco de referencia la Clasificación Internacional para la Seguridad de Pacientes. Método Estudio basado en el juicio de expertos realizado con un cuestionario ad hoc en soporte electrónico que abarca 7 de las 13 categorías de la Clasificación Internacional para la Seguridad de Pacientes. Participaron 15 expertos en seguridad quirúrgica de cada país, asociando cada ítem de las listas de verificación con las dimensiones seleccionadas. Los datos se analizaron con el programa SPSS V20. Resultados Se evidencia un mayor porcentaje de coincidencias con campos relacionados con prevención de eventos críticos. La dimensión Procesos clínicos y procedimientos obtuvo una mayor frecuencia de asignación en ambas listas. Conclusión Existe variabilidad en la implantación de las listas de verificación quirúrgica. Los expertos consideran la lista argentina más clara en cada dimensión.

  3. Synthesis of acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and comparison for targeting atherosclerotic plaques: evaluation by MRI, quantitative MPS, and TEM alternative to ambiguous Prussian blue iron staining. (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Kratz, Harald; Wiekhorst, Frank; Warmuth, Carsten; Schnorr, Jörg; Genter, Gesche; Ebert, Monika; Mueller, Susanne; Schellenberger, Eyk


    To further optimize citrate-stabilized VSOPs (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) for identification of atherosclerotic plaques, we modified their surface during synthesis using eight other acids for electrostatic stabilization. This approach preserves effective production for clinical application. Five particles were suitable to be investigated in targeting plaques of apoE(-/-) mice. Accumulation was evaluated by ex vivo MRI, TEM, and quantitatively by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS). Citric- (VSOP), etidronic-, tartaric-, and malic-acid-coated particles accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques with highest accumulation for VSOP (0.2‰ of injected dose). Targets were phagolysosomes of macrophages and of altered endothelial cells. In vivo MRI with VSOP allowed for definite plaque identification. Prussian blue staining revealed abundant endogenous iron in plaques, indistinguishable from particle iron. In apoE(-/-) mice, VSOPs are still the best anionic iron oxide particles for imaging atherosclerotic plaques. MPS allows for quantification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in such small specimens. The presence of vulnerable plaques in arteries is important for the prediction of acute coronary events. VSOP (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) have been shown to be very sensitive in identifying atherosclerotic plaques. The authors studied here further modification to the surface of VSOP during synthesis and compared their efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Las controversias sociocientíficas: temáticas e importancia para la educación científica

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    Naira Díaz Moreno


    Full Text Available Las controversias socio-científicas surgen y nos rodean en los temas más actuales y emergentes de nuestra sociedad: transgénicos, homeopatía, impacto de las telefonías, etc. Por eso creemos importante exponer en qué consiste una controversia socio-científica, estudiar la relación entre las temáticas de controversias que aparecen en prensa y en la literatura didáctica así como si es posible el uso de estas controversias en el contexto escolar. La imagen consensuada con la que suelen aparecer las noticias científicas en los medios de comunicación va a dificultar su utilización en el aula. Del análisis documental de la literatura didáctica, hemos podido seleccionar actividades que utilizan controversias y que pueden ser usadas como modelo para utilizar las controversias en el aula de ciencias y desarrollar distintas finalidades en el alumnado: alfabetización científica, pensamiento crítico, fomento de la cultura científica, etc.

  5. Monolayer to MTS: using SEM, HIM, TEM and SERS to compare morphology, nanosensor uptake and redox potential in MCF7 cells (United States)

    Jamieson, L. E.; Bell, A. P.; Harrison, D. J.; Campbell, C. J.


    Cellular redox potential is important for the control and regulation of a vast number of processes occurring in cells. When the fine redox potential balance within cells is disturbed it can have serious consequences such as the initiation or progression of disease. It is thought that a redox gradient develops in cancer tumours where the peripheral regions are well oxygenated and internal regions, further from vascular blood supply, become starved of oxygen and hypoxic. This makes treatment of these areas more challenging as, for example, radiotherapy relies on the presence of oxygen. Currently techniques for quantitative analysis of redox gradients are limited. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensors (NS) have been used to detect redox potential in a quantitative manner in monolayer cultured cells with many advantages over other techniques. This technique has considerable potential for use in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) - a three dimensional (3D) cell model which better mimics the tumour environment and gradients that develop. MTS are a more realistic model of the in vivo cellular morphology and environment and are becoming an increasingly popular in vitro model, replacing traditional monolayer culture. Imaging techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM) were used to investigate differences in morphology and NS uptake in monolayer culture compared to MTS. After confirming NS uptake, the first SERS measurements revealing quantitative information on redox potential in MTS were performed.

  6. Consumo da informação científica na ciência brasileira: estudo exploratório na temática ceratocone e extração de catarata

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    Raymundo das Neves Machado


    Full Text Available Examina o consumo da informação em duas temáticas do campo da Oftalmologia, ceratocone e extração de catarata. Procedeu-se a uma análise bibliométrica descritiva de micronível, empregando-se indicadores de consumo da informação, isto é, índice de Price, vida média e obsolescência. O material analisado é composto por artigos indexados pelo SciELO Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2010. Os resultados apontam para um envelhecimento do tipo moderado para ambas temáticas. Entretanto, o ceratocone apresentou um declínio do uso da informação superior à temática extração de catarata.

  7. Análisis bibliométrico, temático e ideológico de la revista de estudios deportivos Citius, Altius, Fortius (1959-1976

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    María Perrino Peña


    Full Text Available La investigación ofrece un conocimiento pormenorizado de la revista Citius, Altius, Fortius (1959-1976. Siendo el objetivo principal de la tesis el desvelamiento de la orientación ideológica de la revista, se procedió a la organización y clasificación del material bibliográfico mediante la creación de un repertorio temático organizado en categorías en tres niveles de concreción (disciplina, tema y palabras clave. Singularmente, se analizaron las concepciones relativas a las diversas categorías de la cultura física, la educación física y el deporte. Se reflejaron los principales ejes temáticos que caracterizan la línea editorial, diferenciando tres etapas editoriales con sutiles variaciones temáticas.

  8. Gestão da Informação sobre Políticas Públicas de Esporte: Incidência Temática em Pesquisas Acadêmicas

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    Tiago Dias Provenzano


    Full Text Available O presente estudo, de natureza qualitativa, é centrado na gestão da informação sobre Políticas Públicas de Esporte e tem como objetivo investigar a incidência da temática referente a Políticas Públicas de Esporte em pesquisas acadêmicas. Para tanto, o estudo constou de pesquisa bibliográfica a respeito do tema, bem como de pesquisa exploratória desenvolvida no Portal de Periódicos CAPES, no qual os estudos foram analisados com base na Técnica de Análise de Conteúdo Temático, agrupados em três eixos temáticos: 1- Impacto Científico, 2- Abordagens metodológicas e 3- Temáticas abordadas. Os resultados do Eixo 1 mostram que os artigos analisados foram publicados predominantemente em 3 periódicos  com qualis A2 e B1 na área 21- Educação Física. Quanto ao Eixo 2, todos os artigos apresentaram natureza qualitativa, sendo utilizado o método descritivo de análise. Os artigos utilizaram, sobretudo, pesquisas bibliográfica, documental e de campo, sendo a entrevista o instrumento mais utilizado. No Eixo 3, as temáticas mais abordadas foram as referentes à avaliação de políticas públicas e de programas de esporte e lazer e discussões teóricas envolvendo a temática. Outros temas abordados com menor incidência foram: atuação profissional em políticas públicas e participação da sociedade na implementação de programas esportivos. Os resultados evidenciaram, com base no reduzido número de estudos acadêmicos encontrados, pouca atenção para esta relevante temática, e a necessidade de novos enfoques no sentido de se compreender como ocorre a gestão de informações sobre políticas públicas direcionadas ao esporte.

  9. Modelagem numérica em mapa temático: sítios florestais Numerical modelling in thematical map: forestal sites

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    Cláudia Weber Corseuil


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a utilização de programas de geoprocessamento e de tratamento de imagens, considerados de domínio público e de fácil operacionalidade, para modelagem numérica de um mapa temático. Esta modelagem é feita a partir da alimentação de um banco de dados digitais, para fins de planejamento e cadastro florestal. Mais especificamente, criou-se uma metodologia que utiliza a modelagem numérica para a visualização tridimensional de um plano de informação de sítios florestais georeferenciados, que permite o cruzamento (sobreposição com outros planos de informações, também georeferenciados, de interesse na área florestal. Foram utilizados os seguintes materiais: mapa de sítios naturais da Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo, microcomputador, impressora, scanner de mesa, os softwares Idrisi 4.1 e Aldus PhotoStyler 2.0. A metodologia empregada baseou-se na digitalização, por varredura ótica, do mapa de sítios naturais existentes, sua edição de cores e georeferenciamento, para posterior modelagem numérica e visualização tridimensional dos diferentes sítios representados no mapa planimétrico da Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo. Como resultado, obteve-se arquivos, que possibilitaram a identificação, através das diferentes alturas, dos sítios onde podem ser implantadas espécies mais adequadas às suas características naturais, demonstrando a viabilidade da aplicação da presente metodologia no planejamento florestal.The objective of this work was to utilize programs of geoprocessing and treatment of images, considerated to be well-knowm and easily operated, for numerical modelling of a thematical map. This modelling is carried out from feeding a digital base bank, for forest planning and cadaster. More specifically, a methodology that uses the numerical modelling for tridimensional visualization of a layer of geoindicated forest sites has been designed to permit the crossing (superposition

  10. Concepções de professores sobre a temática das chamadas dificuldades de aprendizagem Teacher's conceptions about learning difficulties

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    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as concepções de professores, atuantes em anos e séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, sobre a temática das chamadas dificuldades de aprendizagem. Participaram da pesquisa dezesseis professores, com média de idade de quarenta e um anos. Destes, apenas um não possuía ensino superior. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, individualmente, nas próprias escolas, com o apoio de um roteiro, contendo questões sobre: aspectos do funcionamento das turmas das instituições nas quais os professores atuavam; como identificar um aluno com dificuldades de aprendizagem; causas das dificuldades de aprendizagem e como poderia auxiliar um escolar com dificuldades de aprendizagem. Cada entrevista durou em média 50 minutos. As entrevistas foram transcritas na íntegra e submetidas à análise temática. Em seguida, foram designadas quatro categorias: caracterização da proposta educacional das instituições; concepções sobre a identificação de um aluno com dificuldades de aprendizagem; concepções sobre as causas das dificuldades de aprendizagem e possibilidades de auxílio para os escolares com dificuldades de aprendizagem. Os resultados indicaram que os principais fatores relacionados à caracterização dos alunos com dificuldades de aprendizagem foram de origem cognitiva. Os dados apontaram também que esses profissionais tomaram como base, de modo marcante, os aspectos familiares para centrarem as causas das dificuldades de aprendizagem e, consequentemente, atribuíram à família a maior parcela de responsabilidade na resolução de tais situações. Os dados permitiram concluir, dentre outros aspectos, que as escolas participantes da pesquisa relataram uma prática contrária aos pressupostos da Educação Inclusiva, denotada pela tentativa de homogeneização das turmas.This study aimed to identify the conceptions of learning difficulties of teachers working in the beginning years of

  11. Paradigmas, eixos temáticos e tensões na PTO no Brasil Work and organizational psychology paradigms, thematic streams and tensions in Brazil

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    Pedro F. Bendassolli


    Full Text Available O panorama de abordagens da psicologia do trabalho e das organizações (PTO no Brasil mostra grande diversidade teórica e metodológica que reflete a presença de distintos paradigmas científicos na delimitação e organização desse campo. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar esses paradigmas e relacioná-los com três eixos temáticos da PTO no Brasil: o do comportamento, o da subjetividade e o clínico. Investiga-se os fundamentos epistemológicos e metodológicos, alguns trabalhos e autores de cada um desses eixos, discutindo sua contribuição para o campo da PTO no Brasil. O artigo desenvolve uma discussão sobre as tensões existentes entre esses eixos, derivadas da pressão de corresponderem, ao mesmo tempo, a critérios de rigor acadêmico e relevância organizacional. O artigo, por fim, mostra a diversificação do campo da PTO no Brasil e os desafios disso decorrentes.The great theoretical and methodological diversity of Work and Organizational Psychology (WOP approaches in Brazil reflects the presence of distinct scientific paradigms in the setting of boundaries and the organization of this field. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these paradigms and relate them with three WOP thematic streams in Brazil: the behavioral stream; the subjectivity stream; and the clinical stream. We investigate epistemological and methodological fundamentals, some studies and authors in each of these streams, discussing their contribution to the field of WOP in Brazil. The paper discusses the stresses that exist among these streams, which arise from the pressure of corresponding at once to academic rigor and organizational relevance criteria. Finally, the article shows the diversification of the field of WOP in Brazil and resulting challenges.

  12. Experimental Hypervelocity Dust Impact in Olivine: FIB/TEM Characterization of Micron-Scale Craters with Comparison to Natural and Laser-Simulated Small-Scale Impact Effects (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Rahman, Z.; Dukes, C.; IMPACT Team


    The space weathering of regoliths on airless bodies and the formation of their exospheres is driven to a large extent by hypervelocity impacts from the high relative flux of micron to sub-micron meteoroids that comprise approximately 90 percent of the solar system meteoroid population. Laboratory hypervelocity impact experiments are crucial for quantifying how these small impact events drive space weathering through target shock, melting and vaporization. Simulating these small scale impacts experimentally is challenging because the natural impactors are both very small and many have velocities above the approximately 8 kilometers-per-second limit attainable by conventional chemical/light gas accelerator technology. Electrostatic "dust" accelerators, such as the one recently developed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS), allow the experimental velocity regime to be extended up to tens of kilometers-per-second. Even at these velocities the region of latent target damage created by each impact, in the form of microcraters or pits, is still only about 0.1 to 10 micrometers in size. Both field-emission analytical scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and advanced field-emission scanning transmission electron microscopy (FE-STEM) are uniquely suited for characterizing the individual dust impact sites in these experiments. In this study, we have used both techniques, along with focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation, to characterize the micrometer to nanometer scale effects created by accelerated dust impacts into olivine single crystals. To our knowledge this work presents the first TEM-scale characterization of dust impacts into a key solar system silicate mineral using the CCLDAS facility. Our overarching goal for this work is to establish a basis to compare with our previous results on natural dust-impacted lunar olivine and laser-irradiated olivine.

  13. Non-coating fixation techniques or redundancy of conductive coating, low kV FE-SEM operation and combined SEM/TEM of biological tissues. (United States)

    Jongebloed, W L; Stokroos, I; Van der Want, J J; Kalicharan, D


    Non-coating fixation methods, in particular the tannic acid/arginine/osmium tetroxide procedure, are employed for a number of reasons on the guinea-pig organ of Corti hair cell stereocilia glycocalyx and the imprints of the stereocilia at the bottom side of the tectorial membrane, and on the rat and cat intestinal epithelial microvilli glycocalyx and mucus-producing goblet cells. These methods are used firstly to confirm that non-coating prepared specimens can be embedded for TEM observation at 60-100 kV without loss of detail information, and these images can be compared with cryo-FE-SEM images of the same structure/tissue. Secondly, they show that specimens treated according non-coating techniques become optimally preserved and electrically conductive, so that no external conductive coating is required. In this way a comparison of images of subsequent fresh fracture faces is possible without a decrease in information on detail, which otherwise could happen after subsequent coating layers required after standard fixation. Thirdly, they show that non-coating methods can be used quite well with low accelerating voltages because the osmium-tannic acid complex in the specimen surface produces a large number of backscattered and secondary electrons in the surface layer, showing in particular surface phenomena. Fourthly, they show that with an optimal non-coating preservation, in combination with a well-balanced pre-fixation mixture, preparation artefacts due to extraction and even dehydration and drying are minimized. This is compared with images of the organ of Corti hair cells treated with a so-called three-aldehyde pre-fixation mixture, which causes disrupted stereocilia to cling onto the bottom side of the tectorial membrane.

  14. Anthropogenic wetlands due to over-irrigation of desert areas: a challenging hydrogeological investigation with extensive geophysical input from TEM and MRS measurements (United States)

    Behroozmand, Ahmad Ali; Teatini, Pietro; Bjergsted Pedersen, Jesper; Auken, Esben; Tosatto, Omar; Vest Christiansen, Anders


    During the last century, many large irrigation projects were carried out in arid lands worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in food production, a common problem when characterizing these zones is land degradation in the form of waterlogging. A clear example of this phenomenon is in the Nubariya depression in the Western Desert of Egypt. Following the reclamation of desert lands for agricultural production, an artificial brackish and contaminated pond started to develop in the late 1990s, which at present extends for about 2.5 km2. The available data provide evidence of a simultaneous general deterioration of the groundwater system. An extensive hydrogeophysical investigation was carried out in this challenging environment using magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) and ground-based time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) techniques with the following main objectives: (1) understanding the hydrological evolution of the area; (2) characterizing the hydrogeological setting; and (3) developing scenarios for artificial aquifer remediation and recharge. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys provided a hydrogeological picture of the upper 100 m sedimentary setting in terms of both lithological distribution and groundwater quality. The information is then used to set up (1) a regional groundwater flow and (2) a local density-dependent flow and transport numerical model to reproduce the evolution of the aquifer system and develop a few scenarios for artificial aquifer recharge using the treated water provided by a nearby wastewater treatment plant. The research outcomes point to the hydrological challenges that emerge for the effective management of water resources in reclaimed desert areas, and they highlight the effectiveness of using advanced geophysical and modeling methodologies.

  15. Morphology and chemical characteristics of micro- and Nano-particles in the haze in Beijing studied by XPS and TEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, and Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190 (China); Xu, Jianxun; He, Meng [CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190 (China); Song, Lexin [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen, Dongliang, E-mail: [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Guo, Guangsheng, E-mail: [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, and Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Dai, Hongxing, E-mail: [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, and Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)


    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a useful surface sensitive tool to explore the particulate matter with different particle sizes. In this work, we report the analysis of elemental species in particulate matter with size ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm during the autumn haze of 2014 in Beijing. The size dependence of element composition and chemical state distribution on the particle surface was investigated. It was found that the number of investigated element species decreased from 8 (at stage 2) to 4 (at stage 10) with the decrease of particle sizes down to 100 nm, which is in accordance with the result from Transmission electron microscopy (TEM/EDX) observations. Three chemical states of nitrogen, the amide group (399.9 eV), the ammonium group (401.6 eV), and the nitrate group (407.2 eV), were confirmed according to the different binding energies. Nitrate was the main composition on the coarse particles, while the percentage of amide and ammonium at stage 3 (13.9% and 10.8% respectively) increased on the fine particles at stage 9 (46.8% and 38.8% respectively). The relative ratio of sulfate and ammonium (calculated 1:1) in the fine particles suggests that there is no enough NH{sub 4}{sup +} to neutralize the sulfuric acid and the surface of the PM is acidic. The result is useful to investigate the generation processes and the sources of collected particles. - Highlights: • The element composition of particles from 100 nm to 10 μm in haze was discussed • The chemical state was dominated by the particle size • The surface of PM was acidity • XPS was shown a useful tool in the aerosol research.

  16. Com aplicar l’anàlisi narrativa temàtica a l’anàlisi de narratives escrites en entorns online

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    Lissette Fernández-Núñez


    Full Text Available La investigació narrativa és l’estudi de l’experiència a través de relats. Una narrativa o relat és un recompte simbolitzat d’una seqüència d’esdeveniments i accions importants per al narrador i el seu públic, que té una dimensió temporal. És una forma utilitzada per les persones per contar el seus esdeveniments i experiències importants, i per l’investigador una bona manera d’estudiar els significats i motius de l’experiència. Les expressades en entorns online es caracteritzen per ser narratives escrites, usualment en primera persona, que compleixen les característiques de seqüencialitat, indiferència fàctica i temporalitat, i que són co-construïdes. L’anàlisi narrativa s’interessa en com un narrador o escriptor acobla i seqüencia esdeveniments, i en com utilitza el llenguatge i/o les imatges visuals per a comunicar significat. Hi ha moltes maneres de narrar l’experiència, la manera com un narrador, escriptor o artista visual escull com fer-ho és significativa. De les quatre aproximacions metodològiques per a l’anàlisi de narratives d’individus i grups, aquest article se centra en l’anàlisi narrativa temàtica per ser la més adequada per a les narratives escrites, i en concret, per a les expressades en entorns online. A l’últim apartat es presenten les fases del procés d’anàlisi.

  17. Rietveld refinement on XRD and TEM study of nanocrystalline PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 ceramics prepared with a soft chemistry route

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    Mandal T.K.


    Full Text Available PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 nanopowders (~27 nm have been prepared by a controlled reconstructive thermal decomposition and crystallization from an amorphous polymeric precursor with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and sucrose at 400 to 700 °C in air. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD profiles which were recorded at room temperature for the PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 powder prepared by a thermal treatment at 700 °C for 2 h, confirmed the P4mm tetragonal crystal structure of the as prepared PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 nanopowders, with a = 0.4036 nm and c = 0.4147 nm. A hexagonal symmetry (R3c, with a = 0.5774 nm and c = 1.4212 nm, was also detected from Rietveld refinement analysis. Thus, tetragonal and hexagonal phases were found to coexist with the as prepared PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 nanopowders. The average particle size (D of the PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 powders, estimated with the help of the specific surface area, measured by BET method, was 26.1 nm. Average D value, calculated by D2θ1/2 in the XRD peaks with the Debye-Scherrer relation was ~24 nm. TEM study made it possible to measure the particle size of PbZr0:5Ti0:5O3 powders with an average diameter of 27 nm.

  18. Un ejemplo de plan temático para investigaciones operacionales aplicadas a la Atención Primaria de Salud

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    Félix Rodríguez Jústiz


    Full Text Available Se expone el Plan Temático que el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí" se propone para los próximos años y los grandes retos a enfrentar, así como la experiencia que ya acumulan sus profesionales como aval de éxito para estas intervenciones. El trabajo fundamenta la necesidad muy importante de continuar el perfeccionamiento de nuestro sistema de atención primaria de salud (APS. Se reconoce a nuestra APS como un modelo único en el mundo, y al mismo tiempo novedoso y complejo. Se plantea que la aplicación del enfoque epidemiológico a la APS puede ayudar mucho a mejorar la ejecución de los actores sociales que en ella intervienen, y por ende, mejorar el rendimiento del modelo en beneficio de la salud de la comunidad.The Thematic Plan proposed by "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine for the next years, as well as the great challenges to be faced are explained in this paper. Emphasis is made on the experience accumulated by its professionals as a guarantee for the success of these interventions. The paper establishes that it is very necessary to continue improving our primary health care (PHC system, which is recognized as a novel, complex and unique model in the world. It is stated that the application of the epidemiological approach to PHC may help to enhance the performance of the social actors that take part in it, and to make better the efficiency of the model for the benefit of community health.

  19. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  20. A classe social tem importância no estudo dos movimentos sociais? Uma teoria do radicalismo da classe média

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    Eder Klaus


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da questão da relação constitutiva entre classe social e movimento social. Em vez de ver um movimento social como o resultado de uma classe social, argumenta-se que uma classe social é constituída também pelas ações coletivas que chamamos de movimento social. Isso implica que a classe social não pode ser tratada como uma variável independente que reivindica um status objetivo como tal. Essa é considerada uma forma de reificação da noção de classe. Contra ela, argumenta-se que a classe é o produto de uma ação coletiva de pessoas e que pode, portanto, ser analisada em relação a sua composição social, a suas redes sociais organizadoras e a suas estruturações culturais. Esse quadro de referência de análise de classe é então aplicado à classe média, à qual essa abordagem se mostra particularmente adequada. Em vez de repetir velhas afirmações de uma classe média não-homogênea, reduzindo uma classe de pessoas a uma massa de pessoas, mostra-se como essa classe se constitui em ação e mobilização contínuas como uma classe social com limites, redes e orientações culturais claros. Nesse sentido, a classe tem importância, e a análise de classe é ainda uma ferramenta central para entender fenômenos macrossociológicos.