Sample records for tem bright field

  1. Stable numerical wave field transforms of TEM data

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    Slob, E.C. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); Habashy, T.M.; Torres-verdin, C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)


    Successful application of the wave field transform to diffusive electromagnetic (TEM) field data opens up the possibilities of processing the data with the well known seismic processing techniques. Since the time source functions used in field surveys are usually step-current switches, the fields in the wave field transform domain will be the response to a linear function, which is the q-domain equivalent source. Hence, the fields will in general be unbounded for large values of q and have delta-like and step-like discontinuities for those values of q that correspond to the arrivals of waves. It is exactly this correspondence principle that makes a numerical implementation of the transform very difficult. This consideration has recently led to a reformulation of the wave field transformation, where the q-domain field is convolved with a window function that is smooth function of q which has zero mean. The window function can be chosen freely as long as it has a zero mean. The convolved fields will then be smooth and vanish for large values of q. Hence, TEM data should be convolved with the time domain equivalent of the window function and then be transformed to the q-domain. Since we have control over the window function, we have a controlled convolution problem in the q-domain to find arrival times. Two numerical methods have been successfully tested, using the convolution, for single arrival data. Now we test it on more general TEM data. (author). 5 refs

  2. Brightness limitations of cold field emitters caused by Coulomb interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, B.J.; Verduin, T.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.


    Emission theory predicts that high brightness cold field emitters can enhance imaging in the electron microscope. This (neglecting chromatic aberration) is because of the large (coherent) probe current available from a high brightness source and is based on theoretically determined values of reduced

  3. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys (United States)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang


    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  4. Graphical Methods for Quantifying Macromolecules through Bright Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hang; DeFilippis, Rosa Anna; Tlsty, Thea D.; Parvin, Bahram


    Bright ?eld imaging of biological samples stained with antibodies and/or special stains provides a rapid protocol for visualizing various macromolecules. However, this method of sample staining and imaging is rarely employed for direct quantitative analysis due to variations in sample fixations, ambiguities introduced by color composition, and the limited dynamic range of imaging instruments. We demonstrate that, through the decomposition of color signals, staining can be scored on a cell-by-cell basis. We have applied our method to Flbroblasts grown from histologically normal breast tissue biopsies obtained from two distinct populations. Initially, nuclear regions are segmented through conversion of color images into gray scale, and detection of dark elliptic features. Subsequently, the strength of staining is quanti?ed by a color decomposition model that is optimized by a graph cut algorithm. In rare cases where nuclear signal is significantly altered as a result of samplepreparation, nuclear segmentation can be validated and corrected. Finally, segmented stained patterns are associated with each nuclear region following region-based tessellation. Compared to classical non-negative matrix factorization, proposed method (i) improves color decomposition, (ii) has a better noise immunity, (iii) is more invariant to initial conditions, and (iv) has a superior computing performance

  5. U-shaped Ladder TEM-Coil Structure with Truncated Sensitivity Profile in z-Direction for High Field MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leussler, C.; Wirtz, D.; Wuelbern, J.H.; Vernickel, P.; Forthmann, P.


    Conventional TEM-coils [1] come with a sensitivity profile and field-of view (FOV) that is largely extended in the z-direction comparedwith birdcage coils (BC) [2]. There is an analog situation when comparing TEM coil arrays [3] and degenerate birdcages (DBC) [4]. The excess z-FOV leads to safety

  6. Variable multimodal light microscopy with interference contrast and phase contrast; dark or bright field. (United States)

    Piper, T; Piper, J


    Using the optical methods described, specimens can be observed with modified multimodal light microscopes based on interference contrast combined with phase contrast, dark- or bright-field illumination. Thus, the particular visual information associated with interference and phase contrast, dark- and bright-field illumination is joined in real-time composite images appearing in enhanced clarity and purified from typical artefacts, which are apparent in standard phase contrast and dark-field illumination. In particular, haloing and shade-off are absent or significantly reduced as well as marginal blooming and scattering. The background brightness and thus the range of contrast can be continuously modulated and variable transitions can be achieved between interference contrast and complementary illumination techniques. The methods reported should be of general interest for all disciplines using phase and interference contrast microscopy, especially in biology and medicine, and also in material sciences when implemented in vertical illuminators. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope

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    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D., E-mail: [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Cosgriff, Eireann C.; D' Alfonso, Adrian J.; Morgan, Andrew J.; Allen, Leslie J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hashimoto, Ayako [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Mitsuishi, Kazutaka [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Quantum Dot Research Center, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Shimojo, Masayuki [High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Laboratory, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusaiji, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan)


    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. -- Research Highlights: {yields} The confocal probe image in a scanning confocal electron microscopy image reveals information about the thickness and height of the crystalline layer. {yields} The form of the contrast in a three-dimensional bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy image can be explained in terms of the confocal probe image. {yields} Despite the complicated form of the contrast in bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy, we see that depth information is transferred on a 10 nm scale.

  8. Simultaneous Bright-Field and Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Scanning Electron Microscopy: A New Approach for Analyzing Polymer System Morphology (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-IN-SEM) is a convenient technique for polymer characterization. Utilizing the lower accelerating voltages, larger field of view and, exclusion of post-specimen projection lens in an SEM; STEM-IN-SEM has shown results comparable to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of polymer morphology. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright field (BF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. To further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate simultaneous BF and dark field (DF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. A new specimen holder and a new microscope configuration were designed for this new imaging technique. BF and DF signals were maximized for optimal STEM-IN-SEM imaging. BF signal intensities were found to be twice as large as DF signal intensities. BF and DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging spatial resolutions are limited to 1.8 nm and approximately 5 nm, respectively. Simultaneous BF & DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging is applicable to both industrial and academic research environments. Examples of commodity and engineering polymer morphology characterization are provided. Results are comparable to TEM observation and may serve as a suitable precursor to STEM characterization of polymer systems. Finally, future developments of various accessories for this technique are discussed.

  9. Bright and durable field emission source derived from refractory taylor cones (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory


    A method of producing field emitters having improved brightness and durability relying on the creation of a liquid Taylor cone from electrically conductive materials having high melting points. The method calls for melting the end of a wire substrate with a focused laser beam, while imposing a high positive potential on the material. The resulting molten Taylor cone is subsequently rapidly quenched by cessation of the laser power. Rapid quenching is facilitated in large part by radiative cooling, resulting in structures having characteristics closely matching that of the original liquid Taylor cone. Frozen Taylor cones thus obtained yield desirable tip end forms for field emission sources in electron beam applications. Regeneration of the frozen Taylor cones in-situ is readily accomplished by repeating the initial formation procedures. The high temperature liquid Taylor cones can also be employed as bright ion sources with chemical elements previously considered impractical to implement.

  10. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy. (United States)

    Hernández Candia, Carmen Noemí; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio


    In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive) objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive) impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments) serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  11. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.

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    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  12. Modeling of Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays for high brightness photocathode applications (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Piryatinski, Andrei; Lewellen, John; Nichols, Kimberly; Choi, Bo; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Nguyen, Dinh; Andrews, Heather; Simakov, Evgenya


    We propose to employ Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays (DFEAs) as high-current-density ultra-low-emittance photocathodes for compact laser-driven dielectric accelerators capable of generating ultra-high brightness electron beams for advanced applications. We develop a semi-classical Monte-Carlo photoemission model for DFEAs that includes carriers' transport to the emitter surface and tunneling through the surface under external fields. The model accounts for the electronic structure size quantization affecting the transport and tunneling process within the sharp diamond tips. We compare this first principle model with other field emission models, such as the Child-Langmuir and Murphy-Good models. By further including effects of carrier photoexcitation, we perform simulations of the DFEAs' photoemission quantum yield and the emitted electron beam. Details of the theoretical model and validation against preliminary experimental data will be presented. Work ssupported by LDRD program at LANL.

  13. Ultra-fast bright field and fluorescence imaging of the dynamics of micrometer-sized objects (United States)

    Chen, Xucai; Wang, Jianjun; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.


    High speed imaging has application in a wide area of industry and scientific research. In medical research, high speed imaging has the potential to reveal insight into mechanisms of action of various therapeutic interventions. Examples include ultrasound assisted thrombolysis, drug delivery, and gene therapy. Visual observation of the ultrasound, microbubble, and biological cell interaction may help the understanding of the dynamic behavior of microbubbles and may eventually lead to better design of such delivery systems. We present the development of a high speed bright field and fluorescence imaging system that incorporates external mechanical waves such as ultrasound. Through collaborative design and contract manufacturing, a high speed imaging system has been successfully developed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We named the system "UPMC Cam," to refer to the integrated imaging system that includes the multi-frame camera and its unique software control, the customized modular microscope, the customized laser delivery system, its auxiliary ultrasound generator, and the combined ultrasound and optical imaging chamber for in vitro and in vivo observations. This system is capable of imaging microscopic bright field and fluorescence movies at 25 × 106 frames per second for 128 frames, with a frame size of 920 × 616 pixels. Example images of microbubble under ultrasound are shown to demonstrate the potential application of the system.

  14. Bright-field Nanoscopy: Visualizing Nano-structures with Localized Optical Contrast Using a Conventional Microscope. (United States)

    Suran, Swathi; Bharadwaj, Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Varma, Manoj M


    Most methods for optical visualization beyond the diffraction limit rely on fluorescence emission by molecular tags. Here, we report a method for visualization of nanostructures down to a few nanometers using a conventional bright-field microscope without requiring additional molecular tags such as fluorophores. The technique, Bright-field Nanoscopy, is based on the strong thickness dependent color of ultra-thin germanium on an optically thick gold film. We demonstrate the visualization of grain boundaries in chemical vapour deposited single layer graphene and the detection of single 40 nm Ag nanoparticles. We estimate a size detection limit of about 2 nm using this technique. In addition to visualizing nano-structures, this technique can be used to probe fluid phenomena at the nanoscale, such as transport through 2D membranes. We estimated the water transport rate through a 1 nm thick polymer film using this technique, as an illustration. Further, the technique can also be extended to study the transport of specific ions in the solution. It is anticipated that this technique will find use in applications ranging from single-nanoparticles resolved sensing to studying nanoscale fluid-solid interface phenomena.

  15. Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope (United States)

    Alexeev, Evgeny M.; Catanzaro, Alessandro; Skrypka, Oleksandr V.; Nayak, Pramoda K.; Ahn, Seongjoon; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Jung Inn; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Tartakovskii, Alexander I.


    Vertically stacked atomic layers from different layered crystals can be held together by van der Waals forces, which can be used for building novel heterostructures, offering a platform for developing a new generation of atomically thin, transparent and flexible devices. The performance of these devices is critically dependent on the layer thickness and the interlayer electronic coupling, influencing the hybridisation of the electronic states as well as charge and energy transfer between the layers. The electronic coupling is affected by the relative orientation of the layers as well as by the cleanliness of their interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for monitoring interlayer coupling in heterostructures made from transition metal dichalcogenides using photoluminescence imaging in a bright-field optical microscope. The colour and brightness in such images are used here to identify mono- and few-layer crystals, and to track changes in the interlayer coupling and the emergence of interlayer excitons after thermal annealing in mechanically exfoliated flakes as well as a function of the twist angle in atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition. Material and crystal thickness sensitivity of the presented imaging technique makes it a powerful tool for characterisation of van der Waals heterostructures assembled by a wide variety of methods, using combinations of materials obtained through mechanical or chemical exfoliation and crystal growth.

  16. Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope. (United States)

    Alexeev, Evgeny M; Catanzaro, Alessandro; Skrypka, Oleksandr V; Nayak, Pramoda K; Ahn, Seongjoon; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Jung Inn; Novoselov, Kostya S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Tartakovskii, Alexander I


    Vertically stacked atomic layers from different layered crystals can be held together by van der Waals forces, which can be used for building novel heterostructures, offering a platform for developing a new generation of atomically thin, transparent, and flexible devices. The performance of these devices is critically dependent on the layer thickness and the interlayer electronic coupling, influencing the hybridization of the electronic states as well as charge and energy transfer between the layers. The electronic coupling is affected by the relative orientation of the layers as well as by the cleanliness of their interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for monitoring interlayer coupling in heterostructures made from transition metal dichalcogenides using photoluminescence imaging in a bright-field optical microscope. The color and brightness in such images are used here to identify mono- and few-layer crystals and to track changes in the interlayer coupling and the emergence of interlayer excitons after thermal annealing in heterobilayers composed of mechanically exfoliated flakes and as a function of the twist angle in atomic layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. Material and crystal thickness sensitivity of the presented imaging technique makes it a powerful tool for characterization of van der Waals heterostructures assembled by a wide variety of methods, using combinations of materials obtained through mechanical or chemical exfoliation and crystal growth.

  17. Development of an ultrafast electron source based on a cold-field emission gun for ultrafast coherent TEM (United States)

    Caruso, Giuseppe Mario; Houdellier, Florent; Abeilhou, Pierre; Arbouet, Arnaud


    We report on the design of a femtosecond laser-driven electron source for ultrafast coherent transmission electron microscopy. The proposed architecture allows introducing an ultrafast laser beam inside the cold field emission source of a commercial TEM, aligning and focusing the laser spot on the apex of the nanoemitter. The modifications of the gun assembly do not deteriorate the performances of the electron source in conventional DC mode and allow easy switching between the conventional and ultrafast laser-driven emission modes. We describe here this ultrafast electron source and discuss its properties.

  18. Variable phase bright-field contrast--an alternative illumination technique for improved imaging in transparent specimens. (United States)

    Piper, Timm; Piper, Jörg


    In variable phase bright-field contrast, a bright-field image based on axial or concentric-peripheral light is optically superimposed with a phase-contrast image, so that typical details that are imminent in one or the other technique contribute to the resulting composite image. In particular, complex structured specimens consisting of high-density light absorbing details and additional low-density phase shifting components can be observed with improved clarity. As both partial images interfere with each other, fine details within thin specimens can be highlighted further by additional contrast effects based on interference. Haloing and shade-off are significantly reduced when compared with phase contrast carried out stand-alone. Our method is characterized by several technical means that are relevant for the high image quality that can be achieved: both illuminating light components associated with bright field and phase contrast are filtered at different colors and separated from each other so that they meet the specimen at different angles of incidence. The intensities of the phase-contrast- and bright-field-producing light can be selectively regulated so that the final image can be dominated by phase contrast or bright field, or be equalized. The condenser aperture diaphragm can be used for modulations of the image's appearance.

  19. Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry in Bright Field Mode for Thin Film Characterization (United States)

    Pini, Valerio; Kosaka, Priscila M.; Ruz, Jose J.; Malvar, Oscar; Encinar, Mario; Tamayo, Javier; Calleja, Montserrat


    Thickness characterization of thin films is of primary importance in a variety of nanotechnology applications, either in the semiconductor industry, quality control in nanofabrication processes or engineering of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) because small thickness variability can strongly compromise the device performance. Here, we present an alternative optical method in bright field mode called Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry that allows rapid and non-destructive characterization of thin films over areas of mm2 and with 1 μm of lateral resolution. We demonstrate an accuracy of 0.1% in the thickness characterization through measurements performed on four microcantilevers that expand an area of 1.8 mm2 in one minute of analysis time. The measured thickness variation in the range of few tens of nm translates into a mechanical variability that produces an error of up to 2% in the response of the studied devices when they are used to measure surface stress variations. PMID:27338398

  20. Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry in Bright Field Mode for Thin Film Characterization

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    Valerio Pini


    Full Text Available Thickness characterization of thin films is of primary importance in a variety of nanotechnology applications, either in the semiconductor industry, quality control in nanofabrication processes or engineering of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS because small thickness variability can strongly compromise the device performance. Here, we present an alternative optical method in bright field mode called Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry that allows rapid and non-destructive characterization of thin films over areas of mm2 and with 1 μm of lateral resolution. We demonstrate an accuracy of 0.1% in the thickness characterization through measurements performed on four microcantilevers that expand an area of 1.8 mm2 in one minute of analysis time. The measured thickness variation in the range of few tens of nm translates into a mechanical variability that produces an error of up to 2% in the response of the studied devices when they are used to measure surface stress variations.

  1. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.


    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  2. An Accurate Perception Method for Low Contrast Bright Field Microscopy in Heterogeneous Microenvironments

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    Keshav Rajasekaran


    Full Text Available Automated optical tweezers-based robotic manipulation of microscale objects requires real-time visual perception for estimating the states, i.e., positions and orientations, of the objects. Such visual perception is particularly challenging in heterogeneous environments comprising mixtures of biological and colloidal objects, such as cells and microspheres, when the popular imaging modality of low contrast bright field microscopy is used. In this paper, we present an accurate method to address this challenge. Our method combines many well-established image processing techniques such as blob detection, histogram equalization, erosion, and dilation with a convolutional neural network in a novel manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our processing pipeline in perceiving objects of both regular and irregular shapes in heterogeneous microenvironments of varying compositions. The neural network, in particular, helps in distinguishing the individual microspheres present in dense clusters.

  3. Icosahedral stereographic projections in three dimensions for use in dark field TEM. (United States)

    Bourdillon, Antony J


    Thermodynamics require that rapidly cooled crystals and quasicrystals are relatively defective. Yet, without convenient 3-dimensional indexation both at crystal poles and in diffraction planes, or Kikuchi maps, it is difficult to identify the defects by dark field transmission electron microscopy. For two phase Al6Mn, these maps are derived. They relate i-Al6Mn to the standard face centered cubic, matrix crystals. An example of their usefulness in determining interfacial characteristics is described. Indices are integral powers on an irrational number. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Portable, Battery-Operated, Low-Cost, Bright Field and Fluorescence Microscope (United States)

    Miller, Andrew R.; Davis, Gregory L.; Oden, Z. Maria; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Fateh, Abolfazl; Ghazanfari, Morteza; Abdolrahimi, Farid; Poorazar, Shahin; Sakhaie, Fatemeh; Olsen, Randall J.; Bahrmand, Ahmad Reza; Pierce, Mark C.; Graviss, Edward A.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca


    This study describes the design and evaluation of a portable bright-field and fluorescence microscope that can be manufactured for $240 USD. The microscope uses a battery-operated LED-based flashlight as the light source and achieves a resolution of 0.8 µm at 1000× magnification in fluorescence mode. We tested the diagnostic capability of this new instrument to identify infections caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sixty-four direct, decontaminated, and serially diluted smears were prepared from sputa obtained from 19 patients suspected to have M. tuberculosis infection. Slides were stained with auramine orange and evaluated as being positive or negative for M. tuberculosis with both the new portable fluorescence microscope and a laboratory grade fluorescence microscope. Concordant results were obtained in 98.4% of cases. This highly portable, low cost, fluorescence microscope may be a useful diagnostic tool to expand the availability of M. tuberculosis testing at the point-of-care in low resource settings. PMID:20694194

  5. Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Miller, Andrew R; Davis, Gregory L; Oden, Z Maria; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Fateh, Abolfazl; Ghazanfari, Morteza; Abdolrahimi, Farid; Poorazar, Shahin; Sakhaie, Fatemeh; Olsen, Randall J; Bahrmand, Ahmad Reza; Pierce, Mark C; Graviss, Edward A; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca


    This study describes the design and evaluation of a portable bright-field and fluorescence microscope that can be manufactured for $240 USD. The microscope uses a battery-operated LED-based flashlight as the light source and achieves a resolution of 0.8 microm at 1000x magnification in fluorescence mode. We tested the diagnostic capability of this new instrument to identify infections caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sixty-four direct, decontaminated, and serially diluted smears were prepared from sputa obtained from 19 patients suspected to have M. tuberculosis infection. Slides were stained with auramine orange and evaluated as being positive or negative for M. tuberculosis with both the new portable fluorescence microscope and a laboratory grade fluorescence microscope. Concordant results were obtained in 98.4% of cases. This highly portable, low cost, fluorescence microscope may be a useful diagnostic tool to expand the availability of M. tuberculosis testing at the point-of-care in low resource settings.

  6. Automated, portable, low-cost bright-field and fluorescence microscope with autofocus and autoscanning capabilities. (United States)

    Schaefer, Samuel; Boehm, Stephen A; Chau, Kenneth J


    Optical microscopy is a simple, yet essential, imaging technology. Conventional laboratory-grade optical microscopes are bulky and costly, confining their use to within laboratory settings and restricting their accessibility in regions of limited resources. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, we have realized a portable, low-cost, and highly automated optical microscope that integrates mass-manufactured components, including light-emitting diodes, a web camera, optical disk drives, and a microcontroller. Our implementation is capable of bright-field and fluorescence imaging with micrometer-scale resolution and controlled mechanical actuation of both the lens and sample. We interface the lighting, image capture, and mechanical actuators of the microscope into a single software environment, enabling automation of common microscope operations, such as image focusing and large-area sample visualization. Combination of mechanical actuation and software automation into a compact, low-cost microscope system is an important initial step toward the goal of making optical microscopy universally accessible, portable, and easy to use.

  7. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing. (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom


    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  8. Diviner lunar radiometer gridded brightness temperatures from geodesic binning of modeled fields of view (United States)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Williams, J.-P.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Aye, K.-M.; Paige, D. A.


    An approach is presented to efficiently produce high quality gridded data records from the large, global point-based dataset returned by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The need to minimize data volume and processing time in production of science-ready map products is increasingly important with the growth in data volume of planetary datasets. Diviner makes on average >1400 observations per second of radiance that is reflected and emitted from the lunar surface, using 189 detectors divided into 9 spectral channels. Data management and processing bottlenecks are amplified by modeling every observation as a probability distribution function over the field of view, which can increase the required processing time by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Geometric corrections, such as projection of data points onto a digital elevation model, are numerically intensive and therefore it is desirable to perform them only once. Our approach reduces bottlenecks through parallel binning and efficient storage of a pre-processed database of observations. Database construction is via subdivision of a geodesic icosahedral grid, with a spatial resolution that can be tailored to suit the field of view of the observing instrument. Global geodesic grids with high spatial resolution are normally impractically memory intensive. We therefore demonstrate a minimum storage and highly parallel method to bin very large numbers of data points onto such a grid. A database of the pre-processed and binned points is then used for production of mapped data products that is significantly faster than if unprocessed points were used. We explore quality controls in the production of gridded data records by conditional interpolation, allowed only where data density is sufficient. The resultant effects on the spatial continuity and uncertainty in maps of lunar brightness temperatures is illustrated. We identify four binning regimes based on trades between the

  9. Variations in fixation techniques for field emission SEM and TEM of zebrafish (Branchydanio rerio) embryo inner and outer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL; Rawson, DM; Zhang, TT


    The morphology of embryos of the fresh water teleost, Brachydania rerio (zebrafish), was examined in a parallel FE-SEM/TEM study, after various pre- and post-fixation regimes. Special attention was paid to the chorion, the contents of the peri-vitelline space, the plasma membrane, the syncytial

  10. Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Hölker, Franz; Kolláth, Zoltán; Gessner, Mark O.; Kyba, Christopher C. M.


    We report luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5-21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicates that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.

  11. Semiclassical TEM image formation in phase space. (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Röder, Falk


    Current developments in TEM such as high-resolution imaging at low acceleration voltages and large fields of view, the ever larger capabilities of hardware aberration correction and the systematic shaping of electron beams require accurate descriptions of TEM imaging in terms of wave optics. Since full quantum mechanic solutions have not yet been established for, e.g., the theory of aberrations, we are exploring semiclassical image formation in the TEM from the perspective of quantum mechanical phase space, here. Firstly, we use two well-known semiclassical approximations, Miller's semiclassical algebra and the frozen Gaussian method, for describing the wave optical generalization of arbitrary geometric aberrations, including nonisoplanatic and slope aberrations. Secondly, we demonstrate that the Wigner function representation of phase space is well suited to also describe incoherent aberrations as well as the ramifications of partial coherence due to the emission process at the electron source. We identify a close relationship between classical phase space and Wigner function distortions due to aberrations as well as classical brightness and quantum mechanical purity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of the same fields imaged in the TEM, confocal, LM, and microCT by image registration: from specimen preparation to displaying a final composite image. (United States)

    Keene, Douglas R; Tufa, Sara F; Wong, Melissa H; Smith, Nicholas R; Sakai, Lynn Y; Horton, William A


    Correlated imaging is the process of imaging a specimen with two complementary modalities and then registering and overlaying the fields obtained in each modality to create a composite view. One of the images is made somewhat transparent, allowing detail in the underlying image to be visible and assisting in the registration of the two images. As an example, an image localizing a specific tissue component by fluorescence may be overlaid atop a TEM image of the same field. The resulting composite image would demonstrate specific ultrastructural features in the high-resolution TEM field, which are colorized in the overlay. Other examples include composites from MicroCT or soft X-ray images overlaid atop light microscopy or TEM images. Automated image registration may be facilitated by a variety of sophisticated computer programs utilized by high-throughput laboratories. This chapter is meant for the more occasional user wishing to align images manually. ImageJ is a public domain, image processing program developed at the National Institutes of Health and is available to anyone as a free download. ImageJ performs marvelously well for the purpose of image registration; therefore, step-by-step instructions are included here. Specimen handling, including fixation and choice of embedding media, is not straightforward for correlative imaging. A step-by-step description of the protocols which work in our laboratory is included for simultaneous localization in LM, EM and micro-CT, as well as maintaining GFP emission in tissue embedded for TEM. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.


    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  14. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.


    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  15. Authentication of bee pollen grains in bright-field microscopy by combining one-class classification techniques and image processing. (United States)

    Chica, Manuel


    A novel method for authenticating pollen grains in bright-field microscopic images is presented in this work. The usage of this new method is clear in many application fields such as bee-keeping sector, where laboratory experts need to identify fraudulent bee pollen samples against local known pollen types. Our system is based on image processing and one-class classification to reject unknown pollen grain objects. The latter classification technique allows us to tackle the major difficulty of the problem, the existence of many possible fraudulent pollen types, and the impossibility of modeling all of them. Different one-class classification paradigms are compared to study the most suitable technique for solving the problem. In addition, feature selection algorithms are applied to reduce the complexity and increase the accuracy of the models. For each local pollen type, a one-class classifier is trained and aggregated into a multiclassifier model. This multiclassification scheme combines the output of all the one-class classifiers in a unique final response. The proposed method is validated by authenticating pollen grains belonging to different Spanish bee pollen types. The overall accuracy of the system on classifying fraudulent microscopic pollen grain objects is 92.3%. The system is able to rapidly reject pollen grains, which belong to nonlocal pollen types, reducing the laboratory work and effort. The number of possible applications of this authentication method in the microscopy research field is unlimited. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fast, wide-field and distortion-free telescope with curved detectors for surveys at ultralow surface brightness. (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Valls-Gabaud, David; Lemaître, Gérard; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfred; Lombardo, Simona; Wang, Xin; Vola, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc


    We present the design of an all-reflective, bifolded Schmidt telescope aimed at surveys of extended astronomical objects with extremely low surface brightness. The design leads to a high image quality without any diffracting spider, a large aperture and field of view (FoV), and a small central obstruction that barely alters the point spread function (PSF). As an example, we design a high-quality, 36 cm diameter, fast (f/2.5) telescope working in the visible with a large FoV (1.6°×2.6°). The telescope can operate with a curved detector (or with a flat detector with a field flattener) and a set of filters. The entrance mirror is anamorphic and replaces the classical Schmidt entrance corrector plate. We show that this anamorphic primary mirror can be manufactured through stress polishing, avoiding high spatial frequency errors, and testing with a simple interferometer scheme. This prototype is intended to serve as a fast-track scientific and technological pathfinder for the future space-based MESSIER mission.

  17. Super-resolved 3-D imaging of live cells organelles from bright-field photon transmission micrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Rychtarikova, Renata; Shi, Kevin; Malakhova, Daria; Machacek, Petr; Smaha, Rebecca; Urban, Jan; Stys, Dalibor


    Current biological and medical research is aimed at obtaining a detailed spatiotemporal map of a live cell's interior to describe and predict cell's physiological state. We present here an algorithm for complete 3-D modelling of cellular structures from a z-stack of images obtained using label-free wide-field bright-field light-transmitted microscopy. The method visualizes 3-D objects with a volume equivalent to the area of a camera pixel multiplied by the z-height. The computation is based on finding pixels of unchanged intensities between two consecutive images of an object spread function. These pixels represent strongly light-diffracting, light-absorbing, or light-emitting objects. To accomplish this, variables derived from R\\'{e}nyi entropy are used to suppress camera noise. Using this algorithm, the detection limit of objects is only limited by the technical specifications of the microscope setup--we achieve the detection of objects of the size of one camera pixel. This method allows us to obtain 3-D re...

  18. Matching time and spatial scales of rapid solidification: dynamic TEM experiments coupled to CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations (United States)

    Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.


    A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu–Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid–liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu–Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ∼0.1 to ∼0.6 m s‑1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid–liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid–liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).

  19. TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators

    CERN Document Server

    Proll, J H E; Xanthopoulos, P; Lazerson, S A; Faber, B J


    With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is adressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X [C.D. Beidler $\\textit{et al}$ Fusion Technology $\\bf{17}$, 148 (1990)] and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT [D.A. Spong $\\textit{et al}$ Nucl. Fusion $\\bf{41}$, 711 (2001)] code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stella...

  20. A study in the computation time required for the inclusion of strain field effects in Bloch-wave simulations of TEM diffraction contrast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulong, B.J. [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada); Haynes, R.D. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada); Robertson, M.D. [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., B4P 2R6 (Canada)], E-mail:


    As transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging techniques continue to become more quantitative, interpretation of the experimental images demands that accurate image simulations be computed incorporating all important aspects of the image including: compositional, crystallographic and microscope effects, as well as contrast due to strain fields arising from stresses created by lattice misfit or defects. Incorporation of the effects of strain fields in the simulation of diffraction-contrast TEM images in the Bloch-wave formalism requires the integration of a system of first-order differential equations in order to modify the excitation amplitudes and produce contrast in the image. This integration is computationally demanding with the time for integration scaling as the cube of the number of beams included in the calculation. In order to investigate the computational requirements of the integration, a variety of numerical integration packages were evaluated with respect to timing and accuracy in the simulation of quantum dot, spherical inclusion and screw dislocation images. It was determined that a class of Adams-multistep methods can provide a decrease in computation time ranging from 2 to 4 as compared to the standard Runge-Kutta 4(5) approach depending on the simulation conditions.

  1. A study in the computation time required for the inclusion of strain field effects in Bloch-wave simulations of TEM diffraction contrast images. (United States)

    Dulong, B J; Haynes, R D; Robertson, M D


    As transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging techniques continue to become more quantitative, interpretation of the experimental images demands that accurate image simulations be computed incorporating all important aspects of the image including: compositional, crystallographic and microscope effects, as well as contrast due to strain fields arising from stresses created by lattice misfit or defects. Incorporation of the effects of strain fields in the simulation of diffraction-contrast TEM images in the Bloch-wave formalism requires the integration of a system of first-order differential equations in order to modify the excitation amplitudes and produce contrast in the image. This integration is computationally demanding with the time for integration scaling as the cube of the number of beams included in the calculation. In order to investigate the computational requirements of the integration, a variety of numerical integration packages were evaluated with respect to timing and accuracy in the simulation of quantum dot, spherical inclusion and screw dislocation images. It was determined that a class of Adams-multistep methods can provide a decrease in computation time ranging from 2 to 4 as compared to the standard Runge-Kutta 4(5) approach depending on the simulation conditions.

  2. Wake-field and space charge effects on high brightness beams calculations and measured results for the laser driven photoelectrons at BNL-ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z.


    We discuss the formalism used to study the effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, including space charge and wake fields. Some of our calculations and numerical simulation results obtained for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) high-brightness photoelectron beam at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and the measured data at ATF are also included.

  3. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The


    and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...... materials and devices with the specimen being contacted by electrical, mechanical or other means, with emphasis on in situ electrical measurements performed in a gaseous or liquid environment. We will describe the challenges and prospects of electrical characterization of devices and processes induced...... by a voltage in gas and liquids. We will also provide a historical perspective of in situ TEM electrical measurements and applications using electrical contacts....

  4. A possible explanation of the low-level brightness-contrast illusions in the light of an extended classical receptive field model of retinal ganglion cells. (United States)

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhaumik, Kamales


    The low-level brightness-contrast illusions constitute a special class within visual illusions. Speculations exist that these illusions may be processed through the filtering action of the retinal ganglion cells without necessitating much intervention from higher order processes of visual perception. Concept of the classical receptive field of the ganglion cell, derived from early physiological studies, prompted the idea that a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) model might explain the low-level illusions. In spite of its many successes, the DoG model fails to explain some of these illusions. It has been shown in this paper that it is possible to simulate those illusions with a model that takes into cognizance the role of the extended classical receptive field.

  5. HI Surface brightness mapping (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Peterson, Jeff; Bandura, Kevin


    We propose to scan the 2dF survey field with Parkes multibeam in driftscan mode to make a map to cross correlate with galaxy redshifts. This allows a statistical detection of HI large scale structure out to z=0.15. In this cross correlation, the HI in ALL galaxies contributes, not only the bright ones, which significantly boosts the sensitivity. The proposed 40 hours on the fields result in a forecasted 20 sigma detection. The survey volume is 10 million cubic megaparsec, which contain 10^15 solar masses of hydrogen.

  6. BrightFocus Foundation (United States)

    ... sooner. More science news Help us find a cure. Give to BrightFocus BrightFocus Updates BrightFocus Foundation Lauds Bill Gates Alzheimer’s Initiative “BrightFocus Foundation lauds today’s historic announcement by ...

  7. H-Band dropouts in the deepest CANDELS field. A new population of bright massive galaxies at z >3 (United States)

    Alcalde Pampliega, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Esquej, P.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Barro, G.


    The recent increase in depth, spatial and wavelength coverage of extragalactic surveys has improved dramatically our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution and is revealing a new population of galaxies at high redshift. That is consistent with a downsizing (Cowie, L. L., Songaila, A., Hu, E. M., & Cohen, J. G. 1996, AJ, 112, 839; Heavens, A., Panter, B., Jiménez, R., & Dunlop, J. 2004, Nature, 428, 625; Juneau, S., et al. 2005, ApJ, 619, L135; Bauer, A. E., Drory, N., Hill, G. J., & Feulner, G. 2005, ApJ, 621, L89; Pérez-González et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 234) scenario, which implies that the most massive galaxies formed early in the history of the universe and evolved quickly. Red color criteria and the analysis of deep mid-IR, has been proven to very useful to identify high-z extremely red galaxies as shown in (Caputi, K. et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, L20 and Huang, J.-S., Zheng, X. Z., Rigopoulou, D. et al., 2011, ApJ, 742, L13). We present our analysis of the deepest near-infrared (F160W/H-band from CANDELS) and mid-infrared (IRAC from GOODS) data taken by HST and Spitzer (in the GOODS fields) to select sources only detected by IRAC and with no CANDELS counterpart (i.e., H>27, [3.6]≤25). These H-Band dropouts constitute a previously unknown population of dust-enshrouded and/or quiescent massive red galaxies at z>3. Using the wealth of data available in the GOODS field, especially the SHARDS data, we characterize the properties of this population of red galaxies and discuss on its relevance for previous estimations of the stellar mass function at z=3-5, and the evolution of massive galaxies in the early Universe.

  8. On the recording of an emission with a reduced brightness in the region of a strong sunspot magnetic field (United States)

    Bogod, V. M.; Peterova, N. G.; Ryabov, B. I.; Topchilo, N. A.


    Observations are reviewed of active regions where radio emission depressions in radio sources above large sunspots is observed. The depression value can be significant and can reach 2000-4000 K relative to the temperature around a quiet Sun. However, the number of cases of strong depression is small, which is apparently related to the specific features and conditions of sunspot observations and the limited or restrict telescope possibilities of the present day. Usage of the RATAN-600 radio telescope with a high spectral resolution (1%) made it possible to establish that this phenomenon is observed in a limited wavelength range (1.7-3.0) cm. Owing to the special method of RATAN-600 polarization measurements, it has been indicated that the emission depression effect takes place in the ordinary o-mode emission, whereas the emission source above a sunspot is always brighter than the background in the extraordinary e-mode. Two new active regions where the depression phenomenon was registered have been considered, and a comparison with the data from the NoRH radioheliograph, SSRT, and spacecraft has been performed. The values of the magnetic fields above the sunspots at which the region of ordinary and extraordinary wave generation penetrates in the coronal temperature region have been measured. A depression phenomenon modeling, indicating that electron density decreases and the situation is similar to coronal holes, has been performed based on the set of observational data. Possible directions in the study of this phenomenon are discussed.

  9. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.


    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental conditions

  10. Characterization of HER2 gene amplification heterogeneity in invasive and in situ breast cancer using bright-field in situ hybridization. (United States)

    Polónia, António; Oliveira, Guilherme; Schmitt, Fernando


    The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the HER2 gene amplification status in invasive and adjacent in situ breast carcinoma, using bright-field in situ hybridization, and to document the possible presence of HER2 genetic heterogeneity (HER2-GH) in both components. A cohort of 100 primary invasive carcinomas (IC) associated with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were evaluated for HER2 gene amplification by SISH according to the 2013 ASCO/CAP HER2 guideline. A second cohort of all the cases with HER2-GH since the introduction of the updated ASCO/CAP HER2 guideline was also characterized, and an evaluation of the HER2 gene amplification in the CIS component, if present, was also done. In the first cohort, the HER2 amplification in the IC was negative in 87% of the cases and positive in 13% of the cases, without the presence of HER2-GH. All the cases had an associated CIS with the same HER2 status as IC, with four cases of CIS presenting HER2-GH. In the CIS, we observed a significant relationship of HER2 gene amplification with high nuclear grade. In the four cases with HER2-GH in CIS, two cases presented HER2 gene amplification in the IC. The second cohort included 12 cases with HER2-GH in a total of 1243 IC cases (0.97%). Additionally, we identified two cases associated with non-amplified CIS. HER2-GH is a rare event in IC and can already be present in CIS, not being an important step in the acquisition of invasive features.

  11. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  12. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.


    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at

  13. The approaches to thin film preparation and TEM observations on slurry Si-modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, K. [Materials Eng. Group, Department of Design and Manufacturing, New Technologies Institute, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran 18815-3538 (Iran); Saremi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Amirabad, Tehran (Iran); Yamamoto, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used as a precision characterization tool to identify very small precipitates in diffusion aluminide coatings. However, in order to successfully prepare the appropriate samples for TEM observation, often non-traditional thin film preparation techniques need to be employed. In this work, two sample preparation methods of twin jet electro-polishing and ion milling were experienced to characterize fine precipitates (< 1 {mu}m), in Si-aluminide coatings applied on Ni-base superalloy In-738LC by slurry technique. These precipitates are concentrated throughout the topcoat zone. It was found that the preparation of thin film exactly from the outer zone of the coating is only possible using ion milling process. The ion-milled specimens were utilized to observe by JEOL high resolution TEM operating at an accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Electron diffraction patterns, bright field and EDS were used to identify the precipitate phases as well as the coating matrix. The results showed that the fine precipitates are typically chromium silicides in nature, mostly as Cr{sub 3}Si and CrSi, distributed in the {beta}-NiAl matrix phase. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravindra Reddy


    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  15. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  16. TEM PSHA2015 Reliability Assessment (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Chan, C. H.; Ma, K. F.


    The Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM) developed a new probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for determining the probability of exceedance (PoE) of ground motion over a specified period in Taiwan. To investigate the adequacy of the seismic source parameters adopted in the 2015 PSHA of the TEM (TEM PSHA2015), we conducted several tests of the seismic source models. The observed maximal peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the ML > 4.0 mainshocks in the 23-year data period of 1993-2015 were used to test the predicted PGA of PSHA from the areal and subduction zone sources with the time-independent Poisson assumption. This comparison excluded the observations from 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, as this was the only earthquake associated with the identified active fault in this past 23 years. We used tornado diagrams to analyze the sensitivities of these source parameters to the ground motion values of the PSHA. This study showed that the predicted PGA for a 63% PoE in the 23-year period corresponded to the empirical PGA and the predicted numbers of PGA exceedances to a threshold value 0.1g close to the observed numbers, confirming the parameter applicability for the areal and subduction zone sources. We adopted the disaggregation analysis from a hazard map to determine the contribution of the individual seismic sources to hazard for six metropolitan cities in Taiwan. The sensitivity tests of the seismogenic structure parameters indicated that the slip rate and maximum magnitude are dominant factors for the TEM PSHA2015. For densely populated faults in SW Taiwan, maximum magnitude is more sensitive than the slip rate, giving the concern on the possible multiple fault segments rupture with larger magnitude in this area, which was not yet considered in TEM PSHA2015. The source category disaggregation also suggested that special attention is necessary for subduction zone earthquakes for long-period shaking seismic hazards in Northern Taiwan.

  17. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC


    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  18. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  19. Surface Brightness Profiles of Composite Images of Compact Galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hathi, N. P; Jansen, R. A; Windhorst, R. A; Cohen, S. H; Keel, W. C; Corbin, M. R; Ryan, Jr, R. E


    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) contains a significant number of B-, V-, and iota'-band dropout objects, many of which were recently confirmed to be young star-forming galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6...

  20. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring. (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila


    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. © 2014 ARVO.

  1. How Bright Can Supernovae Get? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  2. The Italian reference site for TEM methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapia


    Full Text Available The success of a long term transient electromagnetic survey (TEM rigorously calls for appropriate system calibration, in addition to advanced processing and inversion of the measured data. In fact, acquisition of TEM data can be affected by a variety of noise sources from both inside and outside the system, making it difficult, for example, to define an absolute turn off time and/or to synchronize transmitter and receiver. For these reasons, a reference site plays an important role. As first step, we performed the calibration of a Geonics 47 at the Lyngby reference site in Denmark. We then set up a new reference site using the same calibrated TEM instrument. The reference site was established in the San Rossore park area (Pisa, where we identified an area that matches the required conditions. Subsequently, a series of TEM measurements were collected in the selected area using two pre-calibrated TEM instruments: the Geonics 47 and the WalkTEM respectively. The reference responses were therefore jointly inverted, obtaining a 5 layers model that was appointed to be the TEM reference model for the site. Afterwards, based on that reference model, we calibrated the Geonics 47 and 57 instruments for a 100 x 100 m central loop configuration. A unique time-shift and a data level shift factor was calculated and applied to the TEM system as result of the calibration procedure. The San Rossore TEM reference site is now available for anyone interested in calibrating TEM systems.

  3. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Sabri, Nor Hazmin; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd


    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  4. The nature of solar brightness variations (United States)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Cameron, R. H.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.


    Determining the sources of solar brightness variations1,2, often referred to as solar noise3, is important because solar noise limits the detection of solar oscillations3, is one of the drivers of the Earth's climate system4,5 and is a prototype of stellar variability6,7—an important limiting factor for the detection of extrasolar planets. Here, we model the magnetic contribution to solar brightness variability using high-cadence8,9 observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction (SATIRE)10,11 model. The brightness variations caused by the constantly evolving cellular granulation pattern on the solar surface were computed with the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS)/University of Chicago Radiative Magnetohydrodynamics (MURaM)12 code. We found that the surface magnetic field and granulation can together precisely explain solar noise (that is, solar variability excluding oscillations) on timescales from minutes to decades, accounting for all timescales that have so far been resolved or covered by irradiance measurements. We demonstrate that no other sources of variability are required to explain the data. Recent measurements of Sun-like stars by the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT)13 and Kepler14 missions uncovered brightness variations similar to that of the Sun, but with a much wider variety of patterns15. Our finding that solar brightness variations can be replicated in detail with just two well-known sources will greatly simplify future modelling of existing CoRoT and Kepler as well as anticipated Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite16 and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO)17 data.

  5. Exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity structure using a portable TEM system: TEM-FAST prosystem; Kan`igata TEM ho sochi TEM-FAST prosystem ni yoru senbu hiteiko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Y.; Kumekawa, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effectiveness of the TEM-FAST ProSystem which is a portable TEM system developed recently for use in exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity. The system consists of a loop type antenna, the TEM-FAST as the main equipment, and a host computer, the host computer controlling the entire system. The system acquires transient response data in secondary induced magnetic fields lasting 4 {mu} sec to 1 m sec. The number of data is 5490 stacks in one measurement, and the data acquisition time is about three minutes. Measurements were carried out by using the TEM-FAST in the vicinity of a well, whose results were compared with those of electric logging, and discussions were given on them. Although the electric logging results had no data available for depths shallower than 35 m, the measurement results from the TEM-FAST were found highly harmonious with those of the electric logging. In addition, there were transmission and telephone lines in locations about 10 m away from the well during the measurement, but extremely high data quality was discovered. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. TEM-145 and TEM-146 β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 5, 2007 ... The β-lactamases with pI values of 6.0 and 6.6 could be identified as transcripts of. TEM β-lactamase genes and those with pI values of 7.8 and 8.6 as transcripts of the E. coli chromosomal AmpC genes. The TEM-β-lactamase enzymes showed the following changes compared to TEM-1: TEM-145 had two.

  7. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz


    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  8. "A teoria tem consequências": indagações sobre o conhecimento no campo da educação "Theory does have consequences": questioning knowledge in the field of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Marcondes de Moraes


    Full Text Available A proposta do artigo é levantar a denúncia de que o conhecimento e a ciência estão sob ameaça, notadamente as ciências humanas e sociais, e formular a crítica de que o atual contexto de ceticismo epistemológico e de relativismo ontológico compromete a capacidade de as ciências superarem suas próprias antinomias, tanto no plano explanatório como no do enfrentamento prático de seus problemas. O artigo retoma a frase "a teoria tem consequências" e argumenta que a teoria pode acentuar o ceticismo generalizado sobre o conhecimento, a verdade e a justiça, tornando-os sem sentido e introduzindo uma boa dose de irracionalismo e niilismo. Em seu lado positivo, a teoria pode oferecer as bases racionais e críticas para desnudar a lógica do discurso que, ao mesmo tempo em que afirma a centralidade da educação, elabora a pragmática construção de epistemologias da prática condizentes com os paradigmas que referenciam pesquisas, reformas, planos e propostas para a educação brasileira e latino-americana. A base teórica do texto é o realismo crítico de Lukács e Bhaskar.This paper explores the denunciation that knowledge and science, more particularly human and social sciences, are at risk. It criticizes the context of epistemological scepticism and ontological relativism that strongly affects sciences´ capacity to overcome their own antinomies either on an explanatory level or when practically confronted to their own problems. It recalls the sentence "theory does have consequences" and argues that theory can increase the generalized scepticism about knowledge, truth, and justice by making them sound meaningless, thus opening the door to a great measure of irrationalism and nihilism. Yet, the positive side of theory may offer rational and critical bases to unveil the logic of a discourse that, at the same time, affirms education centrality and proposes the pragmatic construction of practice epistemologies in keeping with the emergent

  9. Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation. (United States)

    Arend, L E; Spehar, B


    Changes of annulus luminance in traditional disk-and-annulus patterns can be perceived to be either reflectance or illuminance changes. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of varying annulus reflectance. In Experiment 1, we placed test and standard patch-and-surround patterns in identical Mondrian patchworks. Only the luminance of the test surround changed from trial to trial, appearing as reflectance variation under constant illumination. Lightness matches were identical to brightness matches, as expected. In Experiment 2, we used only the patch and surround (no Mondrian). Instructions said that the illumination would change from trial to trial. Lightness and brightness-contrast data were identical; illumination gradients were indistinguishable from reflectance gradients. In Experiment 3, the patterns were the same, but the instructions said that the shade of gray of the test surround would change from trial to trial. Lightness matches were identical to brightness matches, again confirming the ambiguity of disk-and-annulus patterns.

  10. Bright Light Treatment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir


    Full Text Available Bright light treatment is a treatment modality that leads elevation of mood due to attenuation in depressive symptoms, regulation in circadian rhythm activity, increase the effect of antidepressants and amelioration in sleep quality. Bright light treatment is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder because of high response rates. Additionally, bright light treatment being extended to other conditions, including non-seasonal mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral syndromes is likely to have a far reached use. Side effects are often temporary and can generally be overcome by reducing exposure time. The central focus on this paper is to review the action mechanisms, efficacy, usage areas, the ways of administration and side effects of the light treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 177-188

  11. Compressive Classification for TEM-EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Weituo; Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Gehm, Michael; Browning, Nigel D.


    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is typically conducted in STEM mode with a spectrometer, or in TEM mode with energy selction. These methods produce a 3D data set (x, y, energy). Some compressive sensing [1,2] and inpainting [3,4,5] approaches have been proposed for recovering a full set of spectra from compressed measurements. In many cases the final form of the spectral data is an elemental map (an image with channels corresponding to elements). This means that most of the collected data is unused or summarized. We propose a method to directly recover the elemental map with reduced dose and acquisition time. We have designed a new computational TEM sensor for compressive classification [6,7] of energy loss spectra called TEM-EELS.

  12. High-brightness ultra-cold metastable neon-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Fujio


    This paper presents detailed characteristics of an ultra-cold bright metastable neon atomic beam which we have been using for atom-interferometric applications. The basis of the device is an atomic beam released from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) which is operated with a high intensity trapping laser, high magnetic quadrupole field, and large laser detuining. Mainly due to the complex structure of three dimensional magnetic field and laser beams, a bright small spot of atoms is formed near the center of the quadrupole magnetic field under an appropriate operating condition. We obtained the minimum trap diameter of 50 micron meter, the atomic density nearly 10^{13}cm^{-3}, and the atomic temperature slightly less than the Doppler limited temperature of 200 micro-K. By releasing trapped atoms we obtained an bright cold atomic beam which is not far from the collision limited atomic density.

  13. Malaria over-diagnosis in Cameroon: diagnostic accuracy of Fluorescence and Staining Technologies (FAST) Malaria Stain and LED microscopy versus Giemsa and bright field microscopy validated by polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Parsel, Sean M; Gustafson, Steven A; Friedlander, Edward; Shnyra, Alexander A; Adegbulu, Aderosoye J; Liu, Ying; Parrish, Nicole M; Jamal, Syed A; Lofthus, Eve; Ayuk, Leo; Awasom, Charles; Henry, Carolyn J; McArthur, Carole P


    Malaria is a major world health issue and its continued burden is due, in part, to difficulties in the diagnosis of the illness. The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory testing using microscopy-based techniques or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for all cases of suspected malaria. In regions where Plasmodium species are indigenous, there are multiple etiologies of fever leading to misdiagnoses, especially in populations where HIV is prevalent and children. To determine the frequency of malaria infection in febrile patients over an 8-month period at the Regional Hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the Flourescence and Staining Technology (FAST) Malaria stain and ParaLens AdvanceTM microscopy system (FM) and compared it with conventional bright field microscopy and Giemsa stain (GS). Peripheral blood samples from 522 patients with a clinical diagnosis of "suspected malaria" were evaluated using GS and FM methods. A nested PCR assay was the gold standard to compare the two methods. PCR positivity, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. Four hundred ninety nine samples were included in the final analysis. Of these, 30 were positive via PCR (6.01%) with a mean PPV of 19.62% and 27.99% for GS and FM, respectively. The mean NPV was 95.01% and 95.28% for GS and FM, respectively. Sensitivity was 26.67% in both groups and specificity was 92.78% and 96.21% for GS and FM, respectively. An increased level of diagnostic discrepancy was observed between technicians based upon skill level using GS, which was not seen with FM. The frequency of malarial infections confirmed via PCR among patients presenting with fever and other symptoms of malaria was dramatically lower than that anticipated based upon physicians' clinical suspicions. A correlation between technician skill and accuracy of malaria diagnosis using GS was observed that was less pronounced using FM

  14. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  15. Network based sky Brightness Monitor (United States)

    McKenna, Dan; Pulvermacher, R.; Davis, D. R.


    We have developed and are currently testing an autonomous 2 channel photometer designed to measure the night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths over a multi-year campaign. The photometer uses a robust silicon sensor filtered with Hoya CM500 glass. The Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The Sky Brightness monitor consists of two units, the remote photometer and a network interface. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a free space range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with day time recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the network interface transmits data via standard POP Email protocol. A second version is under development for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber for data transmission. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We will also discuss the calibration methods used for standardization and temperature compensation. This system is expected to be deployed in the next year and be operated by the International Dark Sky Association SKYMONITOR project.

  16. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-domain Electro Magnetic (TEM) systems, are used for remote sensing of conductive mineral deposits buried under the surface of the earth. A low frequency trapezoidal current excitation set-up in an exciter coil loop causes a flux that penetrates deep into the earth. When the excitation is cut off sharply, conductive ...

  17. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and energy levels of the TEM system, require special type of excitation technique. Power converters for ... This paper proposes a novel converter topology to meet these excitation current require- ments. A novel ... The converter control system is given a square wave current reference of required amplitude,. ON duration TS ...

  18. 2D Inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Luís Porsani, Jorge; Acácio Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando


    A new methodology was developed for 2D inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM). The methodology consists in the elaboration of a set of routines in Matlab code for modeling and inversion of TEM data and the determination of the most efficient field array for the problem. In this research, the 2D TEM modeling uses the finite differences discretization. To solve the inversion problem, were applied an algorithm based on Marquardt technique, also known as Ridge Regression. The algorithm is stable and efficient and it is widely used in geoelectrical inversion problems. The main advantage of 1D survey is the rapid data acquisition in a large area, but in regions with two-dimensional structures or that need more details, is essential to use two-dimensional interpretation methodologies. For an efficient field acquisition we used in an innovative form the fixed-loop array, with a square transmitter loop (200m x 200m) and 25m spacing between the sounding points. The TEM surveys were conducted only inside the transmitter loop, in order to not deal with negative apparent resistivity values. Although it is possible to model the negative values, it makes the inversion convergence more difficult. Therefore the methodology described above has been developed in order to achieve maximum optimization of data acquisition. Since it is necessary only one transmitter loop disposition in the surface for each series of soundings inside the loop. The algorithms were tested with synthetic data and the results were essential to the interpretation of the results with real data and will be useful in future situations. With the inversion of the real data acquired over the Paraná Sedimentary Basin (PSB) was successful realized a 2D TEM inversion. The results indicate a robust geoelectrical characterization for the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the PSB. Therefore, using a new and relevant approach for 2D TEM inversion, this research effectively contributed to map the most

  19. The Lactamase Engineering Database: a critical survey of TEM sequences in public databases. (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Bös, Fabian; Pleiss, Jürgen


    TEM beta-lactamases are the main cause for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Sequence information about TEM beta-lactamases is mainly found in the NCBI peptide database and TEM mutation table at While the TEM mutation table is manually curated by experts in the lactamase field, who guarantee reliable and consistent information, the rapidly growing sequence and annotation information from the NCBI peptide database is sometimes inconsistent. Therefore, the Lactamase Engineering Database has been developed to collect the TEM beta-lactamase sequences from the NCBI peptide database and the TEM mutation table, systematically compare sequence information and naming, identify inconsistencies, and thus provide a versatile tool for reconciliation of data and for an investigation of the sequence-function relationship. The LacED currently provides 2399 sequence entries and 37 structure entries. Sequence information on 150 different TEM beta-lactamases was derived from the TEM mutation table which provides a unique number to each protein classified as TEM beta-lactamase. 293 TEM-like proteins were found in the NCBI protein database, but only 113 TEM beta-lactamase were common to both data sets. The 180 TEM beta-lactamases from the NCBI protein database which have not yet been assigned to a TEM number fall in three classes: (1) 89 proteins from microbial organisms and 35 proteins from cloning or expression vectors had a new mutation profile; (2) 55 proteins had inconsistent annotation in terms of TEM assignment or reported mutation profile; (3) 39 proteins are fragments. The LacED is web accessible at and contains multisequence alignments, structure information and reconciled annotation of TEM beta-lactamases. The LacED is weekly updated and supplies all data for download. The Lactamase Engineering Database enables a systematic analysis of TEM beta-lactamase sequence and annotation data from

  20. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains (United States)


    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  1. Quantification of small, convex particles by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Sigmund J. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Synthesis and Properties, Material Physics, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail:; Holme, Borge [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 124, Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Marioara, Calin D. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Synthesis and Properties, Material Physics, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)


    It is shown how size distributions of arbitrarily oriented, convex, non-overlapping particles extracted from conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images may be determined by a variation of the Schwartz-Saltykov method. In TEM, particles cut at the surfaces have diminished projections, which alter the observed size distribution. We represent this distribution as a vector and multiply it with the inverse of a matrix comprising thickness-dependent Scheil or Schwartz-Saltykov terms. The result is a corrected size distribution of the projections of uncut particles. It is shown how the real (3D) distribution may be estimated when particle shape is considered. Computer code to generate the matrix is given. A log-normal distribution of spheres and a real distribution of pill-box-shaped dispersoids in an Al-Mg-Si alloy are given as examples. The errors are discussed in detail.

  2. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM...... of SiNW were also investigated in situ. SiNWs were grown on silicon microcantilever heaters using the VLS mechanism. When grown across a gap between adjacent cantilevers, contact was formed when the SiNW impinged on the sidewall of an adjacent cantilever. Using in situ TEM, SiNW contact formation...... process at high temperatures was observed in real time. As the eutectic droplet made contact, it wetted the surface; Si growth catalyzed by the eutectic continued, while at the same time Au often migrated/diffused away from the contact site. The parameters of this contact formation process were measured...

  3. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data (United States)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  4. TEM-EELS: A personal perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egerton, R.F., E-mail: [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada)


    The development of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope (TEM-EELS) is illustrated through personal anecdote, highlighting some of the basic principles, instrumentation and personalities involved. The current state of the art is reviewed, together with some challenges for the future. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The history of EELS instrumentation is reviewed in a lighthearted manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current state of the art is summarized, together with some future possibilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A couple of related mathematical puzzles are offered as a challenge to the reader.

  5. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding......The increasing use of environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides exciting new possibilities for investigating chemical reactions and understanding both the interaction of fast electrons with gas molecules and the effect of the presence of gas on high......‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...

  6. An isolated, bright cusp aurora at Saturn (United States)

    Kinrade, J.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Tao, C.; Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Grocott, A.; Gray, R. L.; Grodent, D.; Kimura, T.; Nichols, J. D.; Arridge, C. S.; Radioti, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Pryor, W. R.; Melin, H.; Baines, K. H.; Dougherty, M. K.


    Saturn's dayside aurora displays a number of morphological features poleward of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014 (day 165), where for 2 h, Saturn's FUV aurora faded almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 10 and 15 LT and moved poleward to a minimum colatitude of 4°. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of 2 h. Interestingly, the spot constituted the entirety of the northern auroral emission, with no emissions present at any other local time—including Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing and solar wind encounter, indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere was likely to have been embedded in a rarefaction region, resulting in an expanded magnetosphere configuration during the interval. We infer that the spot was sustained by reconnection either poleward of the cusp or at low latitudes under a strong component of interplanetary magnetic field transverse to the solar wind flow. The subsequent poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the possible modulation of the feature by planetary period rotating current systems.

  7. TEM-145 and TEM-146 ß-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Escherichia coli isolates which were isolated from the urine of patients in state hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were investigated to determine the sequence of the TEM -lactamases responsible for their resistance to -lactamase inhibitors. The isolates were subjected to MIC determinations, iso-electric focusing ...

  8. Characterization of isolated polyamide thin films of RO and NF membranes using novel TEM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Pacheco, Federico A.


    Achieving a better understanding of transport and rejection mechanisms in RO and NF membranes requires more detailed information of the nanostructure of polyamide thin films. This study reports on two novel transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for characterizing polyamide nanostructure. The first technique produces cross-sectional images of isolated polyamide thin films by removing the polysulfone support from regular TEM cross-sections. In the second technique called " projected area" TEM (PA-TEM), isolated polyamide thin films are placed with their surface perpendicular to the electron beam. The resulting images capture the thickness, morphology and mass density of the entire thin film. In combination, these new techniques provide information on polyamide nanostructure that is not evident using conventional methods. For the commercial RO membrane ESPA3, the cross-sectional view of the isolated polyamide thin film shows a 30-60. nm thick base of nodular polyamide (presumably the separation barrier) that forms a relatively smooth interface with the polysulfone support. Above this, a more open structure of loose polyamide extends outward giving rise to the ridge-and-valley surface structure. In PA-TEM images, the ridges and valleys correspond to the dark and bright regions, respectively; the polyamide nodular base appears as round features forming an irregular honeycomb pattern throughout the images. Membrane cross-sections were prepared with a simple resin embedding protocol using the acrylic resin LR White. The protocol did not require dehydration steps, and was applicable to both dry and wet membrane samples. Artifacts that may be produced during sample preparation were also documented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  10. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.


    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  12. TSAR modeling of a TEM horn and surrounding structure (United States)

    Ng, W. C.; Pennock, S. T.


    Modeling of a TEM horn was performed with the TSAR FDTD electromagnetics code. The modeling was done in stages, beginning with the simplest case, the bare antenna itself. Complexity was added in the form of a dielectric lens, an enclosing cylinder, a layer of absorber inside the cylinder, resistive terminations between the horn and cylinder, and a flat plate over all, electrically separate from the cylinder. The final configuration included all of the above, plus a ring of ferrite inside the cylinder, just ahead of the horn. Predictions of the far-field were made at roughly ten degree increments, more closely spaced near boresight, in both vertical and horizontal planes, through the antenna's centerline. Time histories at those points were evaluated, and from the time histories power densities were calculated. Both time histories and power densities will be presented for the configurations modeled.

  13. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato


    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  14. Snap-shot survey of compact, radio-bright SNRs (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon


    We propose to observe a set of radio-bright remnants (SNRs) previously unobserved in X-rays. The SNRs have flat, non-thermal spectra suggesting efficient particle acceleration at the shock front. We also expect to find new pulsars or neutron stars within these remnants. These makes the selected SNRs good candidates for future TeV and GeV detections. The selected SNRs are also compact enough to be imaged within the ACIS-I field of view.

  15. Three-dimensional vortex-bright solitons in a spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 condensate (United States)

    Gautam, Sandeep; Adhikari, S. K.


    We demonstrate stable and metastable vortex-bright solitons in a three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled three-component hyperfine spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using numerical solution and variational approximation of a mean-field model. The spin-orbit coupling provides attraction to form vortex-bright solitons in both attractive and repulsive spinor BECs. The ground state of these vortex-bright solitons is axially symmetric for weak polar interaction. For a sufficiently strong ferromagnetic interaction, we observe the emergence of a fully asymmetric vortex-bright soliton as the ground state. We also numerically investigate moving solitons. The present mean-field model is not Galilean invariant, and we use a Galilean-transformed mean-field model for generating the moving solitons.

  16. Bright Sparks of Our Future! (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh


    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  17. SKYMONITOR: A Global Network for Sky Brightness Measurements (United States)

    Davis, Donald R.; Mckenna, D.; Pulvermacher, R.; Everett, M.


    We are implementing a global network to measure sky brightness at dark-sky critical sites with the goal of creating a multi-decade database. The heart of this project is the Night Sky Brightness Monitor (NSBM), an autonomous 2 channel photometer which measures night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths (Mckenna et al, AAS 2009). Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The NSBM consists of two parts, a remote unit and a base station with an internet connection. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with daytime recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the base unit is transmitted via email protocol to IDA offices in Tucson where it will be collected, archived and made available to the user community via a web interface. Two other versions of the NSBM are under development: one for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber link and the second that reads data directly to a laptop for sites without internet access. NSBM units are currently undergoing field testing at two observatories. With support from the National Science Foundation, we will construct and install a total of 10 units at astronomical observatories. With additional funding, we will locate additional units at other sites such as National Parks, dark-sky preserves and other sites where dark sky preservation is crucial. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We anticipate that the SKYMONITOR network will be functioning by the end of 2010.

  18. Space Brightness Evaluation for a Daylit Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maruyama


    Full Text Available One of the most important problems for lighting design is how to reduce an electric energy. One way to solve this problem is use of daylight, but little is known how to perceive a brightness of a room illuminated by daylight come in through a window and artificial light. Although the horizontal illuminance increases because of daylight, we would not perceive the room as bright as brightness estimated by the illuminance. The purpose of this study is to measure the space brightness for daylit room and to propose a evaluation method. The experiment was conducted with a couple of miniature office rooms, standard room and test room. Test room has several types of windows and standard room has no window. Subject was asked to evaluate the brightness of the test room relative to the standard room with method of magnitude estimation. It was found that brightness of daylit room did not increase simply with horizontal illuminance. Subject perceived a daylit room darker than a room illuminated only by the artificial light even if horizontal illuminance of these room was same. The effect of daylight on space brightness would vary with the window size and intensity of daylight or artificial light.

  19. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.


    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom


    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  1. Design of a TEM Cell EMP Simulator (United States)


    electromagnetiques et d’un reseau de terminaison. Deux configurations sont etudids en details: une cellule de 50 Q et 100 1. Les deux configurations incorporent les...Technology, Lecture 6, Figure 5. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Training Course, LA-UR-80-2082. 93 [13] ’Whitson, A.L. ,Engineering Techniques for...Power Technology, Lecture 6, Page 24. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Training Course, LA-UR-80-2082. 󈧕] Ramo, S., et al; Fields and Waves in

  2. A spectroscopic atlas of bright stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jack


    Suitable for amateur astronomers interested in practical spectroscopy or spectrography, this reference book identifies more than 70 (northern hemisphere) bright stars that are suitable observational targets. It provides finder charts for locating these sometimes-familiar stars.

  3. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  4. Nanoparticle embedded chitosan film for agglomeration free TEM images. (United States)

    Dogan, Üzeyir; Çiftçi, Hakan; Cetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Tamer, Ugur


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a very useful and commonly used microscopy technique, used especially for the characterization of nanoparticles. However, the identification of the magnetic nanoparticle could be thought problematic in TEM analysis, due to the fact that the magnetic nanoparticles are usually form aggregates on the TEM grid to form bigger particles generating higher stability. This prevents to see exact shape and size of each nanoparticle. In order to overcome this problem, a simple process for the formation of well-dispersed nanoparticles was conducted, by covering chitosan film on the unmodified copper grid, it was said to result in aggregation-free TEM images. It is also important to fix the magnetic nanoparticles on the TEM grids, due to possible contamination of TEM filament which is operated under high vacuum conditions. The chitosan film matrix also helps to protect the TEM filament from contact with magnetic nanoparticles during the imaging process. The proposed procedure offers a quick method to fix the nanoparticles in a conventional copper TEM grid and chitosan matrix prevents agglomeration of nanoparticles, and thus getting TEM images showing well-dispersed individual nanoparticles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. TEM Study of SAFARI-2000 Aerosols (United States)

    Buseck, Peter R.


    The aim of our research was to obtain data on the chemical and physical properties of individual aerosol particles from biomass smoke plume s in southern Africa and from air masses in the region that are affec ted by the smoke. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and ele ctron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and field-emission electron microscopy (FESEM) to study aerosol particles from several smoke and haz e samples and from a set of cloud samples.

  6. Effect of Interior Chromaticness on Space Brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenari Takada


    Full Text Available To design a lighting environment, horizontal illuminance is generally used as the brightness of a room. But it is reported that a subjective brightness does not always match the horizontal illuminance. For example, the room furnished with high saturated colored objects is perceived brighter than the room furnished with achromatic objects, even though the horizontal illuminance is the same. To investigate a effect of interior chromaticness on space brightness, we conducted the experiment in four miniature rooms that were different in terms of chromaticness of interior decorating surfaces, but kept lightness of surfaces constant. Subjects were asked to set the illuminance of reference room, that is furnished with achromatic objects, to equate the brightness of the test room, that is with chromatic objects. Four of seven subjects needed less illuminance to get the equality of space brightness if the test room had a saturated objects. The illuminance ratio of test to reference room was about 1.4. Other three subjects set the illuminance of reference room almost equal to test room. Thus, there are differences between individuals so further work would be needed to estimate the quantitative effect of interior chromaticness on space brightness.

  7. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K


    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  8. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  9. In-situ TEM Studies : Heat-treatment and Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.R.K.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been well known as a powerful characterisation tool to understand the structure and composition of various materials down to the atomic level. Over the years, several TEM studies have been carried out to understand the compositional, structural and

  10. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM. (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J


    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards understanding the influence of electron-gas interactions on imaging in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Boothroyd, Chris; Beleggia, Marco


    improved the point resolution to the sub-Ångström level [1] and reduced image delocalization, allowing images of surface and interface structures to be interpreted more directly [2]. However, when gas is present in the microscope the path of electrons along the column is modified due to gas......-electron scattering [3]. In general there are two approaches for performing TEM experiments in the presence of gases. These approaches are based on a differential pumping scheme and the closed cell TEM holder approach and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In the closed cell approach, gas molecules...... are confined to a thin (typically 50-200 μm thick) slab around the sample, but the electrons interact with the window material (e.g. C, SiN) as well as with the gas and the sample. In addition, the field of view is typically smaller than in a conventional TEM and a limited range of sample geometries can...

  12. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K. (Degli); (UCSF)


    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  13. Structure and Output Characteristics of a TEM Array Fitted to a Fin Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Chen, L. N.; Chen, Z. J.; Xiao, G. Q.; Liu, Z. J.


    In the design of a thermoelectric generator, both the heat transfer area and the number of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) should be increased accordingly as the generator power increases; crucially, both aspects need to be coordinated. A kilowatt thermoelectric generator with a fin heat exchanger is proposed for use in a constant-speed diesel generator unit. Interior fins enhance convective heat transfer, whereas an exterior fin segment increases the heat transfer area. The heat transfer surface is double that of a plane heat exchanger, and the temperature field over the exterior fins is constrained to a one-dimensional distribution. Between adjoining exterior fins, there is a cooling water channel with trapezoid cross-section, enabling compact TEMs and cooling them. Hence, more TEMs are built as a series-parallel array of TEMs with lower resistance and more stable output current. Under nonuniform conditions, to prevent circulation and energy loss, bypass diodes and antidiodes are added. Experiments and numerical calculations show that, with matching and optimization of the heat exchanger and TEM array, a stable maximum output power is obtainable from the interior of the thermoelectric generator system, which can be connected to an external maximum power point tracking system.

  14. 2.5D Modeling of TEM Data Applied to Hidrogeological Studies in PARANÁ Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.


    The transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is used all over the world and has shown great potential in hydrological, hazardous waste site characterization, mineral exploration, general geological mapping, and geophysical reconnaissance. However, the behavior of TEM fields are very complex and is not yet fully understood. Forward modeling is one of the most common and effective methods to understand the physical behavior and significance of the electromagnetics responses of a TEM sounding. Until now, there are a limited number of solutions for the 2D forward problem for TEM. More rare are the descriptions of a three-component response of a 3D source over 2D earth, which is the so-called 2.5D. The 2.5D approach is more realistic than the conventional 2D source previous used, once normally the source cannot be realistic represented for a 2D approximation (normally source are square loops). At present the 2.5D model represents the only way of interpreting TEM data in terms of a complex earth, due to the prohibitive amount of computer time and storage required for a full 3D model. In this work we developed a TEM modeling program for understanding the different responses and how the magnetic and electric fields, produced by loop sources at air-earth interface, behave in different geoelectrical distributions. The models used in the examples are proposed focusing hydrogeological studies, once the main objective of this work is for detecting different kinds of aquifers in Paraná sedimentary basin, in São Paulo State - Brazil. The program was developed in MATLAB, a widespread language very common in the scientific community.

  15. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.


    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  16. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia? (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F


    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  17. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture....... Large apertures result in high order transverse modes, filamentation and spatio-temporal instabilities, all of which degrade spatial coherence and therefore brightness. We shall describe a combined assault on three fronts: (1) minimise aperture size required for a given power by maximising the facet...... damage threshold, (2) for a given aperture, minimise self-focusing and filamentation by minimising the effective nonlinear coefficient (the alpha parameter), and (3) for a given aperture and nonlinear coefficient, develop optical cavities and propagation structures to suppress filamentation and high...

  18. On the Brightness of Supernova Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yijia


    Before 1998 the universe expansion was thought to be slowing down. After 1998 the universe expansion is thought to be accelerating up. The key evidence came from the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia in 1998. Astronomers found that the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia is fainter than expected. Astronomers believe this means that the universe expansion is accelerating up. In this paper it is argued that if the ionized gas in the universe space is taken into account, then the brightness of the high redshift supernova Ia should be fainter than expected. The universe expansion does not need to be accelerating up. The exotic form of energy (dark energy) does not need to be introduce

  19. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling


    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  20. Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM. (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-zhen; Radtke, Guillaume; Botton, Gianluigi A


    The determination of the atomic structure and the retrieval of information about reconstruction and bonding of metal oxide surfaces is challenging owing to the highly defective structure and insulating properties of these surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers extremely high spatial resolution (less than one ångström) and the ability to provide systematic information from both real and reciprocal space. However, very few TEM studies have been carried out on surfaces because the information from the bulk dominates the very weak signals originating from surfaces. Here we report an experimental approach to extract surface information effectively from a thickness series of electron energy-loss spectra containing different weights of surface signals, using a wedge-shaped sample. Using the (001) surface of the technologically important compound strontium titanate, SrTiO(3) (refs 4-6), as a model system for validation, our method shows that surface spectra are sensitive to the atomic reconstruction and indicate bonding and crystal-field changes surrounding the surface Ti cations. Very good agreement can be achieved between the experimental surface spectra and crystal-field multiplet calculations based on the proposed atomic surface structure optimized by density functional calculations. The distorted TiO(6-x) units indicated by the proposed model can be viewed directly in our high-resolution scanning TEM images. We suggest that this approach be used as a general method to extract valuable spectroscopic information from surface atoms in parallel with high-resolution images in TEM.

  1. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics (United States)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.


    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  2. Coordinated Isotopic and TEM Studies of Presolar Graphites from Murchison (United States)

    Croat, T. K.; Stadermann, F. J.; Zinner, E.; Bernatowicz, T. J.


    TEM and NanoSIMS investigations of the same presolar Murchison KFC graphites revealed high Zr, Mo, and Ru content in refractory carbides within the graphites. Along with isotopically light carbon, these suggest a low-metallicity AGB source.

  3. Appendix B: Summary of TEM Particle Size Distribution Datasets (United States)

    As discussed in the main text (see Section 5.3.2), calculation of the concentration of asbestos fibers in each of the bins of potential interest requires particle size distribution data derived using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes of carbon...

  5. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes...

  6. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering. (United States)

    Janbroers, S; de Kruijff, T R; Xu, Q; Kooyman, P J; Zandbergen, H W


    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775K under vacuum conditions.

  7. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.


    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

  8. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    material collected by former Soviet Union robots and Apollo astronauts. With the completion of the first round of lunar exploration by human beings, the study of lunar microwave brightness tempe- rature was completely forgotten. Accompanied by a new upcoming era of lunar exploration and the development of science and ...

  9. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P


    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  10. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G


    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  11. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro


    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  12. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also ... Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 8701, Beijing 100 080, China.

  13. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.


    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  14. Sintering of oxide-supported Pt and Pd nanoparticles in air studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    at elevated temperatures. The time-resolved TEM images are presented and these offer direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nano-scale. For Pt, Pd and bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles it is shown that the sintering process is governed by the Ostwald ripening mechanism...... in an oxidizing environment. The observations compare well with predictions from mean-field kinetic models for ripening, but deviations are revealed for the timeevolution for the individual nanoparticles. A better description of the individual nanoparticle ripening is obtained by kinetic models that include local...... correlations between neighbouring nanoparticles in the atom-exchange process. The sintering process was also presented statistically by particle size distributions extracted from the TEM images. The statistical data agreed only partly with the mean-field kinetic models for ripening, but the deviations could...

  15. Mode basis method for spherical TEM-transmission lines and antennas


    Butrym, Aleksander Yu.; Kochetov, Bogdan A.


    Mode basis method in spherical coordinate system is considered. Compared to the previous works in this field the method is generalized to take into consideration T-modes in conical lines and more general medium inhomogeneity that contains both radial and angular dependencies. A biconical and alike antennas (bow-tie, blade antenna, V-antenna, TEM-horn, etc.) can be rigorously analyzed with the proposed method.

  16. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank


    Purpose Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Methods Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10∶14 light∶dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Results Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1∶1 or 7∶7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. Conclusions The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1∶1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical

  17. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise. (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A


    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  18. Comparative study of nanoscale surface structures of calcite microcrystals using FE-SEM, AFM, and TEM. (United States)

    Chien, Yung-Ching; Mucci, Alfonso; Paquette, Jeanne; Sears, S Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah


    The bulk morphology and surface features that developed upon precipitation on micrometer-size calcite powders and millimeter-size cleavage fragments were imaged by three different microscopic techniques: field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Pt-C replicas, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Each technique can resolve some nanoscale surface features, but they offer different ranges of magnification and dimensional resolutions. Because sample preparation and imaging is not constrained by crystal orientation, FE-SEM and TEM of Pt-C replicas are best suited to image the overall morphology of microcrystals. However, owing to the decoration effect of Pt-C on the crystal faces, TEM of Pt-C replicas is superior at resolving nanoscale surface structures, including the development of new faces and the different microtopography among nonequivalent faces in microcrystals, which cannot be revealed by FE-SEM. In conjunction with SEM, Pt-C replica provides the evidence that crystals grow in diverse and face-specific modes. The TEM imaging of Pt-C replicas has nanoscale resolution comparable to AFM. AFM yielded quantitative information (e.g., crystallographic orientation and height of steps) of microtopographic features. In contrast to Pt-C replicas and SEM providing three-dimensional images of the crystals, AFM can only image one individual cleavage or flat surface at a time.

  19. Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K; Boyes, E D; Gai, P L [York JEOL Nanocentre (United Kingdom); Shiju, N R; Brown, D R, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)


    We report highly active tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol by Beckmann rearrangement of 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime. Double aberration-corrected (2AC)-TEM/STEM studies were performed in a JEOL 2200FS FEG TEM/STEM at the 1 Angstrom (1 A = 0.1 nanometer) level. Observations at close to zero defocus were carried out using the AC-TEM as well as AC-STEM including high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, from the same areas of the catalyst crystallites. The studies from the same areas have revealed the location and the nanostructure of the polytungstate species (clusters) and the nanograins of zirconia. The AC (S)TEM was crucial to observe the nanostructure and location of polytungstate clusters on the zirconia grains. Polytungstate clusters as small as 0.5 nm have been identified using the HAADF-STEM. The nanostructures of the catalyst and the W surface density have been correlated with paracetamol reaction studies. The results demonstrate the nature of active sites and high activity of the tungstated zirconia nanocatalyst, which is an environmentally clean alternative to the current homogeneous process.

  20. Double aberration-corrected TEM/STEM of tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Shiju, N. R.; Brown, D. R.; Boyes, E. D.; Gai, P. L.


    We report highly active tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts for the synthesis of paracetamol by Beckmann rearrangement of 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime. Double aberration-corrected (2AC)-TEM/STEM studies were performed in a JEOL 2200FS FEG TEM/STEM at the 1 Angstrom (1 Å = 0.1 nanometer) level. Observations at close to zero defocus were carried out using the AC-TEM as well as AC-STEM including high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, from the same areas of the catalyst crystallites. The studies from the same areas have revealed the location and the nanostructure of the polytungstate species (clusters) and the nanograins of zirconia. The AC (S)TEM was crucial to observe the nanostructure and location of polytungstate clusters on the zirconia grains. Polytungstate clusters as small as 0.5 nm have been identified using the HAADF-STEM. The nanostructures of the catalyst and the W surface density have been correlated with paracetamol reaction studies. The results demonstrate the nature of active sites and high activity of the tungstated zirconia nanocatalyst, which is an environmentally clean alternative to the current homogeneous process.

  1. Human CD56bright NK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Cuapio, Angelica


    Human NK cells can be subdivided into various subsets based on the relative expression of CD16 and CD56. In particular, CD56(bright)CD16(-/dim) NK cells are the focus of interest. They are considered efficient cytokine producers endowed with immunoregulatory properties, but they can also become...... cytotoxic upon appropriate activation. These cells were shown to play a role in different disease states, such as cancer, autoimmunity, neuroinflammation, and infection. Although their phenotype and functional properties are well known and have been extensively studied, their lineage relationship with other...... NK cell subsets is not fully defined, nor is their precise hematopoietic origin. In this article, we summarize recent studies about CD56(bright) NK cells in health and disease and briefly discuss the current controversies surrounding them....

  2. The limits of TEM and beyond - Video Vignette. (United States)

    Meylemans, Diederik Vg; Hompes, Roel; Cunningham, Chris


    Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) has been shown to be safe and feasible for both benign and malignant lesions, which aren't amendable to colonoscopic resection.[1, 2] Nonetheless these can be challenging, especially for circumferential, low and high anteriorly located lesions above the peritoneal reflection. Complications such as peritoneal perforation can be managed by TEM and a 360° resection can be closed and heals with minimal stenosis, even after prior radiotherapy. These add to the benefits of TEM (minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity and mortality, short length of stay and improved organ preservation rate with adequate function)[3, 4]. However, compared to rectal resection, this comes with an increased risk of local recurrence and need for neo-adjuvant treatment to downsize and downstage the tumour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically......The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  4. Effect of the Tem Mode on the kicker Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Zannini, C; Vaccaro, VG


    The kickers are major contributors to the CERN SPS beam coupling impedance. As such, they may represent a limitation to increasing the SPS bunch current in the frame of a luminosity upgrade of the LHC. The C-Magnet supports a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode due to the presence of two conductors. Due to the finite length of the structure this TEM mode affects the impedance below a certain frequency (when the penetration depth in the ferrite becomes comparable to the magnetic circuit length). A theoretical model was developed to take into account also the impedance contribution due to the TEM mode. The model is found to be in good agreement with CST 3D electromagnetic (EM) simulations. It allows for generic terminations in the longitudinal direction. An example of kicker is analyzed taking into account also the external cables.

  5. TEM specimen preparation of a phase-change optical disk (United States)



    It has been popular to use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation for investigating the microstructure of a phase-change optical disk. In the present work, a new method to prepare a plan-view TEM sample from a disk has been developed. In this method, a copper mesh is placed on a specific area of interest in the disk in advance and then the material is thinned down. By employing this procedure, it becomes possible for the first time to obtain foils that contain the specific area. Furthermore, an advanced method to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample has also been developed, in which elimination of the polymer substrate is followed by ion milling. With this method, it is possible to prepare cross-sectional foils for high-resolution and analytical electron microscopy observations.

  6. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies


    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson


    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  7. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)


    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TC4 AMPR Brightness Temperature (TB) dataset consists of brightness temperature data from July 19, 2007 through August 8, 2007. The Tropical Composition, Cloud...

  9. Complete Tem-Tomography: 3D Structure of Gems Cluster (United States)

    Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.


    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the 3D shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the 3D structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous 3D TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to constrain the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.

  10. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo


    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Developments in TEM Nanotomography of Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Taylor, Rae


    This investigation was designed to explore the possibility of using transmission electron microscope (TEM) tomography on cement-based systems gain a greater understanding of their nanostructure and pore network. The preliminary results show a clearly a well-defined pore network at the nanoscale, with pore size approximately 1.7-2.4 nm in diameter and spaced around 5-8 nm apart. A comparison of small angle X-ray scattering data with 2-D TEM images analyzed with the Fourier slice theorem documents an excellent structural correlation. © 2015 The American Ceramic Society.

  12. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg


    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... and that there is a high proportion of twins in the fine grained graphite. It appears that twinning and stacking faults are involved in the fine grained structure of the graphite. It is discussed how Ti addition affect crystal growth and may lead to formation of superfine graphite....

  13. Microfabricated Nanofluidic cells for in situ liquid TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone

    structural information of materials. In this regard, in situ liquid cell electron microscopy (EM) is one of the new emerging methods that gained a lot of attention by making possible to observe processes and samples in liquid environments within the chamber of an electron microscope. The main focus...... on wafer bonding of Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 on Si3N4 membranes. With the improved liquid layer thickness control, we use the devices to measure the electron mean free path in water which is a fundamental aspect of TEM studies, and present the high-resolution TEM capabilities of the nanofluidic...

  14. Stable TEM00-mode Nd:YAG solar laser operation by a twisted fused silica light-guide (United States)

    Bouadjemine, R.; Liang, D.; Almeida, J.; Mehellou, S.; Vistas, C. R.; Kellou, A.; Guillot, E.


    To improve the output beam stability of a TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser, a twisted fused silica light-guide was used to achieve uniform pumping along a 3 mm diameter and 50 mm length Nd:YAG rod. The concentrated solar power at the focal spot of a primary parabolic mirror with 1.18 m2 effective collection area was efficiently coupled to the entrance aperture of a 2D-CPC/2V-shaped pump cavity, within which the thin laser rod was pumped. Optimum solar laser design parameters were found through ZEMAX© non-sequential ray-tracing and LASCAD© laser cavity analysis codes. 2.3 W continuous-wave TEM00-mode 1064 nm laser power was measured, corresponding to 1.96 W/m2 collection efficiency and 2.2 W laser beam brightness figure of merit. Excellent TEM00-mode laser beam profile at M2 ≤ 1.05 and very good output power stability of less than 1.6% were achieved. Heliostat orientation error dependent laser power variation was considerably less than previous solar laser pumping schemes.

  15. Unveiling the Low Surface Brightness Stellar Peripheries of Galaxies (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette M. N.


    The low surface brightness peripheral regions of galaxies contain a gold mine of information about how minor mergers and accretions have influenced their evolution over cosmic time. Enormous stellar envelopes and copious amounts of faint tidal debris are natural outcomes of the hierarchical assembly process and the search for and study of these features, albeit highly challenging, offers the potential for unrivalled insight into the mechanisms of galaxy growth. Over the last two decades, there has been burgeoning interest in probing galaxy outskirts using resolved stellar populations. Wide-field surveys have uncovered vast tidal debris features and new populations of very remote globular clusters, while deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry has provided exquisite star formation histories back to the earliest epochs. I will highlight some recent results from studies within and beyond the Local Group and conclude by briefly discussing the great potential of future facilities, such as JWST, Euclid, LSST and WFIRST, for major breakthroughs in low surface brightness galaxy periphery science.

  16. TEM nano-Moiré evaluation for an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Wen, Huihui; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Huimin


    Moiré technique is a powerful, important and effective tool for scientific research, from the nano-scale to the macro-scale, which is essentially the interference between two or more periodic structures with a similar frequency. In this study, an inverse transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-Moiré method has been proposed, for the first time, to reconstruct an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface, where only one kind of lattice structure and Moiré fringe were visible in a high resolution TEM (HRTEM) image simultaneously. The inversion process was performed in detail. Three rules were put forward to ensure the uniqueness of the inversion result. The HRTEM image of a top-coat/thermally grown oxide interface in a thermal barrier coating (TBC) structure was observed with coexisting visible lattice and Moiré fringes. Using the inverse TEM nano-Moiré method, the invisible lower layer lattice was inversed and a 3-dimensional structure near the interface was also reconstructed to some degree. The real strain field of oriented invisible and visible lattices and the relative strain field of the Moiré fringe in the grain and near the grain boundary were obtained simultaneously through the subset geometric phase analysis method. The possible failure mechanism and position of the TBC spallation from the nano-scale to the micro-scale were discussed.

  17. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  18. Quantitative TEM analysis of a hexagonal mesoporous silicate structure. (United States)

    Hudson, S; Tanner, D A; Redington, W; Magner, E; Hodnett, K; Nakahara, S


    TEM analysis of mesoporous materials is generally undertaken to give qualitative results. Accurate quantitative analysis is demonstrated in this study. A systematic image analysis of a powder form of a hexagonal mesoporous material known as KIT-6 is conducted using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Three types of image contrast typically appear in this material (a hexagonal honeycomb structure, wide and narrow parallel lines). The honeycomb face is used to characterise this material in terms of a conventional 2-D hexagonal structure and the d-spacings for the (100) and (110) planes are experimentally measured in varying focus conditions. A tilting experiment is conducted to determine how the angle of tilt affects the line spacing and their visibility. Tilting has very little effect on the line spacing, whereas it affects the visibility of both the wide and narrow lines by limiting an angle range of visibility. The hexagonal lattice structure parameter determined by TEM method is found to be approximately 7% lower than that calculated by low-angle X-ray diffraction. Thus we conclude that TEM data can be used to determine the geometry and dimensions of hexagonal mesoporous silica materials, with a small error in the hexagonal lattice parameter.

  19. Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015 (United States)


    Laboratory Hodnik Debra National Ground Intelligence Center Hudson Irwin US Army Research Laboratory Jentsch Florian University of Central Florida...ARL-CR-0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting...0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015 by

  20. Herbal Remedies And Their Adverse Effects In Tem Tribe Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, up to 80% of the population relies on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care. In Togo, western Africa, Tem tribe is a population with old knowledge of medicinal plants, however, still very little is known about their medical practices. The present study was conducted to access for the apprehension of ...

  1. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim


    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge......, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...

  2. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Loukitcheva, Maria [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Shimojo, Masumi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Solanki, Sami K. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany); White, Stephen M., E-mail: [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  3. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy


    Hsing-Cheng Yu; Xie-Hong Tsai; An-Chun Luo; Ming Wu; Sei-Wang Chen


    When viewing three-dimensional (3D) images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the ph...

  4. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa (United States)


    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL galileo.

  5. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip


    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  6. Broadband bright twin beams and their upconversion (United States)

    Chekhova, Maria V.; Germanskiy, Semen; Horoshko, Dmitri B.; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh.; Kolobov, Mikhail I.; Leuchs, Gerd; Phillips, Chris R.; Prudkovskii, Pavel A.


    We report on the observation of broadband (40 THz) bright twin beams through high-gain parametric down-conversion in an aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The output photon number is shown to scale exponentially with the pump power and not with the pump amplitude, as in homogeneous crystals. Photon-number correlations and the number of frequency/temporal modes are assessed by spectral covariance measurements. By using sum-frequency generation on the surface of a non-phasematched crystal, we measure a cross-correlation peak with the temporal width 90 fs.

  7. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, C., E-mail: claudia.monte@ba.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Perri, M. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Richards, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  8. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars (United States)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.


    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  9. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of enclosures using UWB pulses inside an open TEM waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann


    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Numerical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, a measurement procedure is introduced using ultra wideband (UWB electromagnetic field pulses. The procedure provides a quick way to determine the transient shielding effectiveness of an enclosure without performing time consuming frequency domain measurements. For demonstration, a cylindrical enclosure made of conductive textile is examined. The field pulses are generated inside an open TEM-waveguide. From the measurement of the transient electric and magnetic fields with and without the shield in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the shielding material as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are derived.

  10. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments. (United States)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D; Zhang, Yong; Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian; Weihs, Timothy P


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10 3 /s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)


    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  12. Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Gosnell, T.R.; Roberts, J.P.; Lester, C.S.; Gibson, R.B.; Harper, S.E.; Tallman, C.R.


    Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems are being used to explore the interaction of intense coherent ultraviolet radiation with matter. Applications of current systems include generation of picosecond x-ray pulses, investigation of possible x-ray laser pumping schemes, studies of multiphoton phenomena in atomic species, and time-resolved photochemistry. These systems, based on the amplification of subpicosecond pulses in small aperture (/approximately/1 cm/sup 2/) XeCl or KrF amplifiers, deliver focal spot intensities of /approximately/10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/. Scaling to higher intensities, however, will require an additional large aperture amplifier which preserves near-diffraction-limited beam quality and subpicosecond pulse duration. We describe here both a small aperture KrF system which routinely provides intensities >10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/ to several experiments, and a large aperture XeCl system designed to deliver /approximately/1 J subpicosecond pulses and yield intensities on target in excess of 10/sup 19/W/cm/sup 2/. We also discuss the effects of two-photon absorption on large-aperture, high-brightness excimer lasers. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Optical Sky Brightness at Dome C, Antarctica (United States)

    Kenyon, S.; Storey, J. W. V.; Burton, M. G.


    Dome C, Antarctica is a prime site for astronomical observations in terms of climate, wind speeds and turbulence. The infrared and terahertz sky backgrounds are the lowest of any inhabited place on Earth. However, at present little is known about the optical sky brightness and atmospheric extinction. Using a variety of modelling techniques together with data from the South Pole, we estimate the brightness of the night sky including the contributions from scattered sunlight, moonlight, aurorae, airglow, zodiacal light and artificial sources. We compare our results to another prime astronomical site, Mauna Kea. We find moonlight has significantly less effect at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Aurorae are expected to have a minor impact at both sites, and zodiacal light is expected to be less at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Airglow emissions at Dome C are expected to be similar to those at temperate sites. With proper planning, artificial sources of light pollution should be non-existent. The overall atmospheric extinction, or opacity, is expected to be the minimum possible. We conclude that Dome C is a very promising site not only for infrared and terahertz astronomy, but for optical astronomy as well..

  14. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Christensen, U.; Kneissl, T.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Schaefer, T.; Russell, C. T.; Applin, D. M.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Keller, H. U.; O'Brien, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Ripken, J.; Schenk, P. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Thangjam, G. S.; Vincent, J.-B.


    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5, 6, 7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the ‘snow line’, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  15. Visualizing DNA Nanoparticle Motion under Graphene Liquid Cell TEM (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Smith, Jessica; Park, Jungwon; Lee, Somin; Zettl, Alex; Alivisatos, Paul


    We think of a simple colloidal nanocrystal as one type of artificial atoms. They mutually interact, cluster into artificial molecules, and further arrange into macroscopically functional artificial solids. The ``atomic'' resolution dynamics of this bottom-up strategy in materials design is studied here in a system of artificial molecules composed of DNA and nanoparticle. The observation of dynamics in their liquid environment is recently enabled by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In comparison to conventional TEM, wherein the assembled 3D artificial structures are dried out during sample preparation and thus are collapsed, this graphene liquid cell introduces a special local liquid structure that retains the conformations as well as the dynamics of the assemblies. In situ imaging of correlated motions of DNA and nanoparticle provides insights into the design principles of artificial nanocrystal molecules and solids linked by DNA.

  16. Imaging of Transient Structures Using Nanosecond in Situ TEM (United States)

    Kim, Judy S.; LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Armstrong, Michael R.; King, Wayne E.; Browning, Nigel D.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.


    The microstructure and properties of a material depend on dynamic processes such as defect motion, nucleation and growth, and phase transitions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can spatially resolve these nanoscale phenomena but lacks the time resolution for direct observation. We used a photoemitted electron pulse to probe dynamic events with “snapshot” diffraction and imaging at 15-nanosecond resolution inside of a dynamic TEM. With the use of this capability, the moving reaction front of reactive nanolaminates is observed in situ. Time-resolved images and diffraction show a transient cellular morphology in a dynamically mixing, self-propagating reaction front, revealing brief phase separation during cooling, and thus provide insights into the mechanisms driving the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.

  17. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.


    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  18. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  19. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter (United States)


    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  20. Ostwald ripening in a Pt/SiO2 model catalyst studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren


    by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. The in situ TEM images also provide information about the temporal evolution of the Pt particle size distribution and of the growth or decay of the individual nanoparticles. The observed Pt nanoparticle changes compare well with predictions made by mean-field kinetic models...... for ripening, but deviations are revealed for the time-evolution for the individual nanoparticles. A better description of the individual nanoparticle ripening is obtained by kinetic models that include local correlations between neighboring nanoparticles in the atom-exchange process....

  1. Continuous-variable entanglement of two bright coherent states that never interacted (United States)

    Barral, David; Belabas, Nadia; Procopio, Lorenzo M.; D'Auria, Virginia; Tanzilli, Sébastien; Bencheikh, Kamel; Levenson, Juan Ariel


    We study continuous-variable entanglement of bright quantum states in a pair of evanescently coupled nonlinear χ(2 ) waveguides operating in the regime of degenerate down conversion. We consider the case where only the energy of the nonlinearly generated fields is exchanged between the waveguides while the pump fields stay independently guided in each original waveguide. We show that this device, when operated in the depletion regime, entangles the two noninteracting bright pump modes due to a nonlinear cascade effect. It is also shown that two-color quadripartite entanglement can be produced when certain system parameters are appropriately set. This device works in the traveling-wave configuration, such that the generated quantum light shows a broad spectrum. The proposed device can be easily realized with current technology and therefore stands as a good candidate for a source of bipartite or multipartite entangled states for the emerging field of optical continuous-variable quantum information processing.

  2. Bright light, dark and melatonin can promote circadian adaptation in night shift workers. (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Sharkey, Katherine M; Eastman, Charmane I


    The circadian rhythms of shift workers do not usually phase shift to adapt to working at night and sleeping during the day. This misalignment results in a multitude of negative symptoms including poor performance and reduced alertness during night work and poor daytime sleep at home. After an introduction to circadian principles, we discuss the efficacy of appropriately timed bright light exposure (natural and artificial) and exogenous melatonin administration for producing circadian adaptation to night work. Interventions that generate alternative 24h light/dark patterns that facilitate appropriate circadian phase shifting are discussed. Such interventions include minimizing night workers' exposure to the external light/dark cycle, and the use of intermittent and moving patterns of bright light at work. The efficacy of melatonin in phase shifting circadian rhythms in the field is also addressed and compared to that of bright light. We present sleep/light exposure schedules that could produce circadian adaptation in permanent night workers. We conclude this review by discussing the impact of individual differences on possible circadian interventions and issues associated with the use of bright light interventions in the field.

  3. Nanoscale clusters in the thermoelectric AgPbmSbTem+2 and AgnSnmSbnTem+2n materials (United States)

    Lin, He; Bozin, Emil; Hoang, Khang; Mahanti, S. D.; Billinge, Simon; Quarez, Eric; Androula, John; Kanatzidis, Mercouri


    The local structure of the AgPbmSbTem+2 series of high performance thermoelectric materials has been studied using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of the m˜18 composition material was found to reach 1.7 at 700 kelvin, compared to the highest observed ZT of only 0.84 for PbTe at 648 kelvin in n-doped material. This is asurprisingly large enhancement in ZT for the addition of just 10%per formula-unit of silver and antimony ions. It is clearly of the greatest importance to trace the origin of the ZT enhancement. Three candidate-models were attempted for thestructure of this class of materials using either a one-phase or a two-phase modeling procedure. Combining modeling the PDF with HRTEM data we show that AgPbmSbTem+2 contains nanoscale inclusions with composition close to AgPb3SbTe5 randomly embedded in a PbTe matrix. We extended the local structural PDF study to AgnSnmSbnTem+2n, preliminary results of which suggest the presence of nanoscale inclusions in this system as well.

  4. Bright sneezes and dark coughs, loud sunlight and soft moonlight. (United States)

    Marks, L E


    Synesthetic metaphors (such as "the dawn comes up like thunder") are expressions in which words or phrases describing experiences proper to one sense modality transfer their meanings to another modality. In a series of four experiments, subjects used scales of loudness, pitch, and brightness to evaluate the meanings of a variety of synesthetic (auditory-visual) metaphors. Loudness and pitch expressed themselves metaphorically as greater brightness; in turn, brightness expressed itself as greater loudness and as higher pitch. Although loudness thus shared with brightness a metaphorical connection, pitch and brightness showed a connection that was closer and that applied more generally to different kinds of visual brightness. The ways that people evaluate synesthetic metaphors emulate the characteristics of synesthetic perception, thereby suggesting that synesthesia in perception and synesthesia in language both may emenate from the same source-from a phenomenological similarity in the makeup of sensory experiences of different modalities.

  5. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica


    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods.

  6. Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs. (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Hu, Ziying; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Tormo, Alejandro Diaz; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Wang, Boxiang; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali


    Structural colors enable the creation of a spectrum of nonfading colors without pigments, potentially replacing toxic metal oxides and conjugated organic pigments. However, significant challenges remain to achieve the contrast needed for a complete gamut of colors and a scalable process for industrial application. We demonstrate a feasible solution for producing structural colors inspired by bird feathers. We have designed core-shell nanoparticles using high-refractive index (RI) (~1.74) melanin cores and low-RI (~1.45) silica shells. The design of these nanoparticles was guided by finite-difference time-domain simulations. These nanoparticles were self-assembled using a one-pot reverse emulsion process, which resulted in bright and noniridescent supraballs. With the combination of only two ingredients, synthetic melanin and silica, we can generate a full spectrum of colors. These supraballs could be directly added to paints, plastics, and coatings and also used as ultraviolet-resistant inks or cosmetics.

  7. Kappa-effect and brightness oscillations of stars (United States)

    Zhugzhda, Y. D.; Roth, M.; Herzberg, W.


    In this paper the theory of visibility and darkening functions for the brightness oscillations of stars is outlined. For this the non-grey approximation is used and the effect of opacity disturbances on stellar brightness oscillations is explored for different types of stars. An explanation of the Procyon paradox is proposed. Special features of the brightness oscillations are discussed. The effect of opacity fluctuations on the damping of p-mode oscillations is considered. Furthermore, the photospheric kappa-mechanism is discussed.

  8. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeck, Philip J.B., E-mail:


    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these. - Highlights: • I present theory and simulations for imaging proteins using annular dark field transmission electron microscopy and investigate its suitability for 3D-reconstruction. • I show that the images are approximately proportional to the square of the projected electrostatic potential within a given passband ). • 3D-reconstructions show errors in the interior of the molecule. More accurate maps might be calculated by reconstruction algorithms that take into account non-linear image formation.

  9. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu


    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  10. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.


    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  11. Modeling of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines (United States)

    Antsos, Dimitrios; Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Bajuk, Louis J.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Cooley, Thomas W.


    An application of the phenomenological loss equivalence method (Lee and Itoh, 1989) in modeling the microwave behavior of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines is presented. For validation of the model, data are used from measurements of a YBCO superconducting thin-film coplanar-waveguide lowpass filter on a lanthanum aluminate substrate. Measured and modeled S-parameters of an existing superconducting coplanar waveguide lowpass filter agree to within 0.3 dB in magnitude and 0.5 radians in phase. Extracted values for penetration depth and real part of the conductivity of the superconducting film are within 10 percent of other researchers' findings.

  12. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J.


    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  13. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  14. In-situ TEM characterization of nanomaterials and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Moon


    Electrical properties of nano size devices were directly measured by TEM. Real time observation of phase transition behavior in PRAM revealed that the volume of the crystalline phase is the main factor in determining cell resistance. In the transistor device, we have identified the doping type and area by measuring the I-V curve at the individual nano contact on the specimen. The evolution of the graphene edge structure was controlled and monitored at and up to 1200°C in-situ. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data (United States)

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.


    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  16. TEM investigation of a microcline from a nepheline syenite (United States)

    Smith, K. L.; McLaren, A. C.


    Chess-board (“tiled”) microcline crystals from a nepheline-bearing syenite from Ilimaussaq, W. Greenland, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and were found to consist of a mosaic of slightly misoriented domains, which bear no obvious relationship to the optical microstructure. Part of the misorientation of most pairs of neighbouring domains involves a small rotation about c. However, some are related to adjacent domains by the albite twin law, the pericline law, or diagonal association. This microcline could have crystallized with triclinic symmetry which could account for the differences between the microstructure of this microcline and M-twinned microcline. Metasomatism may explain both the optical microscope and TEM scale structures of this microcline. Examination of the electron diffraction patterns of areas of microcline which contain both diagonally associated and twinned domains draw attention to the fact that each of the few orientations in an M-twinned crystal is related to one of the other orientations by diagonal association. The formation of common cross-hatch twinned microstructures are discussed with reference to diagonal association.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bullock, James; Tollerud, Erik J. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Geha, Marla C. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 {+-} 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least {approx}175 kpc ({approx}2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects.

  18. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    And Johnson SB parameters are observed to be best in discriminating the Johnson SB distribution of infrared brightness temperatures of deep convective systems for each season. Due to these properties of Johnson SB function, it can be utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep ...

  19. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is observed that Johnson SB function is the best continuous distribution function in explaining the histogram of infrared brightness temperatures of the convective clouds. The best fit is confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic. Johnson SB's distribution of histogram of infrared brightness temperatures clearly ...

  20. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  1. Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.


    How do induced brightness and darkness signals from local and remote surfaces interact to determine the final achromatic color percept of a target surface? An emerging theory of achromatic color perception posits that brightness and darkness percepts are computed by weighting and summing the

  2. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holoien, T. W. -S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.


    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d......This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d...

  3. Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotios, Steve; Atli, Deniz; Cheal, Chris


    Light sources are available in a variety of spectral power distributions (SPDs) and this affects spatial brightness in a manner not predicted by quantities such as illuminance. Tuning light source SPD to better match the sensitivity of visual perception may allow the same spatial brightness...

  4. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM


    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B

  5. Brightness in human rod vision depends on slow neural adaptation to quantum statistics of light. (United States)

    Rudd, Michael E; Rieke, Fred


    In human rod-mediated vision, threshold for small, brief flashes rises in proportion to the square root of adapting luminance at all but the lowest and highest adapting intensities. A classical signal detection theory from Rose (1942, 1948) and de Vries (1943) attributed this rise to the perceptual masking of weak flashes by Poisson fluctuations in photon absorptions from the adapting field. However, previous work by Brown and Rudd (1998) demonstrated that the square-root law also holds for suprathreshold brightness judgments, a finding that supports an alternative explanation of the square-root sensitivity changes as a consequence of physiological adaptation (i.e., neural gain control). Here, we employ a dichoptic matching technique to investigate the properties of this brightness gain control. We show that the brightness gain control: 1) affects the brightness of high-intensity suprathreshold flashes for which assumptions of the de Vries-Rose theory are strongly violated; 2) exhibits a long time course of 100-200 s; and 3) is subject to modulation by temporal contrast noise when the mean adapting luminance is held constant. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the square-root law results from a slow neural adaptation to statistical noise in the rod pool. We suggest that such adaptation may function to reduce the probability of spurious ganglion cell spiking activity due to photon fluctuation noise as the ambient illumination level is increased.

  6. Medical imaging correction: a comparative study of five contrast and brightness matching methods. (United States)

    Matsopoulos, G K


    Contrast and brightness matching are often required in many medical imaging applications, especially when comparing medical data acquired over different time periods, due to dissimilarities in the acquisition process. Numerous methods have been proposed in this field, ranging from simple correction filters to more complicated recursive techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of five methods for matching the contrast and brightness of medical image pairs, namely, Contrast Stretching, Ruttimann's Robust Film Correction, Boxcar Filtering, Least-Squares Approximation and Histogram Registration. The five methods were applied to a total of 100 image pairs, divided into five sets, in order to evaluate the performance of the compared methods on images with different levels of contrast, brightness and combinational contrast and brightness variations. Qualitative evaluation was performed by means of visual assessment on the corrected images as well as on digitally subtracted images, in order to estimate the deviations relative to the reference data. Quantitative evaluation was performed by pair-wise statistical evaluation on all image pairs in terms of specific features of merit based on widely used metrics. Following qualitative and quantitative analysis, it was deduced that the Histogram Registration method systematically outperformed the other four methods in comparison in most cases on average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Spoelstra


    Full Text Available Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  8. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6 (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine


    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  9. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 9 (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew Michael; Mathews, Allison M.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Avilez, Ian; Beale, Luca; Bittle, Lauren E.; Bordenave, David; Finn, Molly; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Hughes, Paul; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Lewis, Hannah; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Liu, Mengyao; McNair, Shunlante; Murphy, Edward; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Richardson, Whitney; Song, Yiqing; Troup, Nicholas; Villadsen, Jackie; Wenger, Trey V.; Wilson, Robert Forrest


    We present updates from the ninth year of operation of Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) including new club content, continued assessments, and our seventh annual Star Party. DSBK is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. DSBK’s most fundamental program is an 8-10 week long after-school Astronomy camp at surrounding local elementary schools, where each week introduces new concepts through interactive hands-on activities. Over the past two summers, we have traveled to four rural Virginia locations to bring week-long Astronomy camps to otherwise overlooked elementary school districts. These programs aim to inspire a curiosity for science and include inquiry based activities in topics ranging from the electromagnetic spectrum to the classification and evolution of galaxies. We strive to be self-reflective in our mission to inspire scientific curiosity in the minds of underserved demographics. In this effort, we continually assess the effectiveness of each activity through feedback in student-kept journal pages and observed excitement levels. This self-reflection has initiated the development of new curriculum. In addition, differing from our normal collaboration with local elementary schools, we have found great success partnering with local youth organizations, who may better represent DSBK's target demographics and have infrastructure to support incoming outreach groups.

  10. Bright visible light emission from graphene. (United States)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel


    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  11. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.


    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  12. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki


    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  13. Rotation of the trajectories of bright solitons and realignment of intensity distribution in the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. (United States)

    Radha, R; Vinayagam, P S; Porsezian, K


    We reconsider the collisional dynamics of bright solitons in the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We observe that apart from the intensity redistribution in the interaction of bright solitons, one also witnesses a rotation of the trajectories of bright solitons. The angle of rotation can be varied by suitably manipulating the self-phase-modulation (SPM) or cross-phase-modulation (XPM) parameters. The rotation of the trajectories of the bright solitons arises due to the excess energy that is injected into the dynamical system through SPM or XPM. This extra energy contributes not only to the rotation of the trajectories, but also to the realignment of intensity distribution between the two modes. We also notice that the angular separation between the bright solitons can also be maneuvered suitably. The above results, which exclude quantum superposition for the field vectors, may have wider ramifications in nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, and left- and right-handed metamaterials.

  14. Correlation Analysis of TEM Images of Nanocrystal Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine; Zanchet, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Quantitative characterizataion of images of naocrystals and nanostructures is a challenging but important task. The development and optimization of methods for the construction of complex nanostructures rely on imaging techniques. Computer programs were developed to quantify TEM images of nanocrystal/DNA nanostructures, and results are presented for heterodimers annd trimers of gold nanocrystals. The programs presented here have also been used to analyze more complex trimers and tetramers linked by branched DNA, as well as for structures made from attaching gold nanocrystals to CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. This work has the additional goal of enabling others to quickly and easily adapt the methods for their own use.

  15. Tem holder for sample transfer under reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    and temperature, which usually are far from the operando conditions of e.g. heterogeneous catalysis. Our efforts focus on bridging these gaps by establishing in situ sample transfer between complementary measurement techniques. To fully exploit the capabilities of ETEM complementary experiments...... and characterization techniques are beneficial. Normally, the complementary measurements are done in parallel with experiments separated in time and space [3] or by mimicking a reactor bed by changing the feed gas composition according to reactivity and conversion measured in dedicated catalyst set-ups [4......]. Furthermore, dedicated transfer holders have been used to transfer catalyst samples between reactor set-ups and TEM at room temperature in inert atmosphere [5]. To take the full advantage of complementary in situ techniques, transfer under reactions conditions is essential. This study introduces the in situ...

  16. Oxidation of nickel particles in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    challenging under these conditions. Here, nickel particles are oxidized under 3.2 mbar of O2 inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) equipped with a post-column filter [2]. Images, diffraction patterns and core-loss electron energy-loss spectra are acquired to monitor the structural and chemical evolution of Ni......The mechanisms controlling the growth of an oxide film during oxidation are subject to controversies at intermediate length scales (20-1000 nm) [1]. Relating rate-controlling mechanisms and resulting structural changes, which is essential to the understanding of oxidation processes, has proved...... nanometres in size. These domains impinge and cover the particles surface. As the temperature increases under O2, the NiO film grows and creates irregular structures composed of many crystallites. The reaction kinetics are inferred by EELS using different techniques analyzing changes in shapes of the Ni L2...

  17. Wideband TEM-TE11 mode convertor for HPM applications. (United States)

    Bykov, D. N.; Bykov, N. M.; Kurkan, I. K.


    The mode convertor design of fundamental coaxial TEM to the lowest asymmetric TE11-mode of a circular waveguide was proposed and optimized with ANSYS HFSS software. It includes axially aligned parts: the input coaxial line with the high voltage insulator, conical coaxial matching line, wave-coax transition section and output circular waveguide. The most losses in this type of convertor caused by the wave of coaxial TE11-mode running back to the microwave source. To minimize these losses, there is the matching conical coaxial line with the cut-off insertion for coaxial TE11-mode. Characteristics of the convertor are as follows: the maximum input peak power - 3GW, the input impedance - 28Ohm, the central operating frequency - 1.14GHz. The power conversion efficiency to the output mode is from 90% upto 100% in the frequency band of 20%.

  18. Você tem fome de quê?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gramacho Varela

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou pensar a obesidade à luz da teoria psicanalítica, focalizando-a como uma epidemia atual em ascendência, apesar de carregar uma antiga história. O conceito psicanalítico de pulsão, utilizado por Sigmund Freud, propiciou uma articulação teórica a partir de uma questão específica: "você tem fome de quê?", o que possibilitou um entendimento que vai além do corpo orgânico, entrando em cena o corpo pulsional. Considerando-se a abrangência em torno do conceito de pulsão, o presente estudo expressou apenas uma possibilidade de entender a obesidade, deixando em aberto questões para futuros estudos.

  19. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2 (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.


    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  20. Optical microvariability of bright type 2 quasars (United States)

    Polednikova, Jana; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego Onsurbe, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio


    We present results from a project focused on searching optical microvariabilty (also known as ``intra-night'' variability) in type 2 - obscured - quasars. Optical microvariability can be described as very small changes in the flux, typically in the order of hundredths of magnitude, which can be observed on timescales of hours. Such studies have been so far conducted for samples of blazars and type 1, unobscured, AGNs, where the optical microvariability was detected with success. We have focused on obscured targets which would pose a challenge to the AGN standard model. In the present work, however, we have observed a sample of three bright (g mag < 17) type 2 quasar, based on the catalog of type 2 quasars from SDSS of Reyes et al. (2008). The observations were carried out with the 1.5 meter telescope at San Pedro Martir observatory in Mexico. The sample was observed during an observation period of four days in Johnsons V filter, resulting in at least two continuous intervals of observations per target during the observational run. We have obtained differential light curves for our sources as well as for the comparison stars. They were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA), which has been repeatedly used in the past for studies of unobscured targets. Based on the results from the statistical analysis, we show that at least two out of three observed targets appear to be variable on time scales of hours. So far, this is the first study which confirmed existence of optical microvariability in type 2 quasars.

  1. Automated Brightness and Contrast Adjustment of Color Fundus Photographs for the Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. (United States)

    Tsikata, Edem; Laíns, Inês; Gil, João; Marques, Marco; Brown, Kelsey; Mesquita, Tânia; Melo, Pedro; da Luz Cachulo, Maria; Kim, Ivana K; Vavvas, Demetrios; Murta, Joaquim N; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Miller, Joan W; Chen, Teresa C; Husain, Deeba


    The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm to automatically standardize the brightness, contrast, and color balance of digital color fundus photographs used to grade AMD and to validate this algorithm by determining the effects of the standardization on image quality and disease grading. Seven-field color photographs of patients (>50 years) with any stage of AMD and a control group were acquired at two study sites, with either the Topcon TRC-50DX or Zeiss FF-450 Plus cameras. Field 2 photographs were analyzed. Pixel brightness values in the red, green, and blue (RGB) color channels were adjusted in custom-built software to make the mean brightness and contrast of the images equal to optimal values determined by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 2 group. Color photographs of 370 eyes were analyzed. We found a wide range of brightness and contrast values in the images at baseline, even for those taken with the same camera. After processing, image brightness variability (brightest image-dimmest image in a color channel) was reduced 69-fold, 62-fold, and 96-fold for the RGB channels. Contrast variability was reduced 6-fold, 8-fold, and 13-fold, respectively, after adjustment. Of the 23% images considered nongradable before adjustment, only 5.7% remained nongradable. This automated software enables rapid and accurate standardization of color photographs for AMD grading. This work offers the potential to be the future of assessing and grading AMD from photos for clinical research and teleimaging.

  2. Visual features underlying perceived brightness as revealed by classification images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmari Kurki

    Full Text Available Along with physical luminance, the perceived brightness is known to depend on the spatial structure of the stimulus. Often it is assumed that neural computation of the brightness is based on the analysis of luminance borders of the stimulus. However, this has not been tested directly. We introduce a new variant of the psychophysical reverse-correlation or classification image method to estimate and localize the physical features of the stimuli which correlate with the perceived brightness, using a brightness-matching task. We derive classification images for the illusory Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet stimulus and a "real" uniform step stimulus. For both stimuli, classification images reveal a positive peak at the stimulus border, along with a negative peak at the background, but are flat at the center of the stimulus, suggesting that brightness is determined solely by the border information. Features in the perceptually completed area in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet do not contribute to its brightness, nor could we see low-frequency boosting, which has been offered as an explanation for the illusion. Tuning of the classification image profiles changes remarkably little with stimulus size. This supports the idea that only certain spatial scales are used for computing the brightness of a surface.

  3. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  4. Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuations for WFC3/IR (United States)

    Blakeslee, John


    We aim to characterize galaxy surface brightness fluctuations {SBF}, and calibrate the SBF distance method, in the F110W and F160W filters of the Wide Field Camera 3 IR channel. Because of the very high throughput of F110W and the good match of F160W to the standard H band, we anticipate that both of these filters will be popular choices for galaxy observations with WFC3/IR. The SBF signal is typically an order of magnitude brighter in the near-IR than in the optical, and the characterisitics {sensitivity, FOV, cosmetics} of the WFC3/IR channel will be enormously more efficient for SBF measurements than previously available near-IR cameras. As a result, our proposed SBF calibration will allow accurate distance derivation whenever an early-type or bulge-dominated galaxy is observed out to a distance of 150 Mpc or more {i.e., out to the Hubble flow} in the calibrated passbands. For individual galaxy observations, an accurate distance is useful for establishing absolute luminosities, black hole masses, linear sizes, etc. Eventually, once a large number of galaxies have been observed across the sky with WFC3/IR, this SBF calibration will enable accurate mapping of the total mass density distribution in the local universe using the data available in the HST archive. The proposed observations will have additional important scientific value; in particular, we highlight their usefulness for understanding the nature of multimodal globular cluster color distributions in giant elliptical galaxies.

  5. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A.; Rybnikova, Nataliya A.; Furgoni, Riccardo


    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights. PMID:27386582

  6. The formation and disintegration of magnetic bright points observed by sunrise/IMaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, D.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Bellot Rubio, L. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Jurčák, J. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Martínez Pillet, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse, 2, D-37191 (Germany); Schmidt, W., E-mail:, E-mail: [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)


    The evolution of the physical parameters of magnetic bright points (MBPs) located in the quiet Sun (mainly in the interwork) during their lifetime is studied. First, we concentrate on the detailed description of the magnetic field evolution of three MBPs. This reveals that individual features follow different, generally complex, and rather dynamic scenarios of evolution. Next, we apply statistical methods on roughly 200 observed MBP evolutionary tracks. MBPs are found to be formed by the strengthening of an equipartition field patch, which initially exhibits a moderate downflow. During the evolution, strong downdrafts with an average velocity of 2.4 km s{sup –1} set in. These flows, taken together with the concurrent strengthening of the field, suggest that we are witnessing the occurrence of convective collapses in these features, although only 30% of them reach kG field strengths. This fraction might turn out to be larger when the new 4 m class solar telescopes are operational as observations of MBPs with current state of the art instrumentation could still be suffering from resolution limitations. Finally, when the bright point disappears (although the magnetic field often continues to exist) the magnetic field strength has dropped to the equipartition level and is generally somewhat weaker than at the beginning of the MBP's evolution. Also, only relatively weak downflows are found on average at this stage of the evolution. Only 16% of the features display upflows at the time that the field weakens, or the MBP disappears. This speaks either for a very fast evolving dynamic process at the end of the lifetime, which could not be temporally resolved, or against strong upflows as the cause of the weakening of the field of these magnetic elements, as has been proposed based on simulation results. It is noteworthy that in about 10% of the cases, we observe in the vicinity of the downflows small-scale strong (exceeding 2 km s{sup –1}) intergranular upflows

  7. High-speed CuBr brightness amplifier beam profile (United States)

    Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Trigub, M. V.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.; Kulagin, A. E.


    This paper addresses the experimental study of the beam profile of the CuBr brightness amplifier operating at a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies. The use of a medium-size gas discharge tube (2 cm) ensures the operation of the brightness amplifier both at typical PRFs (520 kHz) and at higher PRFs (up to 100 kHz), either with or without HBr additive. The effect of the active additive on the beam profile is demonstrated. The testing results on kinetic modeling of radial processes in the laser (brightness amplifier) plasma are also discussed.

  8. Analysis of Induced Polarization effects in airborne TEM data - a case study from central East Greenland (United States)

    Maack Rasmussen, Thorkild; Brethes, Anaïs; Pierpaolo Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Bauer, Tobias


    Data from a high-resolution airborne SkyTEM time-domain electromagnetic survey conducted in central East Greenland were analysed. An analysis based on utilization of a Self Organizing Map procedure for response curve characterization and analyses based on data inversion and modelling are presented. The survey was flown in 2013 along the eastern margin of the Jameson Land basin with the purpose of base metal exploration and with sulphide mineralization as target. The survey area comprises crystalline basement to the East and layered Early Triassic to Jurassic sediments to the West. The layers are dipping a few degrees towards West. The Triassic sequence is 1 to 2 km thick and mostly of continental origin. The fluviatile Early Triassic arkoses and conglomerates, the Upper Triassic grey limestone and black shale beds and overlying gypsiferous sandstones and mudstones are known to host disseminated sulphides. E-W oriented lines were flown with an average terrain clearance of 30m and a separation of 300m. The data were initially processed and inverted by SkyTEM Aps. The conductivity models showed some conductive layers as well as induced polarization (IP) effects in the data. IP effects in TEM data reflect the relaxation of polarized charges in the ground which can be good indicators of the presence of metallic particles. Some of these locations were drilled during the following field season but unfortunately did not reveal the presence of mineralization. The aim of this study is therefore to understand the possible causes of these IP effects. Electrical charge accumulation in the ground can be related to the presence of sulphides, oxides or graphite or to the presence of clays or fibrous minerals. Permafrost may also cause IP effects and is then expected to be associated with a highly resistive subsurface. Several characteristics of the transient curves (IP indicators) of the SkyTEM survey were extracted and analysed by using the Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM

  9. Studying the TEM response of a 3-D conductor at a geological contact using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Tripp, A.C.; Hohmann, G.W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics


    Many mineral targets are located near contact zones. Since the change of resistivity across the contact can distort or obscure the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response of the target, it is important to understand the possible effects. Previous investigators have examined similar problems using scale models. For example, Spies and Parker (1984) studied the TEM responses of fixed-loop and moving-loop configurations to geological contacts with lateral resistivity variations. More recently, Wilt (1991) systematically studied TEM soundings near a geological contact and observed that different survey systems respond to the contact in different ways. This paper will illustrate the use of the finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) algorithm of Wang and Hohmann (1993) for calculating the TEM response of a 3-D conductive body at a geological contact. The algorithm is based on the Yee staggered grid FDTD method for solving the transient electrical nonmagnetic field responses of a 3-D model. On a suitable computer, a wide range of model responses can be readily calculated, a versatility that scale modeling does not share. This study uses a fixed transmitter loop, roving-receiver configuration. Many other configurations can be regarded as special cases of this survey. It is commonly employed, for instance, by the Newmont EMP (Body and Wiles, 1984), UTEM (West et al., 1984), and Geonics EM37 systems. The configuration also facilitates finite-difference, time-domain modeling because it does not require frequent movement of the source.

  10. Structure of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-72 inhibited by citrate


    Docquier, Jean-Denis; Benvenuti, Manuela; Calderone, Vito; Rossolini, Gian-Maria; Mangani, Stefano


    TEM-72 is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase properties. The present structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site and supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.

  11. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sequence analysis of TEM beta-lactamase isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns ... One TEM-116 P. aeruginosa (PA11) isolate was resistant to all available antibiotics. Conclusion: These results reveal increased antibiotic resistance in the TEM-116 ..... pertaining to claims relating to the content of this.

  12. Creation, Transport and Measurement of Bright Relativistic Electron Beams. (United States)

    McKee, Chad Bennett

    This thesis deals with three topics relevant to linac-driven free electron lasers: the creation, transport and measurement of bright relativistic electron beams. Thermionic microwave electron guns produce bright electron beams that are well suited to drive free electron lasers, FELs. The rf fields in the gun cause some of the emitted electrons to reverse direction and strike the cathode. These back-bombarding electrons heat the cathode limiting both the pulse length and time averaged current. The cathode heating is reduced if a transverse magnetic field is applied across the gun cavity to deflect back-bombarding electrons. We improve the thermionic microwave electron gun by redesigning the deflection magnet to minimize the back-heating power. Computer simulations show that transverse magnetic fields with rapid axial falloffs reduce the back-heating power more than fields that are axially constant. Experiments verify these simulations. The deflection magnet presently installed on the Mark III gun has a slow axial falloff and reduces the back-heating power by 31%. Using the simulation results we design a new deflection magnet having a rapid axial falloff. This magnet has been installed on the NCCU gun and reduces the back-heating power by 63%. Improper transport of the electron beam through the beam line degrades the quality of the electron beam and lowers the performance of the FEL. We propose to improve the beam line commissioning and control procedures on linac -driven FELs by experimentally measuring the transfer matrix of each beam line section. The transfer matrix of a given section is measured by dithering the electron beam, measuring the beam vector before and after the section and inverting the subsequent data matrix. We minimize the beam line errors by minimizing the deviation between the experimentally measured transfer matrix and the design transfer matrix of each beam line section. While not experimentally verified, computer simulations show that this

  13. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA Resolves the Bright-end of the Sub-millimeter Number Counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J. E.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Aretxaga, I.; Blain, A. W.; Cowley, W. I.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Edge, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Meijerink, R.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P. P.

    We present high-resolution 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1 degree2 850 μm maps from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the

  14. Brookhaven Lab physicists Edward Beebe and Alexander Pikin win 'Brightness Award' for achievement in ion source physics and technology

    CERN Multimedia


    "Edward Beebe and Alexander Pikin, physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, have been awarded the Ion Source Prize, known as the "Brightness Award," which recognizes and encourages innovative and significant recent achievements in the fields of ion source physics and technology" (1 page).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Soares Guazina


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos como se constitui a identidade profissional de um grupo de jornalistas experientes e atuantes no mercado, que, ao mesmo tempo, assinam blogs independentes para expressar sua opinião política e se assumem publicamente como  "progressistas" ou "sujos". Nosso objetivo é compreender como esses blogueiros definem e praticam o jornalismo em seus blogs, e como entendem sua própria atuação no contexto democrático. A partir de entrevistas, mapeamos os principais valores jornalísticos expressos por eles, delineando sua identidade profissional de jornalistas-blogueiros que defendem um jornalismo "que tem lado", isto é, de opinião. Os resultados mostram que esses jornalistas consideram seus blogs lugar de diversidade de opinião em oposição à mídia tradicional, e que sua principal função, enquanto jornalistas, é atuar de maneira vigilante em relação aos todos poderes políticos, incluindo a mídia, vista como ator político relevante.

  16. Cryo-TEM analysis of collagen fibrillar structure. (United States)

    Quan, Bryan D; Sone, Eli D


    Fibrillar collagens are important structural proteins and are known to be closely associated with mineral in the case of mineralized tissues. However, the precise role of collagen in the mineralization process remains unclear, and the evaluation of structural differences in collagen from mineralized and nonmineralized tissues may be instructive in this regard. Here, we review the use of cryo-transmission electron microscopy to investigate the axial structure of collagen fibrils in tissue sections from both mineralizing and nonmineralizing tissues. By examining collagen fibrillar structure in an unstained frozen-hydrated state, it is possible to avoid artifacts normally associated with staining and dehydration that are required for conventional TEM. We describe both sample preparation and image analysis with emphasis on the particular challenges of using image averaging techniques, which can be used to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio that is inherent in this technique. Detailed banding patterns can be obtained from averaged images, and these can be analyzed to obtain quantitative information on fibril periodicity and structure. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aquifer characterisation in East Timor, with ground TEM (United States)

    Ley-Cooper, A.


    An assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Resources in East Timor led by Geosciences Australia is aimed at assisting East Timor's government to better understand and manage their groundwater resources. Form the current known information most aquifers in Timor-Leste are recharged by rainfall during the wet season. There is a concern that without a regular recharge, the stored groundwater capacity will decrease. Timor's population increase has caused a higher demand for groundwater which is currently been met by regulated pumping bores which are taped into deep aquifers, plus the sprouting of unregulated spear point bores in the shallow aquifers . Both groundwater recharge and the aquifers morphology need to be better understood in order to ensure supply and so groundwater can be managed for the future. Current weather patterns are expected to change and this could cause longer periods of drought or more intense rainfall, which in turn, would affect the availability and quality of groundwater. Salt water intrusions pose a threat on the low-lying aquifers as sea level rises. Australia's CSIRO has undertaken a series hydrogeophysical investigations employing ground TEM to assist in the characterisation of three aquifers near Dili, Timor Leste's capital. Interpreting ground water chemistry and dating; jointly with EM data has enhanced the understanding of the aquifers architecture, groundwater quality and helped identify potential risks of seawater intrusions.

  18. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  19. Beam dynamics in an initial part of a high Brightness electron linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzatsky, M I; Dovbnya-Kushnir, V A


    The paper is focused on problems of obtained a bright electron beam in a system that includes a grid-controlled electron gun,a klystron type type subharmonical buncher, a standing wave fundamental buncher with increasing accelerating field and a short travelling wave accelerating section. Beam focusing is provided by a longitudinal solenoidal magnetic field.It was shown that the proposed system can provide electron bunches with a peak current more than 100 A and normalized r.m.s. emittance no more than phi centre dot mm centre dot mrad.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and bright solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyunghee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radha, R., E-mail: [Centre for Nonlinear Science, Department of Physics, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Kumar, V. Ramesh [Centre for Nonlinear Science, Department of Physics, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    In this Letter, we investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and generate bright solitons for the condensates by solving the associated mean field description governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. We then investigate the properties of BECs in an optical lattice and periodic potential. We show that the GP equation in an optical lattice potential is integrable provided the interaction strength between the atoms varies periodically in space. The model discussed in the Letter offers the luxury of choosing the form of the lattice without destroying the integrability. Besides, we have also brought out the possible ramifications of the integrable model in the condensates of quasi-particles. -- Highlights: → We generate bright solitons for the collisionally inhomogeneous BECs. → We then study their properties in an optical lattice and periodic potential. → The model may have wider ramifications in the BECs of quasi-particles.

  1. Optical sky brightness at Dome A, Antarctica, from the Nigel experiment (United States)

    Sims, Geoff; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Everett, Jon R.; Feng, Longlong; Gong, Xuefei; Hengst, Shane; Hu, Zhongwen; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-van, Daniel M.; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W. V.; Wang, Lifan; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhengxi


    Nigel is a fiber-fed UV/visible grating spectrograph with a thermoelectrically-cooled 256×1024 pixel CCD camera, designed to measure the twilight and night sky brightness from 300nm to 850 nm. Nigel has three pairs of fibers, each with a field-of-view with an angular diameter of 25 degrees, pointing in three fixed positions towards the sky. The bare fibers are exposed to the sky with no additional optics. The instrument was deployed at Dome A, Antarctica in January 2009 as part of the PLATO (PLATeau Observatory) robotic observatory. During the 2009 winter, Nigel made approximately six months of continuous observations of the sky, with typically 104 deadtime between exposures. The resulting spectra provide quantitative information on the sky brightness, the auroral contribution, and the water vapour content of the atmosphere. We present details of the design, construction and calibration of the Nigel spectrometer, as well some sample spectra from a preliminary analysis.

  2. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  3. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  4. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 2 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  5. SMEX03 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Alabama (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides brightness temperature data acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The...

  6. Binocular Coordination in Reading When Changing Background Brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köpsel Anne


    Full Text Available Contradicting results concerning binocular coordination in reading have been reported: Liversedge et al. (2006 reported a dominance of uncrossed fixations, whereas Nuthmann and Kliegl (2009 observed more crossed fixations in reading. Based on both earlier and continuing studies, we conducted a reading experiment involving varying brightness of background and font. Calibration was performed using Gabor patches presented on grey background. During the experimental session, text had to be read either on dark, bright, or grey background. The data corroborates former results that showed a predominance of uncrossed fixations when reading on dark background, as well as those showing a predominance of crossed fixations, when reading on bright background. Besides these systematic shifts, the new results show an increase in unsystematic variability when changing the overall brightness from calibration to test. The origins of the effects need to be clarified in future research.

  7. CLPX-Satellite: AVHRR/HRPT Brightness Temperatures and Reflectances (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes AVHRR/HRPT (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/High Resolution Picture Transmission) brightness temperatures and reflectances over the...

  8. SMEX03 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides brightness temperature data acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03) by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The...

  9. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to...

  10. DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NSIDC produces daily gridded brightness temperature data from orbital swath data generated by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) aboard the Defense...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains the archive of Lunar brightness temperature data derived from images acquired by the Clementine Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) camera. The LWIR...

  12. SMEX02 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Iowa (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel, four-frequency, linearly polarized passive microwave radiometric system. Data are brightness...

  13. CLASIC07 PALS Brightness Temperature Data V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains brightness temperature data obtained by the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) microwave aircraft radiometer instrument as part of the Cloud...

  14. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  15. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.


    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  16. The use of a central beam stop for contrast enhancement in TEM imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); College of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); Peters, Peter J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands); Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital NKI AVL, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division Cell Biology 2, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ, Delft (Netherlands)


    Dark field TEM imaging using a stop of the central beam (DF-000) is reported. It is shown that a strong enhancement in the contrast can be obtained for graphene as example of weak phase object and endocytic multivescilar body as example of an unstained biological sample. No charging or significant contamination of the central beam stop is observed. For graphene, a resolution beyond 1 Å{sup −1} was easily obtained. DF-000 imaging can be considered as a good and easy to use alternative of a phase plate. - Highlights: • Center stop DF imaging is a good method to improve contrast for weak phase object • Charging problem is avoided by using a Mercedes-star-like center stop • C{sub s} correction and CMOS camera improve the center stop DF imaging quality.

  17. Limits on the Ultra-bright Fast Radio Burst Population from the CHIME Pathfinder (United States)

    Amiri, M.; Bandura, K.; Berger, P.; Bond, J. R.; Cliche, J. F.; Connor, L.; Deng, M.; Denman, N.; Dobbs, M.; Domagalski, R. S.; Fandino, M.; Gilbert, A. J.; Good, D. C.; Halpern, M.; Hanna, D.; Hincks, A. D.; Hinshaw, G.; Höfer, C.; Hsyu, G.; Klages, P.; Landecker, T. L.; Masui, K.; Mena-Parra, J.; Newburgh, L. B.; Oppermann, N.; Pen, U. L.; Peterson, J. B.; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T.; Renard, A.; Shaw, J. R.; Siegel, S. R.; Sigurdson, K.; Smith, K.; Storer, E.; Tretyakov, I.; Vanderlinde, K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Scientific Collaboration20, CHIME


    We present results from a new incoherent-beam fast radio burst (FRB) search on the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder. Its large instantaneous field of view (FoV) and relative thermal insensitivity allow us to probe the ultra-bright tail of the FRB distribution, and to test a recent claim that this distribution’s slope, α \\equiv -\\tfrac{\\partial {log}N}{\\partial {log}S}, is quite small. A 256-input incoherent beamformer was deployed on the CHIME Pathfinder for this purpose. If the FRB distribution were described by a single power law with α = 0.7, we would expect an FRB detection every few days, making this the fastest survey on the sky at present. We collected 1268 hr of data, amounting to one of the largest exposures of any FRB survey, with over 2.4 × 105 deg2 hr. Having seen no bursts, we have constrained the rate of extremely bright events to <13 sky-1 day-1 above ˜ 220\\sqrt{(τ /{ms})} {Jy} {ms} for τ between 1.3 and 100 ms, at 400-800 MHz. The non-detection also allows us to rule out α ≲ 0.9 with 95% confidence, after marginalizing over uncertainties in the GBT rate at 700-900 MHz, though we show that for a cosmological population and a large dynamic range in flux density, α is brightness dependent. Since FRBs now extend to large enough distances that non-Euclidean effects are significant, there is still expected to be a dearth of faint events and relative excess of bright events. Nevertheless we have constrained the allowed number of ultra-intense FRBs. While this does not have significant implications for deeper, large-FoV surveys like full CHIME and APERTIF, it does have important consequences for other wide-field, small dish experiments.

  18. Reduction of Off-Boresight Fields for a TEM Horn Antenna (United States)


    ofdthehom. Notice, tipedace apers from some intrinsic impedance Zo at the source end to infinty at the free space end. The tape function is ideal and must be... box to create an aperture that is frequency independent In his thesis, Burleson (10] investigates the use of a TPS to reduce the diffraction from the

  19. The Photometric Brightness Variation of Geostationary Orbit Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haingja Seo


    Full Text Available Photometric observation is one of the most effective techniques for determining the physical characteristics of unknown space objects and space debris. In this research, we examine the change in brightness of the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite-1 (COMS-1 Geostationary Orbit Satellite (GEO, and compare it to our estimate model. First, we calculate the maximum brightness time using our calculation method and then derive the light curve shape using our rendering model. The maximum brightness is then calculated using the induced equation from Pogson's formula. For a comparison with our estimation, we carried out photometric observation using an optical telescope. The variation in brightness and the shape of the light curve are similar to the calculations achieved using our model, but the maximum brightness shows a slightly different value from our calculation result depending on the input parameters. This paper examines the photometric phenomenon of the variation in brightness of a GEO satellite, and the implementation of our approach to understanding the characteristics of space objects.

  20. Global View of the Bright Material on Vesta (United States)

    Zambon, F.; DeSanctis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Tosi, F.; Li, J.-Y.; Longobardo, A.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Palomba, E.; Capaccioni, F.; hide


    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive and one of the brightest asteroids of the main-belt. Here we give a global view of the bright material (BM) units on Vesta. We classified the BMs according to the normal visual albedo. The global albedo map of Vesta allows to be divided the surface into three principal types of terrains: bright regions, dark regions and intermediate regions. The distribution of bright regions is not uniform. The mid-southern latitudes contain the most bright areas, while the northern hemisphere is poor in bright regions. The analysis of the spectral parameters and the normal visual albedo show a dependence between albedo and the strength (depth) of ferrous iron absorption bands, strong bands correspond with high albedo units. Vesta's average albedo is 0.38, but there are bright material whose albedo can exceed 0.50. Only the E-Type asteroids have albedos comparable to those of the BMs on Vesta. The Dawn mission observed a large fraction of Vesta's surface at high spatial resolution, allowing a detailed study of the morphology and mineralogy of it. In particular, reflectance spectra provided by the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR), confirmed that Vesta's mineralogy is dominated by pyroxenes. All Vesta spectra show two strong absorption bands at approx 0.9 and 1.9 micron, typical of the pyroxenes and associated with the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  1. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.


    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  2. Where to Find Young Bright Stars in Geosciences: GGD, NSU (United States)

    Rakhmenkoulova, I. F.; Sharapov, V. N.


    Geology and Geophysics Department (GGD) of Novosibirsk State University (NSU) can be regarded as infant, because it was founded in 1962. On the other hand, if to judge by what have been done - it is not only full-fledged, but well-known department. The unique location and specific educational and scientific traditions make GGD a famous school not only in Siberia, but in Russia, and all over the world. What are the tips to prepare bright stars in geosciences? 1.NSU is located in Academgorodok (Novosibirsk scientific center), unique place in Siberia, where more than 20 scientific institutions are located. This makes the University different from other schools in Russia. Famous Russian scientists, including members of RAS, together with foreign professors give lectures and seminars for NSU students. 2.The bright star hunting starts far below the NSU level. Each year in April there is a special event in Academgorodok -`Geologic Olympiad', where children of all Russian regions, as well as ex-Soviet republics are gathered together to submit their papers, to discuss most interesting geoscience problems and to win prizes for their knowledge. The youngest stars happen to be only 6-7 years old. The event is sponsored by NSU, UIGGM, and the Ministry of Natural Resources. The brightest geostars are grown from `Geologic Olympiad' participants. 3.There is special physics-mathematical high school in Academgorodok. Each summer this school gathers young stars from farthest Siberian and Far East regions and gives classes and seminars in mathematics, physics, chemistry and geology. As the result the most talented children become the students of this school (for two years). The school in turn supplies GGD with the students. 4.NSU has the study curriculum different from other universities in Russia. That is why the entrance examinations are much more difficult as compared to other schools and are taken in July (a month earlier then at other universities). However the entrance

  3. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, Przemyslaw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Polymer Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland); Broniszewski, Mieczyslaw [Environmental Protection Office, Lotos Group, Gdansk (Poland); Namiesnik, Jacek [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland)


    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from x 4,000 to x 80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 {mu}m) - these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 {mu}m). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}m made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery. (orig.)

  4. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM. (United States)

    Sielicki, Przemysław; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Broniszewski, Mieczysław; Namieśnik, Jacek


    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from ×4,000 to ×80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 μm)-these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 μm). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 μm made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery.

  5. (TEM) observations of shock damage in the Tenham chondrite (United States)

    Langenhorst, F.; Joreau, P.; Doukhan, J. C.


    Among the ordinary chondrites, the Tenham meteorite (L6) is an instructive example of strong shock metamorphism. It is randomly pervaded by pseudotachylite-like shock veins that contain ringwoodite and majorite, the high-pressure phases of olivine and pyroxene, respectively. According to the revised shock nomenclature of ordinary chondrites, this shock signature is characteristic for shock stage S6 with pressures in excess of 50-55 GPa. In contrast to previous transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies, concentrating on the formation of the high-pressure phases in shock veins, our goal was to characterize the shock defects in olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase occurring in the bulk of Tenham, i.e., outside shock veins. In olivine, shock has caused the formation of irregular and planar fractures as well as the activation of numerous dislocations. Planar fractures can be either filled with alteration products of Fe-Ni alloy. By far, diopside displays the greatest diversity of shock-induced defects; these are mechanical twins, numerous dislocations, and planar deformation features (PDFs). Diffuse scattering rings in electron diffraction patterns reveal that they consist of amorphous material. In analogy to quartz, it is reasonable to call them PDFs, too. The predominant shock effect in plagioclase is the formation of PDFs. Up to three crossing sets of such parallel, amorphous lamellae have been observed. It is concluded that almost all lattice defects observed in the silicate phases of Tenham are compatible with an impact origin. Some of the defects have been calibrated by shock experiments and, hence, give clues to the shock pressure.

  6. Research on testing instrument and method for correction of the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness (United States)

    Qiu, YaFeng; Chang, BenKang; Qian, YunSheng; Fu, RongGuo


    To test the parameters of image intensifier screen is the precondition for researching and developing the third generation image intensifier. The picture of brightness uniformity of tested fluorescence screen shows bright in middle and dark at edge. It is not so direct to evaluate the performance of fluorescence screen. We analyze the energy and density distribution of the electrons, After correction, the image in computer is very uniform. So the uniformity of fluorescence screen brightness can be judged directly. It also shows the correction method is reasonable and close to ideal image. When the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness is corrected, the testing instrument is developed. In a vacuum environment of better than 1×10-4Pa, area source electron gun emits electrons. Going through the electric field to be accelerated, the high speed electrons bombard the screen and the screen luminize. By using testing equipment such as imaging luminance meter, fast storage photometer, optical power meter, current meter and photosensitive detectors, the screen brightness, the uniformity, light-emitting efficiency and afterglow can be tested respectively. System performance are explained. Testing method is established; Test results are given.

  7. Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility and the Prevalence of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 Genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Thailand. (United States)

    Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pongpech, Pintip; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Lokpichart, Somchai; Srifuengfung, Somporn; Sonprasert, Suthatta


    We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of the blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135 genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Thailand. The isolates were tested using the disk diffusion method, and 100% of 370 isolates were found susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. Some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (88.0%), ofloxacin (97.4%), or tetracycline (89.1%). Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae accounted for 83.8% of isolates, with 70.0% of these further identified as penicillinase-producing plus tetracycline resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin are not recommended for treatment because of the high prevalence (89.7%) of multidrug resistant gonococci. A study of genes controlling enzyme of beta-lactamase production (blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135) was performed using mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR method and DNA sequencing. Beta-lactamase positive N. gonorrhoeae carried blaTEM-1 (69.6%) and blaTEM-135 (30.4%), indicating that there is a significant increase and spread of blaTEM-135 among gonococci in Thailand.

  8. On the possible existence of brightness spots on the Cyg X-1 supergiant (United States)

    Karitskaya, E. A.; Bochkarev, N. G.


    A magnetic field was recently detected on the O9.7 Iab supergiant component of the Cyg X-1 X-ray binary system. This paper considers its impact upon the star's atmosphere. We have used the simple model of a unipolar cylindrically symmetric circumpolar magnetic spot in static approximation with the parallel magnetic force lines. In that model the Lorentz-force component related to the force line curvature can be neglected and the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium is nabla (P_{g}+P_{r}+{B^2}/{8π}) = ρ{g} , where P_{g} and P_{r} are the gaseous and radiative pressures, respectively, B^2/8π is the isotropic magnetic pressure, g is the gravitation acceleration, and ρ is the gas density. In the frame of this model, and of the model atmosphere that we calculated for the Cyg X-1 O-supergiant te{skb}, the magnetic pressure was found to be comparable with the model atmosphere gas and radiative pressures, and exceeded them in the area surrounding the magnetic poles. That condition should lead to the formation of circumpolar bright spots on the stellar surface. We estimate their brightness contrast to be 25 A dipolar or quadrupolar magnetic field can create large bright spots, which can be studied by ground-based optical photometry. If the magnetic field is inclined to the stellar rotation axis, the anticipated variability may reach about 1% can form spots of lesser size, and those may be revealed only by space telescopes. The spots may also be revealed through variability in spectral line profiles. The observation of spots can be considered an independent instrument for the analysis of magnetic fields in O-type supergiants such as that in Cyg X-1. The full text of this contribution has been published in te{kb}.

  9. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)


    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  10. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge. The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  11. Brightness contrast-contrast induction model predicts assimilation and inverted assimilation effects. (United States)

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel


    In classical assimilation effects, intermediate luminance patches appear lighter when their immediate surround is comprised of white patches and appear darker when their immediate surround is comprised of dark patches. With patches either darker or lighter than both inducing patches, the direction of the brightness effect is reversed and termed as "inverted assimilation effect." Several explanations and models have been suggested, some are relevant to specific stimulus geometry, anchoring theory, and models that involve high level cortical processing (such as scission, etc.). None of these studies predicted the various types of assimilation effects and their inverted effects. We suggest here a compound brightness model, which is based on contrast-contrast induction (second-order adaptation mechanism). The suggested model predicts the various types of brightness assimilation effects and their inverted effects. The model is composed of three main stages: (1) composing post-retinal second-order opponent receptive fields, (2) calculations of local and remote contrast, and (3) adaptation of the second-order (contrast-contrast induction). We also utilize a variation of the Jacobi iteration process to enable elegant edge integration in order to evaluate the model is performance.

  12. Automatic detection and extraction of ultra-fine bright structure observed with new vacuum solar telescope (United States)

    Deng, Linhua


    Solar magnetic structures exhibit a wealth of different spatial and temporal scales. Presently, solar magnetic element is believed to be the ultra-fine magnetic structure in the lower solar atmospheric layer, and the diffraction limit of the largest-aperture solar telescope (New Vacuum Solar Telescope; NVST) of China is close to the spatial scale of magnetic element. This implies that modern solar observations have entered the era of high resolution better than 0.2 arc-second. Since the year of 2011, the NVST have successfully established and obtained huge observational data. Moreover, the ultra-fine magnetic structure rooted in the dark inter-graunlar lanes can be easily resolved. Studies on the observational characteristics and physical mechanism of magnetic bright points is one of the most important aspects in the field of solar physics, so it is very important to determine the statistical and physical parameters of magnetic bright points with the feature extraction techniques and numerical analysis approaches. For identifying such ultra-fine magnetic structure, an automatically and effectively detection algorithm, employed the Laplacian transform and the morphological dilation technique, is proposed and examined. Then, the statistical parameters such as the typical diameter, the area distribution, the eccentricity, and the intensity contrast are obtained. And finally, the scientific meaning for investigating the physical parameters of magnetic bright points are discussed, especially for understanding the physical processes of solar magnetic energy transferred from the photosphere to the corona.

  13. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge.

    The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  14. TEM Characterization of W-O-N Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, N.M.G.; Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Polcar, T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.

    Recently, a new class of coatings based on oxynitrides has drawn much attention in the research field as well as in industrial applications, as shown by either the large numbers of recent publications on TM O N systems (TM—transition metal) such as Ti-O-N, Zr-O-N and Ta-O-N, or the development of Si

  15. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique


    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  16. A neurodynamical model of brightness induction in v1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Penacchio

    Full Text Available Brightness induction is the modulation of the perceived intensity of an area by the luminance of surrounding areas. Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that brightness information might be explicitly represented in V1, in contrast to the more common assumption that the striate cortex is an area mostly responsive to sensory information. Here we investigate possible neural mechanisms that offer a plausible explanation for such phenomenon. To this end, a neurodynamical model which is based on neurophysiological evidence and focuses on the part of V1 responsible for contextual influences is presented. The proposed computational model successfully accounts for well known psychophysical effects for static contexts and also for brightness induction in dynamic contexts defined by modulating the luminance of surrounding areas. This work suggests that intra-cortical interactions in V1 could, at least partially, explain brightness induction effects and reveals how a common general architecture may account for several different fundamental processes, such as visual saliency and brightness induction, which emerge early in the visual processing pathway.

  17. Bright light therapy of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder in the workplace: morning vs. afternoon exposure. (United States)

    Avery, D H; Kizer, D; Bolte, M A; Hellekson, C


    Bright light therapy in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been studied extensively. However, little attention has been given to subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (SSAD) or the use of bright light in the workplace. Many patients using bright light boxes complain of the inconvenience of use. Much of this inconvenience involves the often-recommended early timing of the bright light therapy. Patients, who already have difficulty awakening, often have difficulty using the bright light therapy soon after awakening before going to work. If bright light could be used effectively in the workplace, the treatment would be more convenient; the improved convenience would probably improve compliance. In this study, we studied the effectiveness of bright light therapy in subjects with SSAD in the workplace, comparing morning bright light with afternoon bright light. Morning and afternoon bright light treatment (2500 lux) were compared in 30 subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder patients using the bright light therapy in the workplace. Hamilton Depression Ratings and subjective measures of mood, energy, alertness and productivity were assessed before and after 2 weeks of light therapy. Both morning and evening bright light significantly decreased the depression ratings and improved the subjective mood, energy, alertness and productivity scores. However, there were no significant differences between the two times of administration of the bright light treatment. Both bright light treatments were well tolerated. Bright light given in the workplace improves subjective ratings of mood, energy, alertness and productivity in SSAD subjects. Morning and afternoon bright lights resulted in similar levels of improvement.

  18. On strain state and pseudo-moire TEM contrast of InSb quantum dots coherently grown on InAs surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, N.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Freidin, A.B.; Kolesnikova, A.L.; Korolev, I.K. [Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering, Bolshoj 61, Vas. Ostrov, 199178 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Romanov, A.E. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polytechnique School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)


    In this article, we report on the theoretical analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of surface InSb quantum dots (QDs) coherently grown on InAs substrate. A finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate elastic fields and total displacements in a QD and an adjusted region of the substrate. The effects of QD form factor and QD aspect ratio {delta} on displacements and TEM images are analyzed. A quasilinear dependence of radial displacements on radial coordinate for spherical, elliptical, and truncated spherical QDs is demonstrated. It has been found that the displacement field does not depend on the shape and aspect ratio for QDs with {delta}>{delta}{sub c1}, and the upper part of a QD remains practically undistorted for QDs with {delta}{>=}{delta}{sub c2}. For InSb/InAs heterosystem these critical values are {delta}{sub c1}{approx} 0.13 and {delta}{sub c2}{approx} 0.33. The total displacements are used for computation of TEM diffraction contrast associated with QDs. To achieve this the Howie-Whelan dynamic approach is utilized. Calculated TEM images of heavily strained QDs demonstrate the picture of pseudo-moire with a strong dependence of moire-like fringe distance {delta} on aspect ratio {delta}. This dependence gives the possibility to determine the aspect ratio and height of QDs from the results of TEM experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. (United States)

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels


    To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase conferred CTX resistance on both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. A nitrocefin hydrolysis assay showed TEM-15 to be a less efficient enzyme compared to TEM-1. TEM-15 and PBP3 substitutions impose an additive effect on resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The effect of PBP3 substitutions on beta-lactam resistance in H. parainfluenzae can be addressed by transfer of ftsI genes in vitro.

  20. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun


    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  1. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng


    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  2. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan


    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  3. On the relation between zenith sky brightness and horizontal illuminance (United States)

    Kocifaj, M.; Posch, Th.; Solano Lamphar, H. A.


    The effects of artificial light at night are an emergent research topic for astronomers, physicists, engineers and biologists around the world. This leads to a need for measurements of the night sky brightness (= diffuse luminance of the night sky) and nocturnal illuminance. Currently, the most sensitive light meters measure the zenith sky brightness in magV/arcsec2 or - less frequently - in cd m-2. However, the horizontal illuminance resulting only from the night sky is an important source of information that is difficult to obtain with common instruments. Here we present a set of approximations to convert the zenith luminance into horizontal illuminance. Three different approximations are presented for three idealized atmospheric conditions: homogeneous sky brightness, an isotropically scattering atmosphere and a turbid atmosphere. We also apply the resulting conversion formulae to experimental data on night sky luminance, obtained during the past three years.

  4. OSCE vs. TEM: Different Approaches to Assess Clinical Skills of Nursing Students. (United States)

    Jelly, Prasuna; Sharma, Rakesh


    Nurses are trained with specific clinical skills, and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) could be a better approach to assess clinical skills of nursing students. A comparative study was conducted by observational checklist regarding antenatal care and opinionnaire on the usefulness of OSCE and tradition evaluation method (TEM) was used to assess the clinical skills and to get opinion. The mean score of OSCE was more than TEM and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The opinion of students regarding the usefulness of OSCE was higher than TEM. The study concluded that implementing OSCE will overweigh the advantages of the TEM.

  5. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Paavo Tulppo


    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  6. Efficient, High Brightness Sources of Polarized Neutrons and Photons and Their Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.


    There are many applications that could benefit from an easily accessible source of monochromatic, high brightness, polarized gammas and neutrons. A compact and comparatively inexpensive system is discussed based on a low-energy, electron storage ring with undulators that is expected to provide 10{sup 11} epithermal n/s and 10{sup 15} {gamma}/s. This method could provide a more efficient, cleaner way to produce epithermal neutrons than conventional means. Technical innovations that make it feasible are described together with some fundamental and practical applications that also take advantage of developments in the field of high power lasers.

  7. Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben


    We present the experimental observation of bright amplitude squeezed light from a singly resonant second harmonic generator (SHG) based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Contrary to conventional SHG, the interacting waves in this device couple efficiently using...... quasi phase matching (QPM) and more importantly QPM allows access to higher valued elements of the nonlinear tensor than is possible under the constraint of birefringence phase matching. We observe a noise reduction of 13% below the shot noise limit in the generated second harmonic field. This noise...

  8. Bright solitons in non-equilibrium coherent quantum matter. (United States)

    Pinsker, F; Flayac, H


    We theoretically demonstrate a mechanism for bright soliton generation in spinor non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates made of atoms or quasi-particles such as polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. We give analytical expressions for bright (half) solitons as minimizing functions of a generalized non-conservative Lagrangian elucidating the unique features of inter and intra-competition in non-equilibrium systems. The analytical results are supported by a detailed numerical analysis that further shows the rich soliton dynamics inferred by their instability and mutual cross-interactions.

  9. HSV Brightness Factor Matching for Gesture Recognition System


    Mokhtar M. Hasan; Pramod K. Mishra


    The main goal of gesture recognition research is to establish a system which can identify specific human gestures and use these identified gestures to be carried out by the machine, In this paper, we introduce a new method for gesture recognition that based on computing the local brightness for each block of the gesture image, the gesture image is divided into 25x25 blocks each of 5x5 block size, and we calculated the local brightness of each block, so, each gesture produces 25x25 features va...

  10. Development of a National Consensus for Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) Training Programs--Operators and Medical Providers. (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Lerner, Brooke; Llwewllyn, Craig; Pennardt, Andre; Wedmore, Ian; Callaway, David; Wightman, John; Casillas, Raymond; Eastman, Alex; Gerold, Kevin; Giebner, Stephen; Davidson, Robert; Kamin, Richard; Piazza, Gina; Bollard, Glenn; Carmona, Phillip; Sonstrom, Ben; Seifarth, William; Nicely, Barbara; Croushorn, John; Carmona, Richard


    Tactical teams are at high risk of sustaining injuries. Caring for these casualties in the field involves unique requirements beyond what is provided by traditional civilian emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Despite this need, the training objectives and competencies are not uniformly agreed to or taught. An expert panel was convened that included members from the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, and Health and Human Services, as well as federal, state, and local law-enforcement officers who were recruited through requests to stakeholder agencies and open invitations to individuals involved in Tactical Emergency Medical Services (TEMS) or its oversight. Two face-to-face meetings took place. Using a modified Delphi technique, previously published TEMS competencies were reviewed and updated. The original 17 competency domains were modified and the most significant changes were the addition of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC), Tactical Familiarization, Legal Aspects of TEMS, and Mass Casualty Triage to the competency domains. Additionally, enabling and terminal learning objectives were developed for each competency domain. This project has developed a minimum set of medical competencies and learning objectives for both tactical medical providers and operators. This work should serve as a platform for ensuring minimum knowledge among providers, which will serve enhance team interoperability and improve the health and safety of tactical teams and the public. 2014.

  11. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang


    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m² (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m².

  12. Dark and bright modes manipulation for plasmon-triggered photonic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Panaro, S.


    In the last decade, several efforts have been spent in the study of near-field coupled systems, in order to induce hybridization of plasmonic modes. Within this context, particular attention has been recently paid on the possibility to couple conventional bright and dark modes. As a result of such phenomenon, a Fano resonance appears as a characteristic sharp dip in the scattering spectra. Here we show how, gradually coupling a single rod-like nanostructure to an aligned nanoantenna dimer, it is possible to induce the near-field activation of an anti-bonding dark mode. The high polarization sensitivity presented by the far-field response of T-shape trimer, combined with the sharp Fano resonance sustained by this plasmonic device, opens interesting perspectives towards a new era of photonic devices. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. An Exploration of the Emission Properties of X-Ray Bright Points Seen with SDO (United States)

    Saar, S. H.; Elsden, T.; Muglach, K.


    We present preliminary results of a study of X-ray Bright Point (XBP) EUV emission and its dependence on other properties. The XBPs were located using a new, automated XBP finder for AlA developed as part of the Feature Finding Team for SDO Computer Vision. We analyze XBPs near disk center, comparing AlA EUV fluxes, HMI LOS magnetic fields, and photospheric flow fields (derived from HMI data) to look for relationships between XBP emission, magnetic flux, velocity fields, and XBP local environment. We find some evidence for differences in the mean XBP temperature with environment. Unsigned magnetic flux is correlated with XBP emission, though other parameters play a role. The majority of XBP footpoints are approaching each other, though at a slight angle from head-on on average. We discuss the results in the context of XBP heating.

  14. A bright point source of ultrashort hard x-rays from laser bioplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, M; Lad, Amit D; Ahmad, Saima; Narayanan, V; Rajeev, R; Kundu, M; Kumar, G Ravindra; Ray, Krishanu


    Micro and nano structures scatter light and amplify local electric fields very effectively. Energy incident as intense ultrashort laser pulses can be converted to x-rays and hot electrons more efficiently with a substrate that suitably modifies the local fields. Here we demonstrate that coating a plain glass surface with a few micron thick layer of an ubiquitous microbe, {\\it Escherichia coli}, catapults the brightness of hard x-ray bremsstrahlung emission (up to 300 keV) by more than two orders of magnitude at an incident laser intensity of 10$^{16}$ W cm$^{-2}$. This increased yield is attributed to the local enhancement of electric fields around individual {\\it E. coli} cells and is reproduced by detailed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This combination of laser plasmas and biological targets can lead to turnkey, multi-kilohertz and environmentally safe sources of hard x-rays.

  15. TEM10 homodyne detection as an optimal small-displacement and tilt-measurement scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Treps, Nikolas; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard


    We report an experimental demonstration of optimal measurements of small displacement and tilt of a Gaussian beam - two conjugate variables - involving a homodyne detection with a TEM10 local oscillator. We verify that the standard split detection is only 64% efficient. We also show a displacemen...... measurement beyond the quantum noise limit, using a squeezed vacuum TEM10 mode within the input beam....

  16. Molecular identification of TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene in isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Purpose: To determine TEM-116 beta-lactamase gene prevalence in drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Pakistan. Methods: Sequence analysis of TEM beta-lactamase isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns were carried out. Quantitative bacteriostatic concentrations for commonly ...

  17. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pension and heavy ones are settled. The TEM samples have been prepared using Wick's procedure. A drop of liquid is placed on a carbon film supported over copper grid. After the film is dried, the grid is introduced to TEM. 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 Absorption studies. The optical properties of materials are always ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The Morgagnian cataract lenses - pre-fixed with GA for SEM & TEM and post-fixed with tannic-acid-arginine-OsO4 for SEM and OsO4/K4Fe(CN)6 for TEM after staining with Ur-acetate/Pb-citrate - showed areas in the cortex with radial in stead of concentric running lensfibres, degeneration of lensfibres

  20. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning


    (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene. Detected IncI1 plasmids underwent further plasmid multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: RFLP profiles...... demonstrated dissemination of blaTEM-52 in Denmark (imported meat from Germany), France, Belgium and the Netherlands from 2000 to 2006 by mainly two different plasmids, one encoding blaTEM-52b (IncX1A, 45 kb) and the other blaTEM-52c (IncI1, 80 kb). In addition, blaTEM-52b was also found to be located...... on various other plasmids belonging to IncA/C and IncL/M, while blaTEM-52c was found on IncN-like as well as on IncR plasmids. In the majority of cases (n = 21) the blaTEM-52 gene was located on a Tn3 transposon. Seven out of 10 blaTEM-52 plasmids tested in conjugation experiments were shown to be capable...

  1. The RhoGEF TEM4 Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration by Suppressing Actomyosin Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitin

    Full Text Available Persistent cellular migration requires efficient protrusion of the front of the cell, the leading edge where the actin cytoskeleton and cell-substrate adhesions undergo constant rearrangement. Rho family GTPases are essential regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion dynamics. Here, we examined the role of the RhoGEF TEM4, an activator of Rho family GTPases, in regulating cellular migration of endothelial cells. We found that TEM4 promotes the persistence of cellular migration by regulating the architecture of actin stress fibers and cell-substrate adhesions in protruding membranes. Furthermore, we determined that TEM4 regulates cellular migration by signaling to RhoC as suppression of RhoC expression recapitulated the loss-of-TEM4 phenotypes, and RhoC activation was impaired in TEM4-depleted cells. Finally, we showed that TEM4 and RhoC antagonize myosin II-dependent cellular contractility and the suppression of myosin II activity rescued the persistence of cellular migration of TEM4-depleted cells. Our data implicate TEM4 as an essential regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that ensures proper membrane protrusion at the leading edge of migrating cells and efficient cellular migration via suppression of actomyosin contractility.

  2. Nanopipes in GaN : Photo-etching and TEM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, S.; Weyher, J.L.; Macht, L.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Zandbergen, H.W.


    Photochemical (PEC) etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to study the defects in hetero-epitaxial GaN layers. TEM proved that PEC etching reveals not only dislocations but also nanopipes in the form of protruding, whisker-like etch features. It is shown by diffraction

  3. Nanopipes in GaN: photo-etching and TEM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, S.; Weyher, J.L.; Macht, L.J.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Zandbergen, H.W.


    Photochemical (PEC) etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to study the defects in hetero-epitaxial GaN layers. TEM proved that PEC etching reveals not only dislocations but also nanopipes in the form of protruding, whisker-like etch features. It is shown by diffraction

  4. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bose–Einstein condensate; optical lattices; inhomogeneous nonlinearity. Abstract. Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and ...

  5. Compact collimators for high brightness blue LEDs using dielectric multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, H.J.; Ma, H.; Ho, C.; Li, M.; Mu, C.


    A novel method is presented to inject the light of millimeter-sized high-brightness blue LEDs into light guides of submillimeter thickness. Use is made of an interference filter that is designed to pass only those modes that will propagate in the light guide by total internal reflection. Other modes

  6. Bright and dark soliton solutions of the (3+ 1)-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we obtain the 1-soliton solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (gKP) equation and the generalized Benjamin equation. By using two solitary wave ansatz in terms of sech p and tanh p functions, we obtain exact analytical bright and dark soliton solutions for the considered ...

  7. Brightness perception in low resolution images of 3d textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Siteur, J.


    A first step towards the analysis of the appearance of 3 dimensional textures is presented in this paper. It is assumed that the scale of the texture is small relative to the resolution of the camera. Therefore, the texture itself is not distinguishable.However, the perceived brightness of the

  8. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.


    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  9. The bright optical afterglow of the long GRB 001007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, J.M.C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.


    We present optical follow up observations of the long GRB 001007 between 6.14 hours and similar to468 days after the event. An unusually bright optical afterglow (OA) was seen to decline following a steep power law decay with index alpha = -2.03 +/- 0.11, possibly indicating a break in the light ...

  10. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989


    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  11. Time series analysis of bright galactic X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels


    We analyze 70 to 110 day data sets from eight bright galactic X-ray binaries observed by WATCH/Eureca, in search of periodic variations. We obtain new epochs for the orbital variation of Cyg X-3 and 4U 1700-37, and confirmation of a dip in Cyg X-1 at superior conjunction of the X-ray star. No evi...

  12. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng


    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  13. Bright soliton trains of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates


    Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T C; Hulet, R. G.; Strecker, K. E.; Patridge, G.B.


    We variationally determine the dynamics of bright soliton trains composed of harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interatomic interactions. In particular, we obtain the interaction potential between two solitons. We also discuss the formation of soliton trains due to the quantum mechanical phase fluctuations of a one-dimensional condensate.




  15. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on -ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of -ray flux densities and the differences of the -ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the ...

  16. Bright soliton trains of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Hulet, R.G.; Strecker, K.E.; Patridge, G.B.


    We variationally determine the dynamics of bright soliton trains composed of harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interatomic interactions. In particular, we obtain the interaction potential between two solitons. We also discuss the formation of soliton trains due to the

  17. Henrietta Leavitt - A Bright Star of Astronomy; Resonance June 2001

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In fact, it was not known then that we live in a galaxy called the Milky Way, and that there were other galaxies in the universe like ours. This big handicap was elegantly removed by a momentous discovery by an American astronomer named Henrietta. Leavitt in 1912. She found a way to determine the actual brightness of a ...

  18. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989


    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  19. Stability of bright solitons in some physical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelap, Francois B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P O Box 69, Dschang (Cameroon); Talla, Pierre K [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P O Box 69, Dschang (Cameroon); Tchitnga, Robert [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P O Box 69, Dschang (Cameroon); Faye, Mansour M [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Cheikh Anta DIOP de Dakar, BP 5005, Dakar - Fann (Senegal)


    Dynamical systems described by the modified quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and its derivative forms are considered and the stability of their bright soliton solution is investigated numerically by means of the split-step Fourier method. Some discussions related to the way of ensuring the stability of this solution are presented.

  20. Does bright light have an anxiolytic effect? - an open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kripke Daniel F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this open trial was to examine the influence of acute bright light exposure on anxiety in older and young adults. Methods This study was ancillary to a complex 5-day laboratory experiment testing phase-responses to light at all times of the day. On 3 consecutive days, participants were exposed to bright light (3,000 lux for 3 hours. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y1 was administered 5 minutes before and 20 minutes after each treatment. Mean state anxiety before and after treatment were analyzed by age, sex, and time ANOVA. To avoid floor effects, only participants with baseline STAI levels of ≥ 25 were included. Results A significant anxiolytic effect of bright light was found for the mean data, as well as for each of the three days. No significant main effect of age, sex, or interaction of these factors with STAI change were found. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant (albeit modest anxiolytic effects following acute bright light exposure in low anxiety adults. Further randomized, controlled trials in clinically anxious individuals are needed.

  1. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A


    Full Text Available Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2...

  2. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in ...

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are amongst the most massive spiral galaxies that we know of in our Universe. Although they fall in the class of late type spiral galaxies, their properties are far more extreme. They have very faint stellar disks that are extremely rich in neutral hydrogen gas but ...

  4. Evaluation of brightness temperature from a forward model of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ground-based microwave radiometers are getting great attention in recent years due to their capability to profile the temperature and humidity at high temporal and vertical resolution in the lower troposphere. The process of retrieving these parameters from the measurements of radiometric brightness temperature () ...

  5. Quadrature measurements of a bright squeezed state via sideband swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.; Glockl, O.; Leuchs, G.


    The measurement of an arbitrary quadrature of a bright quantum state of light is a commonly requested action in many quantum information protocols, but it is experimentally challenging with previously proposed schemes. We suggest that the quadrature be measured at a specific sideband frequency of...

  6. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol


    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  7. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soliton network; coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system; bright soliton; soliton collision. PACS Nos 42.65.Tg; 02.30. .... CNLS equations, we shall explore the dynamics of solitons in simple networks, i.e., PSG. In §4, the conclusion is ...... KS thank the Principal and management of Bishop Heber College for constant support.

  8. Systematic approaches for targeting an atom-probe tomography sample fabricated in a thin TEM specimen: Correlative structural, chemical and 3-D reconstruction analyses. (United States)

    Baik, Sung-Il; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N


    Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip. In addition to "coupling APT to TEM", the technique presented here allows for targeting the preparation of an APT tip based on TEM observation of a much larger area than what is captured in the APT tip. The correlative methods have synergies for not only high-resolution structural analyses but also for obtaining chemical information. Chemical analyses in a TEM, both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are performed and compared with the APT chemical analyses of a carbide phase (M 7 C 3 ) precipitate at a grain boundary in a Ni-based alloy. Additionally, a TEM image of a sharpened APT nanotip is utilized for calculation of the detection area ratio of an APT nanotip by comparison with a TEM image for precise tomographic reconstructions. A grain-boundary/carbide precipitate triple junction is used to attain precise positioning of an APT nanotip in an analyzed TEM specimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards an integrative structural biology approach: combining Cryo-TEM, X-ray crystallography, and NMR. (United States)

    Lengyel, Jeffrey; Hnath, Eric; Storms, Marc; Wohlfarth, Thomas


    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and particularly single particle analysis is rapidly becoming the premier method for determining the three-dimensional structure of protein complexes, and viruses. In the last several years there have been dramatic technological improvements in Cryo-TEM, such as advancements in automation and use of improved detectors, as well as improved image processing techniques. While Cryo-TEM was once thought of as a low resolution structural technique, the method is currently capable of generating nearly atomic resolution structures on a routine basis. Moreover, the combination of Cryo-TEM and other methods such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics modeling are allowing researchers to address scientific questions previously thought intractable. Future technological developments are widely believed to further enhance the method and it is not inconceivable that Cryo-TEM could become as routine as X-ray crystallography for protein structure determination.

  10. Development of a versatile TEM specimen holder for the characterization of photocatalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Langhammer, C.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research [1]. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is possible to obtain insight into their structure, composition and reactivity. Such insight can then be used for their further optimization [2]. Here, we combine...... conventional TEM analysis on photocatalysts with several in situ TEM techniques including environmental TEM (ETEM), in situ photo activation and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy [3-4]. These experiments are facilitated by the construction of a specimen holder capable of illuminating...... samples inside the TEM with a laser diode and an optical system to guide light onto the sample with maximum power transmission. The source can be changed and tuned between the visible and the UV range. The specimen holder is equipped with five electrical contacts that can be used to perform in situ...

  11. Towards Bright and Fast Lu3Al5O12:Ce,Mg Optical Ceramics Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shuping; Feng, Xiqi; Vedda, Anna; Fasoli, Mauro; Shi, Yun; Kou, Huamin; Beitlerova, Alena; Wu, Lexiang; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Pan, Yubai; Nikl, Martin


    The recent advent of Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce optical ceramics marks a turning point in scintillator material technology. Because of their lower preparation tem-perature, brightness, and robustness such materials can now compete with single crystals. Their further scintillation effi ciency optimization includes the thorough control of the defects responsible for optical and scintillation losses. The choice of sintering agent appears critical to achieve both high optical transparency and scintillation performance. In this work, the optical investi-gations coupled with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy evidence the benefi cial role of MgO sintering agent. Mg 2+ co-dopants in ceramics drive the partial conversion of Ce 3+ to Ce 4+ . The Ce 4+ center, however, does not impair the scintillation performance due to its capability to positively infl uence the scintillation process. The importance of simultaneous application of such co-doping and annealing treatment is also demonstrated. With 0.3 at% Mg, our cer...

  12. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd


    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  13. Chemical bioimaging for the subcellular localization of trace elements by high contrast TEM, TEM/X-EDS, and NanoSIMS. (United States)

    Penen, Florent; Malherbe, Julien; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Bertalan, Ivo; Gontier, Etienne; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Schaumlöffel, Dirk


    Chemical bioimaging offers an important contribution to the investigation of biochemical functions, biosorption and bioaccumulation processes of trace elements via their localization at the cellular and even at the subcellular level. This paper describes the combined use of high contrast transmission electron microscopy (HC-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (X-EDS), and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) applied to a model organism, the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. HC-TEM providing a lateral resolution of 1nm was used for imaging the ultrastructure of algae cells which have diameters of 5-10μm. TEM coupled to X-EDS (TEM/X-EDS) combined textural (morphology and size) analysis with detection of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn in selected subcellular granules using an X-EDS probe size of approx. 1μm. However, instrumental sensitivity was at the limit for trace element detection. NanoSIMS allowed chemical imaging of macro and trace elements with subcellular resolution (element mapping). Ca, Mg, and P as well as the trace elements Fe, Cu, and Zn present at basal levels were detected in pyrenoids, contractile vacuoles, and granules. Some metals were even localized in small vesicles of about 200nm size. Sensitive subcellular localization of trace metals was possible by the application of a recently developed RF plasma oxygen primary ion source on NanoSIMS which has shown good improvements in terms of lateral resolution (below 50nm), sensitivity, and stability. Furthermore correlative single cell imaging was developed combining the advantages of TEM and NanoSIMS. An advanced sample preparation protocol provided adjacent ultramicrotome sections for parallel TEM and NanoSIMS analyses of the same cell. Thus, the C. reinhardtii cellular ultrastructure could be directly related to the spatial distribution of metals in different cell organelles such as vacuoles and chloroplast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Graviton mass bounds from an analysis of bright star trajectories at the Galactic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Alexander


    Full Text Available In February 2016 the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration reported the discovery of gravitational waves in merging black holes, therefore, the team confirmed GR predictions about an existence of black holes and gravitational waves in the strong gravitational field limit. Moreover, in their papers the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg < 1.2 × 10−22 eV (Abbott et al. 2016. So, the authors concluded that their observational data do not show any violation of classical general relativity. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could constrain graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and the estimate is consistent with the one obtained by the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a useful tool to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as modifications of the Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we obtain bounds on a graviton mass.

  15. Graviton mass bounds from an analysis of bright star trajectories at the Galactic Center (United States)

    Zakharov, Alexander; Jovanović, Predrag; Borka, Dusko; Jovanović, Vesna Borka


    In February 2016 the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration reported the discovery of gravitational waves in merging black holes, therefore, the team confirmed GR predictions about an existence of black holes and gravitational waves in the strong gravitational field limit. Moreover, in their papers the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg data do not show any violation of classical general relativity. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could constrain graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and the estimate is consistent with the one obtained by the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a useful tool to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as modifications of the Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we obtain bounds on a graviton mass.

  16. Analysis of polycrystalline SrRuO3 by TEM and EELS (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo; Klamut, Piotr; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Maxwell, Mike


    Analysis of polycrystalline SrRuO3 by TEM and EELS Y. Ito, P. W. Klamut , B. Dabrowski, M. Maxwell Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL Two polycrystalline SrRuO3 samples were prepared (1) in the conventional manner (Curie temperature TC = 165K) and (2) at high pressure of oxygen resulting in substantially lower TC (= 90K). The Mössbauer Ru (99) analysis of the sample (1) showed a unique hyperfine magnetic field and, corresponding to one Ru site (+4) and a broad single line above the TC (96K), indicating the presence of multiple sites and/or electric quadrupole interaction for the sample (2) [1]. Here, we investigate the microscopic origins of the above differences and the relationship between microstructure, composition, and electronic structure of these two polycrystalline SrRuO3 by using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). [1] M. DeMarco, P.W. Klamut, B. Dabrowski, S. Toorongian and M. Haka, see abstract of this meeting. Supported by NSF-DMR-0105398, and HECA.

  17. Comparison Between Eight- and Sixteen-Channel TEM Transceive Arrays for Body Imaging at 7 Tesla (United States)

    Snyder, CJ; DelaBarre, L; Moeller, S; Tian, J; Akgun, C; Van De Moortele, P-F; Bolan, PJ; Ugurbil, K; Vaughan, JT; Metzger, GJ


    Eight- and sixteen-channel transceive stripline/TEM body arrays were compared at 7 tesla (297 MHz) both in simulation and experimentally. Despite previous demonstrations of similar arrays for use in body applications, a quantitative comparison of the two configurations has not been undertaken to date. Results were obtained on a male pelvis for assessing transmit, SNR and parallel imaging performance and to evaluate local power deposition versus transmit B1 (B1+). All measurements and simulations were conducted after performing local B1+ phase shimming in the region of the prostate. Despite the additional challenges of decoupling immediately adjacent coils, the sixteen-channel array demonstrated improved or nearly equivalent performance to the eight-channel array based on the evaluation criteria. Experimentally, transmit performance and SNR were 22% higher for the sixteen-channel array while significantly increased reduction factors were achievable in the left-right direction for parallel imaging. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated similar results with respect to transmit and parallel imaging performance, however a higher transmit efficiency advantage of 33% was predicted. Simulations at both 3T and 7T verified the expected parallel imaging improvements with increasing field strength and showed that, for a specific B1+ shimming strategy employed, the sixteen-channel array exhibited lower local and global SAR for a given B1+. PMID:22102483

  18. Synthesis, TEM characterization and thermal behaviour of LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene (United States)

    Tribaudino, Mario; Bromiley, Geoffrey; Ohashi, Haruo; Nestola, Fabrizio


    A pyroxene with composition LiNiSi2O6 was synthesized at T = 1,473 K and P = 2.0 GPa; the cell parameters at T = 298 K are a = 9.4169(6) Å, b = 8.4465(7) Å, c = 5.2464(3) Å, β = 110.534(6)°, V = 390.78(3) Å3. TEM examination of the LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene showed the presence of h + k odd reflections indicative of a primitive lattice, and of antiphase domains obtained by dark field imaging of the h + k odd reflections. A HT in situ investigation was performed by examining TEM selected area diffraction patterns collected at high temperature and synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. In HTTEM the LiNiSi2O6 was examined together with LiCrSi2O6 pyroxene. In LiCrSi2O6 the h + k odd critical reflections disappear at about 340 K; they are sharp up to the transition temperature and do not change their shape until they disappear. In LiNiSi2O6 the h + k odd reflections are present up to sample deterioration at 650 K. A high temperature synchrotron radiation powder diffraction investigation was performed on LiNiSi2O6 between 298 and 773 K. The analysis of critical reflections and of changes in cell parameters shows that the space group is P-centred up to the highest temperature. The comparative analysis of the thermal and spontaneous strain contributions in P21/ c and C2/ c pyroxenes indicates that the high temperature strain in P-LiNiSi2O6 is very similar to that due to thermal strain only in C2/ c spodumene and that a spontaneous strain contribution related to pre-transition features is not apparent in LiNiSi2O6. A different high-temperature behaviour in LiNiSi2O6 with respect to other pyroxenes is suggested, possibly in relation with the presence of Jahn-Teller distortion of the M1 polyhedron centred by low-spin Ni3+.

  19. Low-voltage and high-voltage TEM observations on MWCNTs of rat in vivo. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Norihito; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Ichinose, Hideki


    In the present study, we focused on the optimal conditions for observation of morphology and atomic structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) in vivo by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Either low-voltage or high-voltage TEMs was chosen for the high-contrast or high-resolution imaging of subcutaneous tissue and the multi-wall CNT (MWCNT). The morphology and structure of each cell organelle were well recognized using the low-voltage TEM at 75 kV. Individual MWCNTs forming the cluster were also visible by the low-voltage TEM. On the contrary, the high-voltage TEM image at 1250 kV shows poor contrast on both the cell organelles and MWCNTs. However, graphene layers of MWCNT were clearly visible in the HRTEM image using the high-voltage TEM. The influence of the surrounding biological tissue can be disregarded by the high-energy electrons due to their weak scattering/absorption effect in the tissue. It was indicated that the usage of the high-voltage TEM is quite effective to the atomic structure analysis of nano-crystalline materials in vivo.

  20. Quantitative TEM analysis of Al/Cu multilayer systems prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen


    Thin films composed of alternating Al/Cu/Al layers were deposited on a (111) Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The thicknesses of the film and the individual layers, and the detailed internal structure within the layers were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy...... (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). Each Al or Cu layer consists of a single layer of nano-sized grains of different orientations. EFTEM results revealed a layer of oxide about 2 nm thick on the surface of the Si substrate, which is considered to be the reason...

  1. Growth of Ag-seeded III-V Nanowires and TEM Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Anna Helmi Caroline

    appropriate, the density and the vertical yield were obtained. The crystal structures for the grown nanowires have been investigated with TEM.We have also performed additional growths to further understand exactly how the nanowire growth proceeds as well as to understand the limitations of using Ag as a seed...... particle. The last chapter presents our results from combining TEM and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the possibility to use Raman spectroscopy to nd stacking faults and crystal defects in GaAs and InAs wurtzite nanowires. We performed TEM on both InAs nanowires and GaAs nanowires to deduce the stacking...

  2. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) for studying the morphology of colloidal drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Horst, Jennifer C; Bunjes, Heike


    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has evolved into an indispensable tool for the characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems. It can be applied to study the size, shape and internal structure of nanoparticulate carrier systems as well as the overall colloidal composition...... of the corresponding dispersions. This review gives a short overview over the instrumentation used in cryo-TEM experiments and over the sample preparation procedure. Selected examples of cryo-TEM studies on colloidal drug carrier systems, including liposomes, colloidal lipid emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles...

  3. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals (United States)

    Chisholm, Claire

    mechanical data, as the two defect conditions exhibit similar yield strengths, ultimate tensile strengths, and number and size of load-drops. This similarity implies that, even if materials contain dissimilar individual defects, the collective defect behavior can result in similar mechanical properties. Thus, the origin of mechanical properties can be ambiguous and caution should be taken when extrapolating to different size scales. Furthermore, such similarities highlight the importance of in-situ observation during deformation. These experiments provide a key test of theory, by providing a local test of behavior, which is much more stringent than testing behaviors averaged over many regions. Advanced electron microscopy imaging techniques and quantitative in-situ TEM tensile tests are performed with Au thin-film as a model FCC structural material. These investigations highlight the various hurdles experimental studies must overcome in order to probe defect behavior at a fundamental level. Two novelly-applied strain mapping techniques are performed to directly measure the matrix strain around helium bubbles in He1+ implanted Au thin-film. Dark-field inline holography (DFIH) is applied here for the first time to a metal, and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) transient strain mapping is shown to be experimentally feasible using the high frame rate Gatan K2 camera. The K2 camera reduces scan times from ˜18 minutes to 82 seconds for a 128x256 pixel scan at 400 fps. Both methods measure a peak strain around 10 nm bubbles of 0.7%, correlating to an internal pressure of 580 MPa, or a vacancy to helium ion ratio of 1V:2.4He. Previous studies have relied on determining the appropriate equation of state to relate measured or approximated helium density to internal bubble pressure and thus strain. Direct measurement of the surrounding matrix strain through DFIH and NBED methods effectively bypasses this step, allowing for easier defect interaction modeling as the bubble can be

  4. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers. (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio


    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10(-18) s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum.

  5. Determination of the absorption and radiative decay rates of dark and bright plasmonic modes. (United States)

    Cao, Z L; Ong, H C


    When two degenerate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes couple, in addition to the creation of plasmonic band gap, their respective decay rates are modified as well, resulting in the formation of a pair of dark and bright modes. We combine temporal coupled mode theory, finite-difference time-domain simulation, and angle- and polarization-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy to study the absorption and radiative decay rates of this pair in periodic system. One-dimensional metallic groove arrays are served as an example here. We find for arrays with small groove width, when approaching to the coupling of -1 and + 1 SPP modes, while the radiative decay rate of the high energy mode tends to become zero, the absorption rate decreases as well, forming a "cold" dark mode. At the same time, both the absorption and radiative decay rates of the low energy mode increase, yielding a "hot" bright mode. The situation is completely reversed when groove width increases, turning the high energy mode into a "cold" bright mode and vice versa for the low energy mode. We attribute such modifications to the interplay between the real and imaginary parts of the complex coupling constant, which are found to be highly geometry dependent. Further numerical simulations show the hybridized modes exhibits distinctive electric and magnetic field symmetries, giving rise to different surface charge distributions and Poynting vector profiles, which significantly affect the resulting absorption and radiation losses. Finally, we have measured the decay rates and the complex coupling constant of the hybridized modes and the experimental results are consistent with the analytic and numerical results.

  6. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang


    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  7. Bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices (United States)

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Veldes, G. P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; DiMarzio, D.; Lan, X.; Radisic, V.


    In the present work, we examine a prototypical model for the formation of bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices. Utilizing the paradigm of nonlinear transmission lines, we build a relevant lattice and develop a quasi-continuum multiscale approximation that enables us to appreciate both the underlying linear dispersion relation and the potential for bifurcation of nonlinear states. We focus here, more specifically, on bright discrete breathers which bifurcate from the lower edge of the linear dispersion relation at wavenumber k=π . Guided by the multiscale analysis, we calculate numerically both the stable inter-site centered and the unstable site-centered members of the relevant family. We quantify the associated stability via Floquet analysis and the Peierls-Nabarro barrier of the energy difference between these branches. Finally, we explore the dynamical implications of these findings towards the potential mobility or lack thereof (pinning) of such breather solutions.

  8. Improvement in brightness of multicusp-plasma ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Q.; Jiang, X.; King, T-J.; Leung, K-N.; Standiford, K.; Wilde, S.B.


    The beam brightness of a multicusp-plasma ion source has been substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. The current density of a 2 keV He{sup +} beam extracted from a 7.5-cm-diameter source operating at 2.5 kW RF power is {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}, which is {approx}10 times larger than that of a beam extracted from a 5-cm-diameter source operating at 1 kW RF power. A smaller focused beam spot size is achieved with a counter-bored extractor instead of a conventional (''through-hole'') extractor, resulting another order of magnitude improvement in beam current density. Measured brightness can be as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2}Sr, which represents a 30 times improvement over prior work.

  9. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016 (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J.; Bishop, D. W.; Bose, S.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Chen, Ping; Chomiuk, L.; Falco, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Morrell, N.; Pojmanski, G.; Shields, J. V.; Strader, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Bock, G.; Cacella, P.; Conseil, E.; Cruz, I.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.; Wiethoff, W. S.


    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (mpeak ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered in 2016. We then gather the near-infrared through ultraviolet magnitudes of all host galaxies and the offsets of the supernovae from the centres of their hosts from public data bases. We illustrate the results using a sample that now totals 668 supernovae discovered since 2014 May 1, including the supernovae from our previous catalogues, with type distributions closely matching those of the ideal magnitude limited sample from Li et al. This is the third of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  10. Changes in the brightness of Jupiter's hemispheres again become periodic (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.


    Our analysis of data on relative brightness distribution along the central meridian of Jupiter showed that the ratio of brightness of northern and southern tropical zones Aj=BNTrZ/BSTrZ is a good index of activity of processes in Jovian atmosphere. In the years when the influence of solar activity is synchronized with the seasonal changes of irradiation of the northern and southern hemisphere, we note an increasing of the correlation of the activity index Aj with the periodic curve for change of distance to Sun at moving of planet on orbit. Analysis of Jupiter's images obtained in 2014-2017 showed, that if in 1998-2013 synchronization of change the Aj with the curve of change distance to the Sun when the planet moved on orbit, was somewhat disrupted; but in 2015-2017 such a correlation began to recover.

  11. Brightness of Solar Magnetic Elements As a Function of Magnetic Flux at High Spatial Resolution (United States)

    Kahil, F.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.


    We investigate the relationship between the photospheric magnetic field of small-scale magnetic elements in the quiet-Sun (QS) at disk center and the brightness at 214, 300, 313, 388, 397, and 525.02 nm. To this end, we analyzed spectropolarimetric and imaging time series acquired simultaneously by the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment magnetograph and the SuFI filter imager on board the balloon-borne observatory {{S}}{{UNRISE}} during its first science flight in 2009, with high spatial and temporal resolution. We find a clear dependence of the contrast in the near ultraviolet and the visible on the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field, B LOS, which is best described by a logarithmic model. This function effectively represents the relationship between the Ca ii H-line emission and B LOS and works better than the power-law fit adopted by previous studies. This, along with the high contrast reached at these wavelengths, will help with determining the contribution of small-scale elements in the QS to the irradiance changes for wavelengths below 388 nm. At all wavelengths, including the continuum at 525.40 nm, the intensity contrast does not decrease with increasing B LOS. This result also strongly supports the fact that {{S}}{{UNRISE}} has resolved small strong magnetic field elements in the internetwork, resulting in constant contrasts for large magnetic fields in our continuum contrast at 525.40 nm versus the B LOS scatterplot, unlike the turnover obtained in previous observational studies. This turnover is due to the intermixing of the bright magnetic features with the dark intergranular lanes surrounding them.

  12. Hyperfine interaction in the Autler-Townes effect: The formation of bright, dark, and chameleon states (United States)

    Kirova, T.; Cinins, A.; Efimov, D. K.; Bruvelis, M.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Auzinsh, M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Ekers, A.


    This paper is devoted to clarifying the implications of hyperfine (HF) interaction in the formation of adiabatic (i.e., "laser-dressed") states and their expression in the Autler-Townes (AT) spectra. We first use the Morris-Shore model [J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevA.27.906] to illustrate how bright and dark states are formed in a simple reference system where closely spaced energy levels are coupled to a single state with a strong laser field with the respective Rabi frequency ΩS. We then expand the simulations to realistic hyperfine level systems in Na atoms for a more general case when non-negligible HF interaction can be treated as a perturbation in the total system Hamiltonian. A numerical analysis of the adiabatic states that are formed by coupling of the 3 p3 /2 and 4 d5 /2 states by the strong laser field and probed by a weak laser field on the 3 s1 /2-3 p3 /2 transition yielded two important conclusions. Firstly, the perturbation introduced by the HF interaction leads to the observation of what we term "chameleon" states—states that change their appearance in the AT spectrum, behaving as bright states at small to moderate ΩS, and fading from the spectrum similarly to dark states when ΩS is much larger than the HF splitting of the 3 p3 /2 state. Secondly, excitation by the probe field from two different HF levels of the ground state allows one to address orthogonal sets of adiabatic states; this enables, with appropriate choice of ΩS and the involved quantum states, a selective excitation of otherwise unresolved hyperfine levels in excited electronic states.

  13. Temporal relations between magnetic bright points and the solar sunspot cycle (United States)

    Utz, Dominik; Muller, Richard; Van Doorsselaere, Tom


    The Sun shows a global magnetic field cycle traditionally best visible in the photosphere as a changing sunspot cycle featuring roughly an 11-year period. In addition we know that our host star also harbours small-scale magnetic fields often seen as strong concentrations of magnetic flux reaching kG field strengths. These features are situated in inter-granular lanes, where they show up bright as so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). In this short paper we wish to analyse an homogenous, nearly 10-year-long synoptic Hinode image data set recorded from 2006 November up to 2016 February in the G-band to inspect the relationship between the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre and the relative sunspot number. Our findings suggest that the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre is indeed correlated to the relative sunspot number, but with the particular feature of showing two different temporal shifts between the decreasing phase of cycle 23 including the minimum and the increasing phase of cycle 24 including the maximum. While the former is shifted by about 22 months, the latter is only shifted by less than 12 months. Moreover, we introduce and discuss an analytical model to predict the number of MBPs at the solar disc centre purely depending on the evolution of the relative sunspot number as well as the temporal change of the relative sunspot number and two background parameters describing a possibly acting surface dynamo as well as the strength of the magnetic field diffusion. Finally, we are able to confirm the plausibility of the temporal shifts by a simplistic random walk model. The main conclusion to be drawn from this work is that the injection of magnetic flux, coming from active regions as represented by sunspots, happens on faster time scales than the removal of small-scale magnetic flux elements later on.

  14. Origin of low surface brightness galaxies: a dynamical study (United States)

    Garg, Prerak; Banerjee, Arunima


    Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (LSBs), inspite of being gas rich, have low star formation rates and are therefore low surface brightness in nature. We calculate QRW, the 2-component disc stability parameter as proposed by Romeo & Wiegert, as a function of galactocentric radius R for a sample of five LSBs, for which mass models, as obtained from HI 21cm radio-synthesis observations and R-band photometry, were available in the literature. We find that the median value of Q_{RW}^{min}, the minimum of QRW over R, lies between 2.6 and 3.1 for our sample LSBs, which is higher than the median value of 1.8 ± 0.3 for Q_{RW}^{min} for a sample of high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs) as obtained in earlier studies. This clearly shows that LSBs have more stable discs than HSBs, which could explain their low star formation rates and, possibly, their low surface brightness nature. Interestingly, the calculated values of QRW decrease only slightly (median Q_{RW}^{min} ˜ 2.3-3) if the discs were taken to respond to the gravitational potential of the dark matter halo only, but reduce by ˜ a factor of 2-3 (median Q_{RW}^{min} ˜ 0.7-1.5) if they respond to their self-gravity alone. This implies that the dark matter halo is crucial in regulating disc stability in LSBs, which may have important implications for models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  15. Facilitating the Transition from Bright to Dim Environments (United States)


    librarian or other person designated to request documents from DTIC. Change of Address Organizations receiving reports from the U.S. Army...USAARL Report No. 2016-17 Facilitating the Transition from Bright to Dim Environments By David Walsh1, Morris R. Lattimore1, David L. Still1... ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  16. Human Adolescent Phase Response Curves to Bright White Light. (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I


    Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home. Each session included phase assessments to measure the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after 3 days of free-running through an ultradian light-dark (wake-sleep) cycle (2 h dim [~20 lux] light, 2 h dark). In one session, intermittent bright white light (~5000 lux; four 20-min exposures) was alternated with 10 min of dim room light once per day for 3 consecutive days. The time of light varied among participants to cover the 24-h day. For each individual, the phase shift to bright light was corrected for the free-run derived from the other laboratory session with no bright light. One PRC showed phase shifts in response to light start time relative to the DLMO and another relative to home sleep. Phase delay shifts occurred around the hours corresponding to home bedtime. Phase advances occurred during the hours surrounding wake time and later in the afternoon. The transition from delays to advances occurred at the midpoint of home sleep. The adolescent PRCs presented here provide a valuable tool to time bright light in adolescents.

  17. TEM analysis of grain boundary phase in Mn-Zn ferrites; Mn-Zn ferrite ryukaiso no nano kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Otsuki, E. [Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan)


    A control of nano-structure in sintering process is necessary to decrease the power loss of Mn-Zn ferrites. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the forming process of nano-structure during sintering as well as the structural change of spinel matrix and grain boundary which are affected by the oxygen partial pressure of sintering atmosphere by using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). As a result, it was revealed by the TEN images (bright, dark-field and lattice-fringe images) and the electron diffraction analyses that the thickness of the grain boundary layers was found to increase with increasing oxygen partial pressure of sintering atmosphere. And the reduction of power loss by adding SiO2 and CaO is thought of due to the formation of highly resistive grain boundary layers. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperature product provides near-real-time brightness temperatures for both the Northern and...

  19. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu


    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Death of Darkness: Artificial Sky Brightness in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Zender, C. S.


    Many species (including ours) need darkness to survive and thrive yet light pollution in the anthropocene has received scant attention in Earth System Models (ESMs). Anthropogenic aerosols can brighten background sky brightness and reduce the contrast between skylight and starlight. These are both aesthetic and health-related issues due to their accompanying disruption of circadian rhythms. We quantify aerosol contributions to light pollution using a single-column night sky model, NiteLite, suitable for implementation in ESMs. NiteLite accounts for physiologcal (photopic and scotopic vision, retinal diameter/age), anthropogenic (light and aerosol pollution properties), and natural (surface albedo, trace gases) effects on background brightness and threshold visibility. We find that stratospheric aerosol injection contemplated as a stop-gap measure to counter global warming would increase night-sky brightness by about 25%, and thus eliminate last pristine dark sky areas on Earth. Our results suggest that ESMs incorporate light pollution so that associated societal impacts can be better quantified and included in policy deliberations.

  1. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  2. Achromatic form perception is based on luminance, not brightness. (United States)

    Shioiri, S; Cavanagh, P


    Two figures were examined, one a subjective disk and the other a cup whose shape was revealed by shadows. The figures were presented in a single color on a background of a different color, and the observers adjusted the radiance of one color until, in the first case, the vividness of the subjective contour reached a minimum (minimum subjective contour) or, in the second case, the impression of depth that is due to shadows disappeared (shadow disappearance). The results for these two tasks followed the data for minimum flicker matches (made with the same stimuli) much more closely than those for direct brightness matching. We therefore claim that achromatic form perception in general and subjective contour and shadow perception in particular are based on the intensity dimension measured by flicker photometry, not on that measured by brightness matching. Finally, in agreement with these findings, bleaching of short-wavelength sensitive cones did not affect settings for subjective contours, shadows, or flicker photometry but did affect brightness matching.

  3. SMOS brightness temperature assimilation into the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rains


    Full Text Available SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission brightness temperatures at a single incident angle are assimilated into the Community Land Model (CLM across Australia to improve soil moisture simulations. Therefore, the data assimilation system DasPy is coupled to the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF as well as to the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM. Brightness temperature climatologies are precomputed to enable the assimilation of brightness temperature anomalies, making use of 6 years of SMOS data (2010–2015. Mean correlation R with in situ measurements increases moderately from 0.61 to 0.68 (11 % for upper soil layers if the root zone is included in the updates. A reduced improvement of 5 % is achieved if the assimilation is restricted to the upper soil layers. Root-zone simulations improve by 7 % when updating both the top layers and root zone, and by 4 % when only updating the top layers. Mean increments and increment standard deviations are compared for the experiments. The long-term assimilation impact is analysed by looking at a set of quantiles computed for soil moisture at each grid cell. Within hydrological monitoring systems, extreme dry or wet conditions are often defined via their relative occurrence, adding great importance to assimilation-induced quantile changes. Although still being limited now, longer L-band radiometer time series will become available and make model output improved by assimilating such data that are more usable for extreme event statistics.

  4. Structure of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase TEM-72 inhibited by citrate. (United States)

    Docquier, Jean Denis; Benvenuti, Manuela; Calderone, Vito; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mangani, Stefano


    TEM-72, a class A β-lactamase identified in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 (Q39K, M182T, G238S and E240K) and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) properties arising from the G238S and E240K substitutions. Although many structures of TEM variants have been published, they do not include an enzyme with the simultaneous presence of both of the ESBL-conferring G238S and E240K substitutions. Furthermore, the structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site, where it interacts with all of the conserved residues of class A β-lactamases. The present structure supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.

  5. Fast FIB-milled Electron-transparent Microchips for in situ TEM Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Kallesøe, Christian

    In this work we present a fast approach to 50 nm resolution structures defined in a generic TEM-chip template in few minutes. While creating complex electrical and NEMS circuits for a specific insitu TEM experiment can be a cumbersome process, microchips with 100 nm thin flakes of single...... crystalline silicon and silicon nitride membrane templates suspended from the edge, can be patterned in less than 15 minutes using focused ion beam milling. This approach allows a FIB-SEM user to create free-form NEMS structures for nanoresonators, actuators, heaters, resistors or other structures for insitu...... TEM devices or materials research using the same template. We demonstrate insitu environmental TEM analysis of Au film migration on silicon during resistive heating of a microbridge, and show how the conductance of focused ion beam milled single crystalline silicon nanowires can be adjusted insitu...

  6. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative bacilli exhibiting extended spectrum β- lactamase phenotype isolated at University Hospital Center, Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

  7. Coarsening of Pd nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren


    air at 650 °C. Time-resolved TEM image series reveal that the Pd nanoparticles were immobile and that a few percent of the nanoparticles grew or shrank, indicating a coarsening process mediated by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. The TEM image contrast suggests that the largest nanoparticles tended...... for the Ostwald ripening process indicates that the observed change in the particle size distribution can be accounted for by wetting of the Al2O3 support by the larger Pd nanoparticles....

  8. Recent advances in cryo-TEM imaging of soft lipid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvig, Shen Yu; Mat Azmi, Intan Diana Binti; Moghimi, Seyed Moien


    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), and its technological variations thereof, have become a powerful tool for detailed morphological characterization and 3D tomography of soft lipid and polymeric nanoparticles as well as biological materials such as viruses and DNA without chemical...... fixation. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in Cryo-TEM analysis of lipid-based drug nanocarriers with particular emphasis on morphological and internal nanostructure characterization of lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles such as cubosomes and hexosomes....

  9. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd


    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respective....... The problems of incorporating new technology into standardization as well as the existence of parallel standardized test procedures are discussed...

  10. In situ TEM studies of local transport and structure in nanoscale multilayer films. (United States)

    Chiaramonti, A N; Thompson, L J; Egelhoff, W F; Kabius, B C; Petford-Long, A K


    This paper describes a novel technique for studying structure-transport correlations in nanoscale multilayer thin films. Here, local current-voltage characteristics from simplified magnetic tunnel junctions are measured in situ on cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples and correlated directly with TEM images of the microstructure at the tunneling site. It is found that local variations in barrier properties can be detected by a point probe method, and that the tunneling barrier height and width can be extracted.

  11. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography. (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao


    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×103, 6.624×103 and 2.244×103 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation and Optimization of the Performance of an Air-Coil Sensor with a Differential Structure Suited to Helicopter TEM Exploration. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Wang, Yanzhang


    An air-coil sensor (ACS) is a type of induction magnetometer used as a transducer to measure the variations of a magnetic field. This device is widely applied in helicopter transient electromagnetic method (TEM) exploration. Most helicopter TEM explorations generate common-mode noise and require extreme ACS specifications, both of which inevitably challenge geophysical explorations. This study proposes a differential air-core coil combined with a differential pre-amplifier to reduce the common-mode noise induced in exploration surveys. To satisfy the stringent performance requirements, including the geometric parameters and electrical specifications, the physical calculations in theory and the equivalent schematic of an ACS with noise location are investigated, respectively. The theory calculation and experimental result for the optimized ACS are then compared on the basis of a differential structure. Correspondingly, an ACS is constructed with a mass, resultant effective area, 3 dB bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and normalized equivalent input noise of 2.5 kg, 5.5 m² (diameter is 0.5 m), 71 kHz, 20 (the varying magnetic field strength is 1 nT/s), and 5.43 nV/m², respectively. These data are superior to those of the traditional induction sensor 3D-3. Finally, a field experiment is performed with a fabricated sensor to show a valid measurement of the time-varying magnetic field of a helicopter TEM system based on the designed ACS.

  13. Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes (United States)

    Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Jenko, F.; Hacquin, S.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sabot, R.


    The observation of distinct peaks in tokamak core reflectometry measurements—named quasi-coherent-modes (QCMs)—are identified as a signature of trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence (Arnichand et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014037). This phenomenon is investigated with detailed linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code. A Tore-Supra density scan is studied, which traverses through a linear (LOC) to saturated (SOC) ohmic confinement transition. The LOC and SOC phases are both simulated separately. In the LOC phase, where QCMs are observed, TEMs are robustly predicted unstable in linear studies. In the later SOC phase, where QCMs are no longer observed, ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes are identified. In nonlinear simulations, in the ITG (SOC) phase, a broadband spectrum is seen. In the TEM (LOC) phase, a clear emergence of a peak at the TEM frequencies is seen. This is due to reduced nonlinear frequency broadening of the underlying linear modes in the TEM regime compared with the ITG regime. A synthetic diagnostic of the nonlinearly simulated frequency spectra reproduces the features observed in the reflectometry measurements. These results support the identification of core QCMs as an experimental marker for TEM turbulence.

  14. Simulations of Radar Bright Band at Multiple Frequencies and Its Comparisons with Airborne Radar Measurements (United States)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.


    The melting layer, often observed by the radar as a layer of enhanced radar reflectivity (the so-called radar bright band), is an important meteorological process. An understanding of the microphysical properties of the melting hydrometeors and their electric scattering and propagation effects is of great importance in accurately estimating parameters of the precipitation from spaceborne radar and radiometers, such as TRMM PR and TMI and future GPM DPR and GMI. However, one of the most difficult problems in the study of the radar signature of the melting layer is the determination of the effective dielectric constants of melting hydrometeors. Although a number of mixing formulas are available to compute the effective dielectric constants of dry and melting snow, their results vary to a great extent when the particles are partially melted. Furthermore, it is physically unclear as to how to select among these various formulas. In this study, we first derive the effective dielectric constants of uniformly mixed snow and water particles at X-, Ku-, Ka- and W-bands from their internal electric fields by using a high-resolution computational model in which the particles are precisely described not only by shape but also by particle composition. The stratified-sphere scattering model, a sphere composed of multiple layers, is then employed to compute scattering parameters for non-uniformly melting hydrometeors whose fractional water content is prescribed as a function of the radius of the sphere. In conjunction with a melting layer model that describes the melting fractions and fall velocities of hydrometeors as a function of the distance below the 0C isotherm, the radar bright-band profiles are simulated for air- or space-borne radars operating at X-, Ku-, Ka- and W-bands. These simulated profiles will then be compared with the simultaneous measurements of the bright band made by the NICT (then the Communications Research Lab. of Japan) X- and Ka-band airborne radar

  15. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.


    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  16. Trajectories of bright stars at the Galactic Center as a tool to evaluate a graviton mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Alexander


    Full Text Available Scientists worked in Saint-Petersburg (Petrograd, Leningrad played the extremely important role in creation of scientific school and development of general relativity in Russia. Very recently LIGO collaboration discovered gravitational waves [1] predicted 100 years ago by A. Einstein. In the papers reporting about this discovery, the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg < 1.2 × 10−22eV [1, 2]. The authors concluded that their observational data do not show violations of classical general relativity because the graviton mass limit is very small. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could bound graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and expected with forthcoming pulsar timing observations for gravitational wave detection. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a tool for an evaluation specific parameters of the black hole and also to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as a modifications of Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we give a bounds on a graviton mass.

  17. On the Long-Term Variability of Jupiter's Winds and Brightness as Observed from Hubble (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, Peter J.


    Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging data of Jupiter were combined with wind profiles from Voyager and Cassini data to study long-term variability in Jupiter's winds and cloud brightness. Searches for evidence of wind velocity periodicity yielded a few latitudes with potential variability; the most significant periods were found nearly symmetrically about the equator at 0 deg., 10-12 deg. N, and 14-18 deg. S planetographic latitude. The low to mid-latitude signals have components consistent with the measured stratospheric temperature Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) period of-5 years, while the equatorial signal is approximately seasonal and could be tied to mesoscale wave formation, robustness tests indicate that a constant or continuously varying periodic signal near 4.5 years would appear with high significance in the data periodograms as long as uncertainties or noise in the data are not of greater magnitude. However, the lack of a consistent signal over many latitudes makes it difficult to interpret as a QQO-related change. In addition, further analyses of calibrated 410-nm and 953-nm brightness scans found few corresponding changes in troposphere haze and cloud structure on QQO timescales. However, stratospheric haze reflectance at 255-nm did appear to vary on seasonal timescales, though the data do not have enough temporal coverage or photometric accuracy to be conclusive. Sufficient temporal coverage and spacing, as well as data quality, are critical to this type of search.

  18. Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency. (United States)

    Lee, Jaesang; Chen, Hsiao-Fan; Batagoda, Thilini; Coburn, Caleb; Djurovich, Peter I; Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen R


    The combination of both very high brightness and deep blue emission from phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLED) is required for both display and lighting applications, yet so far has not been reported. A source of this difficulty is the absence of electron/exciton blocking layers (EBL) that are compatible with the high triplet energy of the deep blue dopant and the high frontier orbital energies of hosts needed to transport charge. Here, we show that N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) Ir(III) complexes can serve as both deep blue emitters and efficient hole-conducting EBLs. The NHC EBLs enable very high brightness (>7,800 cd m(-2)) operation, while achieving deep blue emission with colour coordinates of [0.16, 0.09], suitable for most demanding display applications. We find that both the facial and the meridional isomers of the dopant have high efficiencies that arise from the unusual properties of the NHC ligand-that is, the complexes possess a strong metal-ligand bond that destabilizes the non-radiative metal-centred ligand-field states. Our results represent an advance in blue-emitting PHOLED architectures and materials combinations that meet the requirements of many critical illumination applications.

  19. Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs: S5 0716+714 (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Lee, Sang-Sung; Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Dae-Won; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Kang, Sincheol; Kang, Jiman; Kim, Sungsoo S.


    We present the results of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright blazar S5 0716+714 using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, as part of the Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-ray Bright active galactic nuclei (iMOGABA) KVN key science program. Observations were conducted in 29 sessions from 2013 January 16 to 2016 March 1, with the source being detected and imaged at all available frequencies. In all epochs, the source was compact on the milliarcsecond scale, yielding a compact VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on these scales. Based on the multiwavelength data between 15 GHz (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) and 230 GHz (Submillimeter Array), we found that the source shows multiple prominent enhancements of the flux density at the centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths, with mm enhancements leading cm enhancements by -16 ± 8 days. The turnover frequency was found to vary between 21 and 69 GHz during our observations. By assuming a synchrotron self-absorption model for the relativistic jet emission in S5 0716+714, we found the magnetic field strength in the mas emission region to be ≤5 mG during the observing period, yielding a weighted mean of 1.0 ± 0.6 mG for higher turnover frequencies (e.g., >45 GHz).

  20. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  1. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey : The nature of bright submm galaxies from 2 deg2 of 850-μm imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Geach, J. E.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Mortlock, A.; Caputi, K. I.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Chen, Chian-Chou; McLure, R. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bourne, N.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; van der Werf, P.; Zemcov, M.


    We present physical properties [redshifts (z), star-formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (Mstar)] of nearly 2000 bright (S850 > 4 mJy) submm galaxies in the ~2 deg2 COSMOS and UDS fields selected with SCUBA-2 on the JCMT, representing the largest homogeneous sample of 850-um-selected sources to

  2. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams: Working Group A Summary on High Brightness Beam Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, John


    Working group A was devoted to high brightness beam production and characterization. The presentations and discussions could be categorized as cathode physics, new photoinjector designs, computational modeling of high brightness beams, and new experimental methods and results. Several novel injector and cathode designs were presented. However, a standard 1.5 cell rf photoinjector is still the most common source for high brightness beams. New experimental results and techniques were presented and thoroughly discussed. The brightest beam produced in a rf photoinjector published at the time of the workshop is approximately 2 10{sup 14} A/(m-rad){sup 2} at Sumitomo Heavy Industries in Japan with 1 nC of charge, a 9 ps FWHM long laser pulse and a normalized transverse emittance of 1.2 pm. The emittance was achieved by utilizing a temporally flat laser pulse which decreased the emittance by an estimated factor of 2 from the beam produced with a Gaussian pulse shape with an identical pulse length.

  3. Prediction of types of pyroxenes on the surface of bright near-earth and near-Mars asteroids (United States)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; Golubeva, L. F.


    Colorimetric data of bright near-earth and near-Mars asteroids from TRIAD and ECAS are analyzed. Composition fields of pyroxenes were obtained for these asteroids from the value of the u-x color index and the ferrous absorption band position near 505 nm within the pyroxene quadrilateral. Pyroxenes of the S asteroids from the Apollo-Amur group which have spectral parameters similar to achondrites may be represented by the diopside-augite series. AA asteroids (S type), whose spectral parameters are similar to L-chondrites, have either a chondritic composition or Fe-rich orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes that are not encountered in meteoritic minerals. It is found that the average u-x color index increases with increasing average perihelion distance from 1 to 1.8 AU, which indicates the dependence of the chemical composition of pyroxenes on the surface of bright asteroids on this distance.

  4. CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Xu, Yifei; Moradi, Mohammad-Amin; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Friedrich, Heiner


    Morphology plays an essential role in chemistry through the segregation of atoms and/or molecules into different phases, delineated by interfaces. This is a general process in materials synthesis and exploited in many fields including colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, and functional molecular systems. To rationally design complex materials, we must understand and control morphology evolution. Toward this goal, we utilize cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), which can track the structural evolution of materials in solution with nanometer spatial resolution and a temporal resolution of materials. These three different research areas are at the heart of our approach to materials chemistry where we take inspiration from the myriad examples of complex materials in Nature. Biological materials are formed using a limited number of chemical components and under ambient conditions, and their formation pathways were refined during biological evolution by enormous trial and error approaches to self-organization and biomineralization. By combining the information on what is possible in nature and by focusing on a limited number of chemical components, we aim to provide an essential insight into the role of structure evolution in materials synthesis. Bone, for example, is a hierarchical and hybrid material which is lightweight, yet strong and hard. It is formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of collagen into a macromolecular template with nano- and microscale structure. This template then directs the nucleation and growth of oriented, nanoscale calcium phosphate crystals to form the composite material. Fundamental insight into controlling these structuring processes will eventually allow us to design such complex materials with predetermined and potentially unique properties.

  5. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions. (United States)

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal


    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Minerals and aligned collagen fibrils in tilapia fish scales: structural analysis using dark-field and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tagaya, Motohiro; Chen, Song; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki


    The mineralized structure of aligned collagen fibrils in a tilapia fish scale was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques after a thin sample was prepared using aqueous techniques. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy data indicated that a mineralized internal layer consisting of aligned collagen fibrils contains hydroxyapatite crystals. Bright-field imaging, dark-field imaging, and energy-filtered TEM showed that the hydroxyapatite was mainly distributed in the hole zones of the aligned collagen fibrils structure, while needle-like materials composed of calcium compounds including hydroxyapatite existed in the mineralized internal layer. Dark-field imaging and three-dimensional observation using electron tomography revealed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were mainly found in the matrix between the collagen fibrils. It was observed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were preferentially distributed on the surface of the hole zones in the aligned collagen fibrils structure and in the matrix between the collagen fibrils in the mineralized internal layer of the scale.

  7. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave


    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  8. Confidence intervals for concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation measurements. (United States)

    Pryse, Kenneth M; Rong, Xi; Whisler, Jordan A; McConnaughey, William B; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Melnykov, Artem V; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M


    The theory of photon count histogram (PCH) analysis describes the distribution of fluorescence fluctuation amplitudes due to populations of fluorophores diffusing through a focused laser beam and provides a rigorous framework through which the brightnesses and concentrations of the fluorophores can be determined. In practice, however, the brightnesses and concentrations of only a few components can be identified. Brightnesses and concentrations are determined by a nonlinear least-squares fit of a theoretical model to the experimental PCH derived from a record of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. The χ(2) hypersurface in the neighborhood of the optimum parameter set can have varying degrees of curvature, due to the intrinsic curvature of the model, the specific parameter values of the system under study, and the relative noise in the data. Because of this varying curvature, parameters estimated from the least-squares analysis have varying degrees of uncertainty associated with them. There are several methods for assigning confidence intervals to the parameters, but these methods have different efficacies for PCH data. Here, we evaluate several approaches to confidence interval estimation for PCH data, including asymptotic standard error, likelihood joint-confidence region, likelihood confidence intervals, skew-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa), and Monte Carlo residual resampling methods. We study these with a model two-dimensional membrane system for simplicity, but the principles are applicable as well to fluorophores diffusing in three-dimensional solution. Using simulated fluorescence fluctuation data, we find the BCa method to be particularly well-suited for estimating confidence intervals in PCH analysis, and several other methods to be less so. Using the BCa method and additional simulated fluctuation data, we find that confidence intervals can be reduced dramatically for a specific non-Gaussian beam profile. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society

  9. Beyond pragmatism: defending the 'bright line' of birth. (United States)

    Burin, Achas K


    It is usually accepted by ethicists that birth does not alter moral status. Rather, it is thought that the rule according full legal rights at birth is pragmatic. Pragmatic reasoning is vulnerable to competing practical concerns and stronger moral principles. This 'bright line' has therefore been criticised both by those who believe personhood begins before birth and those who believe it begins afterward. In particular, a recent article by Giubilini and Minerva puts forward both pragmatic and moral arguments in favour of permitting infanticide, and the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal has suggested there is a strong case for abandoning the bright line (R v Iby (2005) 63 NSWLR 278). If we desire to defend current legal doctrine against such criticism, a medical and philosophical basis for the law should be articulated. This article suggests such a medical and philosophical basis. It argues that both the multiplicity of biological changes occurring in the neonate at birth and the extrauterine context (the world) provide a justification for the distinction drawn at law between abortion and infanticide. With reference to Robert Nozick's 'experience machine' thought-experiment and elements of phenomenological philosophy, it advances two propositions to explain the status-changing nature of the neonate's emergence out of the womb. First, that expressing sentience in the world is essential for the attainment of personhood. Second, that having become a person, the harm in killing is disruption of this engagement with the world and the reduction from personhood to non-existence. This is the distinction between a neonate's death and the termination of a foetus, underscoring the qualitative difference between the two sides of the bright line drawn in law. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. The new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Portnov, Boris A.


    I present the main steps toward the completion of the new World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness (WA II) and some results. The computational technique has been updated, in comparison to the first World Atlas, to take into account both sources and sites elevation. The elevation data are from USGS GTOPO30 global digital elevation model, with the same pixel size as the WA II maps. The upward emission function used to compute the Atlas is a three parameters function. The parameters can be constrained to the database of Earth based night sky brightness measurements. In this way we can use the better fitting upward function for the final map’s calibration. We maintained constant atmosphere parameters over the entire Earth, identical to those used for the first Atlas (Garstang atmospheric clarity coefficient k=1, equivalent to a vertical extinction at sea level of 0.33 magnitude in the V band). This was done in order to avoid introducing a local bias due to different conditions that may confound the light pollution propagation effects. The radiance data used are those from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) on board the Suomi NPP satellite. The use of this newly available radiance data allows for an increased real resolution, even while maintaining the same 30"x30" lat-lon pixel size. Anyway, a higher resolution is really appreciable only in the immediate proximity of sources of light pollution (e.g. inside a big city). The VIIRS DNB data used for the input data were chosen from the months ranging from May to September in order to avoid introducing bias from the variable snow coverage in mid to high northern latitudes. In the southern hemisphere this problem is far less pronounced. The WA II takes advantage of the now enormous database of Earth based sky brightness measurements obtained mainly with Sky Quality Meters, but also with CCD measurements.

  11. Variation reduction of brightness and pH of pulp sent to a paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napassavong Rojanarowan


    Full Text Available The variance of the brightness of pulp sent to the paper mill during the changing period of dry pulp grades affects the chemical control in the paper mill. This research aims to determine the mixing formula of pulp with different brightness from the EOP and D1 stages to handle this variation issue. This research uses response surface design with Central Composite Design type, regression technique and optimization technique to find the optimal setting of the mixing formula for each of the seven brightness levels to obtain the target brightness of 86% and the pH of 5.25. The mixing formulas are determined by the pulp mixing percentage and the sulfuric acid consumption. The experimental results reveal that when using higher EOP mixing ratio, the brightness decreases and the pH increases. Regarding the effect of the sulfuric acid, increasing the sulfuric acid makes the brightness and the pH decrease. After implementing the optimal formula in the production line, the mean of pulp brightness is closer to the target compared with the brightness before improvement and the brightness variation decreases without affecting the quality of other pulp grades, average of brightness decreased from 87.4% to 86.3% and standard deviation of brightness decreased from 1.09 to 0.46.

  12. Summing up of the measured wind power. Quarterly information bulletin about the ToTem project; Totalisation de l'energie eolienne mesuree. Bulletin d'information trimestriel sur le projet ToTem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to validate the objectives established for 2005 and 2010 in the framework of the French national programs of development of wind power (Eole) and of improvement of energy efficiency (PNA2E), it is necessary to analyze precisely the real performances of the wind farms already connected to the national grid. This is the main goal of the ToTem project which aims at summing-up the measured power produced by the different French wind farms. This dossier presents the historical context of the project, its main steps (feasibility study, field studies, production and performances follow-up, data diffusion and exploitation), its actors, and answers some practical questions. A presentation of similar programs in Europe is briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  13. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy


    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  14. Aqueous origins of bright salt deposits on Ceres (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.


    Bright materials have been reported in association with impact craters on Ceres. The abundant Na2CO3 and some ammonium salts, NH4HCO3 and/or NH4Cl, were detected in bright deposits within Occator crater with Dawn near infrared spectroscopy. The composition and appearance of the salts suggest their aqueous mobilization and emplacement after formation of the crater. Here we consider origins of the bright deposits through calculation of speciation in the H-C-N-O-Na-Cl water-salt type system constrained by the mass balance of observed salts. Calculations of chemical equilibria show that initial solutions had the pH of ∼10. The temperature and salinity of solutions could have not exceeded ∼273 K and ∼100 g per kg H2O, respectively. Freezing models reveal an early precipitation of Na2CO3·10H2O followed by minor NaHCO3. Ammonium salts precipitate near eutectic from brines enriched in NH4+, Cl- and Na+. A late-stage precipitation of NaCl·2H2O is modeled for solution compositions with added NaCl. Calculated eutectics are above 247 K. The apparently unabundant ammonium and chloride salts in Occator's deposits imply a rapid emplacement without a compositional evolution of solution. Salty ice grains could have deposited from post-impact ballistic plumes formed through low-pressure boiling of subsurface solutions. Hydrated and ammonium salts are unstable at maximum temperatures of Ceres' surface and could decompose through space weathering. Occator's ice-free salt deposits formed through a post-depositional sublimation of ice followed by dehydration of Na2CO3·10H2O and NaHCO3 to Na2CO3. In other regions, excavated and exposed bright materials could be salts initially deposited from plumes and accumulated at depth via post-impact boiling. The lack of detection of sulfates and an elevated carbonate/chloride ratio in Ceres' materials suggest an involvement of compounds abundant in the outer solar system.

  15. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.


    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  16. Thin Sea-ice Thickness Retrievals from SMAP Brightness Temperatures (United States)

    Bayler, E. J.; Smith, R.


    The retrieval of thin sea-ice thicknesses has been developed for data from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture - Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, employing the transition of observed surface emissivity from open water to thick sea ice. This technique is now applied to brightness temperature data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission, addressing the instrument differences between the SMOS Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) and the SMAP scanning radiometer. This study demonstrates the utility of SMAP data for addressing a critical data gap for numerical prediction in polar regions, particularly as operational modeling advances toward coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere modeling.

  17. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)


    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  18. In-situ TEM/heavy ion irradiation on ultrafine-and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten: Effect of 3 MeV Si, Cu and W ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Atwani, O., E-mail: [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Center of Materials Under Extreme Environments, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Suslova, A.; Novakowski, T.J. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Center of Materials Under Extreme Environments, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hattar, K. [Department of Radiation Solid Interactions, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Efe, M. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Harilal, S.S.; Hassanein, A. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Center of Materials Under Extreme Environments, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Plasma facing components for future fusion applications will experience helium- and neutron-induced structural damage. Direct observation of the in-situ dynamic response of such components during particle beam exposure assists in fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena that give rise to their irradiation resistance. We investigated the response of ultrafine and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to 3 MeV heavy ion irradiations (Si{sup 2} {sup +}, Cu{sup 3} {sup +} and W{sup 4} {sup +}) for the simulation of neutron-induced damage through transmutation reactions via in-situ ion irradiation–transmission electron microscopy experiments. Defect densities as a function of irradiation dose (displacement per atom) and fluence were studied. Four stages of defect densities evolution were observed, as a function of irradiation dose: 1) increase in defect density at lower doses, 2) higher defect production rate at the intermediate doses (before saturation), 3) reaching the maximum value, and 4) drop of the defect density in the case of W{sup 4} {sup +}, possibly due to defect coalescence and grain boundary absorption of small defect clusters. The effect of grain size on defect densities was investigated and found that defect densities were independent of grain size in the ultrafine and nanocrystalline region (60–400 nm). These results were compared to other heavy ion irradiation studies of structural materials. - Graphical abstract: Bright-field TEM micrographs and defect densities of UF and NC tungsten grains irradiated with a) Si{sup +} {sup 2} at 1.03 dpa: 1) 140 nm — 7.2 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}, 2) 122 nm — 6.9 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}, 3) 63 nm — 4.7 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}, and 4) 367 nm — 6.4 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}; b) Cu{sup +} {sup 3} to 3.79 dpa: 1) 228 nm — 4.3 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}; 2) 202 nm — 5.9 × 10{sup −} {sup 3} defects/nm{sup 2}; and 3) 137 nm

  19. An investigation of the optics of an accelerating column for use with a high brightness ion source and a proton microprobe (United States)

    Colman, R. A.; Legge, G. J. F.


    The accelerating column of a 5U Pelletron accelerator is analysed in this paper. This accelerator provides the primary beam for the Melbourne Scanning Proton Microprobe. The finite element method is used to calculate the electrostatic field in the accelerator column, and optical properties are extracted from ray tracing. Gaussian properties are presented which specify object location for the column to produce an exit plane focus for five and three accelerating elements. Column acceptance is discussed and found to match emittance for all practical configurations. Chromatic and spherical aberrations are calculated for the column for a range of image distances and for five and three accelerating elements. The optical combination of the column with an ion source lens and a high brightness ion source is discussed. The contribution of the column is found to be principally dependent on the magnification and accelerating voltage of the lens. Where very low currents are required from the accelerator, beam brightness is limited by chromatic aberration, and for very low divergences by diffraction. At such currents the high brightness phase space "core" of the beam may be degraded by chromatic aberration in the accelerating column if the ion source lens magnification is low, or the lens acceleration is particularly high. Where high currents are required (for example above 100 pA), beam divergence angles are higher, and the brightness is no longer chromatically or diffraction limited. Under these circumstances, accelerating column aberrations will not degrade beam brightness.

  20. Atom-counting in High Resolution Electron Microscopy:TEM or STEM - That's the question. (United States)

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S


    In this work, a recently developed quantitative approach based on the principles of detection theory is used in order to determine the possibilities and limitations of High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR STEM) and HR TEM for atom-counting. So far, HR STEM has been shown to be an appropriate imaging mode to count the number of atoms in a projected atomic column. Recently, it has been demonstrated that HR TEM, when using negative spherical aberration imaging, is suitable for atom-counting as well. The capabilities of both imaging techniques are investigated and compared using the probability of error as a criterion. It is shown that for the same incoming electron dose, HR STEM outperforms HR TEM under common practice standards, i.e. when the decision is based on the probability function of the peak intensities in HR TEM and of the scattering cross-sections in HR STEM. If the atom-counting decision is based on the joint probability function of the image pixel values, the dependence of all image pixel intensities as a function of thickness should be known accurately. Under this assumption, the probability of error may decrease significantly for atom-counting in HR TEM and may, in theory, become lower as compared to HR STEM under the predicted optimal experimental settings. However, the commonly used standard for atom-counting in HR STEM leads to a high performance and has been shown to work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase TEM for biological imaging utilizing a Boersch electrostatic phase plate: theory and practice. (United States)

    Shiue, Jessie; Chang, Chia-Seng; Huang, Sen-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Tsai, Jin-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Hau; Wu, Yi-Min; Lin, Yen-Chen; Kuo, Pai-Chia; Huang, Yang-Shan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Kai, Ji-Jung; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Fu-Rong


    A Boersch electrostatic phase plate (BEPP) used in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) system can provide tuneable phase shifts and overcome the low contrast problem for biological imaging. Theoretically, a pure phase image with a high phase contrast can be obtained using a BEPP. However, a currently available TEM system utilizing a BEPP cannot achieve sufficiently high phase efficiency for biological imaging, owing to the practical conditions. The low phase efficiency is a result of the blocking of partial unscattered electrons by BEPP, and the contribution of absorption contrast. The fraction of blocked unscattered beam is related to BEPP dimensions and to divergence of the illumination system of the TEM. These practical issues are discussed in this paper. Phase images of biological samples (negatively stained ferritin) obtained by utilizing a BEPP are reported, and the phase contrast was found to be enhanced by a factor of approximately 1.5, based on the calculation using the Rose contrast criterion. The low gain in phase contrast is consistent with the expectation from the current TEM/BEPP system. A new generation of phase TEM utilizing BEPP and designed for biological imaging with a high phase efficiency is proposed.

  2. Structural characterization of amphiphilic homopolymer micelles using light scattering, SANS, and cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Kelley, Elizabeth G; Murphy, Ryan P; Moughton, Adam O; Robin, Mathew; Lu, Annhelen; Colombani, Olivier; Chassenieux, Christophe; Cheung, David; Sullivan, Millicent O; Epps, Thomas H; O'Reilly, Rachel K


    We report the aqueous solution self-assembly of a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) polymers end-functionalized with a hydrophobic sulfur-carbon-sulfur (SCS) pincer ligand. Although the hydrophobic ligand accounted for structural details were investigated using light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Radial density profiles extracted from the cryo-TEM micrographs suggested that the PNIPAM chains formed a diffuse corona with a radially decreasing corona density profile and provided valuable a priori information about the micelle structure for SANS data modeling. SANS analysis indicated a similar profile in which the corona surrounded a small hydrophobic core containing the pincer ligand. The similarity between the SANS and cryo-TEM results demonstrated that detailed information about the micelle density profile can be obtained directly from cryo-TEM and highlighted the complementary use of scattering and cryo-TEM in the structural characterization of solution-assemblies, such as the SCS pincer-functionalized homopolymers described here.

  3. Clusters on the basis of bright multimode light in a mixed state (United States)

    Korolev, S. B.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Golubeva, T. Yu.; Golubev, Yu. M.


    The possibility of cluster-state generation on the basis of mixing radiation from two independent lasers in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer is shown in this paper. The formulation of the problem is close to that considered before by Menicucci (Phys. Rev. A 83, 62314 (2011)) and Yokouama et al. (Nature Photonics 7, 982 (2013)). The specificity of the current consideration is that our sources of squeezed light (phase-locked sub-Poissonian lasers) radiate bright light in a mixed state, in contrast to an optical parametric oscillator in the subthreshold mode. We also take into account the multimode structure of the radiation, not restricting ourselves to only a constant component of the field-noise characteristics. To set the cluster state, the van Loock-Furusawa separability criterion is used.

  4. Comparison of dc and superconducting rf photoemission guns for high brightness high average current beam production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov


    Full Text Available A comparison of the two most prominent electron sources of high average current high brightness electron beams, dc and superconducting rf photoemission guns, is carried out using a large-scale multivariate genetic optimizer interfaced with space charge simulation codes. The gun geometry for each case is varied concurrently with laser pulse shape and parameters of the downstream beam line elements of the photoinjector to obtain minimum emittance as a function of bunch charge. Realistic constraints are imposed on maximum field values for the two gun types. The superconducting rf and dc gun emittances and beam envelopes are compared for various values of photocathode thermal emittance. The performance of the two systems is found to be largely comparable for up to 154 pC per bunch at 1.3 GHz or 200 mA provided low intrinsic emittance photocathodes can be employed.

  5. When the Sky Falls NASA's Response to Bright Bolide Events Over Continental USA (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Cooke, W. J.; Kingery, A. M.; Moser, D. E.


    Being the only U.S. Government entity charged with monitoring the meteor environment, the Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has deployed a network of allsky and wide field meteor cameras, along with the appropriate software tools to quickly analyze data from these systems. However, the coverage of this network is still quite limited, forcing the incorporation of data from other cameras posted to the internet in analyzing many of the fireballs reported by the public and media. Information on these bright events often needs to be reported to NASA Headquarters by noon the following day; thus a procedure has been developed that determines the analysis process for a given fireball event based on the types and amount of data available. The differences between these analysis processes are shown by looking at four meteor events that the MEO responded to, all of which were large enough to produce meteorites.

  6. Low Brightness Temperature in Microwaves at Periphery of Some Solar Active Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov B. I.


    Full Text Available The microwave regions with low brightness temperature are found to overlap the regions of the depressed coronal emission and open field lines at the periphery of two solar active regions (ARs. The imaging microwave observations of the Sun with the Nobeyama Radio heliograph at 1.76 cm, the MRO-14 radio telescope of Metsähovi Radio Observatory at 0.8 cm, and the RT-32 of Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre in the range 3.2-4.7 cm are used. To reduce the noise in the intensity distribution of the RT-32 maps of the Sun, one wavelet plane of “à trous” wavelet space decomposition is subtracted from each map. To locate the open-field regions, the full-Sun coronal magnetic fields with the potential field source surface (PFSS model for RSS = 1.8 Rʘ are simulated. We conclude that the revealed LTRs present narrow coronal hole-like regions near two ARs and imply an extra investigation on the plasma outflow.

  7. Tem Observation Of Age-Hardening Precipitation In Mg-Gd-Y Alloys As Different Gd/Y Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Y.


    Full Text Available In this study, the early stage of aging in Mg-Gd-Y alloys has been observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high angle annular dark field – scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM and calculations of images and electron density and bond overlap population (BOP by first principal to understand the origin of precipitation in this alloy. The small hexagon of 0.37 nm is the first precipitate in this alloy, and this is the evidence of short range ordering of D019 structure. This is referred as the pre β”-phase. In the peak aged condition, β’ phase with bco structure was mainly observed.

  8. Qualidade de vida do paciente submetido à Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM Quality of life after Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silveira Moraes


    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A Microcirurgia Endoscópica Transanal (TEM é procedimento minimamente invasivo para o tratamento de tumores retais selecionados. Atualmente, existe crescente interesse médico na medida quantitativa da qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a TEM no Serviço de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional prospectivo e de coorte da avaliação da qualidade de vida após TEM. Trinta e quatro pacientes responderam a um questionário composto de 14 questões, abordando aspectos pós-operatórios e laborais. Dirigiam-se elas para levantar dados principalmente sobre: o consentimento informado; a dor experimentada após a operação; a capacidade de o paciente caminhar no período pós-operatório; o período para retorno às atividades habituais; a satisfação com a ausência de cicatriz pós-operatória; a incontinência no pós-operatório; se recomendaria a operação a um familiar ou conhecido. RESULTADOS: Todos os 34 pacientes relataram ter sido adequadamente informados sobre o procedimento. Ausência de dor pós-operatória foi observada em 82,5% e todos se mostraram capazes de deambular no 1º dia do pós-operatório. O retorno às atividades habituais deu-se em média sete dias após o procedimento. Somente cinco pacientes (14,70% apresentaram incontinência fecal transitória, não maior que uma semana. Três pacientes (8,82% necessitaram de re-internação, sendo dois por tumores residuais e outro por recidiva tumoral. Dois pacientes (5,88% referiram modificação temporária na vida sexual após a cirurgia e 97,05% indicariam a TEM a um familiar ou amigo. O período médio de internação foi de três dias. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentaram boa evolução, com pouca dor pós-operatória, curto período de internação e baixo índice de complicações, mostrando satisfação e adequada

  9. Combined interpretation of SkyTEM and high-resolution seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Lykke-Andersen, Holger; Jørgensen, Flemming Voldum


    on the resistivity log, synthetic SkyTEM responses were calculated with a varying number of gate-times in order to illustrate the effect of the noise-level. At the exploration well geophysical data were compared to the lithological log; in general there is good agreement. The same tendency was recognised when Sky...... made based on AEM (SkyTEM) and high-resolution seismic data from an area covering 10 km2 in the western part of Denmark. As support for the interpretations, an exploration well was drilled to provide lithological and logging information in the form of resistivity and vertical seismic profiling. Based......TEM results from the area were superposed onto seismic sections. Hence, comprehensive geological knowledge is necessary in order to introduce layer boundaries from one method interactively in the data handling of the other. However, in cases where resistivity transitions are positively correlated...

  10. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino


    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  11. Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces. (United States)

    Schirillo, J A; Shevell, S K


    Several experiments reveal that judgments of lightness and brightness of an achromatic surface depend, in part, on the luminances of other surfaces perceived to share the same depth plane, even if the surfaces are well separated on the retina. Two Mondrians, simulated on a CRT, were viewed through a haploscope. The more highly illuminated Mondrian contained a comparison patch and appeared nearer than the more dimly illuminated Mondrian, which contained the test patch. By independently varying the disparity of the test patch, observers could make the test patch appear to be in the depth plane of either the dimly or the highly illuminated Mondrian. Observers set the luminance of the test patch to match that of the comparison patch. The test was set as high as 15% more luminous when it was perceived in the depth plane of the highly illuminated rather than the dimly illuminated Mondrian. Both brightness and lightness judgments were affected by the perceived depth of the test, although the lightness judgments of inexperienced observers sometimes were dominated by local-contrast matching.

  12. Bright Solitons in a PT-Symmetric Chain of Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar B. Kirikchi


    Full Text Available We study the existence and stability of fundamental bright discrete solitons in a parity-time- (PT- symmetric coupler composed by a chain of dimers that is modelled by linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with gain and loss terms. We use a perturbation theory for small coupling between the lattices to perform the analysis, which is then confirmed by numerical calculations. Such analysis is based on the concept of the so-called anticontinuum limit approach. We consider the fundamental onsite and intersite bright solitons. Each solution has symmetric and antisymmetric configurations between the arms. The stability of the solutions is then determined by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problem. We obtain that both symmetric and antisymmetric onsite mode can be stable for small coupling, in contrast to the reported continuum limit where the antisymmetric solutions are always unstable. The instability is either due to the internal modes crossing the origin or the appearance of a quartet of complex eigenvalues. In general, the gain-loss term can be considered parasitic as it reduces the stability region of the onsite solitons. Additionally, we analyse the dynamic behaviour of the onsite and intersite solitons when unstable, where typically it is either in the form of travelling solitons or soliton blow-ups.

  13. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.


    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  14. Quasi-integrable non-linear Schrödinger models, infinite towers of exactly conserved charges and bright solitons (United States)

    Blas, H.; do Bonfim, A. C. R.; Vilela, A. M.


    Deformations of the focusing non-linear Schrödinger model (NLS) are considered in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. We strengthen the results of JHEP 09 (2012) 103 for bright soliton collisions. We addressed the focusing NLS as a complement to the one in JHEP 03 (2016) 005 , in which the modified defocusing NLS models with dark solitons were shown to exhibit an infinite tower of exactly conserved charges. We show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that for certain two-bright-soliton solutions, in which the modulus and phase of the complex modified NLS field exhibit even parities under a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved during the scattering process of the solitons. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the bright solitons with deformed potential V=2η /2+\\upepsilon{({|ψ |}^2)}^{2+\\upepsilon},\\upepsilon \\in \\mathbb{R},η parity we also show numerically the vanishing of the first non-trivial anomaly and the exact conservation of the relevant charge. So, the parity symmetry seems to be a sufficient but not a necessary condition for the existence of the infinite tower of conserved charges. The model supports elastic scattering of solitons for a wide range of values of the amplitudes and velocities and the set { η, ɛ}. Since the NLS equation is ubiquitous, our results may find potential applications in several areas of non-linear science.

  15. Inside-Out or Outside-In? Metallicity Gradients in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies in the MUSCEL Program (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon


    We present the metallicity profiles of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies as clues to the formation of these galaxies. This easily overlooked class of galaxy comprises up to half of the galaxy population with masses spanning that of the Milky Way, making them cosmologically significant baryon repositories. LSB galaxies are also very different from the more familiar archetypal galaxies in that they have unusually high gas fractions, up to 95%. Yet, they do not represent a distinct class of galaxy, but are simply on the low surface brightness end of a continuum.We have observed a sample of low surface brightness galaxies with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph as part of the MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry, and Evolution of LSB galaxies). Our program aims to fully characterize the formation histories of these galaxies by using these data in tandem with Spitzer, Galex, and Swift observations.Optical emission lines contained within the VIRUS-P spectra have allowed us to determined the metallicities of HII regions within these galaxies via emission-line ratio diagnostics. Because ISM metallicities are directly linked to the competing effects of star formation and gas accretion, the distribution of metals is a significant clue to the formation of these galaxies.

  16. Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference: a study on Goethe's color circle with RGB color space (United States)

    Camgoz, Nilgun; Yener, Cengiz


    In order to investigate preference responses for foreground- background color relationships, 85 university undergraduates in Ankara, Turkey, viewed 6 background colors (red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) on which color squares of differing hues, saturations, and brightnesses were presented. All the background colors had maximum brightness (100%) and maximum saturation (100%). Subjects were asked to show the color square they preferred on the presented background color viewed through a computer monitor. The experimental setup consisted of a computer monitor located in a windowless room, illuminated with cove lighting. The findings of the experiment show that the brightness 100%- saturation 100% range is significantly preferred the most (p-value < 0.03). Thus, color squares that are most saturated and brightest are preferred on backgrounds of most saturated and brightest colors. Regardless of the background colors viewed, the subjects preferred blue the most (p-value < 0.01). Findings of the study are also discussed with pertinent research on the field. Through this analysis, an understanding of foreground-background color relationships in terms of preference is sought.

  17. A simple algorithm for measuring particle size distributions on an uneven background from TEM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Ozkaya, Dogan; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.


    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence...... of an uneven background. The approach is based on adaptive thresholding, making use of local threshold values that change with spatial coordinate. The algorithm allows particles to be detected and characterized with greater accuracy than using more conventional methods, in which a global threshold is used. Its...

  18. Environmental TEM in the in situ Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Studies of materials using in situ techniques usually involve a compromise of the in situ conditions in order to fulfil the requirements compatible with the instrumentation for characterization. These requirements include sample geometry, temperature, gas environment etc. Environmental TEM depends...... the techniques to the microscope. A dedicated custom TEM specimen holder containing two optical fibres, five electrical contacts, a fixed miniaturized optical bench for light handling and a heating element has been designed. A system of pre-aligned mirrors and a MEMS heater are implemented in the holder...

  19. Oxidation in ceria infiltrated metal supported SOFCs – A TEM investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter


    The oxidation resistance of the Fe–Cr alloy backbone structure of metal supported solid oxide fuel cells is significantly improved when infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) particles. The mechanism for the improved oxidation behaviour is elucidated using various analytical transmission...... electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of focus ion beamed TEM samples. The infiltrated CGO is predominately converted into CeFeO3 after high temperature processing, protecting the alloy. A thin layer of Cr-oxide is observed...

  20. Simulation of topography evolution and damage formation during TEM sample preparation using focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxleitner, W. E-mail:; Hobler, G.; Klueppel, V.; Cerva, H


    Our recently developed simulation code FIBSIM is applied to topics related to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation using focused ion beams (FIB). FIBSIM combines dynamic Monte Carlo simulation of collision cascades with two-dimensional, cell-based topography simulation. The influence of the scanning mode and of the beam current profile on the evolution of the surface contour is investigated. Furthermore, amorphous zones in silicon samples and damaged regions are predicted for different beam energies of 10, 30 and 50 keV. The thickness of the predicted amorphous regions is in good agreement with experimental TEM data.

  1. On the structural affinity of macromolecules with different biological properties: molecular dynamics simulations of a series of TEM-1 mutants. (United States)

    Giampaolo, Alessia Di; Mazza, Fernando; Daidone, Isabella; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Aschi, Massimiliano


    Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to provide a molecular rationalization of the biological and thermodynamic differences observed for a class of TEM β-lactamases. In particular we have considered the TEM-1(wt), the single point mutants TEM-40 and TEM-19 representative of IRT and ESBL classes respectively, and TEM-1 mutant M182T, TEM-32 and TEM-20 which differ from the first three for the additional of M182T mutation. Results indicate that most of the thermodynamic, and probably biological behaviour of these systems arise from subtle effects which, starting from the alterations of the local interactions, produce drastic modifications of the conformational space spanned by the enzymes. The present study suggests that systems showing essentially the same secondary and tertiary structure may differentiate their chemical-biological activity essentially (and probably exclusively) on the basis of the thermal fluctuations occurring in their physiological environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the system MoS{sub 2} + C, HAADF vs Tem conventional; Cracterizacion del sistema MoS{sub 2} + C, HAADF vs TEM convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, C.; Cruz, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santiago, P.; Rendon, L. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    A study is presented about the synthesis and characterization of unidimensional nano systems composed of MoS{sub 2} and C with potential use as solid lubricant. The synthesis process was developed for the mold method, via thermal decomposition, which uses a film of nano porous aluminium oxide. Such systems were characterized by two analysis methods that involve Transmission Electron Microscopy, HRTEM (Conventional TEM) and HAADF (Z Contrast). The results obtained in the structural and morphological characterization were supplemented to determine the structure type obtained in the unidimensional systems. (Author)

  3. The brightness of the red giant branch tip. Theoretical framework, a set of reference models, and predicted observables (United States)

    Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.; Cassisi, S.; Salaris, M.; Pietrinferni, A.


    Context. The brightness of the tip of the red giant branch is a useful reference quantity for several fields of astrophysics. An accurate theoretical prediction is needed for such purposes. Aims: We provide a solid theoretical prediction for the brightness of the tip of the red giant branch, valid for a reference set of standard physical assumptions, and mostly independent of numerical details. Methods: We examine the dependence on physical assumptions and numerical details for a wide range of metallicities and masses and based on two different stellar evolution codes. We adjust differences between the codes to treat the physics as identically as possible. After we have succeeded in reproducing the tip brightness between the codes, we present a reference set of models based on the most up to date physical inputs, but neglecting microscopic diffusion, and convert theoretical luminosities to observed infrared colours suitable for observations of resolved populations of stars and include analytic fits to facilitate their use. Results: We find that consistent use of updated nuclear reactions, including an appropriate treatment of the electron screening effects, and careful time-stepping on the upper red giant branch are the most important aspects to bring initially discrepant theoretical values into agreement. Small but visible differences remain unexplained for very low metallicities and mass values at and above 1.2 M⊙, corresponding to ages younger than 4 Gyr. The colour transformations introduce larger uncertainties than the differences between the two stellar evolution codes. Conclusions: We demonstrate that careful stellar modelling allows an accurate prediction for the luminosity of the red giant branch tip. Differences to empirically determined brightnesses may result either from insufficient colour transformations or from deficits in the constitutional physics. We present the best-tested theoretical reference values to date.

  4. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)


    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  5. XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Under the condition of tungsten inert gas shielded welding (TIG) + shielded metal arc welding. (SMAW) technology, the microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb (P91) heat-resisting steel is studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test.

  6. Improvement of microtome cutting process of carbon nanotube composite sample preparation for TEM analysis (United States)

    Trayner, Sarah

    As research progresses towards nanoscale materials, there has become a need for a more efficient and effective way to obtain ultra-thin samples for imaging under transmission electron microscope (TEM) for atomic resolution analysis. There are various methods used to obtain thin samples (resin and graphite crystalline packing. UD IM7/BMI composite TEM results did not reveal an interfacial region resulting in a need for even thinner sliced cross sections. TEM results for the single-layer CNT BP/epoxy nanocomposite revealed the alignment direction of the nanotubes and numerous stacks of CNT bundles. In addition, there was visible flattening of CNT packing into dumbbell shapes similar to results obtain by Alan Windle. TEM results for the 3-layer CNT BP/BMI nanocomposite revealed uniformly cut resin. However, when the diamond knife reached graphite crystalline regions, the nanotube either became deformed into a cone-like structure, was cut at a thicker thickness than the resin, or folded over onto itself. This is most likely a result of the nanotubes high mechanical properties in response to the stress of cutting.

  7. A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM micrographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Hongchu, E-mail: [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Jülich Research Centre, Jülich, 52425 (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy (GFE), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074 (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich Research Centre, Jülich 52425 (Germany)


    Noise reduction of micrographs is often an essential task in high resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (HR(S)TEM) either for a higher visual quality or for a more accurate quantification. Since HR(S)TEM studies are often aimed at resolving periodic atomistic columns and their non-periodic deviation at defects, it is important to develop a noise reduction algorithm that can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is developed based on widely used techniques of low-pass filter and Wiener filter, which can efficiently reduce noise without noticeable artifacts even in HR(S)TEM micrographs with contrast of variation of background and defects. The developed nonlinear filtering algorithm is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy, and is also of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM. - Highlights: • A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM images is developed. • It can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. • It is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy. • It is of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM.

  8. Sub-nanometer stable precision MEMS clamping mechanism maintaining clamp force unpowered for TEM application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman; van Dijk, Johannes


    A design is presented for a relatively large force (0.5 mN) high-precision MEMS clamping mechanism. The clamp is a part of a MEMS transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample manipulator, which needs to be fixed unpowered once positioned. The elastic deformation of the clamp suspension has been

  9. In-Situ TEM Investigation of Deformation Behavior of Metallic Glass Pillars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C. Q.; Pei, Y. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Tamura, N; Minor, A; Murray, C; Friedman, L


    We show results of in situ TEM (transmission electron microscope) quantitative investigations on the compression behaviors of amorphous micropillars fabricated by focused ion beam from Cu(47)Ti(33)Zr(11)Ni(6)Sn(2)Si(1) metallic glass (MG) ribbon. Pillars with well defined gauge sections and tip

  10. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 8, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among. Gram negative bacilli exhibiting extended spectrum β- lactamase phenotype isolated at University Hospital. Center, Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, ...

  11. Progress in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens by ion-beam thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Strecker, A; Kelsch, M; Salzberger, U; Sycha, M; Gao, M; Richter, G; Benthem, K V


    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), often the preparation of samples is the most critical part. Specimens have to have disk geometries of 3 mm diameter laterally, and they have to be transparent for the electron beam vertically. Therefore, a specimen thickness in the range of some 1-10 nm has to be achieved by the preparation process. While shrinking the specimen dimensions, care has to be taken to recover the materials properties in the nm-regime. We report and shortly discuss some TEM specimen preparation techniques mainly used in the Stuttgart TEM specimen preparation laboratory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how more advanced techniques lead to a more reliable preparation of weakly-bonded metal/SrTiO sub 3 interfaces. In addition, the advantage of low-voltage ion-milling is demonstrated by a case study for bulk SrTiO sub 3. As a result, low-voltage ion polishing as a final step in the TEM specimen preparation by conventional ion-thinning turns out to significantly increase the specimen quality. In tu...

  12. TEM and EELS studies of microwave-irradiation synthesis of bimetallic platinum nanocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, NR


    Full Text Available to conventional methods. In this work, microwave-irradiation was used to produce platinum-cobalt (Pt-Co) and platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) nanoparticles for use as electrocatalysts in the methanol oxidation reaction. High resolution TEM imaging and EELS studies revealed...

  13. TEM characterization of La/B4C multilayer systems by the geometric phase method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussler, D.; Spiecker, E.; Yang, S.; Jäger, W.; Störmer, M.; Bormann, R.; Zwicker, G.


    New La/B4C multilayer systems with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range have been deposited onto structured silicon (001) surfaces by magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By applying a geometric phase method which has been originally

  14. TEM and SEM studies of microstructural transformations of thin iron films during annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; Smithers, Mark A.; Smithers, M.A.


    High-temperature induced transformations of the bulk structure as well as the surface and bulk morphology of thin polycrystalline iron films have been investigated using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The polycrystalline Fe films were

  15. Soft nanomaterials analysed by in situ liquid TEM: Towards high resolution characterisation of nanoparticles in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Patterson


    Full Text Available In this article we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterisation of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerisation of an oxaliplatin analogue, designed for an ongoing programme in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point towards key design parameters that enable this new characterisation approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic nanoparticles together with their characterisation in liquid water. Finally, we provide a future perspective of this technique for the analysis of soft and dynamic nanomaterials and discussion the progress which needs to be made in order to bring in situ liquid TEM to its full potential.

  16. Optical, mechanical and TEM assessment of titania-doped Bi2V1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images for all the oxides was conducted along with line spectra of planes. Results are discussed in light of correlation of these optical and mechanical parameters to their structural properties. Band gap has also been correlated to the conductivity of these ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  18. TEM study of continuous precipitation in Mg-9 Wt%Al-l Wt%Zn alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S


    The development of continuous precipitate morphology in heat-treated Mg-9 wt%Al-1 wt%Zn alloy (AZ91) for a range of ageing temperatures is investigated in detail using TEM. The matrix/precipitate orientation relationships (ORs), sizes, shapes and the number of precipitates per unit volume (N-V) are

  19. In situ TEM observation on the interface-type resistive switching by electrochemical redox reactions at a TiN/PCMO interface. (United States)

    Baek, Kyungjoon; Park, Sangsu; Park, Jucheol; Kim, Young-Min; Hwang, Hyunsang; Oh, Sang Ho


    The interface-type resistive switching devices exhibiting bipolar and multi-level resistive switching have been considered as the key component for neuromorphic device applications. To directly observe the microscopic details of underlying electrochemical redox reactions occuring at a metal/oxide interface, we implemented in situ resistive switching of TiN/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)/Pt junction devices in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The in situ TEM observations directly show that an intermediate reaction layer (TiOxNy), growing and shrinking in the thickness range of a few nanometers at the TiN/PCMO interface in response to the applied voltage, mainly determines the device resistance by limiting the transport of charge carriers via the Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. A detailed analysis of in situ TEM observations demonstrates that electrochemical redox reactions at the TiN/PCMO interface are facilitated by the electric field driven drift of oxygen as well as Ti ions with a much stronger influence of the oxygen ions. As such, the reaction kinetics are governed by the electric field acting across the TiOxNy reaction layer. This layer defines the critical field for the onset of switching, which is measured to be of the order of 106 V cm-1, a typical value at which the ionic drift velocity starts increasing exponentially with the field according to the nonlinear ionic drift model. The present results indicate that understanding the nature of the electric field driven drift of ions in a nanoscale solid electrolyte is a key to the precise control of the resistive switching of metal/insulator/metal junction devices via voltage stimulations.

  20. Anti-parallel filament flows and bright dots observed in the EUV with Hi-C (United States)

    Alexander, C. E.; Regnier, S.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W.


    The Hi-C instrument imaged the million degree corona at the highest spatial and temporal resolution to date. The instrument imaged a complicated active region which contained several interesting features. Scientists at UCLan in the UK, in collaboration with other members of the Hi-C science team, studied two of these festures: anti-parallel filament flows and bright EUV dots. Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Evidence of ';counter-steaming' flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193 Å). We present observations of an active region filament observed with Hi-C that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70 - 80 km/s) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the individual strands (0.8' × 0.1'). The temperature distribution of the plasma flows was estimated to be log T(K) = 5.45 × 0.10 using EM loci analysis. Short-lived, small brightenings sparkling at the edge of the active region, calle EUV Bright Dots (EBDs) were also investigated. EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength, but can however be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA suggesting a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV

  1. Herschel SPIRE fourier transform spectrometer: calibration of its bright-source mode (United States)

    Lu, Nanyao; Polehampton, Edward T.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Benielli, Dominique; Fulton, Trevor; Hopwood, Rosalind; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David A.; Schulz, Bernhard; Sidher, Sunil; Valtchanov, Ivan


    The Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board the ESA Herschel Space Observatory has two detector setting modes: (a) a nominal mode, which is optimized for observing moderately bright to faint astronomical targets, and (b) a bright-source mode recommended for sources significantly brighter than 500 Jy, within the SPIRE FTS bandwidth of 446.7-1544 GHz (or 194-671 microns in wavelength), which employs a reduced detector responsivity and out-of-phase analog signal amplifier/demodulator. We address in detail the calibration issues unique to the bright-source mode, describe the integration of the bright-mode data processing into the existing pipeline for the nominal mode, and show that the flux calibration accuracy of the bright-source mode is generally within 2 % of that of the nominal mode, and that the bright-source mode is 3 to 4 times less sensitive than the nominal mode.

  2. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources (United States)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; hide


    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  3. Bright Spots in X-pinch Plasmas at 6 MA (United States)

    Sinars, D. B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Yu, E. P.; Jennings, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Bland, S. N.; Chittenden, J. P.


    Bright, ˜1 μm, 10-100 ps x-ray sources with extreme plasma parameters are routinely created using X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA. Modeling suggests that even more extreme plasma parameters might be possible at higher current. We present data from the first 6 MA X-pinch experiments on the SATURN facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The mass required to pinch near peak current was surprisingly low (˜14 mg/cm vs. ˜3 mg/cm at 1 MA) and the smallest x-ray source measured was ˜60 μm in size. Following up on recent work by Pikuz et al. at 1 MA, experiments in September will use nested-array X-pinch implosions to improve the symmetry.

  4. Types and Distribution of Bright Materials in 4 Vesta (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Schroder, S. E.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R. A.


    A strong case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1]. As such, we have over a century of detailed sample analysis experience to call upon when formulating hypotheses regarding plausible lithologic diversity on Vesta. It thus came as a surprise when Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) first revealed distinctly localized materials of exceptionally low and high albedos, often closely associated. To understand the nature and origin of these materials, and how they inform us of the geological evolution of Vesta, task forces began their study. An initial step of the scientific endeavor is to develop a descriptive, non-genetic classification of objects to use as a basis for developing hypotheses and observational campaigns. Here we present a catalog of the types of light-toned deposits and their distribution across Vesta. A companion abstract [2] discusses possible origins of bright materials and the constraints they suggest for vestan geology.

  5. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Słoneczna 36, 60-286 Poznań (Poland); Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander, E-mail: [Copernicus Astronomical Centre, ul. Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)


    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  6. A complete sample of long bright Swift gamma ray bursts. (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Salvaterra, Ruben; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fugazza, Dino; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Melandri, Andrea; Nava, Lara; Sbarufatti, Boris; Vergani, Susanna


    Complete samples are the basis of any population study. To this end, we selected a complete subsample of Swift long bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The sample, made up of 58 bursts, was selected by considering bursts with favourable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up observations and with the 15-150 keV 1 s peak flux above a flux threshold of 2.6 photons cm(-2) s(-1). This sample has a redshift completeness level higher than 90 per cent. Using this complete sample, we investigate the properties of long GRBs and their evolution with cosmic time, focusing in particular on the GRB luminosity function, the prompt emission spectral-energy correlations and the nature of dark bursts.

  7. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  8. Relationships between brightness of nighttime lights and population density (United States)

    Naizhuo, Z.


    Brightness of nighttime lights has been proven to be a good proxy for socioeconomic and demographic statistics. Moreover, the satellite nighttime lights data have been used to spatially disaggregate amounts of gross domestic product (GDP), fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission, and electric power consumption (Ghosh et al., 2010; Oda and Maksyutov, 2011; Zhao et al., 2012). Spatial disaggregations were performed in these previous studies based on assumed linear relationships between digital number (DN) value of pixels in the nighttime light images and socioeconomic data. However, reliability of the linear relationships was never tested due to lack of relative high-spatial-resolution (equal to or finer than 1 km × 1 km) statistical data. With the similar assumption that brightness linearly correlates to population, Bharti et al. (2011) used nighttime light data as a proxy for population density and then developed a model about seasonal fluctuations of measles in West Africa. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory used sub-national census population data and high spatial resolution remotely-sensed-images to produce LandScan population raster datasets. The LandScan population datasets have 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution which is consistent with the spatial resolution of the nighttime light images. Therefore, in this study I selected 2008 LandScan population data as baseline reference data and the contiguous United State as study area. Relationships between DN value of pixels in the 2008 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) stable light image and population density were established. Results showed that an exponential function can more accurately reflect the relationship between luminosity and population density than a linear function. Additionally, a certain number of saturated pixels with DN value of 63 exist in urban core areas. If directly using the exponential function to estimate the population density for the whole brightly

  9. Operator Training and TEMS Support: A Survey of Unit Leaders in Northern and Central California. (United States)

    Young, Jason B; Galante, Joseph M; Sena, Matthew J


    Members of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams routinely work in high-risk tactical situations. Awareness of the benefit of Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) is increasing but not uniformly emphasized. To characterize the current regional state of tactical medicine and identify potential barriers to more widespread implementation. A multiple-choice survey was administered to SWAT team leaders of 22 regional agencies in northern and central California. Questions focused on individual officer self-aid and buddy care training, the use and content of individual first aid kits (IFAKs), and the operational inclusion of a dedicated TEMS provider. Respondents included city police (54%), local county sheriff (36%), state law enforcement (5%), and federal law enforcement (5%). RESULTS showed that 100% of respondents thought it was ?Very Important? for SWAT officers to understand the basics of self-aid and buddy care and to carry an IFAK, while only 71% of respondents indicated that team members actually carried an IFAK. In addition, 67% indicated that tourniquets were part of the IFAK, and 91% of surveyed team leaders thought it was ?Very Important? for teams to have a trained medic available onsite at callouts or high-risk warrant searches. Also, 59% of teams used an organic TEMS element. The majority of SWAT team leaders recognize the benefit of basic Operator medical training and the importance of a TEMS program. Despite near 100% endorsement by unit-level leadership, a significant proportion of teams are lacking one of the key components including Operator IFAKs and/or tourniquets. Tactical team leaders, administrators, and providers should continue to promote adequate Operator training and equipment as well as formal TEMS support. 2013.

  10. Simulation and analysis of the effect of ungrounded rectangular loop distributed parameters on TEM response (United States)

    Shi, Zongyang; Liu, Lihua; Xiao, Pan; Geng, Zhi; Liu, Fubo; Fang, Guangyou


    An ungrounded loop in the shallow subsurface transient electromagnetic surveys has been studied as the transmission line model for early turn-off stage, which can accurately explicate the early turn-off current waveform inconsistency along the loop. In this paper, the Gauss-Legendre numerical integration method is proposed for the first time to simulate and analyze the transient electromagnetic (TEM) response considering the different early turn-off current waveforms along the loop. During the simulation, these integral node positions along the loop are firstly determined by solving these zero points of Legendre polynomial, then the turn-off current of each node position is simulated by using the transfer function of the transmission line. Finally, the total TEM response is calculated by using the Gauss-Legendre integral formula. In addition, the comparison and analysis between the results affected by the distributed parameters and that generated by lumped parameters are presented. It is found that the TEM responses agree well with each other after current is thoroughly switched off, while the transient responses in turn-off stage are completely different. It means that the position dependence of the early turn-off current should be introduced into the forward model during the early response data interpretation of the shallow TEM detection of the ungrounded loop. Furthermore, the TEM response simulations at four geometric symmetry points are made. It shows that early responses of different geometric symmetry points are also inconsistent. The research on the influence of turn-off current position dependence on the early response of geometric symmetry point is of great significance to guide the layout of the survey lines and the transmitter location.

  11. Music for a Brighter World: Brightness Judgment Bias by Musical Emotion


    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lindsen, Job P.


    A prevalent conceptual metaphor is the association of the concepts of good and evil with brightness and darkness, respectively. Music cognition, like metaphor, is possibly embodied, yet no study has addressed the question whether musical emotion can modulate brightness judgment in a metaphor consistent fashion. In three separate experiments, participants judged the brightness of a grey square that was presented after a short excerpt of emotional music. The results of Experiment 1 showed that ...

  12. Rabi Resonances Induced by an Off-Resonant, Stochastic Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camparo, J


    When an atom interacts with a phase-fluctuating field of fairly arbitrary spectral character, the Fourier spectrum of atomic population variations manifests a "bright line" at the atomic system's Rabi frequency...

  13. Terahertz diffraction enhanced transparency probed in the near field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin, A.; van Hoof, N.; Bhattacharya, A.; Mennes, C.; J. Gomez Rivas,


    Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials allows to engineer structures which transmit narrow spectral ranges of radiation while exhibiting a large group index. Implementation of this phenomenon frequently calls for strong near-field coupling of bright (dipolar) resonances to dark

  14. Ultra high brightness laser diode arrays for pumping of compact solid state lasers and direct applications (United States)

    Kohl, Andreas; Fillardet, Thierry; Laugustin, Arnaud; Rabot, Olivier


    High Power Laser Diodes (HPLD) are increasingly used in different fields of applications such as Industry, Medicine and Defense. Our significant improvements of performances (especially in power and efficiency) and a reproducible manufacturing process have led to reliable, highly robust components. For defense and security applications these devices are used predominantly for pumping of solid state lasers (ranging, designation, countermeasures, and sensors). Due to the drastically falling price per watt they are more and more replacing flash lamps as pump sources. By collimating the laser beam even with a bar to bar pitch of only 400μm. cutting edge brightness of our achieved Due the extremely high brightness and high power density these stacks are an enabling technology for the development of compact highly efficient portable solid state lasers for applications as telemeters and designators on small platforms such as small UAVs and handheld devices. In combination with beam homogenizing optics their compact size and high efficiency makes these devices perfectly suited as illuminators for portable active imaging systems. For gated active imaging systems a very short pulse at high PRF operation is required. For this application we have developed a diode driver board with an efficiency several times higher than that of a standard driver. As a consequence this laser source has very low power consumption and low waste heat dissipation. In combination with its compact size and the integrated beam homogenizing optics it is therefore ideally suited for use in portable gated active imaging systems. The kWatt peak power enables a range of several hundred meters. The devices described in this paper mostly operate at wavelength between 800 nm and 980nm. Results from diodes operating between 1300 nm and 1550 nm are presented as well.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)


    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  16. Suomi NPP ATMS Level 1B Brightness Temperature V1 (SNPPATMSL1B) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Level 1B data files contain brightness temperature measurements along with ancillary spacecraft, instrument, and...

  17. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  18. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  19. CD56bright NK cells exhibit potent antitumor responses following IL-15 priming. (United States)

    Wagner, Julia A; Rosario, Maximillian; Romee, Rizwan; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Schneider, Stephanie E; Leong, Jeffrey W; Sullivan, Ryan P; Jewell, Brea A; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Schappe, Timothy; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Ireland, Aaron R; Jaishankar, Devika; King, Justin A; Vij, Ravi; Clement, Dennis; Goodridge, Jodie; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Wong, Hing C; Fehniger, Todd A


    NK cells, lymphocytes of the innate immune system, are important for defense against infectious pathogens and cancer. Classically, the CD56dim NK cell subset is thought to mediate antitumor responses, whereas the CD56bright subset is involved in immunomodulation. Here, we challenge this paradigm by demonstrating that brief priming with IL-15 markedly enhanced the antitumor response of CD56bright NK cells. Priming improved multiple CD56bright cell functions: degranulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. Primed CD56bright cells from leukemia patients demonstrated enhanced responses to autologous blasts in vitro, and primed CD56bright cells controlled leukemia cells in vivo in a murine xenograft model. Primed CD56bright cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients displayed superior responses to autologous myeloma targets, and furthermore, CD56bright NK cells from MM patients primed with the IL-15 receptor agonist ALT-803 in vivo displayed enhanced ex vivo functional responses to MM targets. Effector mechanisms contributing to IL-15-based priming included improved cytotoxic protein expression, target cell conjugation, and LFA-1-, CD2-, and NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells. Finally, IL-15 robustly stimulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways in CD56bright compared with CD56dim NK cells, and blockade of these pathways attenuated antitumor responses. These findings identify CD56bright NK cells as potent antitumor effectors that warrant further investigation as a cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  1. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni


    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  2. High-power narrow-linewidth QCW diode-pumped TEM00 1319 nm Nd:YAG oscillator using twisted-mode technique (United States)

    Bian, Qi; Zhong, Qing-Shuang; Chang, Jin-Quan; Guo, Chuan; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Yuan, Lei; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Chen, Hong-Bin; Xu, Zu-Yan


    We demonstrated a high-average-power, narrow-linewidth, quasi-continuous-wave diode-side-pumped 1319 nm Nd:YAG twisted-mode laser oscillator with a linearly polarized TEM00 mode. The resonator is based on a symmetrical convex-convex structure with a two-rod configuration for birefringence compensation, working in a thermally near-unstable cavity. With an optimum cavity length of 940 mm, a 39.4 W linear polarized 1319 nm laser is obtained with a good beam quality of M 2  =  1.21 and a linewidth of ~250 MHz, and the corresponding brightness is as high as 1.55 GW cm-2. The laser is operated at a repetition rate of 500 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power 1319 nm laser with narrow-linewidth from diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and is the first report on the twisted-mode laser operation at the 1.3 µm region.

  3. Microwave brightness temperature and thermal inertia - towards synergistic method of high-resolution soil moisture retrieval (United States)

    Lukowski, Mateusz; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Sagan, Joanna; Szlazak, Radoslaw; Gluba, Lukasz; Rojek, Edyta


    Soil moisture is an important parameter in many environmental studies, as it influences the exchange of water and energy at the interface between the land surface and the atmosphere. Accurate assessment of the soil moisture spatial and temporal variations is crucial for numerous studies; starting from a small scale of single field, then catchment, mesoscale basin, ocean conglomeration, finally ending at the global water cycle. Despite numerous advantages, such as fine accuracy (undisturbed by clouds or daytime conditions) and good temporal resolution, passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, e.g. SMOS and SMAP, are not applicable to a small scale - simply because of too coarse spatial resolution. On the contrary, thermal infrared-based methods of soil moisture retrieval have a good spatial resolution, but are often disturbed by clouds and vegetation interferences or night effects. The methods that base on point measurements, collected in situ by monitoring stations or during field campaigns, are sometimes called "ground truth" and may serve as a reference for remote sensing, of course after some up-scaling and approximation procedures that are, unfortunately, potential source of error. Presented research concern attempt to synergistic approach that join two remote sensing methods: passive microwave and thermal infrared, supported by in situ measurements. Microwave brightness temperature of soil was measured by ELBARA, the radiometer at 1.4 GHz frequency, installed at 6 meters high tower at Bubnow test site in Poland. Thermal inertia around the tower was modelled using the statistical-physical model whose inputs were: soil physical properties, its water content, albedo and surface temperatures measured by an infrared pyrometer, directed at the same footprint as ELBARA. The results coming from this method were compared to in situ data obtained during several field campaigns and by the stationary agrometeorological stations. The approach seems to be

  4. A Fundamental Climate Data Record of Intercalibrated Brightness Temperature Data from SSM/I and SSMIS (United States)

    Sapiano, M. R. P.; Berg, W. K.; McKague, D.; Kummerow, C. D.


    The first Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) was launched in June 1987 on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) F08 spacecraft and started what is now a nearly continuous 24-year record of passive microwave imager data that can be used to monitor the climate system. This includes such fields as precipitation (over both land and ocean), the extent of sea ice and snow, sea ice concentration, total precipitable water, cloud liquid water, and surface wind speed over oceans. A total of nine window channel radiometers have been launched to date in the DMSP series including the SSM/I instrument on board F08, F10, F11, F13, F14, and F15 followed by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on board F16, F17, and F18, which is expected to operate for at least the next decade. As a result, this data record provides the best available source of long-term global observations of several hydrological variables for climate applications. Although the DMSP sensors provide a long-term record, because the sensors were developed for operational use there are a number of issues that must be addressed to produce a dataset suitable for use in climate applications. There are a several quality control and calibration issues including, but not limited to, quality control of the original antenna temperatures, geolocation, cross-track bias corrections, solar and lunar intrusion issues and emissive antennas. The goal of producing an FCDR of brightness temperature data involves not only addressing many of these instrument issues, but also developing a well-documented, transparent approach that allows for subsequent improvements as well as a framework for incorporating future sensors. Once the data have been quality controlled and various calibration corrections have been applied, the goal is to adjust the calibration of the various sensors so that they are physically consistent. Such intercalibration does not correct for changes due to local observing time, which

  5. Multifrequency studies of bright radio supernova remnants. 2: W49B (United States)

    Moffett, David A.; Reynolds, Stephen P.


    percent. Tangled or disordered magnetic fields in the emitting region of the radio shell may be responsible for depolarizing the radio synchrotron radiation, but some form of internal Faraday depolarization may also occur. We estimate the foreground Faraday rotation measure to be about -450 rad/sq m, similar to that found for 3C 391, which is also the Galactic plane and just about as distant. Spectral index images created from the total intensity images show that the spectral index across W49B is constant to within about Delta alpha approximately 0.1 in bright regions. This result weakly supports a common origin of the radio-emitting electrons, as in the blast wave, rather than in inhomogeneous turbulent regions of differing properties due to the stochastic (second-order Fermi) acceleration process. Variations at the level of Delta alpha approximately 0.1 are seen, but their significance is doubtful. New observations at 90 cm, using experimental three-dimensional imaging technology, may improve on this limit.

  6. The Cell Surface Structure of Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is Regulated by the Actin Cytoskeleton


    Yang, Mi Young; Chaudhary, Amit; Seaman, Steven; Dunty, Jill; Stevens, Janine; Elzarrad, Mohammed K.; Frankel, Arthur E.; St. Croix, Brad


    Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5’s ability to distinguish different forms of cell-surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding p...

  7. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian


    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  8. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Boettcher, M.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, D.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Calzoletti, L.; Cameron, R. A.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carosati, D.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, W. P.; Chiang, J.; Chincarini, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; D'ammando, F.; Deitrick, R.; D'Elia, V.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Donnarumma, I.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dultzin, D.; Dumora, D.; Falcone, A.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Forné, E.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gómez, J. L.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Gronwall, C.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Horan, D.; Hoversten, E. A.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kennea, J.; Kerr, M.; Kimeridze, G.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larionov, V. M.; Latronico, L.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchegiani, P.; Marscher, A. P.; Marshall, F.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nilsson, K.; Nizhelsky, N. A.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Osborne, J.; Ozaki, M.; Pacciani, L.; Padovani, P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pasanen, M.; Pavlidou, V.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Perri, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Piron, F.; Pittori, C.; Porter, T. A.; Puccetti, S.; Rahoui, F.; Rainò, S.; Raiteri, C.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ros, J. A.; Roth, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadun, A.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Sigua, L. A.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Stevenson, M.; Stratta, G.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Verrecchia, F.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Ziegler, M.


    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν F ν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (ν S peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 1013 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are

  9. An Isolated, Bright Cusp Aurora Associated with Dayside Reconnection at Saturn (United States)

    Kinrade, J.; Badman, S. V.; Arridge, C. S.; Tao, C.; Provan, G.; Dougherty, M. K.; Grocott, A.


    Saturn's dayside aurorae display a number of morphological features polewards of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014, where, for two hours, Saturn's FUV aurorae disappeared almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 11-15 LT, and moved polewards to a maximum latitude of 85°, close to the magnetic dipole and planetary rotation axis. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of two hours. The formation of the spot coincided with the decay of Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing, indicated a period of rarefaction and an uncompressed magnetosphere. We infer that the spot was sustained by repeated reconnection either poleward of the cusp, or at low-latitudes under a strong transverse component in the IMF. The poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap, or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the influence of planetary period modulation of the feature by rotating current systems. This case study poses interesting questions about the driving of Saturn's aurorae ahead of the upcoming proximal Cassini orbits.

  10. Reduction reactions and densification during in situ TEM heating of iron oxide nanochains (United States)

    Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Das, Gautom; Kennedy, Ian M.; van Benthem, Klaus


    The reduction reactions and densification of nanochains assembled from γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphological changes and reduction of the metal oxide nanochains were observed during in situ TEM annealing through simultaneous imaging and quantitative analysis of the near-edge fine structures of Fe L2,3 absorption edges acquired by spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy. A change in the oxidation states during annealing of the iron oxide nanochains was observed with phase transformations due to continuous reduction from Fe2O3 over Fe3O4, FeO to metallic Fe. Phase transitions during the in situ heating experiments were accompanied with morphological changes in the nanochains, specifically rough-to-smooth surface transitions below 500 °C, neck formation between adjacent particles around 500 °C, and subsequent neck growth. At higher temperatures, coalescence of FeO particles was observed, representing densification.

  11. Vacancy ordering and superstructure formation in dry and hydrated strontium tantalate perovskites: A TEM perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashok, Anuradha M.; Haavik, Camilla; Norby, Poul


    Crystal structures of Sr4(Sr2Ta2)O11 and Sr4(Sr1.92Ta2.08)O11.12, synthesized by solid state reaction technique in dry and hydrated state have been studied mainly using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Due to the lesser ability of X-rays to probe details in oxygen sublattice, the change in crystal...... symmetry due to ordering of oxygen vacancies could be detected better using Transmission Electron Microscopy. After detailed analysis through TEM, it was observed that no major change occurs in the cation sublattice. The TEM observations are compared with XRD data and discussed. The crystal symmetries...... structure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  12. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.


    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar...... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...... taken at tilted positions, can be transformed to the real macroscopic orientation of the planar structures with estimated error of about +/- 2 degrees. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Determination of Size Distributions in Nanocrystalline Powders by TEM, XRD and SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen, Jørgen Houe; Jørgensen, Jens Erik


    Crystallite size distributions and particle size distributions were determined by TEM, XRD, and SAXS for three commercially available TiO2 samples and one homemade. The theoretical Guinier Model was fitted to the experimental data and compared to analytical expressions. Modeling of the XRD spectra...... the size distribution obtained from the XRD experiments; however, a good agreement was obtained between the two techniques. Electron microscopy, SEM and TEM, confirmed the primary particle sizes, the size distributions, and the shapes obtained by XRD and SAXS. The SSEC78 powder and the commercially...... available powders showed different morphologies. The SSEC78 powder showed the narrowest sizes distribution while UV100 and TiO2_5nm consisted of the smallest primary particles. SSEC78, UV100, and TiO2_5nm consisted of both primary particles as well as a secondary structure comprised of nanosized primary...

  14. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres. (United States)

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N


    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Nanofluidic chip for liquid TEM cell fabricated by parylene and silicon nitride direct bonding (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Lee, Wonhee


    Despite the importance of nanofluidic transmission electron microscope (TEM) chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a silicon nitride (SiN) wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ˜3 MPa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carbon-oxygen bonds were generated by thermal activation. We demonstrated TEM imaging of gold nanoparticles suspended in liquid using the fabricated nanofluidic chip.

  16. Size Dependent Pore Formation in Germanium Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Delithiation Observed by In Situ TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaotang; He, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong-min; Korgel, Brian A.


    Germanium (Ge) nanowires coated with an amorphous silicon (Si) shell undergoing lithiation and delithiation were studied using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Delithiation creates pores in nanowires with diameters larger than ~25 nm, but not in smaller diameter nanowires. The formation of pores in Ge nanowires undergoing delithiation has been observed before in in situ TEM experiments, but there has been no indication that a critical diameter exists below which pores do not form. Pore formation occurs as a result of fast lithium diffusion compared to vacancy migration. We propose that a short diffusion path for vacancies to the nanowire surface plays a role in limiting pore formation even when lithium diffusion is fast.

  17. Deformation mechanisms in naturally deformed glaucophanes: A TEM and HREM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard, B.; Gillet, P.; Willaime, C. (Lab. de Mineralogie Physique, Centre Armoricain d' Etude Structurale des Socles, Univ. de Rennes, 35 (France))

    Deformation mechanisms of glaucophane have been investigated on two naturally deformed samples by optical and TEM microscopy. The two samples were deformed under eclogite facies conditions (15-18 kbar, 550-600 degC); one sample suffered in addition a later greenschist deformation (< 10 kbar, 350-450 degC). Under the optical microscope, the glaucophanes display intracrystalline deformation features (undulose extinction, subgrains). TEM observations reveal the operation of glide on several systems: (100)[001], [l brace]110[r brace][001], (010)[100], [l brace]110[r brace] 1/2<1anti 10> and (001) 1/2<110> at medium temperature (550-600 degC) and (010)[001] at low temperature (350-450 degC). Minor (100) twinning is associated. The presence of subgrains bounded by well-organized dislocation walls indicates that recovery processes are active.

  18. Hi-C Observations of Penumbral Bright Dots (United States)

    Alpert, S. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Savage, S. L.; Winebarger, A. R.


    We use high-quality data obtained by the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) to examine bright dots (BDs) in a sunspot's penumbra. The sizes of these BDs are on the order of 1 arcsecond (1") and are therefore hard to identify using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's (AIA) 0.6" pixel(exp -1) resolution. These BD become readily apparent with Hi-C's 0.1" pixel(exp -1) resolution. Tian et al. (2014) found penumbral BDs in the transition region (TR) by using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). However, only a few of their dots could be associated with any enhanced brightness in AIA channels. In this work, we examine the characteristics of the penumbral BDs observed by Hi-C in a sunspot penumbra, including their sizes, lifetimes, speeds, and intensity. We also attempt to find any association of these BDs to the IRIS BDs. There are fewer Hi-C BDs in the penumbra than seen by IRIS, though different sunspots were studied. We use 193 Angstroms Hi-C data from July 11, 2012 which observed from approximately 18:52:00 UT- 18:56:00 UT and supplement it with data from AIA's 193 Angstrom passband to see the complete lifetime of the dots that were born before and/or lasted longer than Hi- C's 5-minute observation period. We use additional AIA passbands and compare the light curves of the BDs at different temperatures to test whether the Hi-C BDs are TR BDs. We find that most Hi-C BDs show clear movement, and of those that do, they move in a radial direction, toward or away from the sunspot umbra. Single BDs interact with other BDs, combining to fade away or brighten. The BDs that do not interact with other BDs tend to move less. Many of the properties of our BDs are similar to the extreme values of the IRIS BDs, e.g., they move slower on average and their sizes and lifetimes are on the higher end of the IRIS BDs. We infer that our penumbral BDs are the large-scale end of the distribution of BDs observed by IRIS.

  19. Microchip systems for imaging liquid and high temperature processes in TEM & SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Canepa, Silvia; Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad


    measurementson high temperature fuel cell systems. For imaging processes in liquids, our SEM system enables imaging on-chip microelectrodes andusing standard built-in reference electrodes [2]. To get higher resolution in TEM, we have createda monolithic chip system with suspended microfabricated channels [3......]. Both systems will allowhigh resolution imaging of heterogeneous electrochemical processes such as those in batteries.Based on the suspended microfluidic channels, we are also developing microchips that enableultrafast freezing of processes in liquids....

  20. TEM characterization of Cr-doped ZnS Thin Films for Solar Cell applications


    Seim, Eivind


    The morphology of three Cr-doped zinc sulfide thin films, one deposited by molec-ular beam epitaxy (MBE) and two by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), have beenstudied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Investigations of the poly-morphic crystal structure of ZnS have been done by analysis of diffraction, brightfield and high resolution images. Both similarities and differences in morphologybetween the three samples have been discovered. An unambiguous determinationof the crystal structure...

  1. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears


    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  2. Thermal stress induced voids in nanoscale copper interconnects by in-situ TEM heating (United States)

    An, Jin Ho

    Stress induced void formation in Cu interconnects, due to thermal stresses generated during the processing of semiconductors, is an increasing reliability issue in the semiconductor industry as Cu interconnects are being downscaled to follow the demand for faster chip speed. In this work, 1.8 micron and 180 nm wide Cu interconnects, fabricated by Freescale Semiconductors, were subjected to thermal cycles, in-situ in the TEM, to investigate the stress relaxation mechanisms as a function of interconnect linewidth. The experiments show that the 1.8 micron Cu interconnect lines relax the thermal stresses through dislocation nucleation and motion while the Cu interconnect 180 nm lines exhibit void formation. Void formation in 180 nm lines occurs predominantly at triple junctions where the Ta diffusion barrier meets a Cu grain boundary. In order to understand void formation in 180 nm lines, the grain orientation and local stresses are determined. In particular, Nanobeam Diffraction (NBD) in the TEM is used to obtain the diffraction pattern of each grain, from which the crystal orientation is evaluated by the ACT (Automated Crystallography for TEM) software. In addition, 2D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are performed using the Object Oriented Finite Modeling (OOF2) software to correlate grain orientation with local stresses, and consequently void formation. According to the experimental and simulation results obtained, void formation in 180nm Cu interconnects does not seem to be solely dependent on local stresses, but a combination of diffusion paths available, stress gradients and possibly the presence of defects. In addition, based on the in-situ TEM observations, void growth seems to occur through grain boundary and/or interfacial diffusion. However, in-situ STEM observations of fully opened voids post-failure show pileup of material at the Cu grain surfaces. This means that surface or interface diffusion is also very active during void growth in the presence

  3. Automated determination of size and morphology information from soot transmission electron microscope (TEM)-generated images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Chan, Qing N., E-mail:; Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yeoh, Guan H. [UNSW, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia); Medwell, Paul R. [The University of Adelaide, Centre for Energy Technology (Australia)


    The thermophoretic sampling of particulates from hot media, coupled with transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, is a combined approach that is widely used to derive morphological information. The identification and the measurement of the particulates, however, can be complex when the TEM images are of low contrast, noisy, and have non-uniform background signal level. The image processing method can also be challenging and time consuming, when the samples collected have large variability in shape and size, or have some degree of overlapping. In this work, a three-stage image processing sequence is presented to facilitate time-efficient automated identification and measurement of particulates from the TEM grids. The proposed processing sequence is first applied to soot samples that were thermophoretically sampled from a laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame. The parameter values that are required to be set to facilitate the automated process are identified, and sensitivity of the results to these parameters is assessed. The same analysis process is also applied to soot samples that were acquired from an externally irradiated laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame, which have different geometrical characteristics, to assess the morphological dependence of the proposed image processing sequence. Using the optimized parameter values, statistical assessments of the automated results reveal that the largest discrepancies that are associated with the estimated values of primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and prefactor values of the aggregates for the tested cases, are approximately 3, 1, and 10 %, respectively, when compared with the manual measurements.

  4. An automatic algorithm for determination of the nanoparticles from TEM images using circular hough transform. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohsen; Rafsanjani, Hossein Khodabakhshi


    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology, and the size distribution of nanoparticles is one of the most important statistical properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction is commonly used for the characterization and measuring particle size distributions, but manual analysis of the micrographs is extremely labor-intensive. Here, we have developed an image processing algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of overlapped particles and uneven background. The approach is based on the modified circular Hough transform, and pre and post processing techniques on TEM image to improve the accuracy and increase the detection rate of the nano particles. Its application is presented through several images with different noises, uneven backgrounds and over lapped particles. The merits of this robust quantifying method are demonstrated by comparing the results with the data obtained through manual measurement. The algorithm allows particles to be detected and characterized with high accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L., E-mail:


    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM was used to oxidize samples of Zircaloy-4. • Similar behavior was found in the in-situ oxidized and autoclave-oxidized samples. • Precession diffraction was used to characterize oxide phase and texture.

  6. Microstructure of organic–inorganic composite coatings studied by TEM and XANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo Hamada, Masayasu Nagoshi, Kaoru Sato, Akira Matsuzaki, Takafumi Yamaji and Kotaro Kuroda


    Full Text Available Chromate coatings on Zn or Zn alloy coated steel sheets often include silica for the aim to improve corrosion resistance. In the case of dry-in-place chromate coatings containing acrylic resin (hereafter referred to as an organic–inorganic composite coating, an addition of silica, however, did not show an improvement in corrosion resistance. The microstructures of the organic–inorganic composite coatings were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the chemical states of Cr were investigated by the total electron yield X-ray absorption near edge structure (TEY-XANES method. TEM samples were successfully prepared by dry ultramicrotomy preventing water-soluble components in the coatings from dissolving out. TEY-XANES revealed the chemical states of components even in the organic matrix. Using these methods, it was found that the addition of silica changed just the morphology of the chromium compound in the organic–inorganic composite coating but not the chemical state of Cr. This is a reason for the addition of silica being not effective at improving corrosion resistance. The combination of dry ultramicrotomy-TEM and TEY-XANES spectroscopy was proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing organic–inorganic composite coatings.

  7. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Anne Taylor


    Full Text Available Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs: zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  8. Differential dependence on N-glycosylation of anthrax toxin receptors CMG2 and TEM8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Friebe

    Full Text Available ANTXR 1 and 2, also known as TEM8 and CMG2, are two type I membrane proteins, which have been extensively studied for their role as anthrax toxin receptors, but with a still elusive physiological function. Here we have analyzed the importance of N-glycosylation on folding, trafficking and ligand binding of these closely related proteins. We find that TEM8 has a stringent dependence on N-glycosylation. The presence of at least one glycan on each of its two extracellular domains, the vWA and Ig-like domains, is indeed necessary for efficient trafficking to the cell surface. In the absence of any N-linked glycans, TEM8 fails to fold correctly and is recognized by the ER quality control machinery. Expression of N-glycosylation mutants reveals that CMG2 is less vulnerable to sugar loss. The absence of N-linked glycans in one of the extracellular domains indeed has little impact on folding, trafficking or receptor function of the wild type protein expressed in tissue culture cells. N-glycans do, however, seem required in primary fibroblasts from human patients. Here, the presence of N-linked sugars increases the tolerance to mutations in cmg2 causing the rare genetic disease Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. It thus appears that CMG2 glycosylation provides a buffer towards genetic variation by promoting folding of the protein in the ER lumen.

  9. TEM heat transport and fluctuations in the HSX stellarator: experiments and comparison with gyrokinetic simulation (United States)

    Smoniewski, J.; Faber, B. J.; Sánchez, E.; Calvo, I.; Pueschel, M. J.; Likin, K. M.; Deng, C. B.; Talmadge, J. N.


    The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) has demonstrated reduced neoclassical transport in the plasma core with quasi-symmetry [Lore Thesis 2010], while outside this region the electron thermal diffusivity is well above the neoclassical level, likely due to the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) [Weir PoP 2015, Faber PoP 2015]. We compare gyrokinetic simulations of the TEM to experimental heat flux and density fluctuation measurements for two configurations: Quasi-Helical Symmetry (QHS) and broken symmetry (Mirror). Both experiment and simulation show that the heat flux for Mirror is larger than for QHS by about a factor of two. Initial interferometer measurements provide evidence that density-gradient-driven TEMs are driving turbulence. Calculations of the collisionless damping of zonal flows provide another perspective into the difference between geometries. Similar to other stellarators [Monreal PPCF 2016], the zonal flow residual goes to zero at long wavelengths in both configurations. Additionally, the very short time decay of the zonal flow due to neoclassical polarization is constant between configurations. However, the collisionless damping time is longer and the zonal flow oscillation frequency is smaller in QHS than Mirror, consistent with reduced radial particle drifts. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  10. Testing the dark matter hypothesis with low surface brightness galaxies and other evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGaugh, SS; de Blok, WJG


    The severity of the mass discrepancy in spiral galaxies is strongly correlated with the central surface brightness of their disks. Progressively lower surface brightness galaxies have ever larger mass discrepancies. No other parameter (luminosity, size, velocity, morphology) is so well correlated

  11. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women. (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  12. The dark and visible matter content of low surface brightness disc galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS


    We present mass models of a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies and compare the properties of their constituent mass components with those of a sample of high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies. We find that LSB galaxies are dark matter dominated, Their halo parameters are only

  13. HI observations of low surface brightness galaxies : Probing low-density galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; vanderHulst, JM


    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) 21-cm HI observations of 19 late-type low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Our main findings are that these galaxies, as well as having low surface brightnesses, have low HI surface densities, about a factor of

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brightness induction in the human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucard, CC; van Es, JJ; Maguire, RP; Cornelissen, FW


    A grey surface on a bright background appears to be darker than the same surface on a dark background. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study this phenomenon called brightness induction. While being scanned, participants viewed centre-surround displays in which either centre or

  15. Bright morning light advances the human circadian system without affecting NREM sleep homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge; Lewy, Alfred J.

    Eight male subjects were exposed to either bright light or dim light between 0600 and 0900 h for 3 consecutive days each. Relative to the dim light condition, the bright light treatment advanced the evening rise in plasma melatonin and the time of sleep termination (sleep onset was held constant)

  16. Reduction of human sleep duration after bright light exposure in the morning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.J.; Visscher, C.A.; Bloem, G.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Daan, S.


    In 8 subjects the spontaneous termination of sleep was determined after repetitive exposure to either bright or dim light, between 6:00 and 9:00 h, on 3 days preceding sleep assessment. Sleep duration was significantly shorter following bright light than following dim light. During sleep the time

  17. Inter-comparison of SMAP, SMOS and Aquarius L-band brightness temperature observations (United States)

    Verifying the calibration of the SMAP radiometer over land observations is an important mission requirement. Inter-comparison of L-band brightness temperature observations from different satellites (SMAP, SMOS and Aquarius) is a useful tool for radiometer calibration. Brightness temperatures observa...

  18. Bright Galaxies at Hubble's Detection Frontier: The redshift z~9-10 BoRG pure-parallel survey (United States)

    Trenti, Michele


    Hubble/WFC3 observations transformed our view of early galaxy formation by building reliable samples of galaxies out to redshift z 8, 700 Myr after the Big Bang and hinting at a dramatic evolution in properties at yet earlier times. From z 8 to z 10 { 200Myr} the luminosity density seems to decrease by a factor ten, but bright galaxies may remain relatively common, based on the four z>9 objects detected so far with m_ABL* galaxies at z 8. BoRG[z8] demonstrated, by adding constraints from the Ultra Deep Field {UDF}, that the luminosity function follows a Schechter form, as at lower z, but with a steeper faint-end slope, leading to a photon production sufficient to complete reionization. BoRG[z9-10] will similarly complement the UDF and Frontier Fields datasets by imaging 550 arcmin^2 over 120 sightlines in five WFC3 bands {F350LP, F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W}. Besides twenty new catches at z>9, we will double {from 60 to 120} the number of bright z 8 galaxies within reach of spectroscopy, to tighten constraints on Ly-alpha emission and reionization obtained by our BoRG@Keck follow-up. This new public dataset will reveal the connection between massive dark matter halos and formation of first galaxies, and create a legacy of rare targets for JWST

  19. High Brightness HDR Projection Using Dynamic Freeform Lensing

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin


    Cinema projectors need to compete with home theater displays in terms of image quality. High frame rate and spatial resolution as well as stereoscopic 3D are common features today, but even the most advanced cinema projectors lack in-scene contrast and, more important, high peak luminance, both of which are essential perceptual attributes of images appearing realistic. At the same time, HDR image statistics suggest that the average image intensity in a controlled ambient viewing environment such as the cinema can be as low as 1% for cinematic HDR content and not often higher than 18%, middle gray in photography. Traditional projection systems form images and colors by blocking the source light from a lamp, therefore attenuating between 99% and 82% of light, on average. This inefficient use of light poses significant challenges for achieving higher peak brightness levels. In this work, we propose a new projector architecture built around commercially available components, in which light can be steered to form images. The gain in system efficiency significantly reduces the total cost of ownership of a projector (fewer components and lower operating cost), and at the same time increases peak luminance and improves black level beyond what is practically achievable with incumbent projector technologies. At the heart of this computational display technology is a new projector hardware design using phase modulation in combination with a new optimization algorithm that is capable of on-the-fly computation of freeform lens surfaces. © 2016 ACM.

  20. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True


    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.