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Sample records for telychian marine red

  1. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  2. Middle Telychian (upper Llandovery, Silurian) graptolites from boreholes of northwestern Libya: Their biostratigraphic significance and palaeogeographical implication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorch, Petr; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2007), s. 535-540 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Libya * Ghadamis Basin * Graptolites * biostratigraphy * palaeobiogeography * Silurian * Middle Telychian Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2007

  3. Training Course on the Marine Ecology of the Red Sea. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on the marine ecology of the Red Sea designed by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) in collaboration with the Marine Science Department of UNESCO for the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). It was hosted by the Marine Science Station,…

  4. European red list of habitats. Part 1: Marine habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbay, S.; Sanders, N.; Haynes, T.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Rodwell, J.R.; Nieto, A.; Garcia Criado, M.; Beal, S.; Borg, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk
    of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and
    freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent
    regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and
    criteria, and detailed data

  5. Diversity and Ecological Correlates of Red Fluorescence in Marine Fishes

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    Nils Anthes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments at depths below -10 to -25 m are almost devoid of ambient red sunlight because water quickly attenuates long wavelengths. This stenospectral light environment presents unique opportunities for organisms that can transform ambient blue-green light into red light by fluorescence. Numerous marine fish species display intricate patterns of fluorescence. Because color vision is a key component of fish sensory ecology, several putative visual functions of red fluorescence have been proposed but are difficult to test experimentally. Here, we follow a comparative approach to assess the consistency between the phylogenetic distribution of red fluorescence with its presumed functions. We collected and analyzed the largest data set of red fluorescence in fishes to date, consisting of confirmed cases in 272 primarily diurnal fish species from 49 out of 90 surveyed fish families and 12 out of 21 surveyed fish orders, contrasted to 393 fish species with confirmed absence of red fluorescence. Based on a priori hypotheses on adaptive function, we compare the prevalence of red fluorescence among pre-defined sets of species based on ecological or biological characteristics while controlling for shared ancestry. When comparing between species, we find no evidence that red fluorescence is more prevalent in deep-water species, contrasting with our recent finding that fluorescence brightness increases with depth within species. There is also no evidence for a role in group-driven communication. Phylogenetic patterns are consistent, however, with three other predictions. First, fluorescence with a rather patchy distribution across the body occurred significantly more often among sit-and-wait predators or otherwise sedentary fish than in more mobile species, consistent with background matching for camouflage. Second, small, predatory fishes tended to show red fluorescent irides disproportionally often consistent with a proposed function in prey

  6. Red Sea circulation during marine isotope stage 5e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccha, Michael; Biton, Eli; Gildor, Hezi

    2015-04-01

    We have employed a regional Massachusetts Institute of Technology oceanic general circulation model of the Red Sea to investigate its circulation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, the peak of the last interglacial, approximately 125 ka before present. Compared to present-day conditions, MIS 5e was characterized by higher Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, accompanied by increases in air temperature of more than 2°C and global sea level approximately 8 m higher than today. As a consequence of the increased seasonality, intensified monsoonal conditions with increased winds, rainfall, and humidity in the Red Sea region are evident in speleothem records and supported by model simulations. To assess the dominant factors responsible for the observed changes, we conducted several sensitivity experiments in which the MIS 5 boundary conditions or forcing parameters were used individually. Overall, our model simulation for the last interglacial maximum reconstructs a Red Sea that is colder, less ventilated and probably more oligotrophic than at present day. The largest alteration in Red Sea circulation and properties was found for the simulation of the northward displacement and intensification of the African tropical rain belt during MIS 5e, leading to a notable increase in the fresh water flux into the Red Sea. Such an increase significantly reduced the Red Sea salinity and exchange volume of the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. The Red Sea reacted to the MIS 5e insolation forcing by the expected increase in seasonal sea surface temperature amplitude and overall cooling caused by lower temperatures during deep water formation in winter.

  7. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  8. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species

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    Hani Z. Asfour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our search for drug leads from Red Sea sponges we have investigated the ethyl acetate fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Hyrtios species. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active fraction resulted into the identification of three new alkaloids, hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3. Hyrtioerectines D–F belong to the rare marine alkaloids in which the indole and β-carboline fragments of the molecule are linked through C-3/C-3 of both moieties. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC and high-resolution mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and the free radical scavenging activity of the compounds using DPPH reagent were evaluated. In addition, the growth inhibitory activity of the compounds against three cancer cell lines was also evaluated. Hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibition activities. Generally, compounds 1 and 3 were more active than compound 2.

  9. Antitumor effects of Marginisporum crassissimum (Rhodophyceae), a marine red alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroishi, S; Sugie, K; Yoshida, T; Morimoto, J; Taniguchi, Y; Imai, S; Kurebayashi, J

    2001-06-26

    Marginisporum crassissimum (Yendo) Ganesan, a marine red alga found in the ordinal coastal sea around Japan, revealed antitumor (antimetastatic) effects in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro experiments, extracts of this alga inhibited not only the growth of several tumor cell lines, such as B16-BL6 (a mouse melanoma cell line), JYG-B (a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line) and KPL-1 (a human mammary carcinoma cell line), but also invasion of B16-BL6 cells in a culture system. In in vivo experiments, the lung metastasis of B16-BL6 cells inoculated to the tail vein of B57BL/6J mice was inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of an extract from the alga. In addition, life prolongation of B57BL/6J mice inoculated with B16-BL6 cells was also observed by the intraperitoneal administration of the extract. An effective substance showing B16-BL6 growth inhibition in vitro was partially purified by filtration and hydrophobic column chromatography, and was revealed to be sensitive to trypsin-digestion and heat-treatment. The molecular weight of the substance was greater than 100 kDa. This is the first study demonstrating antitumor (antimetastatic) effects of M. crassissimum.

  10. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become

  11. Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of marine algae from the Red Sea of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The antibacterial activities of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were studied.

  12. Antimicrobial and anticancer activity and DNA fingerprinting of extracts from Red Sea marine fungal symbiotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Alsed; Marwa M. Azab; Amany K. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms have become an important source of pharmacologically active metabolites. More specifically, fungi from the marine environment have shown great potential as suggested by the diversity of secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to look for bioactive natural products from Red Sea derived fungi. Numerous natural products with novel structures and distinct biological activities have been discovered as the secondary metabolites of marine- derived microbes....

  13. Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: An Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

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    Beth A. Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic and cultural dependence on the marine environment in Oceania and a rapidly expanding human population, many marine species populations are in decline and may be vulnerable to extinction from a number of local and regional threats. IUCN Red List assessments, a widely used system for quantifying threats to species and assessing species extinction risk, have been completed for 1190 marine species in Oceania to date, including all known species of corals, mangroves, seagrasses, sea snakes, marine mammals, sea birds, sea turtles, sharks, and rays present in Oceania, plus all species in five important perciform fish groups. Many of the species in these groups are threatened by the modification or destruction of coastal habitats, overfishing from direct or indirect exploitation, pollution, and other ecological or environmental changes associated with climate change. Spatial analyses of threatened species highlight priority areas for both site- and species-specific conservation action. Although increased knowledge and use of newly available IUCN Red List assessments for marine species can greatly improve conservation priorities for marine species in Oceania, many important fish groups are still in urgent need of assessment.

  14. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  15. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  16. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ammonia assimilation, glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH, Gracilaria sordida, red alga, enzyme activity. Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC ... Anabolic functions could be assimilation of ammonia released during photorespiration and synthesis of N-rich transport compounds. Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  17. The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Clayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1, a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2 and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3. These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.

  18. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  19. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Alam, Intikhab; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Shugo; Ikeo, Kazuho; Mori, Takahisa; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  20. The subunits analysis of R-phycoerythrin from marine red algae by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subunit components of R-phycoerythrins (R-PEs) prepared from five marine macro red algae were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate -polyarylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in pH gradients range of 3.0 to 9.5, 2.5 to 5.0 and 4.0 to 6.5. Riboflavin was used to catalyze ...

  1. Marine microbiology: Microbial ecology of the Red Sea [Mikrobielle Ökologie des Roten Meeres

    KAUST Repository

    Stingl, Ulrich; Ngugi, David; Thompson, Luke R.; Antunes, Andre; Cahill, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Red Sea is an unusually harsh marine environment, characterized by high temperature and salinity. It also harbors some of the most extreme environments on earth, the Deep Sea Brine Pools. Here, we report on the microbial communities in these environments. The water column is dominated by SAR11 and Prochlorococcus, which have developed specific adaptations to withstand the conditions. The Brine Pools have only been poorly characterized so far, and only four pure cultures are described. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  2. Marine microbiology: Microbial ecology of the Red Sea [Mikrobielle Ökologie des Roten Meeres

    KAUST Repository

    Stingl, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    The Red Sea is an unusually harsh marine environment, characterized by high temperature and salinity. It also harbors some of the most extreme environments on earth, the Deep Sea Brine Pools. Here, we report on the microbial communities in these environments. The water column is dominated by SAR11 and Prochlorococcus, which have developed specific adaptations to withstand the conditions. The Brine Pools have only been poorly characterized so far, and only four pure cultures are described. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  3. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  4. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    KAUST Repository

    Kharbush, Jenan J

    2018-04-10

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth\\'s surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  5. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    KAUST Repository

    Kharbush, Jenan J; Thompson, Luke R; Haroon, Mohamed; Knight, Rob; Aluwihare, Lihini I

    2018-01-01

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth's surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Celso S.; Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Cavada, Benildo S.; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago Do; Nunes, Eudismar Vale; Sampaio, Alexandre H.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported. HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized

  7. The first symbiont-free genome sequence of marine red alga, Susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Nakamura

    Full Text Available Nori, a marine red alga, is one of the most profitable mariculture crops in the world. However, the biological properties of this macroalga are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis using next-generation sequencing platforms. For sequencing, thalli of P. yezoensis were washed to remove bacteria attached on the cell surface and enzymatically prepared as purified protoplasts. The assembled contig size of the P. yezoensis nuclear genome was approximately 43 megabases (Mb, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the previously estimated genome size. A total of 10,327 gene models were predicted and about 60% of the genes validated lack introns and the other genes have shorter introns compared to large-genome algae, which is consistent with the compact size of the P. yezoensis genome. A sequence homology search showed that 3,611 genes (35% are functionally unknown and only 2,069 gene groups are in common with those of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. As color trait determinants of red algae, light-harvesting genes involved in the phycobilisome were predicted from the P. yezoensis nuclear genome. In particular, we found a second homolog of phycobilisome-degradation gene, which is usually chloroplast-encoded, possibly providing a novel target for color fading of susabi-nori in aquaculture. These findings shed light on unexplained features of macroalgal genes and genomes, and suggest that the genome of P. yezoensis is a promising model genome of marine red algae.

  8. The First Symbiont-Free Genome Sequence of Marine Red Alga, Susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Sasaki, Naobumi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Yasuike, Motoshige; Shigenobu, Yuya; Satomi, Masataka; Fukuma, Yoshiya; Shiwaku, Koji; Tsujimoto, Atsumi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakayama, Ichiro; Ito, Fuminari; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Kuhara, Satoru; Inouye, Kiyoshi; Gojobori, Takashi; Ikeo, Kazuho

    2013-01-01

    Nori, a marine red alga, is one of the most profitable mariculture crops in the world. However, the biological properties of this macroalga are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis) using next-generation sequencing platforms. For sequencing, thalli of P. yezoensis were washed to remove bacteria attached on the cell surface and enzymatically prepared as purified protoplasts. The assembled contig size of the P. yezoensis nuclear genome was approximately 43 megabases (Mb), which is an order of magnitude smaller than the previously estimated genome size. A total of 10,327 gene models were predicted and about 60% of the genes validated lack introns and the other genes have shorter introns compared to large-genome algae, which is consistent with the compact size of the P. yezoensis genome. A sequence homology search showed that 3,611 genes (35%) are functionally unknown and only 2,069 gene groups are in common with those of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. As color trait determinants of red algae, light-harvesting genes involved in the phycobilisome were predicted from the P. yezoensis nuclear genome. In particular, we found a second homolog of phycobilisome-degradation gene, which is usually chloroplast-encoded, possibly providing a novel target for color fading of susabi-nori in aquaculture. These findings shed light on unexplained features of macroalgal genes and genomes, and suggest that the genome of P. yezoensis is a promising model genome of marine red algae. PMID:23536760

  9. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.Y.A.

    2007-09-01

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  10. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A Y.A. [Red Sea University, Department of Chemistry, Port Sudan (Sudan)

    2007-09-15

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  11. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Sesquiterpene and Acetogenin Derivatives from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to 13 known compounds, four new bisabolane sesquiterpenes, okamurenes A–D (1–4, a new chamigrane derivative, okamurene E (5, and a new C12-acetogenin, okamuragenin (6, were isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were determined through detailed spectroscopic analyses. Of these, okamurenes A and B (1 and 2 are the first examples of bromobisabolane sesquiterpenes possessing a phenyl moiety among Laurencia-derived sesquiterpenes, while okamuragenin (6 was the first acetogenin aldehyde possessing a C12-carbon skeleton. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethal assay and 7-hydroxylaurene displayed potent lethality with LD50 1.8 μM.

  13. Halogenated Terpenes and a C15-Acetogenin from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia saitoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven parguerane diterpenes: 15-bromo-2,7,19-triacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-16-ol (1, 15-bromo-2,7,16,19-tetraacetoxyparguer-9(11-ene (2, 15-bromo-2,19-diacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7,16-diol (3, 15-bromo-2,16,19-triacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7-ol (4, 15-bromo-2,16-diacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7-ol (5, 15-bromoparguer-9(11-en-16-ol (6, 15-bromoparguer-7-en-16-ol (7, two polyether triterpenes: thyrsiferol (8 and thyrsiferyl 23-acetate (9, and one C15-acetogenin, neolaurallene (10, were isolated from a sample of marine red alga Laurencia saitoi collected off the coast of Yantai. Their structures were established by detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data.

  14. Production of new cellulose nanomaterial from red algae marine biomass Gelidium elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon; Juan, Joon Ching; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2016-10-20

    Nanocellulose was successfully isolated from Gelidium elegans red algae marine biomass. The red algae fiber was treated in three stages namely alkalization, bleaching treatment and acid hydrolysis treatment. Morphological analysis was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results revealed that the isolated nanocellulose had the average diameter and length of 21.8±11.1nm and of 547.3±23.7nm, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that the non-cellulosic polysaccharides components were progressively removed during the chemically treatment, and the final derived materials composed of cellulose parent molecular structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that the crystallinity of yielded product had been improved after each successive treatments subjected to the treated fiber. The prepared nano-dimensional cellulose demonstrated a network-like structure with higher crystallinity (73%) than that of untreated fiber (33%), and possessed of good thermal stability which is suitable for nanocomposite material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoid preparations from two marine red algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A C; Larkum, A W

    1983-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane preparations active in photosynthetic electron transport have been obtained from two marine red algae, Griffithsia monilis and Anotrichium tenue. High concentrations (0.5-1.0 M) of salts such as phosphate, citrate, succinate and tartrate stabilized functional binding of phycobilisomes to the membrane and also stabilized Photosystem II-catalysed electron-transport activity. High concentrations (1.0 M) of chloride and nitrate, or 30 mM-Tricine/NaOH buffer (pH 7.2) in the absence of salts, detached phycobilisomes and inhibited electron transport through Photosystem II. The O2-evolving system was identified as the electron-transport chain component that was inhibited under these conditions. Washing membranes with buffers containing 1.0-1.5 M-sorbitol and 5-50 mM concentrations of various salts removed the outer part of the phycobilisome but retained 30-70% of the allophycocyanin 'core' of the phycobilisome. These preparations were 30-70% active in O2 evolution compared with unwashed membranes. In the sensitivity of their O2-evolving apparatus to the composition of the medium in vitro, the red algae resembled blue-green algae and differed from other eukaryotic algae and higher plants. It is suggested that an environment of structured water may be essential for the functional integrity of Photosystem II in biliprotein-containing algae. PMID:6860312

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities exhibited by endophytic fungi from the Brazilian marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Ceramiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Felício

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine environment is one of the most important sources regarding natural products research. Besides, marine microorganisms have been denominated as a talented natural source for discovery of new leads. Although the association of macroalgae and fungi has been described regarding ecological issues, there is a lack of studies about marine seaweed endophytic fungi. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the Brazilian marine seaweed Bostrychia tenella (J.V. Lamouroux J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta. Forty-five endophytic microorganism strains were isolated from B. tenella. Crude extracts and organic fractions of ten selected strains were obtained after growth in rice medium. Samples were evaluated for cytotoxicity, antifungal and antibacterial assays. Penicillium strains showed positive results in a diversity of assays, and other five strains were active in at least one test. In addition, cytochalasin D was isolated from Xylaria sp. This alga is composed of a microbiological potential, since its endophytic strains exhibited remarkable biological properties. Moreover, cytochalasin D isolation has confirmed chemical potential of marine endophytic strains. This is the first study in which cultured fungi isolates from the Brazilian macroalga B. tenella were evaluated concerning biological properties. Results corroborated that this species could be a pharmaceutical source from marine environment. Furthermore, Acremonium implicatum is being firstly described as marine endophyte and Xylaria sp., Trichoderma atroviride and Nigrospora oryzae as marine seaweed endophytes. Thus, this work reports the first study relating detailed isolation, cultivation and biological evaluation (cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial of endophytes Penicillium decaturense and P. waksmanii from the Brazilian marine red alga B. tenella. We are also reporting the

  17. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa T. A. Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3, together with the previously reported compound (Z-5-(4-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1. The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2 and B (3 represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  18. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Diaa T A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Alshali, Khalid Z

    2015-10-28

    In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3), together with the previously reported compound (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (1). The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2) and B (3) represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1-3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  19. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Validation of red and near infra-red marine reflectance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G

    2013-09-09

    The present study provides an extensive overview of red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral relationships found in the literature and used to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in current atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms with the aim to improve water-leaving reflectance retrievals, ρw(λ), in turbid waters. However, most of these spectral relationships have been developed with restricted datasets and, subsequently, may not be globally valid, explaining the need of an accurate validation exercise. Spectral relationships are validated here with turbid in situ data for ρw(λ). Functions estimating ρw(λ) in the red were only valid for moderately turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbidity ranges presented in the in situ dataset. In the NIR region of the spectrum, the constant NIR reflectance ratio suggested by Ruddick et al. (2006) (Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179), was valid for moderately to very turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) > 10(-2)). The results of this study suggest to use the red bounding equations and the polynomial NIR function to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in AC processes with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where current AC algorithms fail.

  20. Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Juliana; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Fouillaud, Mireille; Petit, Thomas; Vinale, Francesco; Dufossé, Laurent; Caro, Yanis

    2017-06-28

    The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera ( Penicillium , Talaromyces , Fusarium , Aspergillus , Trichoderma , Dreschlera , and Paecilomyces ). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium , Fusarium oxysporum , marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride , as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N -threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus -like azaphilone pigment.

  1. Dilution-to-extinction culturing of SAR11 members and other marine bacteria from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Roslinda B.

    2013-12-01

    Life in oceans originated about 3.5 billion years ago where microbes were the only life form for two thirds of the planet’s existence. Apart from being abundant and diverse, marine microbes are involved in nearly all biogeochemical processes and are vital to sustain all life forms. With the overgrowing number of data arising from culture-independent studies, it became necessary to improve culturing techniques in order to obtain pure cultures of the environmentally significant bacteria to back up the findings and test hypotheses. Particularly in the ultra-oligotrophic Red Sea, the ubiquitous SAR11 bacteria has been reported to account for more than half of the surface bacterioplankton community. It is therefore highly likely that SAR11, and other microbial life that exists have developed special adaptations that enabled them to thrive successfully. Advances in conventional culturing have made it possible for abundant, unculturable marine bacteria to be grown in the lab. In this study, we analyzed the effectiveness of the media LNHM and AMS1 in isolating marine bacteria from the Red Sea, particularly members of the SAR11 clade. SAR11 strains obtained from this study AMS1, and belonged to subgroup 1a and phylotype 1a.3. We also obtained other interesting strains which should be followed up with in the future. In the long run, results from this study will enhance our knowledge of the pelagic ecosystem and allow the impacts of rising temperatures on marine life to be understood.

  2. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  3. Extraction and PTP1B inhibitory activity of bromophenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Xiaoming; Gao, Lixin; Cui, Chuanming; Li, Chunshun; Li, Jia; Wang, Bingui

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we had characterized several structurally interesting brominated phenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula collected from various sites. However, Phytochemical investigations on this species collected from the Weihai coastline of Shandong Province remains blank. Therefore, we characterized the chemical constituents of individuals of this species collected from the region. Eight bromophenols were isolated and identified. Using detailed spectroscopic techniques and comparisons with published data, these compounds were identified as 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 1), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxymethylbenzene ( 3), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde ( 4), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 5), bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methane ( 6), 1,2-bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethane ( 7), and 1-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one ( 8). Among these compounds, 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from S. latiuscula. Each compound was evaluated on the ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bromophenols 5, 6, and 7 showed strong activities with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.3, and 3.5 μmol/L, respectively. This study provides further evidence that bromophenols are predominant among the chemical constituents of Symphyocladia, and that some of these compounds may be candidates for the development of anti-diabetes drugs.

  4. Determination of radionuclides and trace elements in marine sediments and biota from the red sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, Dia Awad

    2002-09-01

    21.9 Bq/kg dry weight. Similarly, the highest concentration of 210 Po was met in Festive at 38.7 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for 210 Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by 210 Po: 226 Ra activity ratio. On the other hand, 210 Po: 210 Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a tendency to accumulate 210 Po over 210 Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity. For 239+240 Pu measured in marine algae and animal species, the molluscs species apparently shows the lowest plutonium uptake relative to other animal species analysed and the algal species display a greater tendency for accumulation of plutonium in contrast to animal species. The lowest activity concentration value of 90 Sr in mBq/kg dry weight was met in green algae species Entomorpha (40) and the highest value in coral species Favites (157.2). As regards 40 K, its activity concentration in marine biota ranges between 450 (molluscs species Tridacnica) to 6630 Bq/kg dry weight for the other molluscs species Lambia. For trace elements studied, marine algae species show the highest uptake for all elements except strontium, cerium, rubidium and arsenic. On the other hand, coral species Favites contains the maximum concentration of strontium and cerium whereas highest values for rubidium and arsenic are detected in molluscs species Lambia. Among algal species, the green algae Entomorpha show highest trace metals uptake strongly suggesting its suitability for utilization as an effective bioindicator for trace metals in the Red Sea environment. (Author)

  5. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and 137Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan island, southern red sea, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zahrany, A. A.; Farouk, M. A.; Al-yousef, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Thand 40 K and man-made radionuclides such as 137 Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137C s in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (authors)

  6. Contributions to the study of the marine algae inhabiting Umluj Seashore, Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Borie Mohammad Ibraheem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine algal flora of the Umluj city received no attention about the marine macroalgae. In this paper a total of 19 species are reported for the first time as occurring in the Umluj coast of Saudi Arabia. These species related to Chlorophyta (1, Phaeophyceae (6 and Rhodophyceae (12.

  7. Marine Red Staining of a Pennsylvanian Carbonate Slope: Environmental and Oceanographic Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.; Immenhauser, A.M.; Steuber, T; Hagmaier, M.; Bahamonde, J.R.; Samankassou, E.; Merino Tomé, O.

    2007-01-01

    Red-stained platform facies are a common feature of many carbonate settings throughout the geological record. Although the mechanisms involved in red staining of subaerially exposed or argillaceous, peri-platforin limestones are reasonably well understood, the environmental and oceanographic

  8. The effect of supportive emergency department nursing care on pain reduction of patients with Red Sea marine wildlife injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Osnat; Delbar, Vered; Arad, Jacob; Grinstein-Cohen, Orli

    2015-10-01

    The emergency department at Yoseftal hospital in Eilat is on the shore of the Red Sea, and it is visited by patients with marine wildlife injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of supportive nursing care on the pain level of patients with Red Sea marine wildlife injuries. A prospective quantitative study including 102 patients admitted to the emergency department. The study included a study group (N = 50) and a control group (N = 52). Both groups rated their pain level on the VAS before and after receiving treatment. The control group received the usual treatment, and the study group received the usual nursing treatment along with structured patient guidance and support. There was a significant difference in the level of pain after the intervention between the control and the study group. In the study group, the level of pain was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p Nursing training and patient guidance contributed to increasing cooperation with patients and pain reduction. Therefore, training interventions should be structured and assimilated as an integral part of nursing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of mercury on taurine transport by the red blood cells of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of heavy metal exposure on the transport of the amino acid, 14 C-taurine, by the hemoglobin containing coelomocytes (red blood cells) of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata. Glycera has been used previously in studies on heavy metal absorption. Glycera red cells (RBCs) were used for this study because they contain a high concentration of taurine (190 mM) which has been implicated as a major osmolyte in cellular volume regulation in marine invertebrates. Taurine also appears to participate in osmoregulation of mammalian heart and brain tissue. The coelomic fluid bathing Glycera RBCs typically contains taurine at considerably lower concentrations (0.2 mM). The standing gradients (intracellular conc./extracellular conc.) for amino acids ranges from 40:1 for lysine to 950:1 for taurine. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of the large standing gradient for taurine was apparently due to the presence of a specific Na and Cl dependent taurine transport system in these cells. The fact that Glycera RBCs actively maintain large taurine gradients suggests that this tissue should be an excellent one to use in analysis of the mechanisms of heavy metal interaction with taurine transport systems

  10. Red sea urchin habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  11. Red abalone habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  13. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  14. Patterns of ecological specialization among microbial populations in the Red Sea and diverse oligotrophic marine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Luke R; Field, Chris; Romanuk, Tamara; Ngugi, David; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Stingl, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    , temperatures, and light levels at the extreme end for the surface ocean, and low nutrient concentrations, yet no metagenomic studies have been done there. The Red Sea (high salinity, high light, low N and P) compares favorably with the Mediterranean Sea (high

  15. Patterns of ecological specialization among microbial populations in the Red Sea and diverse oligotrophic marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Luke R; Field, Chris; Romanuk, Tamara; Ngugi, David; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Stingl, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Large swaths of the nutrient-poor surface ocean are dominated numerically by cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus), cyanobacterial viruses (cyanophage), and alphaproteobacteria (SAR11). How these groups thrive in the diverse physicochemical environments of different oceanic regions remains poorly understood. Comparative metagenomics can reveal adaptive responses linked to ecosystem-specific selective pressures. The Red Sea is well-suited for studying adaptation of pelagic-microbes, with salinities, temperatures, and light levels at the extreme end for the surface ocean, and low nutrient concentrations, yet no metagenomic studies have been done there. The Red Sea (high salinity, high light, low N and P) compares favorably with the Mediterranean Sea (high salinity, low P), Sargasso Sea (low P), and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (high light, low N). We quantified the relative abundance of genetic functions among Prochlorococcus, cyanophage, and SAR11 from these four regions. Gene frequencies indicate selection for phosphorus acquisition (Mediterranean/Sargasso), DNA repair and high-light responses (Red Sea/Pacific Prochlorococcus), and osmolyte C1 oxidation (Red Sea/Mediterranean SAR11). The unexpected connection between salinity-dependent osmolyte production and SAR11 C1 metabolism represents a potentially major coevolutionary adaptation and biogeochemical flux. Among Prochlorococcus and cyanophage, genes enriched in specific environments had ecotype distributions similar to nonenriched genes, suggesting that inter-ecotype gene transfer is not a major source of environment-specific adaptation. Clustering of metagenomes using gene frequencies shows similarities in populations (Red Sea with Pacific, Mediterranean with Sargasso) that belie their geographic distances. Taken together, the genetic functions enriched in specific environments indicate competitive strategies for maintaining carrying capacity in the face of physical stressors and low nutrient availability.

  16. Patterns of ecological specialization among microbial populations in the Red Sea and diverse oligotrophic marine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Luke R

    2013-05-11

    Large swaths of the nutrient-poor surface ocean are dominated numerically by cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus), cyanobacterial viruses (cyanophage), and alphaproteobacteria (SAR11). How these groups thrive in the diverse physicochemical environments of different oceanic regions remains poorly understood. Comparative metagenomics can reveal adaptive responses linked to ecosystem-specific selective pressures. The Red Sea is well-suited for studying adaptation of pelagic-microbes, with salinities, temperatures, and light levels at the extreme end for the surface ocean, and low nutrient concentrations, yet no metagenomic studies have been done there. The Red Sea (high salinity, high light, low N and P) compares favorably with the Mediterranean Sea (high salinity, low P), Sargasso Sea (low P), and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (high light, low N). We quantified the relative abundance of genetic functions among Prochlorococcus, cyanophage, and SAR11 from these four regions. Gene frequencies indicate selection for phosphorus acquisition (Mediterranean/Sargasso), DNA repair and high-light responses (Red Sea/Pacific Prochlorococcus), and osmolyte C1 oxidation (Red Sea/Mediterranean SAR11). The unexpected connection between salinity-dependent osmolyte production and SAR11 C1 metabolism represents a potentially major coevolutionary adaptation and biogeochemical flux. Among Prochlorococcus and cyanophage, genes enriched in specific environments had ecotype distributions similar to nonenriched genes, suggesting that inter-ecotype gene transfer is not a major source of environment-specific adaptation. Clustering of metagenomes using gene frequencies shows similarities in populations (Red Sea with Pacific, Mediterranean with Sargasso) that belie their geographic distances. Taken together, the genetic functions enriched in specific environments indicate competitive strategies for maintaining carrying capacity in the face of physical stressors and low nutrient availability. 2013 The

  17. Efficient ensemble forecasting of marine ecology with clustered 1D models and statistical lateral exchange: application to the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dreano, Denis; Tsiaras, Kostas; Triantafyllou, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting the state of large marine ecosystems is important for many economic and public health applications. However, advanced three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models, such as the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), are computationally expensive, especially when implemented within an ensemble data assimilation system requiring several parallel integrations. As an alternative to 3D ecological forecasting systems, we propose to implement a set of regional one-dimensional (1D) water-column ecological models that run at a fraction of the computational cost. The 1D model domains are determined using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based clustering method and satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) data. Regionally averaged Chl-a data is assimilated into the 1D models using the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter. To laterally exchange information between subregions and improve the forecasting skills, we introduce a new correction step to the assimilation scheme, in which we assimilate a statistical forecast of future Chl-a observations based on information from neighbouring regions. We apply this approach to the Red Sea and show that the assimilative 1D ecological models can forecast surface Chl-a concentration with high accuracy. The statistical assimilation step further improves the forecasting skill by as much as 50%. This general approach of clustering large marine areas and running several interacting 1D ecological models is very flexible. It allows many combinations of clustering, filtering and regression technics to be used and can be applied to build efficient forecasting systems in other large marine ecosystems.

  18. Efficient ensemble forecasting of marine ecology with clustered 1D models and statistical lateral exchange: application to the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dreano, Denis

    2017-05-24

    Forecasting the state of large marine ecosystems is important for many economic and public health applications. However, advanced three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models, such as the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), are computationally expensive, especially when implemented within an ensemble data assimilation system requiring several parallel integrations. As an alternative to 3D ecological forecasting systems, we propose to implement a set of regional one-dimensional (1D) water-column ecological models that run at a fraction of the computational cost. The 1D model domains are determined using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based clustering method and satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) data. Regionally averaged Chl-a data is assimilated into the 1D models using the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter. To laterally exchange information between subregions and improve the forecasting skills, we introduce a new correction step to the assimilation scheme, in which we assimilate a statistical forecast of future Chl-a observations based on information from neighbouring regions. We apply this approach to the Red Sea and show that the assimilative 1D ecological models can forecast surface Chl-a concentration with high accuracy. The statistical assimilation step further improves the forecasting skill by as much as 50%. This general approach of clustering large marine areas and running several interacting 1D ecological models is very flexible. It allows many combinations of clustering, filtering and regression technics to be used and can be applied to build efficient forecasting systems in other large marine ecosystems.

  19. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  20. A Novel Enzyme Portfolio for Red Algal Polysaccharide Degradation in the Marine Bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T Encoded in a Sizeable Polysaccharide Utilization Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Schultz-Johansen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes notably agarases and carrageenases. Based on a first functional characterization combined with a comparative sequence analysis, we confirmed the enzymatic activities of several enzymes required for red algal polysaccharide degradation by the bacterium. In particular, we report for the first time, the discovery of novel enzyme activities targeting furcellaran, a hybrid carrageenan containing both β-carrageenan and κ/β-carrageenan motifs. Some of these enzymes represent a new subfamily within the CAZy classification. From the combined analyses, we propose models for the complete degradation of agar and κ/β-type carrageenan by P. hydrolytica S66T. The novel enzymes described here may find value in new bio-based industries and advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for recycling of red algal polysaccharides in marine ecosystems.

  1. A Novel Enzyme Portfolio for Red Algal Polysaccharide Degradation in the Marine Bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T Encoded in a Sizeable Polysaccharide Utilization Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Bech, Pernille K; Hennessy, Rosanna C; Glaring, Mikkel A; Barbeyron, Tristan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Stougaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66 T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66 T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) notably agarases and carrageenases. Based on a first functional characterization combined with a comparative sequence analysis, we confirmed the enzymatic activities of several enzymes required for red algal polysaccharide degradation by the bacterium. In particular, we report for the first time, the discovery of novel enzyme activities targeting furcellaran, a hybrid carrageenan containing both β-carrageenan and κ/β-carrageenan motifs. Some of these enzymes represent a new subfamily within the CAZy classification. From the combined analyses, we propose models for the complete degradation of agar and κ/β-type carrageenan by P. hydrolytica S66 T . The novel enzymes described here may find value in new bio-based industries and advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for recycling of red algal polysaccharides in marine ecosystems.

  2. Detection of PPCPs in marine organisms from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Sydnes, Leiv K; Alarif, Walied M; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2018-04-15

    The occurrence of PPCPs in macroalgae, barnacle and fish samples from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea is reported. Solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction was applied to isolate the compounds, and their quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Atenolol, ranitidine, chlorpheniramine, DEET, and atrazine were detected in one or more macroalgae at caffeine, methylparaben, and carbamazepine were present atmaximum concentrations of 41.3, 44.3, and 1.7ng/g (on a dry weight basis=dw), respectively. Eleven PPCPs were detected in the barnacle samples at concentrations between contaminated waters where a continuous supply of non-persistent contaminants such as PPCPs is available for long-term exposure of local benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca(2+)-sensitive and Ca(2+)-resistant human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-10-08

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation.

  4. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4 mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation. PMID:19394137

  5. Marine litter in coral reef areas along the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hilal, Ahmad; Al-Najjar, Tariq

    2009-02-01

    Composition and abundance of submerged marine litter at six selected sites within a coral reef area along the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba have been estimated. The litter was collected in clean up voluntary campaigns that took place in the period between 25 August 2003 and 29 February 2004. A total of 10,506 items weighing 1159 kg were collected during the survey. Mean litter density in the individual sampling sites varied between 1 and 6 items/m(2) with an overall mean density of 2.8 items/m(2). The mean weight of the collected items per sampling site varied between 0.06 and 1.06 kg/m(2) with an overall mean of 0.31 kg/m(2). Plastic accounted for 42% of the collected items, fishing gear was the second most abundant (31%) while metal was the third most abundant item (17%). By comparison, cardboard constituted 1%, and rubber and other items accounted for less than 1% of the total items collected during the campaigns. Approximately 61% of the plastics consisted of bags followed by bottles (24%), plastic containers and sheets accounted for 13 and 2%, respectively. Statistical analysis indicates no significant differences between the sites in terms of litter count and weight. Potential sources are pointed out and recommendations and actions to address the problem are suggested.

  6. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red seaweeds (Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad M. Mohy El-Din

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. The antibacterial activity of Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea were analyzed against human pathogenic bacteria. The present study was performed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of seaweeds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. In this study, we estimated phenols, flavonoids, tannins, pigments and mineral contents and determined the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected seaweeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the three seaweeds using various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. Among the various extracts, the methanolic extract was found to have the highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. We evaluated the seaweeds against Vibrio fluvialis, and Pterocladia capillacea was the most effective at controlling its growth. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in the methanol extract. The chemical constituents of the seaweeds were characterized by GC–MS, which showed that they contain organic compounds, such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  7. Highly sulphated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta), a red seaweed of Madagascar marine coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, T A; Delattre, C; Laroche, C; Wadouachi, A; Dulong, V; Picton, L; Andriamadio, P; Michaud, P

    2009-08-01

    Halymenia durvillei is a red seaweed with a great potential as sulphated galactan producer collected in the coastal waters of small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean). To elucidate the structure of its polysaccharide, NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR, HPAEC and different colorimetric methods were carried out. It has been shown that this polysaccharide, consisted mainly of galactose, was branched by xylose and galactose in minor amounts. Arabinose and fucose were also detected. This galactan was found highly sulphated (42%, w/w) and pyruvylated (1.8%, w/w). Analysis of glycosidic linkages by CPG-MS and 13C NMR indicated that the polysaccharide has the defining linear backbone of alternating 3-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues. 3,6-Anhydrogalactose units have been also detected in minor quantity. This lambda-carrageenan like polysaccharide has shown original sulphatation patterns with 2-O (26%) or 2/6-O (58%) sulphated 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 6-O (19%) or 2/6-O (47%) 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues.

  8. Thermal/fluid modeling of the response of saturated marine red clays to emplacement of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Gartling, D.K.; Russo, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    In this report, we discuss heat and mass transport in marine red clay sediments being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium. Development of two computer codes, one to determine temperature and convective velocity fields, the other to analyze the nuclide migration problem, is discussed and preliminary results from the codes reviewed. The calculations indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment/canister temperature range of 200 0 C to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5 kW initial power from waste in a 3 m long by 0.3 m diameter canister. The resulting fluid displacement due to convection is found to be small, less than 1 m. The migration of four nuclides, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 129 I and 99 Tc were computed for a canister buried 30 m deep in 60 m thick sediment. It was found that the 239 Pu and 137 Cs, which migrate as cations and have relatively high distribution coefficients, are essentially completely contained in the sediment. The anionic species, 129 I and 99 Tc, which have relatively low distribution coefficients, broke through the sediment in about 5000 years. The resultant peak injection rates which occur at about 15,000 years were extremely small (0.5 μCi/year for 129 I and 180 μCi/year for 99 Tc)

  9. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Edematogenic activity of a sulfated galactan from the red marine algae Gelidium crinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Amorim, Renata Morais Ferreira; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; de Paulo Pereira, Lívia; de Sousa, Albertina Antonielly Sydney; Aragão, Gislei Frota; Pereira, Maria Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    The red algae Gelidium crinale (Turner) Gaillon (Gelidiaceae), encountered along the Southeast and Northeast Brazilian sea coast, contains a sulfated galactan presenting a similar saccharide backbone compared to λ carrageenan. Inflammatory effects of other galactans were reported, but not for that obtained from G. crinale (SG-Gc). To investigate the in vivo edematogenic effect of SG-Gc in comparison to λ carrageenan. SG-Gc was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) intraplantar injection of SG-Gc or λ carrageenan and evaluated by hydroplethysmometry. Data were expressed as the increase in paw volume subtracted from the basal volume or area under curve-AUC. To investigate the participation of early and late-phase inflammatory mediators, rats were treated with pyrilamine, compound 48/80, indomethacin, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or pentoxifylline before SG-Gc. SG-Gc edematogenic effect was initiated at 0.5 h, peaked at 2 h (1.26 ± 0.05 mL) and lasted until 6 h (0.21 ± 0.03 mL), whereas the carrageenan-induced edema started at 1 h. The first phase (1-3 h) of SG-Gc-induced edema was 176 ± 15 (AUC) versus carrageenan (114.5 ± 14), whereas the second phase (3-5 h) was 95 ± 12 (AUC) versus carrageenan (117.5 ± 11). Treatment with compound 48/80, pyrilamine, indomethacin, L-NAME, and pentoxifylline inhibited the effect of SG-Gc by 32, 40, 69, 72, and 49%, respectively. SG-Gc and λ carrageenan induce different profile of inflammatory response in the paw edema model, that involves histamine, cytokines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide (NO), but with different degree of participation.

  11. Metabolomic response of a marine bacterium to 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, the rare sugar from red macroalgae, as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Yu, Sora; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2018-03-20

    Marine red macroalgae have received much attention as sustainable resources for producing bio-based products. Therefore, understanding the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates from red macroalgae, in fermentative microorganisms, is crucial for efficient bioconversion of the carbohydrates into bio-based products. Recently, the novel catabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), the main component of red macroalgae, was discovered in a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. However, the global metabolic network in response to AHG remains unclear. Here, the intracellular metabolites of EJY3 grown on AHG, glucose, or galactose were comparatively profiled using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The global metabolite profiling results revealed that the metabolic profile for AHG significantly differed from those for other common sugars. Specifically, the metabolic intermediate of the AHG pathway, 3,6-anhydrogalactonate, was detected during growth only in the presence of AHG; thus, the recently discovered key steps in AHG catabolism was found not to occur in the catabolism of other common sugars. Moreover, the levels of metabolic intermediates related to glycerolipid metabolism and valine biosynthesis were higher with AHG than those with other sugars. These comprehensive metabolomic analytical results for AHG in this marine bacterium can be used as the basis for having fermentative microbial strains to engineered to efficiently utilize AHG from macroalgal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous marine diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Yoo, Yeong; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Mi Seon; Kang, Nam Seon; Song, Jae Yoon; Shin, Woongghi; Kim, Kwang Young; Lee, Kitack

    2009-01-01

    We investigated feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema costatum to explore whether dinoflagellates are able to feed on S. costatum, inside the protoplasm of target dinoflagellate cells observed under compound microscope, confocal microscope, epifluorescence microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) after adding living and fluorescently labeled S. costatum (FLSc). To explore effects of dinoflagellate predator size on ingestion rates of S. costatum, we measured ingestion rates of seven dinoflagellates at a single prey concentration. In addition, we measured ingestion rates of the common phototrophic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum micans and Gonyaulax polygramma on S. costatum as a function of prey concentration. We calculated grazing coefficients by combining field data on abundances of P. micans and G. polygramma on co-occurring S. costatum with laboratory data on ingestion rates obtained in the present study. All phototrophic dinoflagellate predators tested (i.e. Akashiwo sanguinea, Amphidinium carterae, Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium tamarense, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, G. polygramma, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gymnodinium impudicum, Heterocapsa rotundata, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. micans, Prorocentrum minimum, Prorocentrum triestinum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea) were able to ingest S. costatum. When mean prey concentrations were 170-260 ng C/ml (i.e. 6,500-10,000 cells/ml), the ingestion rates of G. polygramma, H. rotundata, H. triquetra, L. polyedrum, P. donghaiense, P. micans, and P. triestinum on S. costatum (0.007-0.081 ng C/dinoflagellate/d [0.2-3.0 cells/dinoflagellate/d]) were positively correlated with predator size. With increasing mean prey concentration of ca 1-3,440 ng C/ml (40-132,200 cells/ml), the ingestion rates of P. micans and G. polygramma on S. costatum continuously increased. At the given prey concentrations, the maximum ingestion

  13. Inhibitory activity of an extract from a marine bacterium Halomonas sp. HSB07 against the red-tide microalga Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, red tides occurred frequently in coastal areas worldwide. Various methods based on the use of clay, copper sulfate, and bacteria have been successful in controlling red tides to some extent. As a new defensive agent, marine microorganisms are important sources of compounds with potent inhibitory bioactivities against red-tide microalgae, such as Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta). In this study, we isolated a marine bacterium, HSB07, from seawater collected from Hongsha Bay, Sanya, South China Sea. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain HSB07 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas. A crude ethyl acetate extract of strain HSB07 showed moderate inhibition activity against Gymnodinium sp. in a bioactive prescreening experiment. The extract was further separated into fractions A, B, and C by silica gel column chromatography. Fractions B and C showed strong inhibition activities against Gymnodinium. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of a Halomonas bacterium against a red-tide-causing microalga.

  14. Enhancing the sustainability of the Marine Coastal Environment of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2012-01-01

    This project enhances the national capabilities to monitor and assess contaminants in the marine environment that could be organic pollutants, radioactive materials and toxins. This will be very beneficial as, the monitoring processes and control of marine pollution is a very strategic important objective of the national institutes concerned with environmental protection and rehabilitation of the marine environment. (author)

  15. Isolation, purification and properties of an R-phycocyanin from the phycobilisomes of a marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Phycobilisomes were prepared from a marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata (P. urceolata by sucrose step-gradient ultracentrifugation. From the prepared phycobilisomes, an R-phycocyanin was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and then purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE performed in neutral buffer systems. The purified R-phycocyanins showed not only a homogeneous trimer of 136 kDa in gel filtration and a single band in native PAGE, but also exhibited one band at about pH 5.7 in native isoelectric focusing (IEF. By a gradient SDS-PAGE the purified R-phycocyanin was determined to contain one a subunit of 17.5 kDa (α17.5 and two b subunits of 21.3 kDa and 22.6 kDa (β21.3 and β22.6. The analysis from denaturing isoelectric focusing and two-dimension PAGE demonstrated that α17.5, β21.3 and β22.6 had their pIs of 6.4, 5.3 and 5.4, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectroscopy analysis of β21.3 and β22.6 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated the two b subunits had differences in peptide mass fingerprinting. These results revealed that the prepared R-phycocyanins were composed of one a and two b subunits. (α17:53 β21:32 β22:61 and (α17:53 β21:31 β22:62, which have a structural foundation to show their pIs too close for them to be definitely resolved by native IEF, are postulated to be the most possible trimeric forms of the R-phycocyanins prepared from the phycobilisomes of P. urceolata.

  16. Removal of toxic chromium from aqueous solution, wastewater and saline water by marine red alga Pterocladia capillacea and its activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Nemr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterocladia capillacea, a red marine macroalgae, was tested for its ability to remove toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. A new activated carbon obtained from P. capillacea via acid dehydration was also investigated as an adsorbent for toxic chromium. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as pH, chromium concentration and adsorbent weight. Batch equilibrium tests at different pH conditions showed that at pH 1.0, a maximum chromium uptake was observed for both inactivated dried red alga P. capillacea and its activated carbon. The maximum sorption capacities for dried red alga and its activated carbon were about 12 and 66 mgg−1, respectively, as calculated by Langmuir model. The ability of inactivated red alga P. capillacea and developed activated carbon to remove chromium from synthetic sea water, natural sea water and wastewater was investigated as well. Different isotherm models were used to analyze the experimental data and the models parameters were evaluated. This study showed that the activated carbon developed from red alga P. capillacea is a promising activated carbon for removal of toxic chromium.

  17. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  18. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2017-03-20

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies.

  19. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg; Mü ller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies.

  20. A novel enzyme portfolio for red algal polysaccharide degradation in the marine bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T encoded in a sizeable polysaccharide utilization locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Bech, Pernille Kjersgaard; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine

    2018-01-01

    with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) notably agarases...... and carrageenases. Based on a first functional characterization combined with a comparative sequence analysis, we confirmed the enzymatic activities of several enzymes required for red algal polysaccharide degradation by the bacterium. In particular, we report for the first time, the discovery of novel enzyme...

  1. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  2. Peroxide scavenging potential of ultraviolet-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids isolated from a marine red alga Bryocladia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Kannaujiya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs were extracted and purified from a marine red alga Bryocladia sp. by using high performance liquid chromatography. We have detected four MAAs having retention times 3.23, 2.94, 3.56 and 2.67 min with absorbance maxima (λmax at 323, 328, 335 and 340 nm respectively. The effect of UV-B on the induction of these MAAs was studied. In comparison to control, there was 3 - 22 % induction of MAAs after 12 and 24 h of UV-B exposure. Apart from MAAs, other pigments such as chl a, carotenoids and total proteins were inversely affected by UV-B irradiation. In addition, peroxide scavenging potential of these MAAs were also investigated. With 2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration, only <5 % of MAAs were found to be affected. However, with the increased H2O2, 40-60 % decline in the MAAs concentration with a corresponding peak shifting towards the blue wavelength was recorded. In addition, most of the MAAs were found to be reacting slowly with increasing H2O2 (upto 10 mM concentration after an incubation period of 5 and 30 min, which indicates the remarkable scavenging potential and stability of MAAs against oxidative stress. Thus, the isolated MAAs from marine red alga Bryocladia sp. may act as an efficient peroxide scavenger.

  3. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  4. Palaeoclimate evolution across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary in the Nanxiong Basin (SE China) recorded by red strata and its correlation with marine records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Wenyan

    2018-03-01

    The climate during the Cretaceous Period represented one of the greenhouse states of Earth's history. Significant transformation of climate patterns and a mass extinction event characterised by the disappearance of dinosaurs occurred across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. However, most records of this interval are derived from marine sediments. The continuous and well-exposed red strata of the Nanxiong Basin (SE China) provide ideal material to develop continental records. Considerable research into stratigraphic, palaeontological, chronologic, palaeoclimatic, and tectonic aspects has been carried out for the Datang profile, which is a type section of a non-marine Cretaceous-Palaeogene stratigraphic division in China. For this study, we reviewed previous work and found that (1) the existing chronological framework of the Datang profile is flawed; (2) precise palaeoclimatic reconstruction is lacking because of the limitations of sampling resolution (e.g. carbonate samples) and/or the lack of efficient proxies; and (3) comparisons of climate changes between marine and continental records are lacking. To resolve these problems, detailed field observations and sampling, as well as environmental magnetic and rare earth element (REE) measurements, were carried out. The results show that (1) more accurate ages of the Datang profile range from 72 to 62.8 Ma based on a combination of the most recently published radiometric, palaeontological, and palaeomagnetic ages; (2) there is considerable evidence of palaeosol generation, which indicates that the red strata formed in a long-term hot, oxidising environment that lacked underwater conditions; (3) haematite was the dominant magnetic mineral in the red strata, and the variation trend of magnetic susceptibility was consistent with the oxygen isotope records from deep-sea sediments, which indicates that the content of haematite was controlled by the global climate; and (4) the palaeoclimate changes from 72 to 62.8 Ma in the

  5. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Hikmawan, Tyas I.; Antunes, Andre; Holtermann, Karie; Stingl, Ulrich; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes

  6. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules.

  7. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. PMID:26655752

  8. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined.

  9. 226Ra-210Pb-210Po Levels in Marine Biota and Surface Coastal Sediments from the Red Sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentration levels in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of Port sudan harbour. The analyses were performed adopting a simple time efficient method combining alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting technique. Generally speaking, surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03±1.79) and 210 Po/ 226 Ra (2.23±1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/KXg and 21.9 Bq/KXg dry weight, respectively

  10. Chaetopyranin, a benzaldehyde derivative, and other related metabolites from Chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus derived from the marine red alga Polysiphonia urceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Li, Xiao-Ming; Teuscher, Franka; Li, Dong-Li; Diesel, Arnulf; Ebel, Rainer; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2006-11-01

    Cultivation of the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum, which was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Polysiphonia urceolata, resulted in the isolation of chaetopyranin (1), a new benzaldehyde secondary metabolite. Ten known compounds were also isolated, including two benzaldehyde congeners, 2-(2',3-epoxy-1',3'-heptadienyl)-6-hydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzaldehyde (2) and isotetrahydroauroglaucin (3), two anthraquinone derivatives, erythroglaucin (4) and parietin (5), five asperentin derivatives including asperentin (6, also known as cladosporin), 5'-hydroxy-asperentin-8-methylether (7), asperentin-8-methyl ether (8), 4'-hydroxyasperentin (9), and 5'-hydroxyasperentin (10), and the prenylated diketopiperazine congener neoechinulin A (11). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data analysis (1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC NMR, as well as low- and high-resolution mass experiments). To our knowledge, compound 1 represents the first example of a 2H-benzopyran derivative of marine algal-derived fungi as well as of the fungal genus Chaetomium. Each isolate was tested for its DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging property. Compounds 1-4 were found to have moderate activity. Chaetopyranin (1) also exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxic activity toward several tumor cell lines.

  11. Supply-side approaches to the economic valuation of coastal and marine habitat in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hoagland, P.

    2013-07-01

    The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial or residential purposes. In such circumstances, the ocean habitat and its associated ecosystem are treated as if they are worthless. Measures of actual or potential economic values generated by fisheries in commercial markets can be used to assess a conservative (lower-bound) value of ocean habitat. With this information, one can begin to compare the values of coastal developments to the values of foregone ocean habitat in order to help understand whether development would be justified economically. In this paper, we focus on the economic value associated with the harvesting of commercial fish stocks as a relevant case for the Saudi Arabian portion of the Red Sea. We describe first the conceptual basis behind supply-side approaches to economic valuation. Next we review the literature on the use of these methods for valuing ocean habitat. We provide an example based on recent research assessing the bioeconomic status of the traditional fisheries of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the KSA Red Sea coral reefs, finding that annual per-unit values supporting the traditional fisheries only are on the order of 7000/km2. Finally, we develop some recommendations for refining future applications of these methods to the Red Sea environment and for further research. © 2013 .

  12. 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po levels in marine biota and surface coastal sediments from the Red sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Sam, A. K.; Hassona, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentration levels in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (flamingo bay) of Port Sudan harbour. The analyses were performed adopting a simple time efficient method combining alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting technique. generally speaking, surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported form different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident form the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03±1.79) and 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (2.23±1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of 210 Po was met in the favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, cytoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for 210 Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by 210 Po: 226 Ra activity ratio with cytoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, 210 Po: 220 Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species favites (9.97) and the brown algae sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate 210 Po over 220 Pb, while in the rest of the species; this ratio is less than unity. (Author)

  13. Distribution of 226Ra-210Pb-210Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03 ± 1.79) and 210 Po/ 226 Ra (2.23 ± 1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of 210 Po was met in Favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for 210 Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88 Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by 210 Po: 226 Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, 210 Po: 210 Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate 210 Po over 210 Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity

  14. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El Shoubaky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2 solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H 3 BO 3 , AlCl 3 , and AlCl 3 + HCl were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids. The flavone compound was identified as apigenin bycomparing its physicochemical data with those in the literature. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin were evaluated. Apigenin showed promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the hot plate test and writhing test in mice as well as tail-immersion tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It is concluded that apigenin possesses potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, which might be due to the inhibition of PGE 2 as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α.

  15. Effects of pollution on the geochemical properties of marine sediments across the fringing reef of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen

    2016-09-15

    The Gulf of Aqaba is of significant strategic and economic value to all gulf-bordering states, particularly to Jordan, where it provides Jordan with its only marine outlet. The Gulf is subject to a variety of impacts posing imminent ecological risk to its unique marine ecosystem. We attempted to investigate the status of metal pollution in the coastal sediments of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. The distribution of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations were determined in trapped and bottom-surface sediments at three selected sites at different depths. In addition, monthly sedimentation rates at varying water depths were also estimated at each sampling site using sediment traps. The high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn were recorded at the Phosphate Loading Birth (PLB) site followed by the Industrial Complex (IC) site indicating their dominant anthropogenic source (i.e., the contribution of industrial activities). However, Fe, Al, and Mn contents were related to inputs from the terrigenous (crustal) origin. Except for Al, Fe and Mn at the PLB site, the concentrations of metals exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing water depth (distance from the shoreline). The PLB site also showed the highest sedimentation rate which decreased with increasing water depth. The Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that Cd was the most enriched element in the sediment (indicating that Cd pollution is widespread), whereas the least enriched metal in sediments was Cu. EF values suggested that the coastal area is impacted by a combination of human and natural sources of metals, where the anthropogenic sources are intense in the PLB site (north of Gulf of Aqaba). The MSS area is potentially the least polluted, consistent with being a marine reserve. The IC sediments have been found to be impacted by human activities but less intensely compared to the PLB area. These results suggested that there are two sources of metals in sediments; the primary source is likely closer to PLB

  16. Phytoremediated marine sediments as suitable peat-free growing media for production of red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Gnesini, Alessandro; Gonnelli, Cristina; Marraccini, Chiara; Masciandaro, Grazia; Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Lucchetti, Stefano; Nicese, Francesco P; Renella, Giancarlo

    2018-06-01

    Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season. Environmental impact related to the use of sediment-based as compared to peat-based growing media was assessed by the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Sediment-based growing media presented significantly higher bulk density, pH and electrical conductivity values, lower C and N contents, and significantly higher total and available P. Red robin photinia grown on S + F growing media showed morphological and chemical parameters similar to those of control plants (C), whereas plants grown on S and S + PR showed lower growth. Leaf concentration of nutrients and heavy metals varied depending on the considered element and growing media, but were all within the common values for ornamental plants, whereas the highest MDA concentrations were found in plants grown on traditional growing media. The LCA indicated the use of sediments as growing media reduced the C footprint of ornamental plant production and the contribute of growing media to the environmental impact per produced plant. We concluded that sediments phytoremediation and use in plant nursery is a practical alternative re-use option for dredged sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-12-11

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  18. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  19. A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, M A; Bird, C J; Rice, E L; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Singh, R K

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny of marine Rhodophyta has been inferred by a number of methods from nucleotide sequences of nuclear genes encoding small subunit rRNA from 39 species in 15 orders. Sequence divergences are relatively large, especially among bangiophytes and even among congeners in this group. Subclass Bangiophycidae appears polyphyletic, encompassing at least three lineages, with Porphyridiales distributed between two of these. Subclass Florideophycidae is monophyletic, with Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Ahnfeltiales, and a close association of Nemaliales, Acrochaetiales, and Palmariales forming the four deepest branches. Cermiales may represent a convergence of vegetative and reproductive morphologies, as family Ceramiaceae is at best weakly related to the rest of the order, and one of its members appears to be allied to Gelidiales. Except for Gigartinales, for which more data are required, the other florideophyte orders appear distinct and taxonomically justified. A good correlation was observed with taxonomy based on pit-plug ultrastructure. Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups. PMID:8041780

  20. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole−Acetic acid, HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  1. Phases and rates of iron and magnetism changes during paddy soil development on calcareous marine sediment and acid Quaternary red-clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiming; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Chen, Liumei; Han, Guangzhong; Zhang, Ganlin

    2018-01-11

    Dynamic changes in Fe oxides and magnetic properties during natural pedogenesis are well documented, but variations and controls of Fe and magnetism changes during anthropedogenesis of paddy soils strongly affected by human activities remain poorly understood. We investigated temporal changes in different Fe pools and magnetic parameters in soil profiles from two contrasting paddy soil chronosequences developed on calcareous marine sediment and acid Quaternary red clay in Southern China to understand the directions, phases and rates of Fe and magnetism evolution in Anthrosols. Results showed that paddy soil evolution under the influence of artificial submergence and drainage caused changes in soil moisture regimes and redox conditions with both time and depth that controlled Fe transport and redistribution, leading to increasing profile differentiation of Fe oxides, rapid decrease of magnetic parameters, and formation of diagnostic horizons and features, irrespective of the different parent materials. However, the initial parent material characteristics (pH, Fe content and composition, weathering degree and landscape positions) exerted a strong influence on the rates and trajectories of Fe oxides evolution as well as the phases and rates of magnetism changes. This influence diminished with time as prolonged rice cultivation drove paddy soil evolving to common pedogenic features.

  2. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  3. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT.

  4. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  5. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; DiBattista, Joseph; Rocha, Luiz A.; Randall, John E.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  7. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  8. Transcriptome-Based Identification of the Desiccation Response Genes in Marine Red Algae Pyropia tenera (Rhodophyta) and Enhancement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance by PtDRG2 in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sungoh; Lee, Ha-Nul; Jung, Hyun Shin; Yang, Sunghwan; Park, Eun-Jeong; Hwang, Mi Sook; Jeong, Won-Joong; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2017-06-01

    Pyropia tenera (Kjellman) are marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone and lose more than 90% of water during hibernal low tides every day. In order to identify the desiccation response gene (DRG) in P. tenera, we generated 1,444,210 transcriptome sequences using the 454-FLX platform from the gametophyte under control and desiccation conditions. De novo assembly of the transcriptome reads generated 13,170 contigs, covering about 12 Mbp. We selected 1160 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to desiccation stress based on reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) expression values. As shown in green higher plants, DEGs under desiccation are composed of two groups of genes for gene regulation networks and functional proteins for carbohydrate metabolism, membrane perturbation, compatible solutes, and specific proteins similar to higher plants. DEGs that show no significant homology with known sequences in public databases were selected as DRGs in P. tenera. PtDRG2 encodes a novel polypeptide of 159 amino acid residues locating chloroplast. When PtDRG2 was overexpressed in Chlamydomonas, the PtDRG2 confer mannitol and salt tolerance in transgenic cells. These results suggest that Pyropia may possess novel genes that differ from green plants, although the desiccation tolerance mechanism in red algae is similar to those of higher green plants. These transcriptome sequences will facilitate future studies to understand the common processes and novel mechanisms involved in desiccation stress tolerance in red algae.

  9. Do the fluorescent red eyes of the marine fish Tripterygion delaisi stand out? In situ and in vivo measurements at two depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harant, Ulrike K; Santon, Matteo; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Wehrberger, Florian; Griessler, Thomas; Meadows, Melissa G; Champ, Connor M; Michiels, Nico K

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery of red fluorescence in fish, much effort has been invested to elucidate its potential functions, one of them being signaling. This implies that the combination of red fluorescence and reflection should generate a visible contrast against the background. Here, we present in vivo iris radiance measurements of Tripterygion delaisi under natural light conditions at 5 and 20 m depth. We also measured substrate radiance of shaded and exposed foraging sites at those depths. To assess the visual contrast of the red iris against these substrates, we used the receptor noise model for chromatic contrasts and Michelson contrast for achromatic calculations. At 20 m depth, T. delaisi iris radiance generated strong achromatic contrasts against substrate radiance, regardless of exposure, and despite substrate fluorescence. Given that downwelling light above 600 nm is negligible at this depth, we can attribute this effect to iris fluorescence. Contrasts were weaker in 5 m. Yet, the pooled radiance caused by red reflection and fluorescence still exceeded substrate radiance for all substrates under shaded conditions and all but Jania rubens and Padina pavonia under exposed conditions. Due to the negative effects of anesthesia on iris fluorescence, these estimates are conservative. We conclude that the requirements to create visual brightness contrasts are fulfilled for a wide range of conditions in the natural environment of T. delaisi .

  10. Distribution of {sup 226}Ra-{sup 210}Pb-{sup 210}Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@hotmail.com; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)

    2008-12-15

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po with respect to their progenitor {sup 226}Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra (3.03 {+-} 1.79) and {sup 210}Po/{sup 226}Ra (2.23 {+-} 1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was met in Favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for {sup 210}Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88 Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by {sup 210}Po:{sup 226}Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate {sup 210}Po over {sup 210}Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity.

  11. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  12. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta, a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gavio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta, Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length, its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae, its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  13. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  14. Allelopathic inhibition of photosynthesis in the red tide-causing marine alga, Scrippsiella trochoidea (Pyrrophyta), by the dried macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changpeng; Liao, Heping; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    The red tide-causing microalga, Scrippsiella trochoidea was co-cultured with different quantities of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis under laboratory conditions, to characterize the allelopathic inhibition effect of the seaweed on photosynthesis of the microalga. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution was measured, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P (O, J, I and P point in primary photochemistry reaction curve in photosystem II) curves associated with its specific parameters were determined. A concentration-dependent inhibition of S. trochoidea was observed when the dried seaweed was added. The rate of light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution (Pmax) was markedly decreased, and the O-J-I-P curve coupled with its specific parameters was reduced. The inhibitory effects of the macroalga on the microalga, according to the JIP-test (the relative fluorescence analysis based on O-J-I-P curve) and the activity of oxygen evolution, include a decrease in the number of active reaction centers, the blocking-up of the electron transport chain, and the damage to the oxygen-evolving complex. This study suggests that dried G. lemaneiformis is effective in inhibiting photosynthesis of S. trochoidea, and could thus be a potential candidate for mitigating S. trochoidea blooms.

  15. Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates the lethal effect of phenanthrene but not the bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary taurine on the hepatic metabolic profiles of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and on phenanthrene (a polyaromatic hydrocarbon) toxicity and bioaccumulation. The fish were fed a diet supplemented with 0% (TAU0%), 0.5% (TAU0.5%), or 5% (TAU5%) taurine for 40-55d and subjected to phenanthrene acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected the hepatic metabolic profiles of fish, which indicated a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55d and were then exposed to 0-893µg/L phenanthrene for 96h. Tolerance to phenanthrene was significantly improved by 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed relative to TAU0%, but not by 5.0% inclusion. Reduced glutathione in the liver, which acts as an oxygen-free radical scavenger, was associated with a reduction in the toxicity of phenanthrene. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40d and were thereafter chronically exposed to 20µg/L phenanthrene for 13d followed by depuration for 3d. The activity of hepatic biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, was increased by phenanthrene exposure in the taurine inclusion groups. However, phenanthrene concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0% tended to be higher than those of fish fed TAU0% and TAU0.5% during the exposure period. These results indicate that 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed plays an important role in the alleviation of phenanthrene toxicity but not bioaccumulation. Furthermore, larger amount of taurine inclusion (TAU5%) did not show marked beneficial effects against phenanthrene exposure. This study provides insight about a major concern of environmental contaminants into aquatic environment and can be effectively used for improvement of aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  17. Marine Fisheries Initiative Program (MARFIN) Exploratory surveys for red snapper juveniles off Florida South Atlantic coast from 2012-07-31 to 2012-09-08 (NCEI Accession 0156976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information on locations sampled, gears used, and whether red snapper were observed. If a red snapper was caught its total length was recorded.

  18. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  19. New records of Lobatolampea tetragona (Ctenophora: Lobata: Lobatolampeidae) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Lasley, Robert M.; Moore, Jenna M.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Lobatolampea tetragona Horita, 2000, a member of the monotypic family Lobatolampeidae (Lobata), is reported from the Red Sea based on seven specimens collected during marine biodiversity surveys conducted in the southern and central Red Sea

  20. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  1. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  2. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  3. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  4. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  6. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  7. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. Potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate: a novel metabolite isolated from the marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales); 4-(Hidroximetil)-Benzenossulfonato de potassio: metabolito inedito isolado da alga marinha Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicio, Rafael de; Debonsi, Hosana Maria [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: hosana@fcfrp.usp.br; Yokoya, Nair Sumie [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    2008-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the marine alga Bostrychia tenella has led to the isolation of two aromatic compounds, the new sulfate metabolite potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate (1) and the compound 1-methoxyphenethyl alcohol (2), described previously as a synthetic product. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR and by comparison with literature data. (author)

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  12. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  14. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  17. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  19. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  20. Factors controlling the compositional variations among the marine and non-marine black shales from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, Hassan M. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, PO Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Ismael, Ismael S. [Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Non-marine (Jurassic) and marine (Cretaceous) black shales from Egypt were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analyses to examine the controlling factors of their compositional variations. Non-marine black shales are composed of kaolinite and quartz with traces of gypsum, illite, calcite, feldspars, and dolomite, while marine black shales from the Red Sea area are composed of smectite, kaolinite, quartz, calcite, and dolomite with traces of feldspars. Abu Tartur marine black shales are composed of smectite and quartz with traces of feldspars and gypsum. Non-marine black shales show considerably higher Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratios compared to the marine black shales. On the other hand, marine black shales show considerably higher Cr, V, and Zn contents with positive correlations between these elements and organic carbon (C{sub org.}){sub .} Red Sea black shales have higher Ni/Co, V/Cr, and U/Al ratios. Chondrite normalized values of the medium and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs, respectively) are higher in the non-marine black shales compared to the marine black shales. Pyrite from non-marine black shales is characterized by high positive {delta}{sup 34}S isotope values (average of + 9.3 permille). Pyrite from Red Sea black shales has low negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -16.7 permille), pyrite from black shales of the lower member of the Duwi Formation has positive {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of 5.8 permille), while pyrite from marine black shales of the middle member has negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -0.83 permille). Source area composition, weathering conditions, depositional environments, and type of organic matter are considered to be the probable controlling factors of these variations. The more felsic constituents in the source area of non-marine black shales is responsible for the relatively high Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratio. Relatively high kaolinite contents and Chemical

  1. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  2. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  4. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  11. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  12. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  13. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  14. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    .... 100513223-0289-02] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine...-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery that were implemented in May 2010...

  15. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    .... 100513223-0254-01] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine... deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea...

  16. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... 100105009-0053-01] RIN 0648-AY51 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including...

  17. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus

  18. Comparison of chlorophyll in the Red Sea derived from MODIS-Aqua and in vivo fluorescence

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J W; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine environment but relatively unexplored. The only available long-term biological dataset at large spatial and temporal scales is remotely-sensed chlorophyll observations (an index of phytoplankton biomass) derived using

  19. The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West and Central Africa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polidoro, Beth A.; Ralph, Gina M.; Strongin, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    . This study provides the first comprehensive documentation of the presence, status, and level of extinction risk, based on IUCN Red List assessment methodology, for more than 1800 marine species, including all taxonomically described marine vertebrates (marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, fishes); complete...... clades of selected marine invertebrates (sea cucumbers, cone snails, cephalopods, lobsters, reef-building corals); and marine plants (mangroves, seagrasses). Approximately 8% of all marine species assessed in the ECA are in threatened categories, while 4% are listed as Near Threatened, 73% are Least...

  20. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab; Buschmann, Alejandro H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  1. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  2. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  3. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  4. Red fluorescence in reef fish: A novel signalling mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebeck Ulrike E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At depths below 10 m, reefs are dominated by blue-green light because seawater selectively absorbs the longer, 'red' wavelengths beyond 600 nm from the downwelling sunlight. Consequently, the visual pigments of many reef fish are matched to shorter wavelengths, which are transmitted better by water. Combining the typically poor long-wavelength sensitivity of fish eyes with the presumed lack of ambient red light, red light is currently considered irrelevant for reef fish. However, previous studies ignore the fact that several marine organisms, including deep sea fish, produce their own red luminescence and are capable of seeing it. Results We here report that at least 32 reef fishes from 16 genera and 5 families show pronounced red fluorescence under natural, daytime conditions at depths where downwelling red light is virtually absent. Fluorescence was confirmed by extensive spectrometry in the laboratory. In most cases peak emission was around 600 nm and fluorescence was associated with guanine crystals, which thus far were known for their light reflecting properties only. Our data indicate that red fluorescence may function in a context of intraspecific communication. Fluorescence patterns were typically associated with the eyes or the head, varying substantially even between species of the same genus. Moreover red fluorescence was particularly strong in fins that are involved in intraspecific signalling. Finally, microspectrometry in one fluorescent goby, Eviota pellucida, showed a long-wave sensitivity that overlapped with its own red fluorescence, indicating that this species is capable of seeing its own fluorescence. Conclusion We show that red fluorescence is widespread among marine fishes. Many features indicate that it is used as a private communication mechanism in small, benthic, pair- or group-living fishes. Many of these species show quite cryptic colouration in other parts of the visible spectrum. High inter

  5. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  6. Role of Diatoms in marine biofouling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A; Patil, J.S..; Mitbavkar, S.; DeCosta, P.M.; DeSilva, S.; Hegde, S.; Naik, R.

    . Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 293-6. de Nys, R., Leya, T., Maximilien, R., Afsar, A., Nair, P. S. R. & Steinberg, P. D. 1996. The need for standardized broad scale bioassay testing: a case study using the red alga Laurencia rigida. Biofouling 10:213-24. de...-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Recent Advances on Applied Aspects of Indian Marine Algae with Reference to Global Scenario, Volume 1, A. Tewari (Ed.), 2006 Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute Role of Diatoms...

  7. Modeling and Analysis in Marine Big Data: Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aware that big data has gathered tremendous attentions from academic research institutes, governments, and enterprises in all aspects of information sciences. With the development of diversity of marine data acquisition techniques, marine data grow exponentially in last decade, which forms marine big data. As an innovation, marine big data is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, there are many potential and highly useful values hidden in the huge volume of marine data, which is widely used in marine-related fields, such as tsunami and red-tide warning, prevention, and forecasting, disaster inversion, and visualization modeling after disasters. There is no doubt that the future competitions in marine sciences and technologies will surely converge into the marine data explorations. On the other hand, marine big data also brings about many new challenges in data management, such as the difficulties in data capture, storage, analysis, and applications, as well as data quality control and data security. To highlight theoretical methodologies and practical applications of marine big data, this paper illustrates a broad view about marine big data and its management, makes a survey on key methods and models, introduces an engineering instance that demonstrates the management architecture, and discusses the existing challenges.

  8. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  9. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  10. Chemical constituents of the red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analysis of the petroleum-wither and chloroform extracts of the marine red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@ led to the isolation of a sterol, cholesterol, fatty acids, stearic, palmitic, behenic (C@d22@@) and arachidic acids (C@d20@@) and a fatty...

  11. Oxytocic principle of red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Das, B.; Patnaik, G.K.

    The crude aqueous methanolic extract of the marine red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@ has been reported as exhibiting oxytocic and spasmogenic activity at a dose of 50 ~kg/ml. The activity is located in the water soluble fraction and has been found...

  12. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  13. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  14. Antifungal potential of marine sponge extract against plant and fish pathogenic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ravichandran, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Ciavatta, M.L.

    scope for rediscovering compounds with antimicrobial activity. This study screens extracts (Diethyl Ether and Butanol) of a marine red-Sea sponge Negombata magnifica for invitro fungicidal activity against 10 plant and 3 fish pathogens. Fungicidal...

  15. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  16. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  17. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  18. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  19. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the

  20. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh

    2015-10-23

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the

  1. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  2. Physiological performance and thermal tolerance of major Red Sea macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Michael S.

    2017-12-01

    As anthropogenically-forced ocean temperatures continue to rise, the physiological response of marine macrophytes becomes exceedingly relevant. The Red Sea is a semi-isolated sea- the warmest in the world (SST up to 34°C) - already exhibiting signs of rapid warming rates exceeding those of other tropical oceans. This will have profound effects on the physiology of marine organisms, specifically marine macrophytes, which have direct influence on the dynamic carbonate system of the Red Sea. The aim of this paper is to define the physiological capability and thermal optima and limits of six ecologically important Red Sea macrophytes- ranging from seagrasses to calcifying and non-calcifying algae- and to describe the effects of increasing thermal stress on the performance and limits of each macrophyte in terms of activation energy. Of the species considered, Halophila stipulacae, Halimeda optunia, Halimeda monile and Padina pavonica thrive in thermal extremes and may be more successful in future Red Sea warming scenarios. Specifically, Halimeda opuntia increased productivity and calcification rates up to 38°C, making it the most thermally resilient macrophyte. Halophila stipulacae is the most productive seagrass, and hence has the greatest positive effect on Omega saturation state and offers chemical buffer capacity to future ocean acidification.

  3. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  4. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  5. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  6. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  7. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  8. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  9. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  10. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  11. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  12. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  14. Subtidal marine algae of the Dwaraka Coast (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    A total of 35 marine algal species were recorded during a survey of the subtidal flora of Dwaraka, Gujrat, India. Maximum number of species were found at 5-8 m depth. Red algal species were dominant (20), followed by green (8) and brwon (7...

  15. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  16. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  17. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  18. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  19. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  20. Latitudinal environmental gradients and diel variability influence abundance and community structure of Chaetognatha in Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Al-aidaroos, Ali M.; Karati, Kusum K.; El-sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Devassy, Reny P.; Kü rten, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    is known about the zooplankton biodiversity of the Red Sea and how this relates to Red Sea latitudinal gradients. Among the most abundant zooplankton taxa are Chaetognatha, which play an important role as secondary consumers in most marine food webs. Since

  1. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

  2. Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2016-06-30

    Information on the abundance and diversity of Red Sea elasmobranchs is notoriously scarce, even though sharks are among the most profitable fisheries of the region. Effective conservation would ideally entail baselines on pristine conditions, yet no such data is available for the Red Sea. To collect distribution and abundance data on Red Sea elasmobranchs, we conducted a dedicated longline and Baited Remote Underwater Video system (BRUVs) sampling program along the entire Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia over the course of two years. Both survey techniques were opportunistically employed at central and southern Saudi Arabian (SA) Red Sea reef systems. In addition, BRUVs were employed in the northern SA Red Sea and at selected reef systems in Sudan. Shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for BRUVs and longline surveys were compared to published data from non-Red Sea reef systems. This comparison revealed CPUE estimates several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the SA Red Sea compared to other reef systems around the world. Catch per unit effort values of BRUVs on Sudanese reefs on the contrary were within the range of estimates from various locations where sharks are considered common. We argue that decades of heavy fishing pressure on Red Sea marine resources has significantly altered the community structure of SA Red Sea reefs. There is an urgent need to establish effective management strategies for species of highest conservation concern. Our results have the potential to be used as a baseline, if such management strategies were to be established. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  4. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  5. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  6. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  7. AoA Region: Red Sea And Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . The Secretariat for PERSGA was formally established in Jeddah following the Cairo Declaration of September 1995. PERSGA’s mandate is to perform functions necessary for the management of the Jeddah Convention and its Action Plan. As a result, PERSGA, in close... collaboration with relevant regional and international organizations, began implementing activities and programmes to deal with the various threats facing the coastal and marine environments in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region. The Strategic Action...

  8. Development of the Red Sea Biogeographic Information System

    KAUST Repository

    Machda, Fahmi

    2010-05-01

    Marine studies, surveys, and observational activities are continuously generating new and diverse data, which are hard to keep track of with tables and spreadsheets. Integrated data and information management systems that collect, analyze, and combine data are needed in order to provide a comprehensive picture of marine environments under study. For these reasons, we started to develop the Red Sea Biogeographic Information System (RBIS) at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) as a web application utilizing the most updated Web 2.0 technologies. RBIS is designed to have an easily accessible interface that is able to host and display research activities conducted in the Red Sea. Its data model is designed to deal with any kind of marine data. For its data structure, RBIS is organizing the data into three main categories: biological data, physicochemical data, and human activities. Spatial distribution of these data is visualized on a Google-Maps mashup. Dynamic charts are used to visualize the statistics of the data. With these functionalities, data model, and data structure, RBIS is able to organize, visualize, and do instantly combined analyses of research data from the Red Sea. The current version is accessible at http://www.kaust.edu.sa/rbis. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Grateloupia taiwanensis (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) and comparative mitochondrial genomics of red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePriest, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Debashish; López-Bautista, Juan M

    2014-10-01

    Although red algae are economically highly valuable for their gelatinous cell wall compounds as well as being integral parts of marine benthic habitats, very little genome data are currently available. We present mitochondrial genome sequence data from the red alga Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M. Lin & H.-Y. Liang. Comprising 28,906 nucleotide positions, the mitochondrial genome contig contains 25 protein-coding genes and 24 transfer RNA genes. It is highly similar to other red algal genomes in gene content as well as overall structure. An intron in the cox1 gene was found to be shared by G. taiwanensis and Grateloupia angusta (Okamura) S. Kawaguchi & H. W. Wang. We also used whole-genome alignments to compare G. taiwanensis to different groups of red algae, and these results are consistent with the currently accepted phylogeny of Rhodophyta. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  10. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  11. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  12. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  13. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  14. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  15. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  16. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  17. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  18. Remote sensing the phytoplankton seasonal succession of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, Dionysios E; Pradhan, Yaswant; Brewin, Robert J W; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  19. Remote Sensing the Phytoplankton Seasonal Succession of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2013-06-05

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  2. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  3. Bibliography of Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals and Their Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    1972. (Paris) 105, 187, 1978. 479 ANON. Red tide research flows on. 488 AVARIA, S. Red tides off the coast BioScience 26, 223, 1976. of Chile . In...and CAMPOD6NICO, I. vol. 1, p. 157, 1965. Mareas rojas en Chile . Intercien- cia 3, 144, 1978. 735 HALSTEAD, B.W. Poisonous and Venomous Marine...hemolytic toxin from Chir- Aguas Brasileiras. Mem. Inst. onex fleckeri (box jelly-.ish). Butantan Simp. Iterrac. L3, 27, Proc. Aust. biochem. Soc. 9

  4. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  5. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  6. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  7. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  8. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke

    2011-04-01

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  9. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, V; Dreano, D; Agusti, S; Duarte, C M; Hoteit, I

    2017-08-15

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade -1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century 1 . However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade -1 , while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade -1 , all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  11. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  12. Thermal Limits and Thresholds of Red Sea Biota

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2018-05-01

    As ocean temperatures continue to rise, the effect of temperature on marine organisms becomes highly relevant. The Red Sea is the warmest sea and is rapidly warming with current surface temperatures (28 – 34 °C) already exceeding those of most tropical systems. This has major consequences for organisms that may already find themselves at their thermal limits. The aim of this project was to define the thermal limits and thresholds of certain Red Sea species. Firstly, to better understand the thermal regimes of the Red Sea, we looked at decadal trends in maximum sea surface temperature across the basin. Then, we tested the thermal capacities of Red Sea mangroves and zooplankton, two key ecological groups, by performing thermal stress experiments in the laboratory. We found that the Red Sea basin is warming faster than the global average (0.17 °C decade-1), the thermal limit of mangrove propagules is between 33 and 35 °C, and the limits among the most common zooplankton groups range from 30 to 36 °C. This project gives us a better understanding of how organisms respond to extreme temperatures and how they may be affected in a future, warmer, ocean.

  13. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica; Dreano, Denis; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea's thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  14. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  16. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  17. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  18. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  19. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  20. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  1. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  2. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Huchon, Philippe; McClay, Ken

    2005-10-01

    We here summarize the evolution of the greater Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system, which includes the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden marine basins and their continental margins, and the Afar region. Plume related basaltic trap volcanism began in Ethiopia, NE Sudan (Derudeb), and SW Yemen at ˜31 Ma, followed by rhyolitic volcanism at ˜30 Ma. Volcanism thereafter spread northward to Harrats Sirat, Hadan, Ishara-Khirsat, and Ar Rahat in western Saudi Arabia. This early magmatism occurred without significant extension, and continued to ˜25 Ma. Much of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region was at or near sea level at this time. Starting between ˜29.9 and 28.7 Ma, marine syn-tectonic sediments were deposited on continental crust in the central Gulf of Aden. At the same time the Horn of Africa became emergent. By ˜27.5-23.8 Ma a small rift basin was forming in the Eritrean Red Sea. At approximately the same time (˜25 Ma), extension and rifting commenced within Afar itself. At ˜24 Ma, a new phase of volcanism, principally basaltic dikes but also layered gabbro and granophyre bodies, appeared nearly synchronously throughout the entire Red Sea, from Afar and Yemen to northern Egypt. This second phase of magmatism was accompanied in the Red Sea by strong rift-normal extension and deposition of syn-tectonic sediments, mostly of marine and marginal marine affinity. Sedimentary facies were laterally heterogeneous, being comprised of inter-fingering siliciclastics, evaporite, and carbonate. Throughout the Red Sea, the principal phase of rift shoulder uplift and rapid syn-rift subsidence followed shortly thereafter at ˜20 Ma. Water depths increased dramatically and sedimentation changed to predominantly Globigerina-rich marl and deepwater limestone. Within a few million years of its initiation in the mid-Oligocene the Gulf of Aden continental rift linked the Owen fracture zone (oceanic crust) with the Afar plume. The principal driving force for extension

  3. Transcriptome and proteome dynamics in larvae of the barnacle Balanus Amphitrite from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-12-15

    Background The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is widely distributed in marine shallow and tidal waters, and has significant economic and ecological importance. Nauplii, the first larval stage of most crustaceans, are extremely abundant in the marine zooplankton. However, a lack of genome information has hindered elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of development, settlement and survival strategies in extreme marine environments. We sequenced and constructed the genome dataset for nauplii to obtain comprehensive larval genetic information. We also investigated iTRAQ-based protein expression patterns to reveal the molecular basis of nauplii development, and to gain information on larval survival strategies in the Red Sea marine environment. Results A nauplii larval transcript dataset, containing 92,117 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), was constructed and used as a reference for the proteome analysis. Genes related to translation, oxidative phosphorylation and cytoskeletal development were highly abundant. We observed remarkable plasticity in the proteome of Red Sea larvae. The proteins associated with development, stress responses and osmoregulation showed the most significant differences between the two larval populations studied. The synergistic overexpression of heat shock and osmoregulatory proteins may facilitate larval survival in intertidal habitats or in extreme environments. Conclusions We presented, for the first time, comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets for Red Sea nauplii. The datasets provide a foundation for future investigations focused on the survival mechanisms of other crustaceans in extreme marine environments.

  4. An Innovative Approach for the Development of Future Marine Corps Amphibious Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ABBREVIATIONS A2/AD anti- access /area-denial AAV Amphibious Assault Vehicle ACE Aviation Combat Element ACV Amphibious Combat Vehicle ADA air defense...reaction force RAM random- access memory RGB red, green, and blue ROMO range of military operations RWS remote weapon station SAR search and rescue...United States Marine Corps USS United States Ship VBA visual basic for applications VBSS visit, board, search, and seizure VMM Marine Medium

  5. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.

    2015-05-18

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  6. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  7. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2017-11-07

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  8. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  9. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  10. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  11. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  12. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  13. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  14. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  15. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  16. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  17. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  18. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  19. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  20. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  1. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  2. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  3. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named Marine Medicinal Glycomics.

  4. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  5. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  6. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  7. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  8. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  9. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  10. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  11. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  12. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  13. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  14. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  15. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  16. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  17. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  18. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-06-21

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia\\'s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world\\'s most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  20. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  1. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  2. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  3. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  4. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  5. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  6. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  7. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  8. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Agusti, Susana

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we investigated the in situ responses of Red Sea picophytoplankton, the dominant phytoplankton group in the oligotrophic ocean, to two toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene. The experiments were conducted across a latitudinal gradient of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, an area sensitive to oil pollution. We observed significant adverse effects on the growth and abundance of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, at all stations sampled. Prochlorococcus, which was abundant only at one of the stations, also appeared to be affected. Pyrene was found to be more toxic to phytoplankton at all stations. In general, picoeukaryotes exhibited higher sensitivity to PAHs than Synechococcus. Populations in the highly oligotrophic Northern region of the Red Sea were more tolerant to PAHs, presumably influenced by the natural selection of more resistant strains of phytoplankton due to the prolonged exposure to PAHs. Toxicity threshold values estimated here are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants, which may clearly influence their spatial distribution patterns in the Red Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric Transport of Nutrient Matter during a Red Tide Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R.; Weng, H.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) resulting from an explosive increase in algae population have become a global problem in coastal marine environment. During 3rd -8th, May of 2006, large-scale, mixed prorocentrum dentatum stein and skeletonema costatum bloom developed in those water off the coast of Zhejiang province (Zhoushan city and Liuheng Island) of China. Using Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS), we find an atmospheric transport of considerable nutrient matter (nitrate, ammonium, Fe (Ⅱ)) to East China Sea (ECS) before the red tide event. It be inferred that the atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is a significant source of nutrient matter in the water of East China Sea whose hydrological setting is dominated by oligotrophic Taiwan Warm Current in spring. Such atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is likely a cause factor of red tide in the coast of East China Sea, especially during dust event. The study provides new information for discovering the occurring mechanism of the red tides in ECS and the essential parameters for the red tide research.

  10. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we investigated the in situ responses of Red Sea picophytoplankton, the dominant phytoplankton group in the oligotrophic ocean, to two toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene. The experiments were conducted across a latitudinal gradient of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, an area sensitive to oil pollution. We observed significant adverse effects on the growth and abundance of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, at all stations sampled. Prochlorococcus, which was abundant only at one of the stations, also appeared to be affected. Pyrene was found to be more toxic to phytoplankton at all stations. In general, picoeukaryotes exhibited higher sensitivity to PAHs than Synechococcus. Populations in the highly oligotrophic Northern region of the Red Sea were more tolerant to PAHs, presumably influenced by the natural selection of more resistant strains of phytoplankton due to the prolonged exposure to PAHs. Toxicity threshold values estimated here are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants, which may clearly influence their spatial distribution patterns in the Red Sea.

  11. Study of the combined effect of spices and marination on beef meat vacuum packaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ISTRATI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh beef slices were marinated by immersion in marinades based on dry red wine, lime-tree honey, salt, spices and seasoning plants as thyme (Thymus vulgaris, marjoram (Majorana hortensis, garlic (Allium sativum and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana. Control samples were represented by raw meat without marination treatment but stored in the same conditions as marinated samples. After marination, meat pieces were packed under vacuum and stored at refrigeration temperature of 4°C for 12 days. The influence of the combined effect of spices and marination on beef stability was evaluated by monitoring pH evolution, degree of lipid oxidation and by microbiological analysis. For control samples, a mean increase of 0.47 log CFU/g of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria was observed during the 48 h of storage, but for the samples marinated with the addition of spices was observed a decrease of 0.57 log CFU/g. The growth of LAB in control samples was generally limited and did not exceed 5 log CFU/g. During storage at 4°C, marination with the addition in the base marinade (wine, honey, garlic, pepper and salt of thyme, marjoram and horseradish separately inhibited the growth of LAB while marination with the addition in the base marinade of thyme, marjoram and horseradish together resulted in significantly lower levels of LAB. All marination treatments resulted in significantly lower TBA and POV values at the end of storage compared to the control. Marination with dry red wine, lime-tree honey, thyme marjoram, garlic, and horseradish can evidently control total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and oxidation of beef meat.

  12. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  13. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  14. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  15. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  16. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  17. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  18. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  19. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  20. Convenient method of color measurement of marine sediments by colorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaragi (Japan); Nakashima, S [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Research Inst. of Natural Resources

    1991-01-01

    Marine sediments exhibit various colors such as cream, gray, green, red, brown and black. Marine scientists conventionally judged colors of various types of marine sediments by visual observation which has several disadvantages. The purpose of the present study is to establish a color measurement method for various colors of dried marine sediments with the calorimeter and also to try a color measurement of wet core samples on board the ship. A colorimeter (Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200) was used to describe colors of wet and powdered sediment samples in L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} values of the second CIE 1976 color space. Materials studied in this experiment for the color determination are from Japan sea(18 samples from 0-40.5 cm depth), East Pacific(21 samples from 0-42 cm depth) and Suruga Bay(23 samples from 0-110 cm depth), etc. As a result, the following conclusions have been derived : The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are reasonably satisfied for the color description of marine sediments; This method can be applied to shipboard color measurements of original wet sediments with careful consideration of variations of these parameters. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  2. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba Alawi, Wail; Kamau, Allan; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated

  3. Environmental impacts of tourism in the Gulf and the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, William; Curley, Belinda; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-30

    The Gulf and Red Sea possess diverse coastal and marine environments that support rapidly expanding mass tourism. Despite the associated environmental risks, there is no analysis of the tourism-related literature or recent analysis of impacts. Environmental issues reported in 101 publications (25 from the Gulf, 76 from the Red Sea) include 61 purported impacts (27 from the Gulf, 45 from the Red Sea). Gulf literature includes quantitative studies (68% publications) and reviews (32%), and addresses mostly land reclamation and artificial habitats. Most Gulf studies come from Iran and UAE (64%). Red Sea literature includes quantitative studies (81%) and reviews (11%), with most studies occurring in Egypt (70%). The most published topics relate to coral breakage and its management. A full account of tourism's environmental impacts is constrained by limited tourism data, confounding of impacts with other coastal developments, lack of baseline information, shifting baselines, and fragmentation of research across disciplines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  5. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  6. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  8. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  9. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  10. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  11. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  12. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  14. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  15. Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and model for the deposition of the Abdur Reef Limestone: : context for an important archaeological site from the last interglacial on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Buffler, R.T; Guillaume, M.M; Walter, R.C; von Cosel, R; Ghebretensae, B.N.; Berhe, S.M

    2004-01-01

    Stone tools discovered within uplifted marine terraces along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea at the Abdur Archaeological Site, dated to 125±7 ka (the last interglacial, marine isotope stage 5e), show that early humans occupied coastal areas by this time [Walter et al. (2000) Nature 405, 65–69]. In the

  16. Diversity of picoeukaryotes at an oligotrophic site off the Northeastern Red Sea Coast.

    KAUST Repository

    Acosta, Francisco

    2013-08-20

    Picoeukaryotes are protists ≤ 3 μm composed of a wide diversity of taxonomic groups. They are an important constituent of the ocean\\'s microbiota and perform essential ecological roles in marine nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite their importance, the true extent of their diversity has only recently been uncovered by molecular surveys that resulted in the discovery of a substantial number of previously unknown groups. No study on picoeukaryote diversity has been conducted so far in the main Red Sea basin-a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions, high levels of irradiance, high salinity and increased water temperature.

  17. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  18. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Egypt’s Red Sea Coast: Phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A. Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Red Sea has a unique geography and ecosystem and its shores are very rich in mangrove, macro-algae and coral reefs. Different sources of pollution are affecting the Red Sea shores and waters which impacts biological life including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization, along the Egyptian Red Sea coast in eight coastal sites and two lakes, on microbial life. The bacterial community in sediment samples was analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNApyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. Taxonomical assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled Red Sea sites. This includes Proteobacteria (68%, Firmicutes (13%, Fusobacteria (12%, Bacteriodetes (6% and Spirochetes (0.03%. Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortium formed mainly of: 1 marine Vibrio’s- suggesting a Marine Vibrio phenomenon 2 potential human pathogens and 3 oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss a distinct microbial consortium in Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; revealing the highest abundance of human pathogens versus no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the affects of industrialization on the Red Sea, and suggest further analysis to overcome hazardous affects on the impacted sites.

  20. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  1. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  2. Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David A.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G.; Benson, John S.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burgman, Mark A.; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Nally, Ralph Mac; McCarthy, Michael A.; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J.; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D.; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world’s ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  3. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Keith

    Full Text Available An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C rates of environmental (abiotic degradation; and D rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor

  4. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Aidaroos

    Full Text Available High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation. The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM 18.4±5.8% h(-1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM 12±5.6 h(-1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  6. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  7. New records of Lobatolampea tetragona (Ctenophora: Lobata: Lobatolampeidae) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2015-03-18

    Lobatolampea tetragona Horita, 2000, a member of the monotypic family Lobatolampeidae (Lobata), is reported from the Red Sea based on seven specimens collected during marine biodiversity surveys conducted in the southern and central Red Sea. The ctenophore is characterized by the following characters: paired oral lobes lacking visible auricles and bearing auricular ctenes; subpharyngeal meridional canals bearing aboral blind ends; and c-shaped gonads. Previously, the species was recorded only from Japanese waters. This finding represents the first record of L. tetragona outside of the North Pacific and represents a substantial range expansion for this species.

  8. After continents divide: Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Dibattista, Joseph D.; Berumen, Michael L.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Eble, Jeff A.; Choat, John Howard; Craig, Matthew T.; Skillings, Derek J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The Red Sea is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by a unique marine fauna and high endemism. This sea began forming c. 24 million years ago with the separation of the African and Arabian plates, and has been characterized by periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent connection to the Indian Ocean. We aim to evaluate the impact of these events on the genetic architecture of the Red Sea reef fish fauna. Location: Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods: We surveyed seven reef fish species from the Red Sea and adjacent Indian Ocean using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b sequences. To assess genetic variation and evolutionary connectivity within and between these regions, we estimated haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π), reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes, and estimated gene flow and time of population separation using Bayesian coalescent-based methodology. Results: Our analyses revealed a range of scenarios from shallow population structure to diagnostic differences that indicate evolutionary partitions and possible cryptic species. Conventional molecular clocks and coalescence analyses indicated time-frames for divergence between these bodies of water ranging from 830,000 years to contemporary exchange or recent range expansion. Colonization routes were bidirectional, with some species moving from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea compared with expansion out of the Red Sea for other species. Main conclusions: We conclude that: (1) at least some Red Sea reef fauna survived multiple salinity crises; (2) endemism is higher in the Red Sea than previously reported; and (3) the Red Sea is an evolutionary incubator, occasionally contributing species to the adjacent Indian Ocean. The latter two conclusions - elevated endemism and species export - indicate a need for enhanced conservation priorities for the Red Sea. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. After continents divide: Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Dibattista, Joseph D.

    2013-01-07

    Aim: The Red Sea is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by a unique marine fauna and high endemism. This sea began forming c. 24 million years ago with the separation of the African and Arabian plates, and has been characterized by periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent connection to the Indian Ocean. We aim to evaluate the impact of these events on the genetic architecture of the Red Sea reef fish fauna. Location: Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods: We surveyed seven reef fish species from the Red Sea and adjacent Indian Ocean using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b sequences. To assess genetic variation and evolutionary connectivity within and between these regions, we estimated haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π), reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes, and estimated gene flow and time of population separation using Bayesian coalescent-based methodology. Results: Our analyses revealed a range of scenarios from shallow population structure to diagnostic differences that indicate evolutionary partitions and possible cryptic species. Conventional molecular clocks and coalescence analyses indicated time-frames for divergence between these bodies of water ranging from 830,000 years to contemporary exchange or recent range expansion. Colonization routes were bidirectional, with some species moving from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea compared with expansion out of the Red Sea for other species. Main conclusions: We conclude that: (1) at least some Red Sea reef fauna survived multiple salinity crises; (2) endemism is higher in the Red Sea than previously reported; and (3) the Red Sea is an evolutionary incubator, occasionally contributing species to the adjacent Indian Ocean. The latter two conclusions - elevated endemism and species export - indicate a need for enhanced conservation priorities for the Red Sea. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    For decades, terrestrial microorganisms have been used as sources of countless enzymes and chemical compounds that have been produced by pharmaceutical and biotech companies and used by mankind. There is a need for new chemical compounds, including antibiotics,new enzymatic activities and new...... microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...

  11. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  12. Supplementary Material for: Transcriptome and proteome dynamics in larvae of the barnacle Balanus Amphitrite from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Al-Aqeel, Sarah; Ryu, Tae Woo; Zhang, Huoming; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is widely distributed in marine shallow and tidal waters, and has significant economic and ecological importance. Nauplii, the first larval stage of most crustaceans, are extremely abundant in the marine zooplankton. However, a lack of genome information has hindered elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of development, settlement and survival strategies in extreme marine environments. We sequenced and constructed the genome dataset for nauplii to obtain comprehensive larval genetic information. We also investigated iTRAQ-based protein expression patterns to reveal the molecular basis of nauplii development, and to gain information on larval survival strategies in the Red Sea marine environment. Results A nauplii larval transcript dataset, containing 92,117 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), was constructed and used as a reference for the proteome analysis. Genes related to translation, oxidative phosphorylation and cytoskeletal development were highly abundant. We observed remarkable plasticity in the proteome of Red Sea larvae. The proteins associated with development, stress responses and osmoregulation showed the most significant differences between the two larval populations studied. The synergistic overexpression of heat shock and osmoregulatory proteins may facilitate larval survival in intertidal habitats or in extreme environments. Conclusions We presented, for the first time, comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets for Red Sea nauplii. The datasets provide a foundation for future investigations focused on the survival mechanisms of other crustaceans in extreme marine environments.

  13. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  14. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  15. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    the tropical Mandovi 2 Zuari estuarine system are suggesting that the preponderant particle-colonizing bacteria perform better than their counterparts in free-living format. In their natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide range of physical... Shanta Nair suggests, despite the immense clinical significance of antibiotics in health care, little is understood on the ecology of the organisms that produce them. Since marine environment harbors a wide range of microbes capable of exhibiting...

  16. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  17. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  18. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  19. Faunistics (marine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    These PowerPoint files are compiled from various sources: Internet, field guides, scientific monographs, textbooks, my own photos and drawings, etc. I have no copyright or permission to use most of the illustrations. The file is therefore only intended for internal use within the Marine Biology...... for identification have only been included for about a quarter of the species only, because of lack of time).     These files contain information of about 570 species of marine invertebrates found in the waters around Denmark. They should be the most common species. Which species should be selected for files like......) with the programme PowerPoint X for Mac® Service Release 1.     Comments and suggestions are welcome from students and colleagues. HD&P = Køie, Kristiansen & Weitemeyer, Havets dyr og planter. DN = Danmarks Natur, vol. 3, Havet     Tomas Cedhagen, Department of Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14...

  20. Marine botany. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses

  1. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  3. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  4. Overview of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their possible ecological importance in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Halfar, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Coralline red algae are a globally distributed and abundant group of shallow marine benthic calcifiers. They can form important ecosystems that provide a three-dimensional habitat to a large variety of marine organisms. While the study of coralline red algae has traditionally been focused on warm...... compiled to develop a distribution map of coralline genera and rhodolith communities. The depth range of coralline red algae in Greenland has been extended by 27 m, from 50 to 77 m depth. In addition, rhodoliths of the normally crust-forming species Clathromorphum compactum are described for the first time...... from a sheltered Greenland fjord. Based on the data compiled here, it becomes clear that rhodolith communities are a widespread feature of the Greenland shallow shelf areas. Gaining a better understanding of the distribution of these hitherto poorly understood high-latitude ecosystems is essential due...

  5. Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2014-02-15

    In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultured SAR324 Bacterium lautmerah10, Binned from a Red Sea Metagenome

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed; Thompson, Luke R.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    A draft genome of SAR324 bacterium lautmerah10 was assembled from a metagenome of a surface water sample from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The genome is more complete and has a higher G+C content than that of previously sequenced SAR324 representatives. Its genomic information shows a versatile metabolism that confers an advantage to SAR324, which is reflected in its distribution throughout different depths of the marine water column.

  7. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in the Red Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Madah, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Red Sea basin presents a unique large marine ecosystem. Therefore it deserves scientific attention. The processes under concern are studied using a combination of very few available observations (water levels and oceanographic data), remotely sensed data as well as numerical modelling approach. The numerical simulations are performed using the three-dimensional modeling system Delft3D, developed by WL | Delft Hydraulics. The first part of the present thesis investigates ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultured SAR324 Bacterium lautmerah10, Binned from a Red Sea Metagenome

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed

    2016-02-11

    A draft genome of SAR324 bacterium lautmerah10 was assembled from a metagenome of a surface water sample from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The genome is more complete and has a higher G+C content than that of previously sequenced SAR324 representatives. Its genomic information shows a versatile metabolism that confers an advantage to SAR324, which is reflected in its distribution throughout different depths of the marine water column.

  9. PIXE analysis of otoliths from reared red sea bream, pagrus major (temminck et schlegl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1993-01-01

    PIXE analysis was applied to estimate mineral concentration in red sea bream otoliths without cutting or polishing. Detected elements include Sr, Fe, Mn and Zn, which are commonly found in the otoliths in marine fishes. Strontium-Calcium concentration ratio is calculated by means of combined X-ray yields. The ratio doesn't indicate clear correlaion with mean reared seawater temperature. It is caused by the diffraction error induced by rough topographies of the otoliths surface. (author)

  10. Discovery of novel algae-degrading enzymes from marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Bech, Pernille Kjersgaard; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine

    Algal cell wall polysaccharides, and their derived oligosaccharides, display a range of health beneficial bioactive properties. Enzymes capable of degrading algal polysaccharides into oligosaccharides may be used to produce biomolecules with new functionalities for the food and pharma industry....... Some marine bacteria are specialized in degrading algal biomass and secrete enzymes that can decompose the complex algal cell wall polysaccharides. In order to identify such bacteria and enzymatic activities, we have used a combination of traditional cultivation and isolation methods, bioinformatics...... and functional screening. This resulted in the discovery of a novel marine bacterium which displays a large enzymatic potential for degradation of red algal polysaccharides e.g. agar and carrageenan. In addition, we searched metagenome sequence data and identified new enzyme candidates for degradation...

  11. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  12. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  13. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2015-07-21

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  14. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  15. Global marine radioactivity database (GLOMARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Gayol, J.; Togawa, O.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the request of Member States and under the IAEA's mandate, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has established and maintains a Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD). It is a vast project compiling radionuclide measurements taken in the marine environment. It consists of systematic input of all radionuclide concentration data available for sea water, sediment, biota and suspended matter. The GLOMARD is therefore a powerful tool for the researchers of MEL as it integrates the results of analyses in most of the areas of the marine environment which have been investigated

  16. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  17. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  18. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  19. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  20. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  1. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  2. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  3. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  4. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  5. Extremozymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Marine microorganisms that have the possibility to survive in diverse conditions such as extreme temperature, pH, pressure, and salinity are known as extremophiles. They produce biocatalysts so named as extremozymes that are active and stable at extreme conditions. These enzymes have numerous industrial applications due to its distinct properties. Till now, only a fraction of microorganisms on Earth have been exploited for screening of extremozymes. Novel techniques used for the cultivation and production of extremophiles, as well as cloning and overexpression of their genes in various expression systems, will pave the way to use these enzymes for chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  7. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  8. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  9. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  10. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  11. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available , Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Marine Sedimentology and the newly formed Ocean Engineering programme. This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1987 and emphasizes important findings and conclusions...

  12. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  13. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  14. Egypt's Red Sea coast: phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea possesses a unique geography, and its shores are rich in mangrove, macro-algal and coral reef ecosystems. Various sources of pollution affect Red Sea biota, including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization on microbes along the Egyptian Red Sea coast at eight coastal sites and two lakes. The bacterial communities of sediment samples were analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. The taxonomic assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled sites: Proteobacteria (68%), Firmicutes (13%), Fusobacteria (12%), Bacteriodetes (6%), and Spirochetes (0.03%). Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortia that primarily included (1) marine Vibrio spp.-suggesting a "marine Vibrio phenomenon"; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss two divergent microbial consortia that were sampled from Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; these consortia contained the highest abundance of human pathogens and no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the effects of industrialization on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites.

  15. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  16. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  17. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  18. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  19. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  20. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  1. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  2. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  3. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  4. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  5. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  6. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  7. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  8. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  9. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  10. A Guideline for Marine Corps Financial Managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Anthone

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Marine Corps orders, publications and directives to determine those keys areas considered most essential to Marine Corps financial management specialists in the performance of their duties...

  11. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  13. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Basson, P.W. (1979). "Marine algae of the Arabian Qilf coast of Saudi Arabia. II." Botanica mar., 22, 65-82. Belanger, C., Dory de Saint Vincent, J.B. and...Cook Island". Botanica mr., 20, 161-166. Chiang, Y.M. (1970). "Morphological studies of red algae of the family Cryptonemiaceas." Univ. Calif. Pubis Bot...western Indian Ocean." Botanica mar., 25, 401-444. 83 Parke, M. and Dixon, P.S. (1976). "Check-list of British marine algae - third revision." J. mar

  14. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Omer Abdalla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae, brown algae (Phaeophyceae and the red algae (Rhodophyceae collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods: Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm against Candida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  15. Red-light phenotype in a marine diatom involves a specialized oligomeric red-shifted antenna and altered cell morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herbstová, Miroslava; Bína, David; Kaňa, Radek; Vácha, František; Litvín, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, September 20 (2017), č. článku 11976. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : phaeodactylum-tricornutum * chromatic adaptation * molecular characterization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Biophysics; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  16. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  17. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  18. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  19. Marine radioecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  20. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  1. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  2. Environmental impact of industrial wastes on marine area, case study: Port Sudan coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalrahman, E. A. H.

    2004-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of the industrial wastes on marine environment in Port Sudan area. A very intensive study has been made to identify types of pollutions drained in seawater at study area of Red Sea coast. Samples were taken from three stations (1, 2 and 3) at study area and the following analysis were made: Temperature, salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient, oil and grease. The laboratory results revealed that wastes pollute the marine environment as the cooling water from studied industries which is drain into the seawater increases the degree of temperature approximately from 6 to 12 C degree above the allowed rate, the matter which was adverse effect on the environment and living marine creatures due to the sudden change of temperature degree. Also, it was found that the great amount of oil spills discharged into seawater due to many factors such as: cooling water, oil spills from ships and loading and discharging operations of crude oil ships. Accordingly these oils spills might have a deadly effect on living marine creatures, which have been mention in details through out this research. Hence, and to minimize this adverse effect of industrial wastes and others on the marine environment, may recommend to the following: Pretreatment to the industrial wastes should be taking before its draining into the Red Sea coastal area. Surveillance all ships into the port and observing loading and discharging operations as well as those ships in the regional waters and implementing the international maritime laws. Enlightenment the industrial administrators and manpower working with them about the severity which will definitely cause the marine environmental deterioration as a result of industrial wastes. To punish every one who violates the laws of environment protection. Thus, can be safeguarding the environment from pollutions and consequently develop the natural resources and proceed

  3. First record of Nanozoanthidae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis; Kawamura, Iori; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the first finding of Nanozoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) in the Red Sea and the first record west of Western Australia. A single specimen of Nanozoanthus sp. was found at a depth of 13 m off Dumsuq Island, the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia (16°33.846′N 42°03.510′E) during SCUBA surveys. Previous research had hypothesized that the genus could potentially be widespread in the Indo-Pacific and was simply undetected due to its small and cryptic nature, and the current specimen provides support for this idea. Such findings demonstrate the importance of biodiversity surveys by taxonomic specialists in understudied marine regions.

  4. First record of Nanozoanthidae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on the first finding of Nanozoanthidae (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) in the Red Sea and the first record west of Western Australia. A single specimen of Nanozoanthus sp. was found at a depth of 13 m off Dumsuq Island, the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia (16°33.846′N 42°03.510′E) during SCUBA surveys. Previous research had hypothesized that the genus could potentially be widespread in the Indo-Pacific and was simply undetected due to its small and cryptic nature, and the current specimen provides support for this idea. Such findings demonstrate the importance of biodiversity surveys by taxonomic specialists in understudied marine regions.

  5. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  6. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  7. Diachronism between extinction time of terrestrial and marine dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    The dinosaur eggs of southern France occur in continental, fine-grained red-beds, rich in carbonate. The last eggs in the region occur in the magnetic polarity interval 30 normal. Estimates of the accumulation rate of these sediments on the basis of the magneto-stratigraphy leads to placement of the time of disappearance of the dinosaurs in this region of 200,000 to 400,000 years earlier than the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the Red Deer Valley, Canada, estimates of average accumulation rate lead to a time of disappearance of the dinosaurs of 135,000 to 157,000 years earlier than the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the central part of Poland, in the Nasilow Quarry, the paleomagnetic pattern shows 7 m of chalk of reversed polarity containing in its upper part the marine Cretaceous-Tertiary biostratigraphic boundary. A greensand deposit contains numerous re-deposited Maastrichtian fossils. The fossils show no signs of wear and are of very different sizes including 1 mm thick juvenile belemnites. The deposit was described as a lag-sediment. Among the various fossils are teeth of mosasaurs. Thus there is coincidence in time between the extinction of mosasaurs and other Cretaceous organisms. This leads to the conclusion, that extinction of terrestrial dinosaurs took place earlier than extinction of marine dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

  8. Methane production from the anaerobic digestion of some marine macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, considerable interest has developed concerning the use of biomass as an alternative fuel source. Among the possible substrates, marine plant biomass has frequently been mentioned, primarily due to the fact that such plants do not have competing, more valuable uses for food or fiber and their cultivation does not compete for valuable agricultural lands. Also, recent research has demonstrated that at least one potential marine energy crop, the red alga Graciliaria tikvahiae, is capable of extremely high production rates that equal or exceed those of terrestrial plants, and are rivaled by the productivity of another possible aquatic energy crop, the water hyacinth. To date, seaweed energy research has emphasized cultivation, while a marked paucity of information exists regarding the comparative performance of these algae as a methanogenic substrate. Only two species, the giant kelp, Macrocystic pyrifera and Gracilaria tikvahiae, have been tested in fermentation trials. The relative merits of a red, a green, and a brown alga, run vis a vis at four different loading rates, are discussed in this report. In addition, two loading procedures were utilized to assess what if any, effect they might have on digester performance. (Refs. 14).

  9. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  10. Enzymatic Processes in Marine Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio

    2017-03-25

    In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity. Fields of applications are easily individuated: (i) the biorefinery value-chain, where the provision of biomass is one of the most important aspects, with aquaculture as the prominent sector; (ii) the food industry, where the interest in the marine domain is similarly developed to deal with the enzymatic procedures adopted in food manipulation; (iii) the selective and easy extraction/modification of structurally complex marine molecules, where enzymatic treatments are a recognized tool to improve efficiency and selectivity; and (iv) marine biomarkers and derived applications (bioremediation) in pollution monitoring are also included in that these studies could be of high significance for the appreciation of marine bioprocesses.

  11. Occurrence of the lessepsian species Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces in the marine area of Rhodes Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CORSINI-FOKA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Red Sea species are colonizing the eastern Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, mainly following the Anatolian coasts and spreading westwards. Portunus pelagicus is one of the most common Red Sea swimming crabs, first recorded in the Levantine Basin in 1898. Four specimens of P. pelagicus were collected in different marine areas of Rhodes Island from 1991 to 2000, while three specimens of the lessepsian fish Apogon pharaonis, first recorded in the Mediterranean in 1947, were caught during 2002 in the NW coast of Rhodes. The sub-tropical character of the marine area around Rhodes seems to facilitate the propagation of lessepsian species. These migrants have reached the island at different velocity and degree of establishment of their populations. The occurrence of the blue swimmer crab P. pelagicus and of the bullseye cardinal fish A. pharaonis increases the number of the decapod Crustacea and fish species of Red Sea origin observed in Greek waters.

  12. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  13. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  14. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  15. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  16. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  17. Marine Radioactivity Mapping in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on data collection, mapping and also development of marine radioactivity which obtained from a few researchs from year 2003 until 2008. The aims of the database reported in this book is to become a benchmark as well to be a reference material for future researchers. Furthermore, this book contained the radionuclide pollution information and distribution pattern mapping in marine environment. To strengthen the content for this book, the authors also provide a complete technical information which consist methods, prepation and sample analysis either in field work or laboratory. By producing this book, the author hope that it will help future researcher who are involved in oceanography and marine radioactivity.

  18. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  19. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  20. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  1. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  2. Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surfac...

  3. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  4. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  5. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  6. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine... Alaska to investigate their foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of natural...

  7. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  8. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  9. Pre-1947 Marine Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  10. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  11. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  12. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    Seagrasses, a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians. Seagrass...

  13. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  14. Studies on antagonistic marine streptomycetes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.

    three strains inhibited all the test cultures. In addition to the above test cultures marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp.) resistant to few known antibiotics (tetracycline, penicillin...

  15. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    manipulation is now reality. High yielding, fast growing and disease resistant strains of fish, shellfish and algae will boost the aquaculture industry. There may be a solution for all the problems of waste disposal in the marine environment. Considering...

  16. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  17. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  18. Marine Structures with Heavy Overtopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of wave overtopping of marine structures is described. Focus is put on structures with realtively low crest levels and various slope layouts subjected to non-breaking waves. Influence of slope draught and angle is investigated....

  19. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  20. Israel [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Steiger-Shafrir, N.H.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme - Radioactive contamination in marine environment and biota in the eastern Mediterranean. Detail of programme: (1) Objectives and most important points: The study of radioactive contamination of marine environment and biota involved qualitative and quantitative determinations for radionuclides of biological interest. The purpose of such an investigation is to determine; (a) Rate of passage of radionuclides through the food chain to the human organism in subtropical conditions prevailing in the eastern Mediterranean. The Levantine Basin of the Mediterranean is characterized by high temperatures and salinities which are typical for a tropical area. These are the cause of survival and development of numerous Indo-Pacific organisms which penetrate from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal into the eastern Mediterranean. It is therefore of interest to determine concentrations of radionuclides taken up by the endemic as well as the Indo-Pacific species at various levels of the food chain, (b) Indicator organisms which can be used in measuring the concentration of radionuclides in marine environment. (c) Effect of organisms on the distribution of elements in the sea. The elements, of which a large proportion passes through the organisms, will thus undergo a modification in their spatial and seasonal distribution in the water and sediments

  1. Geodetic constraints on continental rifting along the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.; Ghebreab, W.; Ogubazghi, G.; Al-Aydrus, A.

    2006-12-01

    We are using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor and quantify patterns and rates of tectonic and magmatic deformation associated with active rifting of the continental lithosphere and the transition to sea floor spreading in the Red Sea. Broad-scale motions of the Nubian and Arabian plates indicate coherent plate motion with internal deformation below the current resolution of our measurements (~ 1-2 mm/yr). The GPS-determined Euler vector for Arabia-Nubia is indistinguishable from the geologic Euler vector determined from marine magnetic anomalies, and Arabia-Eurasia relative motion from GPS is equal within uncertainties to relative motion determined from plate reconstructions, suggesting that Arabia plate motion has remained constant (±10%) during at least the past ~10 Ma. The approximate agreement between broad-scale GPS rates of extension (i.e., determined from relative plate motions) and those determined from magnetic anomalies along the Red Sea rift implies that spreading in the central Red Sea is primarily confined to the central rift (±10-20%). Extension appears to be more broadly distributed in the N Red Sea and Gulf of Suez where comparisons with geologic data also indicate a relatively recent (between 500 and 125 kyr BP) change in the motion of the Sinai block that is distinct from both Nubia and Arabia. In the southern Red Sea, GPS results are beginning to define the motion of the "Danakil micro-plate". We investigate and report on a model involving CCW rotation of the Danakil micro-plate relative to Nubia and magmatic inflation below the Afar Triple Junction that is consistent with available geodetic constraints. Running the model back in time suggests that the Danakil micro-plate has been an integral part of rifting/triple junction processes throughout the history of separation of the Arabian and Nubian plates. On the scale of Nubia-Arabia-Eurasia plate interactions, we show that new area formed at spreading centers roughly equals that

  2. Genetic Architecture of Conspicuous Red Ornaments in Female Threespine Stickleback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengxob Yong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions contribute to red throat coloration, and harbor candidate genes related to pigment production and pigment cell differentiation. One of these regions is also associated with spine coloration, indicating that both ornaments might be mediated partly via pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  3. A catalogue of 136 microbial draft genomes from Red Sea metagenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed; Thompson, Luke R.; Parks, Donovan H.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Earth is expected to continue warming and the Red Sea is a model environment for understanding the effects of global warming on ocean microbiomes due to its unusually high temperature, salinity and solar irradiance. However, most microbial diversity analyses of the Red Sea have been limited to cultured representatives and single marker gene analyses, hence neglecting the substantial uncultured majority. Here, we report 136 microbial genomes (completion minus contamination is ≥50%) assembled from 45 metagenomes from eight stations spanning the Red Sea and taken from multiple depths between 10 to 500 m. Phylogenomic analysis showed that most of the retrieved genomes belong to seven different phyla of known marine microbes, but more than half representing currently uncultured species. The open-access data presented here is the largest number of Red Sea representative microbial genomes reported in a single study and will help facilitate future studies in understanding the physiology of these microorganisms and how they have adapted to the relatively harsh conditions of the Red Sea.

  4. A catalogue of 136 microbial draft genomes from Red Sea metagenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed

    2016-07-05

    Earth is expected to continue warming and the Red Sea is a model environment for understanding the effects of global warming on ocean microbiomes due to its unusually high temperature, salinity and solar irradiance. However, most microbial diversity analyses of the Red Sea have been limited to cultured representatives and single marker gene analyses, hence neglecting the substantial uncultured majority. Here, we report 136 microbial genomes (completion minus contamination is ≥50%) assembled from 45 metagenomes from eight stations spanning the Red Sea and taken from multiple depths between 10 to 500 m. Phylogenomic analysis showed that most of the retrieved genomes belong to seven different phyla of known marine microbes, but more than half representing currently uncultured species. The open-access data presented here is the largest number of Red Sea representative microbial genomes reported in a single study and will help facilitate future studies in understanding the physiology of these microorganisms and how they have adapted to the relatively harsh conditions of the Red Sea.

  5. A catalogue of 136 microbial draft genomes from Red Sea metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Mohamed F; Thompson, Luke R; Parks, Donovan H; Hugenholtz, Philip; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-07-05

    Earth is expected to continue warming and the Red Sea is a model environment for understanding the effects of global warming on ocean microbiomes due to its unusually high temperature, salinity and solar irradiance. However, most microbial diversity analyses of the Red Sea have been limited to cultured representatives and single marker gene analyses, hence neglecting the substantial uncultured majority. Here, we report 136 microbial genomes (completion minus contamination is ≥50%) assembled from 45 metagenomes from eight stations spanning the Red Sea and taken from multiple depths between 10 to 500 m. Phylogenomic analysis showed that most of the retrieved genomes belong to seven different phyla of known marine microbes, but more than half representing currently uncultured species. The open-access data presented here is the largest number of Red Sea representative microbial genomes reported in a single study and will help facilitate future studies in understanding the physiology of these microorganisms and how they have adapted to the relatively harsh conditions of the Red Sea.

  6. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    ). Studies concerning microzooplankton in marine coastal, estuarine and brackish-water systems along tropical Indian waters are limited. Hence, in the following sections, I provide the results obtained by the research conducted in the tropical Vellar... estuarine systems, southeast coast of India. This was one of the first comprehensive studies on microzooplankton in India. There are also comparative accounts of microzooplankton researches from my studies in Japanese coastal marine waters. Microzooplankton...

  7. Marine Corps Budgetary Reprogramming Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    infrastructure (Appropriations Act of Congress, 2008). The environmental restoration is a transfer account controlled by the DOD. Usually in the case of...at an average just over 11 percent and the Marine Corps encircle the backend of the DOD portion of reprogramming with the Marine Corps reprogramming...blue force tracker (BFT), radio systems, high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), medium tactical vehicle replacement (MTVR), and

  8. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  9. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Harrison The Source of Marine Magnetic Anomalies Christopher GA. Harrison • 52 Principles of Operation and Applications of RF-driven SQUID Magnetometers... ink recorder, and thereby obtained detailed data over the limited range in which Layer 2 appeared as a first arrival. Those researchers who waited to... Extract from MPL [Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography] Quarterly Reports, 1 April to 30 June 1949, by R. W. Raitt

  10. Governance in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, T.

    2015-01-01

    The governance of the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies is complex, endlessly fascinating and often politically charged. There is no area where this complexity is more demonstrable than in the marine environment, where the issues of extended maritime boundaries granted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fishing and prospecting rights, marine conservation and competing sovereignty mean that the practical application of the law in this area is particularly d...

  11. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution, as well as a number of allied technologies. Many of the topics discussed are presented in a summary of a workshop on bioremediation of marine oil pollution. The summary includes an overview of the formal presentations as well as the results of the working groups.

  12. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  13. Ruegeria profundi sp. nov. and Ruegeria marisrubri sp. nov., isolated from the brine–seawater interface at Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan; Haroon, Mohamed; Zhang, Ruifu; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Yunpeng; Xun, Weibing; Dong, Xiuzhu; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Two moderately halophilic marine bacterial strains of the family Rhodobacteraceae, designated ZGT108T and ZGT118T, were isolated from the brine-seawater interface at Erba Deep in the Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Cells of both strains were aerobic, rod

  14. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  15. Diversity of picoeukaryotes at an oligotrophic site off the Northeastern Red Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Francisco; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2013-08-20

    Picoeukaryotes are protists ≤ 3 μm composed of a wide diversity of taxonomic groups. They are an important constituent of the ocean's microbiota and perform essential ecological roles in marine nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite their importance, the true extent of their diversity has only recently been uncovered by molecular surveys that resulted in the discovery of a substantial number of previously unknown groups. No study on picoeukaryote diversity has been conducted so far in the main Red Sea basin-a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions, high levels of irradiance, high salinity and increased water temperature. We sampled surface waters off the coast of the northeastern Red Sea and analyzed the picoeukaryotic diversity using Sanger-based clone libraries of the 18S rRNA gene in order to produce high quality, nearly full-length sequences. The community captured by our approach was dominated by three main phyla, the alveolates, stramenopiles and chlorophytes; members of Radiolaria, Cercozoa and Haptophyta were also found, albeit in low abundances. Photosynthetic organisms were especially diverse and abundant in the sample, confirming the importance of picophytoplankton for primary production in the basin as well as indicating the existence of numerous ecological micro-niches for this trophic level in the upper euphotic zone. Heterotrophic organisms were mostly composed of the presumably parasitic Marine Alveolates (MALV) and the presumably bacterivorous Marine Stramenopiles (MAST) groups. A small number of sequences that did not cluster closely with known clades were also found, especially in the MALV-II group, some of which could potentially belong to novel clades. This study provides the first snapshot of the picoeukaryotic diversity present in surface waters of the Red Sea, hence setting the stage for large-scale surveying and characterization of the eukaryotic diversity in the entire basin. Our results indicate that the

  16. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  17. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  18. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  20. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  1. Marine Metagenomics activities at KAUST

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-09-19

    Renaissance of Middle East countries King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC) The Red Sea as a source for our research Pipeline for the research platform Comparative Genomics and Genetics (CGG) laboratory

  2. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  3. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  4. Elucidation of 10Be accumulation mechanism to sea floor with the marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Yamagata, T.; Saito, T.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediment samples (0-30 cm in depth) were collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and South Pacific Ocean during KH00-3 (BO, 7 samples) and KH04-5 (SX, 8 samples) cruise of R/V Hakuho-Maru. The 10 Be concentration in the marine sediment samples range between 0.9x10 9 and 6.5x10 9 atoms/g, and most of the red clay sediment in the Northwest Pacific Ocean showed uniform distribution. The 9 Be concentration in the red clay sediment samples range between 2.3 and 2.6 ppm, which showed a value almost the same as measured 9 Be concentration (1.6-2.3 ppm) in the Chinese loess. The 10 Be concentration in the marine sediment were 20 times higher than the 10 Be concentration (0.2x10 9 atoms/g) in the Chinese loess. These results were suggested that most of 10 Be in the marine sediment were regarded seawater as the origin. (author)

  5. The late Middle Devonian fauna of Red Hill I, Nevada, and its paleobiogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Schultze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Middle Devonian Red Hill I locality, Nevada, is unusual in the co-occurrence of a rich fish assemblage with a rich invertebrate one. Sponges are second in abundance of specimens and number of species only to the fishes and occur together with other invertebrates (conodonts, conulariids, dacryoconarid tentaculites, gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, arthropods, and unidentifiable ammonoids and echinoderms. The invertebrates indicate a marine depositional paleoenvironment. The conodonts indicate a placement within the lower disparalis Zone, late Givetian. The fish assemblage is dominated by the antiarch Asterolepis. All the other fishes, acanthodians, actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, are less common. The closest biogeographic relationship of the fish fauna is with the Middle/Late Devonian fish fauna of the Baltic Region, followed by that of eastern Canada (Miguasha, Scotland and Iran. This distribution corresponds to the Devonian Euramerica faunal province with connection to eastern Gondwana (Iran and Australia. Localities with the same genera as Red Hill I are interpreted as marine with the exception of the Scottish localities. Asterolepis is the most widely distributed vertebrate genus, mostly marine, but it may be able to enter freshwater like Eusthenopteron if one accepts a freshwater depositional paleoenvironment for the Scottish localities. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000001

  6. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  7. Morphological deformities of benthic foraminifera in response to nearshore pollution of the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kahawy, R; El-Shafeiy, M; Helal, S A; Aboul-Ela, N; El-Wahab, M Abd

    2018-04-28

    The Red Sea encompasses a wide range of tropical marine habitats that are stressed due to anthropogenic activities. The main anthropogenic activities are hydrocarbon exploration and important trading harbors. This work aims to assess the influence of the Red Sea coastal heavy metal contamination on the marine meiofauna along three sites (Ras Gharib, Safaga, and Quseir). Eight heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mn) contents are considered in four benthic foraminiferal species (Elphidium striatopunctatum, Amphistegina lobifera, Amphisorus hemprichii, and Ammonia beccarii). Quseir Harbor showed the highest level of pollution followed by Safaga and Ras Gharib sites. The analyzed benthic foraminiferal tests displayed noteworthy high concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in Quseir Harbor which could be attributed to the anthropogenic activities in the nearshore areas. Some foraminiferal tests exhibited abnormalities in their apertures, coiling, and shape of chambers. A comparison between normal and deformed foraminiferal tests revealed that the deformed ones are highly contaminated with elevated heavy metal contents such as Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cd. Statistics in addition to geo-accumulation and pollution load indices reveal a whistling alarm for the Quseir harbor. The present data are necessary to improve conservation and management of the Red Sea ecosystem in the near future.

  8. Living upside down: patterns of red coral settlement in a cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Cerrano, Carlo; Abbiati, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Background Larval settlement and intra-specific interactions during the recruitment phase are crucial in determining the distribution and density of sessile marine populations. Marine caves are confined and stable habitats. As such, they provide a natural laboratory to study the settlement and recruitment processes in sessile invertebrates, including the valuable Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variability of red coral settlers in an underwater cave was investigated by demographic and genetic approaches. Methods Sixteen PVC tiles were positioned on the walls and ceiling of the Colombara Cave, Ligurian Sea, and recovered after twenty months. A total of 372 individuals of red coral belonging to two different reproductive events were recorded. Basal diameter, height, and number of polyps were measured, and seven microsatellites loci were used to evaluate the genetic relationships among individuals and the genetic structure. Results Significant differences in the colonization rate were observed both between the two temporal cohorts and between ceiling and walls. No genetic structuring was observed between cohorts. Overall, high levels of relatedness among individuals were found. Conclusion The results show that C. rubrumindividuals on tiles are highly related at very small spatial scales, suggesting that nearby recruits are likely to be sibs. Self-recruitment and the synchronous settlement of clouds of larvae could be possible explanations for the observed pattern. PMID:29844950

  9. Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanov, Eduard A.; Titlyanova, Tamara V.; Xia, Bangmei; Bartsch, Inka

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island in the period 1933-1992 is presented in this paper. There are two extensive sample collection periods of benthic macroalgae: the early collection (EC) covers a period between the early 1930s and the 1980s before considerable urbanization and reef degradation took place and a late collection (LC) was performed in 1990/1992 during a phase of rapid urbanization. Analysis of data also including an earlier published inventory of green algae covering the same collection sites (Titlyanov et al. 2011a) revealed that the marine flora of the island comprises 426 taxa in total, with 59% red algae, 18% brown algae and 23% green algae. In total 59 species of red algae, 11 species of brown algae and 37 species of green algae sampled during the LC are new records for Hainan Island. Considerable floristic changes between EC and LC became evident. In the LC there were significantly more filamentous, tubular or fine blade-like, and often epiphytic, green and red algae with a high surface-to-volume ratio. Additionally a reduction of green, brown and red algal species with larger fleshy or foliose thalli and a low surface-to-volume ratio was observed. It is assumed that the changes reflect the degradation of the coral reef ecosystem around Hainan, which was damaged by human activities especially in the 1950s-1970s.

  10. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  11. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  12. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  13. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  14. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  15. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  16. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  17. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  18. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  19. International laboratory of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The director's report presents the overall aims and objectives of the laboratory, and some of the significant findings to date. Among these is the different behaviour in oceans of Pu and Am. Thus, fallout Pu, in contrast to Am, tends to remain in the soluble form. The vertical downward transport of Am is much quicker than for Pu. Since 1980, uptake and depuration studies of sup(95m)Tc have been carried out on key marine species. Marine environmental behaviour of Tc is being evaluated carefully in view of its being a significant constituent of nuclear wastes. Growing demands are being made on the laboratory for providing intercalibration and instrument maintenance services, and for providing training for scientists from developing countries. The body of the report is divided into 5 sections dealing with marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geochemistry/sedimentation, environmental studies, and engineering services, respectively. Appendices list laboratory staff, publications by staff members, papers and reports presented at meetings or conferences, consultants to the laboratory from 1967-1980, fellowships, trainees and membership of committees, task forces and working groups

  20. Marine microorganisms. Umi no biseibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, U. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Applied Biological Science)

    1992-11-10

    This paper explains properties, interactions, and activities of marine microorganisms. Marine bacteria include bacteria of vibrio family of arteromonas genus, luminous bacteria, and aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of marine bacteria is halophilic, and many proliferate at 5[degree]C or lower. Some of them can proliferate at 20[degree]C to 30[degree]C, or as high temperature as 80[degree]C and higher. Spongiaria and tumicata have many symbiotic microorganisms, and genes equivalent to luminous bacteria genes were discovered in DNA of light emitting organs in luminous fishes. It was verified that animal groups in upwelling zones are supported by bacteria that assimilate inorganics supplied from ocean bottoms. Marine bacteria decompose almost all of organics brought in from land to sea, and those produced in sea. Marine bacteria engage in complex interrelations with other organisms for competition, antagonism, parasitism, and symbiosis. The bacteria make antibacterial substances, anti-algae bacteria, enzyme inhibitors, toxins, pharmacologically active substances, and such physiologically active substances as deposition promoting substances to undersea structures including shells and barnacles, and deposition blocking substances. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  1. The Development of Coastal and Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Widjojo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and development process of oastaland marine resources tends centralized and adopted top down policy, without any active participations from coastal and marine communities. In order to reach integrated and sustainable development in coastaland marine areas, people should have both complete and up to date information, so that planning and decision making for all aspect of the environment can be done easily. People should give a high attention of surveis, mappings, as well as science and technology of coastal and marine sectors, in order to change the paradigm of development from inland to coastal and marine. Moreover, people should give high attention of potential resources of coastal and marine areas.

  2. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  3. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  4. Cardioprotective peptides from marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnedy, Padraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure or hypertension is one of the fastest growing health problems worldwide. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, dietary factors play an important role. With the high costs and adverse side-effects associated with synthetic antihypertensive drugs and the awareness of the link between diet and health there has been increased focus on identification of food components that may contribute to cardiovascular health. In recent years special interest has been paid to the cardioprotective activity of peptides derived from food proteins including marine proteins. These peptides are latent within the sequence of the parent protein and only become active when released by proteolytic digestion during gastrointestinal digestion or through food processing. Current data on antihypertensive activity of marine-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides in animal and human studies is reviewed herein. Furthermore, products containing protein hydrolysates/peptides from marine origin with antihypertensive effects are discussed.

  5. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  6. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  7. Isolation and Purification of Planctomycetes associated with Harbor and Lagoon Seagrasses of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bream, Holly

    2012-07-01

    Planctomycetes are members of a unique superphylum along with Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydia, situated in the domain Bacteria. They have distinct structural and morphological features, and discoveries made through phylogenetic analysis indicate their important role in nutrient cycling. Their known relationships with marine photosynthetic organisms led to the formation of this study\\'s hypothesis, namely, that Planctomycetes can be isolated from the biofilm of seagrass species of the Red Sea using cultivation techniques adapted for these organisms. Preparation of solid and liquid media using M13 with both agar and gellan, and 2216 Difco Marine Broth full-­ strength, 1/10-­strength, and with antibiotics, resulted in the successful isolation of Planctomycetes as confirmed by morphological examination and transmission electron microscopy. The work performed in this study provides a solid foundation for further studies to elucidate the metabolic pathways and ecological significance of Planctomycetes.

  8. Status and strategies for marine biodiversity of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The status of marine biodiversity and factors responsible for the degradation and loss of marine biodiversity are discussed. Goa has abundant marine wealth. Phytoplankton, marine algae, manglicolous fungi, seagrasses, mangrove flora and other...

  9. Brittany. Brest tackles marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guerny, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how the Brittany region finances the extension and diversification of the Brest harbour so that it will be able get new contracts and to enable the setting up of plants related to marine energies. Some local actors are already committed in this sector, notably DCNS with the first submerged marine current power installation. Moreover, a contract has been signed between the region and DCNS to develop floating offshore wind energy. Some important local actors are indicated (an existing and a projected techno-pole, Alcatel-Lucent, a research centre). They are located in Rennes, Saint-Malo, Lannion, Lorient or Fougeres

  10. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  11. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  12. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  13. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  14. W Photoprotection in Tropical Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface which results from stratospheric ozone depletions could have serious implications for terrestrial plants and for aquatic organisms within the euphotic zone. A documented 9% decline in ozone at mid-latitudes is considered to produce a 12% increase in harmful UV radiation. The biologically damaging effects of higher UV levels, particularly W-B (280-320 rim), could manifest earlier in the tropics because of the relative thinness of the earth's equatorial ozone layer. Tropical marine organisms are also living close to their upper tolerance levels of water temperature, However, despite the large potential effects on plants and animals, little is known about UV effects on tropical ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to produce reliable data for prediction. Plants have developed several mechanisms to protect themselves from harmful UV radiation, one of which is the production of secondary leaf pigments that absorb W-B radiation (screening pigments). A higher concentration of screening pigments (e.g. flavonoids) in leaves may be interpreted as a natural response to increased W radiation. If higher concentrations of flavonoids filter out the excessive W radiation, no damage will occur, as suggested by Caldwell et al. (1989) and Tevini (1993). Failure to screen all W-B may result in deleterious effects on photosynthesis, plant genetic material, and plant and leaf morphology and growth. Eventually this will have an impact on ecosystem processes, structure, species composition, and productivity. This paper describes an ongoing project that is assessing the responses of mangroves, seagrasses and corals to W radiation by studying pigment concentrations, biophysical parameters, and variations in spectral reflectance in the field and in W-reduction experiments. Preliminary results on the distribution

  15. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  16. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  17. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  18. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  19. Summary report on marine research 1988.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available , Estuaries/ Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Ocean Engineering and a South African contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1988 and emphasizes...

  20. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Xu, Sharon Ying

    2012-01-01

    for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening