B. Venkata Seshu Kumari
Full Text Available In this paper we explore different statistical dependency parsers for parsing Telugu. We consider five popular dependency parsers namely, MaltParser, MSTParser, TurboParser, ZPar and Easy-First Parser. We experiment with different parser and feature settings and show the impact of different settings. We also provide a detailed analysis of the performance of all the parsers on major dependency labels. We report our results on test data of Telugu dependency treebank provided in the ICON 2010 tools contest on Indian languages dependency parsing. We obtain state-of-the art performance of 91.8% in unlabeled attachment score and 70.0% in labeled attachment score. To the best of our knowledge ours is the only work which explored all the five popular dependency parsers and compared the performance under different feature settings for Telugu.
Sindhu, D. V.; Sagar, B. M.
Machine Translation is a task of translating from one language to another language. For the languages with less linguistic resources like Kannada and Telugu Dictionary based approach is the best approach. This paper mainly focuses on Dictionary based machine translation for Kannada to Telugu. The proposed methodology uses dictionary for translating word by word without much correlation of semantics between them. The dictionary based machine translation process has the following sub process: Morph analyzer, dictionary, transliteration, transfer grammar and the morph generator. As a part of this work bilingual dictionary with 8000 entries is developed and the suffix mapping table at the tag level is built. This system is tested for the children stories. In near future this system can be further improved by defining transfer grammar rules.
Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash
This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…
Straw-tailed Whydahs, Vidua fischeri, mimic the songs and calls of their host species, the Purple Grenadier, Granatina ianthinogaster, and they also have songs that do not mimic the hosts. Neighbouring male whydahs match song themes with each other, while males a few km distant have another set of song themes.
Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla
The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...
T. E. Kinsey
Full Text Available The Song of Iopas plays an important part in the development of the relationship between Dido and Aeneas. There is no symbolism in the Song and no attempt to arouse Roman prejudice against the Carthaginians.
Bondi, Edith F.
The purpose of this study was to design a strategy for teaching young children the information expressed in words of selected songs. Out of five classes of from 25 to 30 seven-year-old students, 86 students were selected for observation. The investigator chose 18 songs from a song textbook to be taught for the first 12 weeks of school. During the…
Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…
Chernyshov Alexander V.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Song Wen-ai. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 21 Research Article. Classification of Stellar Spectra with Fuzzy Minimum Within-Class Support Vector Machine · Liu Zhong-bao Song Wen-ai Zhang Jing Zhao ...
Laura ORTIZ MONTERO
Full Text Available The European Broadcasting Union (EBU was born in 1950 to improve service radio and television through collab-oration and sharing content. This was, initially, limited only to news and sports. Therefore, in order not to be based only on that content, in 1956 they opted to create an event where music was a link between peoples: the Eurovision Song Contest. Sixty-one years later, the Song Contest has become one of the longest running programs in television in the world as well as one of the events that have the highest audience. The objective of this research is to know if the Eurovision Song Contest fulfills the purposes of the EBU, which refer to cultural diversity and the identity of peoples.
B.Rama; Santosh Kumar Henge
Optical Character recognition is the method of digitalization of hand and type written or printed text into machine-encoded form and is superfluity of the various applications of envision of human’s life. In present human life OCR has been successfully using in finance, legal, banking, health care and home need appliances. India is a multi cultural, literature and traditional scripted country. Telugu is the southern Indian language, it is a syllabic language, symbol script represe...
Birdsong is a culturally transmitted behavior that depends on a juvenile songbird’s ability to imitate the song of an adult tutor. Neurobiological studies of birdsong can reveal how a complex form of imitative learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood at the level of underlying circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies that illuminate the neurobiological mechanisms for singing and song learning. PMID:19892546
This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along! Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 2/25/2010.
Music exists in time. One cannot get to the end of the song before going through the song. Is this significant for helping children wait? And can the way we present a singing game activity intensify the delay of what might be a gratifying moment at the end of the song? In this article, the author reflects on whether music can teach delayed…
families) is featured in a new arrangement by Jim Lauderdale and bookended on the CD by Woody Guthrie’s “Deportee (Plane Wreck at Los Gatos)” about Mexican migrants being forcibly repatriated by airplane, and “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime”, a song of urban poverty and potential charity from 1930...
Full Text Available On the basis of newly discovered historiographic documents, this study traces the »biography« of Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian songs. It specifies some disputed details with regard to the numbering and structure of two vocal cycles; it submits a transcript of a music sheet of the song Robstvo (The Yoke, op. 843a and the original of an unknown composition Majko kleta (Poor Mother on the verses of the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov which has not been registered by Hubert Pettan in Zajc’s catalogue of works. This exploration, together with the historiographic focus, highlights the connection of these opuses with the Bulgarian poetry which gained wide popularity through the anthology Bulgarian Songs by August Harambašić. Indeed, some details which Zajc indicated on the title pages of his scores, lead to this assumption. At the same time, the spread of the songs in Bulgaria indicates the connection of the Croatian composer with Bulgarian musicians, choral societies, schools etc., as a result of which in the first decade of the 20th century Zagreb’s Hrvatski glazbeni zavod became an attractive educational centre for many young Bulgarian people. Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian Songs have not only enriched the artistic repertoire of Bulgarian choral societies. They outline one of the lines of active multicultural transfer between Bulgaria and Croatia on the border between the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The melodies of his marches, creating the spirit of the struggles for national liberation of Bulgarian nation, have become part of the newly created national musical culture and have been often accepted as Bulgarian in their origin.
term of "rogue state", which was adopted in the official security lexicon of the Clinton administration in the 1990s. With the prospects of "humanitarian intervention" becoming a leading issue in Washington's international agenda, the concept of "failed state" was installed in the political and academic debate. Both terms could be seen as instrumental for the increasing American new interventionism. Yet, a third potential threat to international stability is completely ignored by U.S. - or any other state - foreign policy makers: the "courtesan state", which, broadly, is one of the results of the process of globalization and the transformation of state power. More precisely, the courtesan state is an analytical concept useful to frame certain states' links with the global illicit economy. This essay argues that the concept is crucial to understand a fundamental aspect of the power struggle that characterizes inter-state relations in the post-Cold War, and analyzes the courtesan state through its double link with other legitimate state actors, mainly the global superpower, in international politics, and, simultaneously, with non-state global actors of the illicit economy.
The power of music to create a coherent group is amazing. Music can be used to help focus attention, encourage group unity, involve everyone, and allow creative self-expression. Discusses different song styles, simple rhythm instruments, and song writing. Song-leading tips include song choice, teaching techniques, motions, song sheets, and three…
.wav audio file This song says, please be careful on your way. When you leave, I sincerely bless you. When you come back, I’ll restrain the dog to allow you to enter my home. Please don’t forget the people who love you. We bless and support you constantly. 这首歌的歌意为，在你的路上要小心。在你离别的时候我真心实意地祝福你。当你回来的时候我会为你挡着狗让你进入我的家。不要忘记爱你的人们。我们时常都祝福和支持你。 གླུ་འདིའི་ནང་དོན་ནི་ཁྱོད་ཀྱི་ལམ་ནང་དུ་སེམས་ཆུང་བྱོས། ཁྱོད་འགྲོ་བའི་དུས་སུ་ངས་སེམས་པ་རྣམ་དག་གིས་ཁྱོད་ལ་སྨོན་ལམ་འདེབས། ཁྱོད་ཕྱིར་ལོག་པའི་དུས་སུ་ངས་ཁྱི་བཀ...
The Morriston Orpheus Choir from Swansea sing in the CERN control center.The Morriston Orpheus Choir from Swansea were joined by the Welsh First Minister Rhodri Morgan at the LHC control room on Sunday 12 October. Lyn Evans, a fellow Welshman, was excited to have them here at CERN. "The control room has been somewhat quieter recently than on the 10 September," he said later in his speech at the LHC inauguration ceremony, "but last week, some fellow countrymen of mine, the wonderful Morriston Orpheus choir from Wales, paid us a visit and blessed the LHC with song."
Describes the songs and accompanying dances of the Ponca tribe's Helushka society--a traditional society of warriors, tribal leaders, and men of exemplary behavior. Includes Ponca (Siouan) transcriptions of 12 songs, with English translations and commentaries. Contains 46 references. (SV)
Elia Masa Gintings, Christina Septiani Manurung and
This study is based on sociolinguistics problems. It deals with the use of slang.The writer focuses on Beyonce Knowles's songs lyrics as the scope of data. Theobjectives of the study were to find out the types of slang are used in BeyonceKnowles' songs and to reason for the use of the types of slang in BeyonceKnowles' songs. The data that support this study by using descriptive qualitativedata by reading some references related to the subject matters. The findingsshowed Abbreviation and Baby'...
Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance
The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel
Somewhere between documentary, theatre and opera, Songs for an Airless Room is a piece of music to be performed in cinemas. As a trio, the piece features improvised vocals by Phil Minton, percussion performed by Joby Burgess, with computer processing, live visuals and surround sound performed by the composer, the piece touches on themes of isolation and obsession that might be linked to forms of digital media. Songs for an airless room evolved from reports of the Japanese Hikikomori, a form ...
Garland, Ellen C; Rendell, Luke; Lamoni, Luca; Poole, M Michael; Noad, Michael J
Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing. In hybrid songs the current and new songs were spliced together in two specific ways: ( i ) singers placed a single hybrid phrase, in which content from both songs were combined, between the two song types when transitioning from one to the other, and/or ( ii ) singers spliced complete themes from the revolutionary song into the current song. Sequence analysis indicated that both processes were governed by structural similarity rules. Hybrid phrases or theme substitutions occurred at points in the songs where both songs contained "similar sounds arranged in a similar pattern." Songs appear to be learned as segments (themes/phrase types), akin to birdsong and human language acquisition, and these can be combined in predictable ways if the underlying structural pattern is similar. These snapshots of song change provide insights into the mechanisms underlying song learning in humpback whales, and comparative perspectives on the evolution of human language and culture.
Christopher R Olson
Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.
Judy E. Lam
Full Text Available Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, integrates the biblical and the experiential, and offers a poetics-praxis paradigm for use in contemporary spiritual praxis. With the poem’s metaphorical vineyard (a figurative term for the beloved herself serving as hermeneutical key, the beloved’s experience of love is interpreted through a multifaceted reading that is intrinsic to the poem, namely: eros [yearning]; mythos [searching]; mustikos [finding]; and kosmos [birthing]. In following the inner dynamism and dramatic tensions across the eight chapters of the Song, the fourfold reading traces the beloved’s transformation from a neglected vineyard (Can 1:6 to a generative vineyard (Can 8:12. The article concludes that transformation in love is a journey from depletion (the giving away of self towards deification (the giving of self in love, and suggests tending one’s own vineyard as a living testament to divine love and a living sacrament in the world.
author Rahmatika Kayyis
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs
The aim of this article is to contribute to the identification of the theological hub of Song of Songs. During an interpretive history of more than two thousand years various exegetical methods have been applied for purposes of identifying the theological message of Song of Songs. yet, none has proven itself entirely convincing ...
Different interpretations are evaluated for their contribution towards a better under-standing of the theology of Song of Songs. Chapter 4:16-5:1 is presented as the structural centre of Song of Songs. Linear, cyclic and concentric structures point to the centrality of this passage. It has a key-function for the theology of the book ...
Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles) is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, ...
ABSTRACT. A key feature of humpback whale behavior, documented primarily on the breeding grounds, is the repertoire of the males' song. Song is made up of single units combined together into phrases, which are repeated to make up themes. A song consists of several themes sung in succession. This study ...
Specifically, the paper demonstrates that the popular Fuji songs associated with the Yoruba of South West Nigeria are not only literary in essence, but are worthy of serious academic attention and yield fruits which are as illuminating aesthetically and culturally as the analysis of written literature. Finally, the paper establishes ...
Elemans, C. P. H.
speech learning. While there is a strong focus on central processing of song production, we still have limited insights into the functional output of the motor neural circuits. This review focuses on recent developments in motor control, biomechanics and feedback mechanisms of sound production...
Uuest heliplaadist "V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song" - Bridge of Song; Singing aboard ship; Brides Farewell; Kihnu Island Wedding Songs; 17 Estonian Wedding Songs; Three Estonian Game Songs; Four Estonian Lullabies. Estonian Radio Choir / Toomas Kapten. Finlandia 4509 96937-2; 56:52 DDD; "People of Kalevala" - God protect us from war; Vespian Winter; Eagle Flew From the North East; Plague Memory; Vainamoinen's Words of Wisdom; The Seventeenth Rune of Kalevala. National Male Choir of Estonia. Finlandia 0630 12245-2; 56:52 DDD
For most of us, songs and nursery rhymes have a special emotional quality and, thus, are part of the basic repertoire of a music therapist. This paper outlines the meaning and applicability of songs in music therapy with children. The first part discusses the significance of songs within the context of developmental psychology, referring to the development of basic psychological functions such as motorical skills, language, cognition, emotion, mental representations, motivation and intention. The second part deals with indications and objectives as well as different applications of songs in music therapy. Traditional and new nursery rhymes, free renderings, playing songs, spontaneous tunes, welcome and farewell songs and semi-structured tunes are introduced. Finally, the article reviews the diverse therapeutical functions of songs within the process of music therapy as well as essential qualifications for a music therapist.
Troy R. Shirangi
Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.
Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben
song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song...
Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard
In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.
Political party songs came back to live in 1993 after Lesotho returned to democratic rule following the suspension of the constitution in 1970. It was through these songs that followers of different political parties expressed their feelings of sadness, happiness or hope. This paper analyses one song titled Topo by the band ...
Madagascar Conservation & Development ... Song is made up of single units combined together into phrases, which are repeated to make up themes. A song ... to educate the communities of the Gulf of Tribugá about the importance of conservation, and to advocate for stricter guidelines for safe whale-watching practices.
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Slabbekoorn, Hans
Many bird species, especially song birds but also for instance some hummingbirds and parrots, have noted dialects. By this we mean that locally a particular song is sung by the majority of the birds, but that neighbouring patches may feature different song types. Behavioural ecologists have been interested in how such dialects come about and how they are maintained for over 45 years. As a result, a great deal is known about different mechanisms at play, such as dispersal, assortative mating and learning of songs, and there are several competing hypotheses to explain the dialect patterns known in nature. There is, however, surprisingly little theoretical work testing these different hypotheses at present. We analyse the simplest kind of model that takes into account the most important biological mechanisms, and in which one may speak of dialects: a model in which there are but two patches, and two song types. It teaches us that a combination of little dispersal and strong assortative mating ensures dialects are maintained. Assuming a simple, linear frequency-dependent learning rule has little effect on the maintenance of dialects. A nonlinear learning rule, however, has dramatic consequences and greatly facilitates dialect maintenance. Adding fitness benefits for singing particular songs in a given patch also has a great impact. Now rare song types may invade and remain in the population.
Freeman, Benjamin G; Montgomery, Graham A; Schluter, Dolph
Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27). We found that nonlearners evolved mean acoustic differences slightly faster than did leaners, and that the mean evolutionary rate of song discrimination was 4.3 times faster in nonlearners than in learners. These unexpected results may be a consequence of significantly greater variability in song traits in song learners (by 54-79%) that requires song-learning oscines to evolve greater absolute differences in song before achieving the same level of behavioral song discrimination as nonlearning suboscines. This points to "a downside of learning" for the evolution of species discrimination, and represents an important example of plasticity reducing the rate of evolution and diversification by increasing variability. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Eleuterio R. Ruiz
Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the old debate on which kind of interpretation is more appropriate for the Song of Songs, namely, literal or allegorical, and to what extent. Treating the poem as a literary work and letting it speak for itself, metaphor emerges as the main expressive resource referring to a multi-dimensional reality. The analysis of metaphor in the Song of Songs, based on selected samples, reveals highly developed metaphoric speech in the poem, with images accumulating and interacting in multiple, concurrent and mutually enriching levels of meaning. Behind this complex intertwining of metaphors there emerges the main referent for the book as a whole. Metaphor, then, appears as a particularly adequate means of articulating both anthropological and theological discourse.Key words: Song of Songs, Metaphor, Love.
Full Text Available The description of the decorated bowl, and the shepherd’s song that follows, invite imaginative participation on the part of the poem's audience, with the effect of emphasizing the fictive qualities of both works of art.
Vocabulary mastery is one of the requirements for students to be able to communicate both in spoken and written. There are many ways to improve students’ vocabulary mastery used by the language teacher. This paper aims to examine the use of English song to motivate students in learning English. In addition, this concerns on the use of English song to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The respondents were fifteen elementary students of community groups of orphans An-nur Surabaya. The data ...
Jose Peixoto Coelho de Souza
Based on the assumption that songs are a speech genre consisting of both music and lyrics (COSTA, 2002; COELHO DE SOUZA, 2010; CARETTA, 2011) and that, consequently, its meanings derive from the articulation between both languages, this paper aims to introduce the concept of literomusical literacy, i.e., the literacy involved in social practices mediated by songs and verbo-musical genres. Grounded on the concept of literacy as social practices mediated by written language (STREET, 1984, 2006;...
This article is an attempt to investigate and explore certain patterns in traditional Christian Xhosa songs as found in Xhosa music. The corpus of contemporary Xhosa music is vast, and difficult to explore properly without recognising the patterns of traditional music. In order to recognise these patterns Xhosa music in general will be discussed first – Xhosa music also as a form of art. Having done that, it will try to uncover certain elements of traditional songs in Christian Xhosa music. A...
Jose Peixoto Coelho de Souza
Full Text Available Based on the assumption that songs are a speech genre consisting of both music and lyrics (COSTA, 2002; COELHO DE SOUZA, 2010; CARETTA, 2011 and that, consequently, its meanings derive from the articulation between both languages, this paper aims to introduce the concept of literomusical literacy, i.e., the literacy involved in social practices mediated by songs and verbo-musical genres. Grounded on the concept of literacy as social practices mediated by written language (STREET, 1984, 2006; KLEIMAN, 1995; SOARES, 1999, 2002; BARTON, 2007 and bringing contributions from studies on literary literacy (PAULINO, 2004; COSSON, 2006; PAULINO; COSSON, 2009 and music education (SWANWICK, 1994, 2003; FRANÇA; SWANWICK, 2002, literomusical literacy is conceived as the state or condition of those who participate in social practices mediated by songs and discourses that emerge from songs and take a critical stand on them because they are able to understand and reflect upon their verbal and musical components, on how they articulate to build certain meaning effects and on how they relate to their musical community. This involves, for instance, recognizing and interpreting the actions that are being mediated by songs, and through this interpretation, to be able to understand the values underlying them and the target interlocutors. Acknowledging the existence of a particular literacy involved in the social practices mediated by verbo-musical genres entails reflecting on the pedagogical practices associated with the use of songs in language teaching and how to turn these literacy practices into literomusical literacy practices.
Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.
Boyd, P. T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.
The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, ``AstroCappella 2.0,'' has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K--12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the U.S., and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops.
Kristina PLANJANIN SIMIC
Full Text Available Song-forms constitute one of the four sub-categories of folklore within the classification of children’s folklore The song-forms reflect children's responses in relation to nature. They are dedicated to animals that children find interesting and dear. In the distant past, they were performed at fixed hours and days, on certain places and there was a number of their repetition, but over the past centuries, they lost the initial position and became the motive for play and recreational activities for children. In the examples collected for this paper, what can be observed and singled out are a few basic melodic and rhythmic motifs that also occur in children's songs around the world, the connection between children's rhythm with the text, simplicity and the syllable of melody as well as the fact that the tone of these songs often relates to archaic diatonic infra-pentatonic series. In addition to educational and entertainment features, these songs reveal a mentality, way of thinking, creativity and spiritual development of a generation that will grow up at the beginning of the 21st century.
Full Text Available Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through this paper, the writer wants to show that through songs, children could enhance their language skills, such as speaking, listening and writing.
Olateju, Moji. A.
This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…
In this article, the author discusses the benefits of using songs and poems to teach young learners. The author explains how songs and poems can be used in English class and what their benefits are. The author explains how teachers can use actions or puppets to accompany the selected songs or poems, or allow young learners to create ideas…
Parasiz, Gökalp; Kervancioglu, M. Hanifi
Present study is a descriptive and applied study from different sides. It was aimed to make the applications prepared for the usability of Erzurum's folk songs available in music and instrument education. First literature review was conducted and totally 240 folk songs were determined to belong to Erzurum province. Among the songs determined,…
In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…
Full Text Available Birdsong is a culturally transmitted mating signal. Due to historical and geographical biases, song (learning has been predominantly studied in the temperate zones, where female song is rare. Consequently, mechanisms and function of song learning have been almost exclusively studied in male birds and under the premise that inter- and intrasexual selection favoured larger repertoires and complex songs in males. However, female song is not rare outside the temperate zones and song in both sexes probably is the ancestral state in songbirds. Some song dimorphisms seen today might therefore be manifestations of secondary losses of female song. What selection pressures have favoured such losses and other sexual dimorphisms in song? Combined mapping of phylogenetic and ecological correlates of sex differences in song structure and function might provide important clues to the evolution of male and female song. This requires parameterization of the degree of sexual dimorphism. Simple comparison of male-female song might not provide enough resolution, because the same magnitude of difference (e.g. repertoire overlap could result from different processes: the sexes could differ in how well they learn (‘copying fidelity’ or from whom they learn (‘model selection’. Different learning mechanisms might provide important pointers towards different selection pressures. Investigating sex-specific learning could therefore help to identify the social and ecological selection pressures contributing to sex differences in adult song. The study of female song learning in particular could be crucial to our understanding of i song function in males and females and ii the evolution of sex-specific song.
This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along! Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 12/22/2009.
Grundahl, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe
The Stellar Observations Network Group, SONG, is a project which aims at building a network of eight identical telescopes distributed geographically around the globe to allow long-term, high-duty-cycle observations of stellar oscillations and to search for exoplanets via the microlensing technique...
Suggests a complex dialectical relationship among (1) the meanings that acculturation encourages workers to attribute to their everyday experiences; (2) the meanings enacted in country music work songs; and (3) the support of hierarchical social and organizational power relationships in workers' identities. (MS)
In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…
This song (sung to the tune of The Twelve Days of Christmas) describes how to stay safe and healthy during the holidays and all year long. Created: 12/14/2007 by CDC Office of Women's Health. Date Released: 12/23/2007.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M
Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muhammad Sadli Mustafa
Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.
Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 cont...
Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.
Full Text Available The ceremonial song-poetry performed by Arandic people of central Australia is characterized by parallelism of sound, form and meaning in both auditory and visual modalities. Parallelism, in all its manifestations, operates at multiple levels of the hierarchically structured poetic form. In the period Arandic people call the Altyerre, “Dreaming,” ancestral spirit-beings created the land and laid the lore through actions and song. This included the creation of women’s song-poetry called awelye. Awelye is sung in group unison as a series of many short verses that relate to each group’s inherited estate lands, their ancestors, and to the ceremonial performance itself. Actions that mirror the meaning of the verses accompany the singing, such as painting designs on the body, placing a ritual object in the ground, and dancing. This paper considers the role of parallelism in the poetic function of language (Jakobson 1987, and facilitates the merging of the everyday realm with that of the performer’s ancestors, which Stanner so aptly translates as the “everywhen.”
Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe
The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences...... contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living...
Full Text Available Bron Taylor defines dark green religion as: �� a deep sense of belonging to and connectedness in nature, whilst perceiving the earth and its living systems to be sacred and interconnected�. It not only emphasises a felt kinship with the rest of life but also evokes awe, wonderment and humility towards nature that binds to something �greater than oneself�. Do the intimate �oneness� and living in the moment of the two young lovers in the Song also extend to a diminishing of the self and an experience of oneness with a greater, timeless, mysterious reality? In order to determine whether the Song of Songs complies with a form of nature spirituality, the notions of belonging, interconnectedness and sacredness were investigated as they appear in this ancient book of love. It was found that the Song is representative of a form of dark green religion of a non-doctrinaire, immanent kind. It exhibits ubiquitously the notions of belonging and connection (kinship with nature, an interconnectedness and interdependency of the web of life and the sacredness of the earth and its inhabitants (their intrinsic worth that evokes awe, wonderment and humility. The experience of sensuality, living mindfully in the moment, transforms into a timeless spirituality of connection to �another, mysterious world�.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The relevance of reader-oriented appreciations of biblical texts, notably ecological hermeneutics, is demonstrated; this approach can also be extended to other sacred texts apart from the Bible; furthermore, it points to the need for the ongoing dialogue with the natural sciences.Keywords: dark green religion; nature spirituality; belonging;interconnectedness; sacredness; Song of Songs
László Zsolt Garamszegi; Anders Pape Møller
Bird song is usually considered to have evolved in the context of sexual selection. Because extrapair paternity is a major component of sexual selection, mating advantages at the social level for males that produce songs of high quality may be transformed into higher success in extrapair paternity. Therefore, males with longer and more complex songs should suffer less from extrapair paternity intraspecifically, whereas species with high rates of extrapair paternity, reflecting intense sperm c...
My dissertation examines the distinctive significance of the studio during the Song dynasty (960–1279) through its various literary and visual representations. Simply speaking, the studio was an enclosed site specifically used for reading, writing, and art creation. Pre-Song texts have records of a few early examples of studio sites in China. However, it was during the Song dynasty that the studio became a prominent cultural space for literati. The studio became both an object of scholarly re...
Beverley Diamond; Ian Brodie
MacEdward Leach made the earliest ethnographic recordings of folksong on both Cape Breton Island and Newfoundland, recordings that remained largely unknown for over 50 years. This essay describes the history of the MacEdward Leach and the Songs of Atlantic Canada website and the efforts to provide context for the songs for two key audiences: the academy in general and the local community who understand the songs as a cultural inheritance.
Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance
The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the
Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H
Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments of different tempos were demonstrated in three experiments using Beatles songs. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explored how listening to versions of the same song that were played at different tempos affected tempo and pleasantness ratings. In both experiments, contrast effects were found on judgments of tempo, with target tempos rated faster when context tempos were slow than when they were fast. In both experiments, we also showed that the peak of the pleasantness rating function shifted toward the values of the context tempos, reflecting disordinal context effects on pleasantness relationships. Familiarity with the songs did not moderate these effects, and shifts in tempo ratings did not correlate with shifts in most pleasant target tempos when context was manipulated within subjects. In Experiment 3, we examined how manipulations of context tempos for one song affected judgments of the same song as compared with judgments of other more or less similar songs. For tempo ratings, contrast effects transferred to ratings of a similar song, but for pleasantness ratings, assimilative shifts of ideals were found only for the same song and not for similar songs. This pattern of results was supportive of independent bases for the two context effects.
Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Wright, Timothy
Vocal learning in birds is typically restricted to a sensitive period early in life, with the few exceptions reported in songbirds and parrots. Here, we present evidence of open-ended vocal learning in a hummingbird, the third avian group with vocal learning. We studied vocalizations at four leks of the long-billed hermit Phaethornis longirostris during a four-year period. Individuals produce a single song repertoire, although several song-types can coexist at a single lek. We found that nine of 49 birds recorded on multiple days (18%) changed their song-type between consecutive recordings. Three of these birds replaced song-types twice. Moreover, the earliest estimated age when song replacement occurred ranged from 186 to 547 days (mean = 307 days) and all nine birds who replaced song-types produced a crystallized song before replacement. The findings indicate that song-type replacement is distinct from an initial early learning sensitive period. As half of lekking males do not survive past the first year of life in this species, song learning may well extend throughout the lifespan. This behaviour would be convergent to vocal learning programmes found in parrots and songbirds.
Diez, Adriana; Cui, Alice; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A
The auditory forebrain regions caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) and caudo-medial mesopallium (CMM) of songbirds exhibit differential expression of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to playback of different song stimuli, and dependent on early-life auditory experience. Similarly, song preferences depend both on auditory experience and unlearned biases for particular song features. We explored the contributions of early-life auditory experience and the type of song stimuli on the Zenk response in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches. Females were raised in three different early tutoring conditions: conspecific tutors that sang isolate song, heterospecific tutors, or conspecific tutors that sang wild-type song. At maturity, these females were exposed to one of five different playback conditions: wild-type song, isolate song, tutor song, heterospecific song, or white noise. Subsequently, the number of cells immunoreactive for ZENK in CMM and NCM was measured. We predicted that birds exposed to conspecific song early in life, and during the song playback in adulthood, would have the highest neural response. Instead, we found that the Zenk response varied across playback conditions with the highest response to conspecific wild-type and conspecific isolate song. In addition, we found a main effect of tutoring, with the lowest overall Zenk response in females tutored by males singing isolate song. Most importantly, there was a significant interaction in that females tutored by wild-type conspecific or heterospecific songs showed a similar increased response to zebra finch songs (wild-type or isolate), but females tutored by isolate song showed no differential response to conspecific song and only showed elevated Zenk response to the particular songs they were tutored with. Combined, our results indicate that unlearned response biases to conspecific song elements depend on previous auditory experience. That is, early experience appears to modulate the
Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through th...
This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...
Song is critical to territory defence, mate attraction, and both species and individual recognition. According to the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH), habitat structure may exercise a selective force on vocal evolution such that song evolves to minimise the degradation and attenuation of acoustic signals in the particular ...
The Avatime child is born into an atmosphere charged with belief in myths, legends and tradition. Cradle song performances are part of the enculturation process through which babies are introduced to music and linguistic behaviour. The songs are mostly performed by women for personal and social reasons. Traditionally ...
Uses the practice of song dubbing in the Hollywood film musical to explore the implications and consequences of the singing voice for imaging practices in the 1930s through 1960s. Discusses the ideological, technological, and socioeconomic basis for song dubbing. Discusses gender, race, and ethnicity patterns of image-sound practices. (SR)
, Tears and Blood and Bob Marley's Stand up, Get up, using in-depth analysis of the songs' lyrics plus opinion survey of their listeners. Finding is that the actual protest values of the two songs are high in meditation upon protest problem and ...
Political rallies are an integral component of political cultures in most participatory democracies. The political rally as a genre of political discourse is characterised by different signifying practices among which are talks, songs, costume and surrogate language. This study isolates songs as a system of signification in political ...
Amir Mohammad Khan
Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Music and reading domains require similar auditory processing skills. Students employ these skills when learning a new song through an oral/aural or rote-teaching approach. In this article, I review literature on the effectiveness of immersion and phrase-by-phrase approaches for teaching a song with or without words. Then, using an amusing…
Songs, calls and visual displays of the Oriental magpie robin have been studied in detail. In northern India, this species breeds between May and August raising several broods. During this period, males sing complex and melodious songs in their respective territories for the advertisement of territories and mate acquisition.
This article proposes a typology of Shona popular songs employing a systemic functional linguistics (SFL) informed genre theory, which distinguishes texts on the ... Although some studies have been carried out on these songs in the context of popular music, none have attempted a linguistically-grounded analysis of the ...
Nwa eri-gi ,. If the baby refuses to eat,. Erie - m . I'll eat. The song describes the plight of babysitters who eat only after everybody, including the baby, has eaten and probably gone to sleep. It is a plea expressing the desire for their basic necessities to be met. Overtly speaking. Analysis of Lullabic Songs in Traditional African ...
Songbirds are capable of vocal learning and communication and are ideally suited to the study of neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing. When a songbird is deafened in the early sensorimotor phase after tutoring, it fails to imitate the song of its tutor and develops a highly aberrant song. It is also known that birds are capable of storing a long-term memory of tutor song and that they need intact auditory feedback to match their own vocalizations to the tutor's song. Based on these behavioral observations, we investigate feedback processing in single auditory forebrain neurons of juvenile zebra finches that are in a late developmental stage of song learning. We implant birds with miniature motorized microdrives that allow us to record the electrical activity of single neurons while birds are freely moving and singing in their cages. Occasionally, we deliver a brief sound through a loudspeaker to perturb the auditory feedback the bird experiences during singing. These acoustic perturbations of auditory feedback reveal complex sensitivity that cannot be predicted from passive playback responses. Some neurons are highly feedback sensitive in that they respond vigorously to song perturbations, but not to unperturbed songs or perturbed playback. These findings suggest that a computational function of forebrain auditory areas may be to detect errors between actual feedback and mirrored feedback deriving from an internal model of the bird's own song or that of its tutor.
Hobbs, Dawn R; Gallup, Gordon G
Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years.
Dawn R. Hobbs
Full Text Available Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years.
Ms. Valeria A. Buryakovskaya
Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural specificity of children's songs is determined by the extralinguistic and linguistic characteristics that most clearly are seen in the light of comparative analysis. For a long historical period there was a stream of cultural phenomena from Western Europe to Russia including the UK, which is reflected in the language including children's songs. The purpose of the study is to identify the similarities and differences of children's songs in Russian and English folklore cultures. It is established that the main differences of the Russian song culture from the European one are determined by historical, religious, regional, ethnic, musical, poetic and other traditions. The similarities are observed in the structural, phonetic and genre-themed events. At the same time, Russian and English children's songs differ from each other in their lexical-grammatical and stylistic peculiarities, the set of concepts and characters.
Poirier, Colline; Boumans, Tiny; Vellema, Michiel
BACKGROUND: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play a role in song learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of norepinephrine in bird's own song selectivity......, a property thought to be important for auditory feedback processes required for song learning and maintenance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that injection of DSP-4, a specific noradrenergic toxin, unmasks own song selectivity in the dorsal part of NCM...... NCM. This latent own song selective signal, which is only revealed under conditions of very low noradrenergic activity, might play a role in the auditory feedback and/or the integration of this feedback with the motor circuitry for vocal learning and maintenance....
Fabiana Cristina Teixeira
Full Text Available This article aims to integrate the psychoanalytic concepts of discontent, violence, aggressiveness and enemy with the acclaimed song “Faroeste Caboclo”, an important legacy of Brazilian Pop-Rock from the 1980s. The song narrates the saga of João de Santo Cristo, an orphan whose life story was characterized by uneasiness, racial discrimination, and difficulty to deal with authority figures, which turned him into a renowned drug dealer. With an ending marked by passional tragedy, culminating with the death of all the main characters, the plot is traversed by violence, aggressiveness and hate. This demonstrates how the story unfolds to the field of alterity through the emergence of friendship and enmity, allowing a thorough discussion and comprehension of João de Santo Cristo’s story. Assuming that music is both an individual form of expression and a form of apprehension and description of social reality, this study sought to comprehend the psychic dimensions demonstrated in the lyrics, which narrate a story that is very similar to real life stories of many adolescents involved in violent criminality in Brazil. The main objective was to discuss the possible meanings of these lyrics, hence promoting a constructive dialog between psychoanalysis and culture.
Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam
In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.
Fidler, J R; Zechmeister, E B; Shaughnessy, J J
In two experiments college students were asked to provide situational frequency estimates of 10-s excerpts from rock songs. In both experiments familiarity of the musical selections heard one, two, three, or four times was varied. In Experiment 2 the nature of instructions given to subjects prior to presentation of the musical excerpts was also manipulated. Across both experiments subjects' estimates were less accurate for unfamiliar than for familiar rock music. In Experiment 2 instructions to remember frequency, as well as general memory instructions, resulted in better memory for presentation frequency than did instructions to "ignore" music while working on math problems. Memory for situational frequency was also related to knowledge of rock music as defined by subjects' ability to identify the titles and artists of the presented songs. The present pattern of results with popular music is viewed as similar to that obtained in experiments investigating memory for frequency of verbal stimuli. Although providing support for an automatic processing view of frequency encoding, the results also implicate meaningful elaboration of stimuli as an important determinant of memory for frequency of events.
Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G
There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.
Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: email@example.com
There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.
Full Text Available The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia. In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.
Kendra B. Sewall
Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings
Singing has become part of Yorùbá culture and indeed, the human race as a whole. It is as old as man's existence. This implies that no society in the world does not sing. Singing is an art and it forms part of the people's literature. The importance of song in the political, social, economic and religious life of the human race in ...
Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.
Baird, Amee; Umbach, Heidi; Thompson, William Forde
The hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) is impaired memory, but memory for familiar music can be preserved. We explored whether a non-musician with severe AD could learn a new song. A 91 year old woman (NC) with severe AD was taught an unfamiliar song. We assessed her delayed song recall (24 hours and 2 weeks), music cognition, two word recall (presented within a familiar song lyric, a famous proverb, or as a word stem completion task), and lyrics and proverb completion. NC's music cognition (pitch and rhythm perception, recognition of familiar music, completion of lyrics) was relatively preserved. She recalled 0/2 words presented in song lyrics or proverbs, but 2/2 word stems, suggesting intact implicit memory function. She could sing along to the newly learnt song on immediate and delayed recall (24 hours and 2 weeks later), and with intermittent prompting could sing it alone. This is the first detailed study of preserved ability to learn a new song in a non-musician with severe AD, and contributes to observations of relatively preserved musical abilities in people with dementia.
Full Text Available The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.
Nemeth, Erwin; Brumm, Henrik
In cities with intense low-frequency traffic noise, birds have been observed to sing louder and at a higher pitch. Several studies argue that higher song pitch is an adaptation to reduce masking from noise, and it has even been suggested that the song divergence between urban and nonurban songs might lead to reproductive isolation. Here we present models of signal transmission to compare the benefits of raised song amplitude and song pitch in terms of sound transmission. We chose two bird species that sing with higher pitch in urban areas, the great tit (Parus major) and the blackbird (Turdus merula). For both species, we calculated communication distances in response to different levels of urban noise and in their natural forest habitats. We found that an increase in vocal pitch increased communication distance only marginally. In contrast, vocal amplitude adjustments had a strong and significantly larger effect. Our results indicate that frequency changes of urban songs are not very effective in mitigating masking from traffic noise. Increased song pitch might not be an adaptation to reduce signal masking but a physiological side effect of singing at high amplitudes or an epiphenomenon of urbanization that is not related to signal transmission.
Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.
The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173
A cultural perspective is applied to modern popular songs that encourages listeners to use a critical ear and consider not only the songs themselves, but also how they fit into the broadcast industry's schema. Different song types and industry patterns of song exploitation are considered. (MSE)
Lampe, H.M.; Balsby, T.J.S.; Espmark, Y.O.
Bird songs may vary in amplitude for several reasons. Variations due to differences in environmental conditions are well known but whether signal information varies with song amplitude is less well known. In some species quiet songs are heard as a soft twitter. These twitter songs are common in T...
Full Text Available The genre of the mass song is one of the fundamental phenomena in aesthetics and practice of socialist realism. Mass songs are supposed not only to be accessible to the lay audience, but also to be composed in a way that invites the participation of amateurs. Importantly, the institutions which have been disseminating the mass song under state socialism, such as various institutions of education, culture and art, have also served as mechanisms for the normalization of its ideological content. This article summarizes important aspects of the concept of the mass song in general and offers a multifaceted exemplification, before proceeding to discuss the history of mass songs in socialist Yugoslavia (including, by and large, what is usually referred to as partisan songs, with emphasis on the institutional framework through which they were practiced and disseminated, and on specificities that the genre had accrued within the Yugoslav framework. This historical framework of practicing mass songs in Yugoslavia provides a platform for opening the question of intrinsic incompatibility between the project of a classless society and the institution of art. In regards to this, article discusses contemporary practice of Yugoslav mass songs as practiced by self-organized choirs and their new political potential. Article received: May 6, 2017; Article accepted: May 14, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Atanasovski, Srđan. "Socialism or Art: Yugoslav Mass Song and Its Institutionalizations." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 31-42. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.185
Klepp, K I
In two regions of Tanzania, school teachers and health workers developed an education program on HIV called Ngao, which means shield, symbolizing the fact that youth must be prepared to protect themselves against HIV infection. The program targets 14-year-old students. School health workers and teachers underwent 3 days of training on AIDS. After the training, the teachers organized about 20 training meetings where they used flipcharts, black boards, posters, brochures, and manuals for students. They learned about using participative teaching methods and how to organize students to direct class discussions. Students made their own posters; enlivened discussions with 6-7 peers; directed and performed skits in which they together tried to conquer HIV risks or acquire negotiation skills; and wrote songs, plays, and poems about ways youth can protect themselves or ways to address AIDS in their community. The plays, skits, poems, and songs were performed in front of younger children to also inform them about AIDS. Students wore special T-shirts with the logo of the Ngao program, which stimulated discussion on the program. Information on condom use was introduced as an option. Dignitaries, religious leaders, and parents participated in discussions on the program and on AIDS control strategies for the community to adopt. Initially, the program was implemented in 6 schools in urban and rural areas. The students had more knowledge and more positive attitudes towards persons with AIDS than those in comparison schools. They were also less likely to become sexually active in the near future. Teachers and health workers enjoyed teaching the program's curriculum. They felt that the program better equipped and prepared the students to protect themselves against HIV infection. After the pilot project, the program was revised to make it a permanent part of the curriculum in primary schools. An expanded version will be integrated into the health program of secondary schools.
Keywords: Cohesion, Cohesion Devices, Lyric, Bob Marley. This study is about cohesion devices found in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs. The objectives are to reveal the kinds of grammatical and lexical cohesion used in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs.In conducting this study, the researcher uses descriptive qualitative method, because the data in the form of words, phrases, and sentences. The data of this study is taken form the lyrics of five Bob Marley's songs, they are: Get Up, Stand Up,...
Music especially a song has a stress pattern of musical rhythm. In the first bar, there is a strong beat called accent. Like a music, English is often described as stress-time language. There some rules of the language in pronunciation.Â The purpose of this study is to know the tendency English stress pattern applied in English song lyrics viewed from the stress pattern of music rhythm. This study is a quantitative one by using musical approach. Sample of this study uses two song analysis is...
Dadang Solihat; Prita Lusiana Utami
This study investigates students’ listening skill by using English songs. The reason of choosing this topic is based on the problems that is listening skill. It can be seen during the writer teaching at SMPN in Kuningan, the students lack of listening skill. The aims of this research were to investigate the effectiveness of using English songs to improve students listening skill and to know the students attitudes of using English songs in listening skill.The target of this research was the st...
Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D
Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH
Wang, Qixin; Luo, Tianyi; Wang, Dong; Xing, Chao
Learning and generating Chinese poems is a charming yet challenging task. Traditional approaches involve various language modeling and machine translation techniques, however, they perform not as well when generating poems with complex pattern constraints, for example Song iambics, a famous type of poems that involve variable-length sentences and strict rhythmic patterns. This paper applies the attention-based sequence-to-sequence model to generate Chinese Song iambics. Specifically, we encod...
Full Text Available This article explores the place of Masonic songs historically in Scotland, assessing the oral culture surrounding the genre. The article further shows that folk tunes were commonly used and investigates aspects of the group performance that was central to the Lodges. Finally, the study concludes with an examination of a Masonic procession in Northeast Scotland that survives to the present day, focusing especially on the role of music and song within it.
Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson
Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...... as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bilateral trade....
De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie
The song control system of songbirds displays a remarkable seasonal neuroplasticity in species in which song output also changes seasonally. Thus far, this song control system has been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measurements, which are necessary to establish causal correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior. Research has primarily been focused on the song nuclei themselves, largely neglecting their interconnections and other brain regions involved in seasonally changing behavior. In this review, we introduce and explore the song control system of songbirds as a natural model for brain plasticity. At the same time, we point out the added value of the songbird brain model for in vivo diffusion tensor techniques and its derivatives. A compilation of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained thus far in this system demonstrates the usefulness of this in vivo method for studying brain plasticity. In particular, it is shown to be a perfect tool for long-term studies of morphological and cellular changes of specific brain circuits in different endocrine/photoperiod conditions. The method has been successfully applied to obtain quantitative measurements of seasonal changes of fiber tracts and nuclei from the song control system. In addition, outside the song control system, changes have been discerned in the optic chiasm and in an interhemispheric connection. DTI allows the detection of seasonal changes in a region analogous to the mammalian secondary auditory cortex and in regions of the 'social behavior network', an interconnected group of structures that controls multiple social behaviors, including aggression and courtship. DTI allows the demonstration, for the first time, that the songbird brain in its entirety exhibits an extreme seasonal plasticity which is not merely limited to the song control
O'Mathúna, Dónal P
A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics.
Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Mitra, Partha P; Fehér, Olga; Pytte, Carolyn; Tchernichovski, Ofer
Sleep affects learning and development in humans and other animals, but the role of sleep in developmental learning has never been examined. Here we show the effects of night-sleep on song development in the zebra finch by recording and analysing the entire song ontogeny. During periods of rapid learning we observed a pronounced deterioration in song structure after night-sleep. The song regained structure after intense morning singing. Daily improvement in similarity to the tutored song occurred during the late phase of this morning recovery; little further improvement occurred thereafter. Furthermore, birds that showed stronger post-sleep deterioration during development achieved a better final imitation. The effect diminished with age. Our experiments showed that these oscillations were not a result of sleep inertia or lack of practice, indicating the possible involvement of an active process, perhaps neural song-replay during sleep. We suggest that these oscillations correspond to competing demands of plasticity and consolidation during learning, creating repeated opportunities to reshape previously learned motor skills.
Alexander R Trott
Full Text Available Mate selection is critical to ensuring the survival of a species. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic and anatomical studies have focused on mate recognition and courtship initiation for decades. This model system has proven to be highly amenable for the study of neural systems controlling the decision making process. However, much less is known about how courtship quality is regulated in a temporally dynamic manner in males and how a female assesses male performance as she makes her decision of whether to accept copulation. Here, we report that the courting male dynamically adjusts the relative proportions of the song components, pulse song or sine song, by assessing female locomotion. Male flies deficient for olfaction failed to perform the locomotion-dependent song modulation, indicating that olfactory cues provide essential information regarding proximity to the target female. Olfactory mutant males also showed lower copulation success when paired with wild-type females, suggesting that the male's ability to temporally control song significantly affects female mating receptivity. These results depict the consecutive inter-sex behavioral decisions, in which a male smells the close proximity of a female as an indication of her increased receptivity and accordingly coordinates his song choice, which then enhances the probability of his successful copulation.
Trott, Alexander R; Donelson, Nathan C; Griffith, Leslie C; Ejima, Aki
Mate selection is critical to ensuring the survival of a species. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic and anatomical studies have focused on mate recognition and courtship initiation for decades. This model system has proven to be highly amenable for the study of neural systems controlling the decision making process. However, much less is known about how courtship quality is regulated in a temporally dynamic manner in males and how a female assesses male performance as she makes her decision of whether to accept copulation. Here, we report that the courting male dynamically adjusts the relative proportions of the song components, pulse song or sine song, by assessing female locomotion. Male flies deficient for olfaction failed to perform the locomotion-dependent song modulation, indicating that olfactory cues provide essential information regarding proximity to the target female. Olfactory mutant males also showed lower copulation success when paired with wild-type females, suggesting that the male's ability to temporally control song significantly affects female mating receptivity. These results depict the consecutive inter-sex behavioral decisions, in which a male smells the close proximity of a female as an indication of her increased receptivity and accordingly coordinates his song choice, which then enhances the probability of his successful copulation.
Full Text Available Rank-and-file supporters of the Bangsamoro rebellion (1972-1977 articulated their personal sentiments about the war in a genre called “rebelsongs.” The lyrics reveal that fighters’ personal aspirations often diverged from the official aims of separatist leaders. This article examines how rebel songs transitioned into “Moro songs” in the post-martial law era and why they came to more narrowly reflect the movement’s official goals of Moro unity and Islamic renewal. While Muslim separatists hinged their ideology on the concept of a shared religion and history distinct from the rest of the Philippines, the musical vehicle they approved to convey aspirations for political and religious autonomy was not, however, indigenous genres, such as tudtol or dindiken. Rather, Moro songs set Magindanaon lyrics to the melodies of American folk, country and rock ballads—such as Bryan Adams’s “Straight from the Heart”—to frame protests against the Philippine government’s incursion into the homeland, the fight for religion and calls for Muslim unity. By endorsing this hybrid genre to broadcast separatist goals, the movement opened up a communicative space for its message to internal and external audiences, across cultural and national boundaries.
Oyumaa M. Saaya
Full Text Available The article presents a linguistic analysis of lyrics of modern Tuvan pop songs. While studying them is important for understanding contemporary songwriting in Tuva, it is also necessary to discover what linguistic means, functional styles and vocabulary are used by modern authors of popular lyrics. The study can also help identify how contemporary global trends influence songwriting in means of linguistics. Three groups of songs can be defined in Tuvan pop music. The first of them comprises songs written by both professional poets and amateurs with good writing skills. Their texts have homogenous literary style and are intended for general audience (rather than specific groups of listeners. They do not feature any jargon or youth slang. The second group consists of “songs of the people” which are still popular and relevant, but not classified as folklore. This group also contains songs previously banned by censorship, and those written by ex-convicts. Their lyrics differ in style, and the vocabulary is also heterogenous: they can include slang and contain vernacular language. The third group includes songs following popular global and Russian trends, which triggered rapid evolution in Tuvan songwriting. There is significant number of authors or even creative unions, who write both lyric and music. They are stylistically uneven, contain a lot of neologisms, borrowed vocabulary, slang and jargon words and sometimes even macaronic (mixed language. The author provides a more in-depth analysis of lyrics belonging to the third group of songs. They can be divided into 6 thematic subgroups which greatly vary in lexical content and the use of tropes. The lyrics of contemporary Tuvan songs are quite close to the everyday language young people use. Active employment of jargon in the language of young and middle-aged people, especially in lyrics of modern songs, steadily decreases the literary norms of Tuvan language. The author emphasizes that
Full Text Available Abstract. This paper is the result of the research that based on the phenomenon in Indonesia today. The texts of Indonesian popular songs that part of the literature which create new vocabularies or make the modification of old language. The structure of this work seems to be odd. It means the new vocabulary is different from the standard of Indonesian structure. The aim of this descriptions are the correction of (1 the mistake of the phenomenon in the text of Indonesian popular songs (2 the meaning of indonesian popular songs must be based on reading of semiotics and heuristic. To describe this purpose, we use semiotic theory and structuralism. While the sources of this research are adopted from the texts of Indonesian popular songs which are published in 2000-2010 periode. Both Indonesian popular songs, either good songs or odd songs which has the value of good literature, namely which consist of good structure, poetic, romantic with symbolic style. Heuristically readings of the two text Indonesian songs indicate violations of linguistic rules either syntagmatic, paradigmatic, meaningfulness relations and composition. Keywords: the text of Indonesian popular song, semiotic, heuristic Abstrak. Tulisan ini merupakan hasil penelitian yang didasari oleh fenomena bahwa dewasa ini teks lagu populer Indonesia sebagai bagian dari karya sastra banyak menampilkan kosakata baru ataupun modifikasi kosakata lama, dengan komposisi yang dipandang “menyimpang” dari kaidah tata bahasa baku maupun konvensi sastra. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan (1 fenomena struktur kebahasaan dalam teks lagu populer Indonesia dan (2 makna teks lagu populer Indonesia berdasarkan pembacaan semiotik-heuristik. Untuk mendeskripsikan hal tersebut digunakan teori semiotik dan strukturalisme. Sementara sumber data penelitian ini adalah teks lagu populer Indonesia tahun 2000 – 2010. Baik lagu-lagu yang dipandang menyimpang dari kaidah atau konvensi sastra maupun
Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben
Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.
Emily J Mockford
Full Text Available Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.
Boyd, P. T.; Smale, K. M.; Smale, A. P.
The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band. A multimedia music CD ("AstroCappella 2.0") has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, and the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift astronomy satellites. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. We describe here the history, content, and educational strategy behind the AstroCappella Project, and the plans for its future development.
Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance
Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520
Yang, Z. Z.; Lu, X. M.; Tian, J. F.; Zhuang, C. G.; Wang, K.; Deng, L. C.
Driven by advancements in technology and scientific objectives, data acquisition in observational astronomy has been changed greatly in recent years. Fully automated or even autonomous ground-based network of telescopes has now become a tendency for time-domain observational projects. The Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) is an international collaboration with the participation and contribution of the Chinese astronomy community. The scientific goal of SONG is time-domain astrophysics such as asteroseismology and open cluster research. The SONG project aims to build a global network of 1 m telescopes equipped with high-precision and high-resolution spectrographs, and two-channel lucky-imaging cameras. It is the Chinese initiative to install a 50 cm binocular photometry telescope at each SONG node sharing the network platform and infrastructure. This work is focused on design and implementation in technology and methodology of SONG/50BiN, a typical ground-based network composed of multiple sites and a variety of instruments.
Toews, David P L
The behavioural signals used in mate selection are a key component in the evolution of premating isolating barriers and, subsequently, the formation of new species. The importance of mating signals has a long tradition of study in songbirds, where many species differ in their song characteristics. In oscine songbirds, individual birds usually learn their songs from a tutor. Mistakes during learning can help generate geographic dialects, akin to those within human language groups. In songbirds, dialect differences can often be substantial and there is an intuitive connection between the evolution of song amongst populations at a small scale, and the more substantive song differences between bird species and presumably used in species recognition. However, studies investigating the concordance between putative genetic and behavioural boundaries have generated mixed results. In many cases, this is possibly a function of the poor resolving power of the genetic markers employed. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lipshutz et al. () combine genomic markers with a robust behavioural assay to address the importance of song variation amongst white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) subspecies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Besouw, Rachel M; Howard, David M; Ternström, Sten
The human singing voice plays an important role in music of all societies. It is an extremely flexible instrument and is capable of producing a tremendous range of sounds. As such, the human voice can be hard to classify and poses a major challenge for automatic audio discrimination and classification systems. Speech/song discrimination is an implicit goal of speech/music discrimination, where a division is sought between speech and song, such that the singing voice can be grouped together with other musical instruments in the same category. However, the division between speech and song is unclear and even human attempts at speech/song discrimination can be highly subjective and open to discussion. In this paper we present the results of a test that was designed to investigate differences in auditory perception for speech and song. Twenty-four subjects were instructed to attend to either the words or pitch, or both words and pitch of context-free spoken and sung phrases. After presentation of each phrase, subjects were asked to either type the words that they recalled, or select the correct pitch contour from a choice of four graphical representations, or do both, depending on the task specified before presentation of the phrase. The results of the experiment show a decrease in the amount of linguistic information retained by subjects for sung phrases and also a decrease in accuracy of response for the sung phrases when subjects attended to both words and pitch instead of words or pitch alone.
Ayasmaa D.-B. Baranmaa
Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of musical language of song folklore of Tuvans – the scale – is as yet underinvestigated in contemporary Tuvan musicology. The author is studying the effect of structural principles in scale and sound gamut of Tuvan folk songs. The theory of monodic scales (S.P. Galitskaya, E.V. Gertsman, Yu.G. Kon, Kh.S. Kushnarev, etc. forms the methodological basis for the analysis. The object of our studies are manuscripts of traditional Tuvan songs published by Russian musicologists (A. N. Aksenov, Z. K. Kyrgys, etc. serves as material base for analysis. The analysis revealed that traditional Tuvan songs are usually based on two- or three-part composite gamut structures. This significantly enriched the substantial aspect of the process by complicating types of links between the sounds, making the medium more profound, compact and complete. Scale links and subscales were detected that can interconnect in four manners (discrete, monolithic, catenary, inclusive. Conjunction principles are illustrated by a few folk songs. Catenary and inclusive manners of conjunctions have been noticed to be dominating. A vast variety of different link combinations has been detected. This is a point where intonational abundance of folklore melos reveals its inexhaustibility.
Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance
Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: Two Fables, Op. 4. Four Songs, Op. 46. Songs on Verses by British Poets, Op. 140. From Jewish folk poetry, Op. 79. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" DG CD 439860-2GH
Kubli, Shawn P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A
In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition over different developmental timescales, predict multiple aspects of innate immunity in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We also investigated correlations among immune measures. Noncellular components of innate immunity (soluble blood proteins including natural antibody and other protective proteins) were negatively related to cellular (phagocytosis-based) components, suggesting trade-offs within innate immune protection. This pattern underscores the risk of inferring "immunocompetence" from a single metric. Song complexity, a permanent trait in this species, was positively related to noncellular relative to cellular immune components and may thus provide information as to the singer's innate immune strategy (investment in noncellular vs. cellular activity). Such a relationship could arise through shared timing of song learning and antibody repertoire development in early life. Singing consistency, thought to track variation in current condition and measured at both whole-song and syllable scales, did not predict any immune measures. Developmental timing of signals thus appears to influence their information content.
Peter V Lovell
Full Text Available Vocal learning is a rare and complex behavioral trait that serves as a basis for the acquisition of human spoken language. In songbirds, vocal learning and production depend on a set of specialized brain nuclei known as the song system.Using high-throughput functional genomics we have identified approximately 200 novel molecular markers of adult zebra finch HVC, a key node of the song system. These markers clearly differentiate HVC from the general pallial region to which HVC belongs, and thus represent molecular specializations of this song nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that several major neuronal cell functions and specific biochemical pathways are the targets of transcriptional regulation in HVC, including: 1 cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions (e.g., cadherin/catenin-mediated adherens junctions, collagen-mediated focal adhesions, and semaphorin-neuropilin/plexin axon guidance pathways; 2 cell excitability (e.g., potassium channel subfamilies, cholinergic and serotonergic receptors, neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors; 3 signal transduction (e.g., calcium regulatory proteins, regulators of G-protein-related signaling; 4 cell proliferation/death, migration and differentiation (e.g., TGF-beta/BMP and p53 pathways; and 5 regulation of gene expression (candidate retinoid and steroid targets, modulators of chromatin/nucleolar organization. The overall direction of regulation suggest that processes related to cell stability are enhanced, whereas proliferation, growth and plasticity are largely suppressed in adult HVC, consistent with the observation that song in this songbird species is mostly stable in adulthood.Our study represents one of the most comprehensive molecular genetic characterizations of a brain nucleus involved in a complex learned behavior in a vertebrate. The data indicate numerous targets for pharmacological and genetic manipulations of the song system, and provide novel insights into mechanisms that might
Tervo, Outi; Christoffersen, Mads; FØrasier, Timothy
% males (n=1)). These data clearly demonstrate that female bowhead whales sing, however more samples are necessary to assess whether male bowhead whales also sing. The suggested functions of female song for other species include territorial defense, mate guarding, coordination of breeding activities......, and more rarely mate attraction. In the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, a closely related species to the bowhead whale, the female produces simple calls during sexual interactions that attract other males to mating groups. We suggest that our results may indicate that the elaborate songs...... of female bowhead whales may function for mate attraction and represent a novel example of partial courtship role reversal in mammals....
Kirn, John R.
Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…
Glen, Nancy L.
This article focuses on teaching play party songs in a general music curriculum, using their authentic form and historical context. The history of play party songs is discussed, as well as the social conditions in America during the time they were used in the late 19th to mid-20th century. Descriptions of the songs include variations in lyrics and…
Balsby, T.J.S.; Hansen, P.
Song repertoires are often important determining factors in sexual selection. In several species, older males have larger repertoires than 1-year-old males. The development of large song repertoires by an individual is, however, poorly understood. We studied song element repertoire changes in five...
In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…
SLATER, PJB; JONES, A; TENCATE, C
Some bird species will modify their songs in adulthood, whereas in others, once developed, song appears relatively fixed. However, even in some of the latter, social experience may lead birds to learn songs later than was previously thought possible. Do age-limited learners really exist or is
This article examines the potential contribution of Oromo love-sex songs to the spread or prevention of the HIV/AIDS. It also shows how Oromo love songs express Oromo beliefs, sexual values, customs, meanings and interpretations of masculinity. The Oromo recite various songs to praise love/sex and lovers; they express, ...
Booklets with song texts from houses belonging to one of the branches of the Devotio Moderna often contain texts of songs which had been sung earlier. However, the fact that such song texts were written down in booklets shows that they were valued by their owners, who chose to express their personal
Riebel, K.; Naguib, M.; Gil, D.
In songbirds, sensory and social learning processes in juveniles contribute to variation in male song and female preferences. The developmental stress hypothesis proposes that suboptimal early development affects the costly brain structures involved in male song learning and, as a consequence, song
Kristal E Cain
Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.
Michelle L Hall
Full Text Available Bird song is thought to function primarily in same-sex competition, mate attraction, and reproductive stimulation of a partner. However, these conclusions are based largely on studies of the song of male birds in north-temperate species. We investigate female song in a Neotropical wren, Thryophilus pleurostictus, using observations and experiments to test the function of female song. Female banded wrens sang much less often than males, their songs were shorter, and their repertoire of song types was smaller. Females did not seem to sing for same-sex competition for resources or mates: female song rate did not increase in response to simulated intrusion, and females sang in response to less than one-third of playbacks simulating territorial intrusion by either unpaired or paired females. Territorial defense is important for both survival and reproduction in species that occupy all-purpose territories year-round, but female involvement in territorial defense was limited. Females were more likely to approach simulated intruders when their partner approached more closely, and were closer to their partner during playback simulating a pair of intruders, perhaps contributing to defense jointly with their partner. Females did not appear to use song to attract males for mating: only 25% of females sang in response to playback simulating an unpaired male during the nest-building period, and they were less likely to sing shortly before laying when they were more likely to be fertile. Female song in banded wrens seemed to be used primarily for communicating with their breeding partner: female songs overlapped or began within one second of a song by their partner more often than expected by chance, and male vocal behavior changed in response to song by their partner. However, the low rate of female song in banded wrens suggests this function does not select for song elaboration, consistent with the view that same-sex competition is the main driver of female
Calvet, Louis Jean
The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Provides a list of 61 children's books including recently published nursery rhymes, songs, and verse games, book-length poems, themed poetry collections, collections of one author's work, and anthologies of several poets' work. Offers a bibliography of 27 new alphabet and 16 counting books. (MG)
Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…
Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie
Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to bo...
Full Text Available This study investigates students’ listening skill by using English songs. The reason of choosing this topic is based on the problems that is listening skill. It can be seen during the writer teaching at SMPN in Kuningan, the students lack of listening skill. The aims of this research were to investigate the effectiveness of using English songs to improve students listening skill and to know the students attitudes of using English songs in listening skill.The target of this research was the students at eighth grade of SMPN 1 Lebakwangi, Kecamatan Lebakwangi. There were 62 students. The method of this research was quasi-experimental design. There are two groups as the investigated group in this research. One group is for experimental group and the other group is controlled group. The data were collected through three steps, namely pre-test, post-test, and questionnaire. To analyze the result of pre test and post test, this research used t-test formula computed by SPSS 17.00. The result of the research showed that the students’ progress in mastering listening skill during the activity can be seen from the Paired test that shows t count is higher than t table (-32.697>2.042. It indicates that English songs is effective in listening skill. Students given positive attitude based on the questionnaire result that it had level agreement 92% and mean 142.
Krasovskaya Nelli Alexandrovna
Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of Tula folklore recorded in the western part of the Tula region, in terms of genre, stylistic and linguistic features. The relevance of the study is related to the fact that Tula folk songs has not been studied, linguistic features of the works are not subjected to serious analysis. The article describes the features of the genre of songs recorded in Belevsky district of Tula region, including the ancient fortunetelling chants, wedding ceremony songs, romantic ballads etc., it is cited numerous examples in the lyrics that reflect the dialectal features of the phonetic, grammatical, lexical levels. According to the authors, a modern folk song genre retains its diversity and is a kind of storeroom containing priceless linguistic wealth. The analysis allows to draw conclusions about the presence and well-preserved in the recorded music of South Russian dialect phonetic and grammatical features. So far, there is no established typology of Tula dialects, therefore, according to the authors, the fixation of folklore in the territories bordering on Tula dialects, is very important and interesting for further descriptive and comparative work on identifying the eastern and south-south-west differences in Tula dialects.
Toro, Leonor; And Others
Printed in Spanish, this booklet contains games, songs, poems, riddles, and sayings for use with Puerto Rican migrant children. Eleven matching exercises present Spanish vocabulary related to clothing, food, and musical instruments. Eleven word search games teach Spanish names for body parts, masculine and feminine nouns, famous names, fruits and…
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.
This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)
Songs and stories have a strong relationship to each other and have the capacity to boost brain development, increase vocabulary, and promote future academic success. The sounds and foundational structures of reading and singing provide young children with successful pathways for advancing language skills, increasing memory, and promoting emerging…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Acoustic Communication in Birds - Differences in Songs and Calls, their Production and Biological ... Change in email domain name. Posted on 26 August 2016. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of ...
Full Text Available Many different invertebrate and vertebrate species use acoustic communication for pair formation. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, females recognize their species-specific calling song and localize singing males by positive phonotaxis. The song pattern of males has a clear structure consisting of brief and regular pulses that are grouped into repetitive chirps. Information is thus present on a short and a long time scale. Here, we ask which structural features of the song critically determine the phonotactic performance. To this end we employed artificial neural networks to analyze a large body of behavioral data that measured females' phonotactic behavior under systematic variation of artificially generated song patterns. In a first step we used four non-redundant descriptive temporal features to predict the female response. The model prediction showed a high correlation with the experimental results. We used this behavioral model to explore the integration of the two different time scales. Our result suggested that only an attractive pulse structure in combination with an attractive chirp structure reliably induced phonotactic behavior to signals. In a further step we investigated all feature sets, each one consisting of a different combination of eight proposed temporal features. We identified feature sets of size two, three, and four that achieve highest prediction power by using the pulse period from the short time scale plus additional information from the long time scale.
Yoruba songs constitute a large spectrum of forms to be found in Africa. The study of their classification in terms of form has always begged for study. Yoruba vocal music is generally classified by the Yoruba society on the basis of (a) Performing modes and contents (b) Occasion for performance or context (c) Musical ...
Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P
Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Teachers don't typically encourage students to bring iPods to school, but when a girl in Ken Giles's class brought him "One Tribe," a song by the Black Eyed Peas, he was thrilled. Giles, a music teacher in Washington, D.C., uses protest music to illustrate the connections among culture, art, history and social movements and to help his students…
Brumm, H.; Naguib, M.
Any signal must get from a sender to a receiver if information is to be transmitted. In the case of bird song, the acoustic properties of the habitat may hinder this being achieved. However, birds as senders and receivers have evolved numerous adaptations to overcome the problem of getting the
Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2: Six Romances on texts by Japanese poets, Op. 21. Six Poems on Marina Tsvetayeva, Op. 143. Suite on Verses of Michelangelo, Op. 145. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". DG 447 085-2GH (71 minutes:DDD)
Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.
Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…
Heineman, Richard H.
These three biology songs can be used for educational purposes to teach about biochemical concepts. They touch on three different topics: (1) cancer progression and germ cells, (2) gene expression, promoters, and repressors, and (3) electronegativity and the biochemical basis of photosynthesis.
Integrating popular music as part of the public school music curriculum has been a topic of debate among many educators and researchers. Songs from the Disney Corporation, specifically from movies, television shows, and performers specifically marketed by Disney, are particularly significant due to their widespread popularity. In this article, the…
TENCATE, C; VOS, DR; MANN, N
Imprinting and song learning in birds are usually categorized under the same heading as 'exposure', 'template' or 'programmed' learning. These terms point to several similarities between the processes, but exactly how similar they are and whether the similarity implies a direct causal linkage is not
Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano
The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp...
Jul 13, 1987 ... Calling songs were recorded on high quality magnetic tape (Scotch. standard play) at a speed of 38 em/sec ..... by reinforcement. S. Afr. f. Sci. 74: 369-371. PATERSON, H.E. 1985. The recognition concept of species. In: Species and Speciation. Ed. E. Vrba. Transvaal Museum Monograph No.4, TraQsvaal ...
... disparate cultural zones creates a fundamental human crisis. This is precisely the case because the two categories of songs advance diametrically variant and irreconcilable codes of cognitive enrichment. For instance, English nursery rhymes are part of the discursive infrastructure for solidifying European hegemony.
Yvette K. Ortega; Aubree Benson; Erick Greene
Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect...
Abdullah, Amalia Qistina
Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would…
Rainmaking rituals: Song and dance for climate change in the making of livelihoods in Africa. ... International Journal of Modern Anthropology ... This study interrogates extant data on the ethnoscience of rainmaking rituals, as a prototype of African indigenous knowledge on climate change, to show not only its prevalence ...
Cai, Y M; Li, Y
The features and causes of flourishing of Song civilization were dealt with from the viewpoints of style of learning, art and literature etc., were explored based on contemporaneous political and economical factors. The achievements in the study and systematization are explained through the collection, collation, and research on TCM books. The relationship between the highly cultural prosperity and systematization of Song TCM books is also analyzed on the characteristics of Song civilization. Based on these backgrounds, the features of systemtization of Song TCM books and its influence on the development of medicine in the Song dynasty are also discussed.
Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance students’ vocabulary mastery through the use of song worksheet. Twenty -two fourth graders of an elementary school in Indonesia were selected as participants. Action research was adopted in this study consisting of three cycles. To find out students’ achievement, vocabulary test was given. To investigate students’ responses, observation and interview were implemented.Findings showed that song worksheet could enhance students’ vocabulary mastery. They also gave positive responses to the use of song worksheet. However, students complained that the songs were too fast. This study supports the use of songs in the EFL context which could make teaching - learning processes more fun
Širović, Ana; Oleson, Erin M; Buccowich, Jasmine; Rice, Ally; Bayless, Alexandra R
Songs are distinct, patterned sounds produced by a variety of animals including baleen whales. Fin whale songs, which consist of short pulses repeated at regular interpulse intervals (IPIs), have been suggested as a tool to distinguish populations. Fin whale songs were analyzed from data collected from 2000-2012 in Southern California and from 2004-2010 in the Gulf of California using autonomous acoustic recorders. IPIs were measured for each identifiable song sequence during two random days of each month with recordings. Four distinct song types were identified: long doublet, short doublet, long triplet, and short triplet. Long and short doublets were the dominant songs in Southern California, while long and short triplets were dominant in the Gulf of California. An abrupt change in song type occurred in both areas during the monitoring period. We argue that each song type is unique to a population and these changes represent a shift in the primary population in the monitoring area. Occasional temporal and spatial song overlap indicated some exchange or visitation among populations. Fin whales appear to synchronize and gradually modify song rhythm over long time scales. A better understanding of the evolutionary and ecological importance of songs to fin whale populations is needed.
Ellen C Garland
Full Text Available Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean.
Garland, Ellen C; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Noad, Michael J; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick
Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean.
Sarah C Woolley
Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the
Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E
The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n
Petersen, Morten Krogh; Ren, Carina Bregnholm
In this article, we use the concept of the potlatch to explore the organization and valuation of the Eurovision Song Contest held in Copenhagen in 2014. As economic and budgetary scandal marred the event, many bystanders questioned the meaning and sense of this mega event, which we consequently set...... out to explore. The event was organized and realized as what we term a cross-sectorial innovation project, bringing together a broad array of actors from the public and private sector who collaboratively sought to turn the event into “much more than a song contest”. We explore this “much more......” by describing the actors’ arduous work to create value through different project logics that were brought to the table. Hence, we argue, the event can be understood as what Mauss termed a total social phenomenon in which much more than merely economic issues are at stake. However, in valuing the event not much...
Full Text Available Taking issue with approaches to Bob Dylan’s art that are preoccupied with his lyrics, this article suggests a route into thinking about his music by focusing on how Dylan’s vocal melodies work at the intersection of speech and singing. Drawing on Gino Stefani’s work on popular melodies, this article explores this issue through a discussion of how people sing along with Dylan’s songs at concerts. The discussion focuses on the song “It Ain’t Me Babe,” and examines more general points about the ways in which Dylan’s melodies connect with the everyday lives of his listeners.
Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.
zla ba sgrol ma ཟླ་བ་སྒྲོལ་མ།
Full Text Available The text and more than one hundred full-page color plates document Tibetan folk music (particularly work songs, and local life in the Sman shod Valley, Sde dge County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Bo nyed, a local elder, describes the situation that motivated this timely documentation, "In the past we sang constantly, but now people don't sing no matter where they are or what they are doing. Now everyone is silent." The text includes richly contextualized and annotated transcriptions of the songs' Tibetan lyrics with English translations. Audio materials related to this publication can be found at: http://www.oralliterature.org/collections/zlaba001.html
Rabinovitz, Brian E; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F
We explored the differences between metamemory judgments for titles as well as for melodies of instrumental music and those for songs with lyrics. Participants were given melody or title cues and asked to provide the corresponding titles or melodies or feeling of knowing (FOK) ratings. FOK ratings were higher but less accurate for titles with melody cues than vice versa, but only in instrumental music, replicating previous findings. In a series of seven experiments, we ruled out style, instrumentation, and strategy differences as explanations for this asymmetry. A mediating role of lyrics between the title and the melody in songs was also ruled out. What emerged as the main explanation was the degree of familiarity with the musical pieces, which was manipulated either episodically or semantically, and within this context, lyrics appeared to serve as an additional source of familiarity. Results are discussed using the Interactive Theory of how FOK judgments are made. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghosal, Arijit; Chakraborty, Rudrasis; Dhara, Bibhas Chandra; Saha, Sanjoy Kumar
Audio classification acts as the fundamental step for lots of applications like content based audio retrieval and audio indexing. In this work, we have presented a novel scheme for classifying audio signal into three categories namely, speech, music without voice (instrumental) and music with voice (song). A hierarchical approach has been adopted to classify the signals. At the first stage, signals are categorized as speech and music using audio texture derived from simple features like ZCR and STE. Proposed audio texture captures contextual information and summarizes the frame level features. At the second stage, music is further classified as instrumental/song based on Mel frequency cepstral co-efficient (MFCC). A classifier based on Random Sample and Consensus (RANSAC), capable of handling wide variety of data has been utilized. Experimental result indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Beck, A. H.
The Stellar Observations Network Group prototype telescope at the Teide Observatory has been operating in scientific mode since March 2014. The first year of observations has entirely been carried out using the high resolution echelle spectrograph. Several asteroseismic targets were selected for ...... targets would reveal potential problems. In this paper the performance of the first robotic SONG node is described to illustrate the efficiency and possibilities in having a robotic telescope....
For 8-year-old Josh Greiner, the old cliche that music is a universal language has new meaning. As he adapts to a world where being non-verbal sometimes makes it hard to fit in, Josh is coming to understand the power of a song to break everyday communication barriers and provide motivation to try things. Music has always been a part of his daily…
Full Text Available Vocabulary is basic part of language when we learn english. Nowadays, introducing english vocabulary can be started in the kindergarten school. In early age, the young learners are easy to accept the language that has been given by teacher. Therefore, young learner in early age (approximately 3-4 years old should get stimulation and learn English vocabulary in order to get preparation to study in higher level. This research was conducted to increase the young learners’ vocabulary mastery in b class of tungga dewi day-care. The classroom action research was implemented in this research. The teaching technique using songs were implemented through teaching and learning activities in two cycles of classroom action research. Each cycle of classroom action research was planning, acting, observing and reflecting. In this research, instruments to gather the data were field notes and observation checklists. Field notes and observation checklists were applied to take the data during the teaching learning process. The data would be analysed in order to solve the problems. Songs were applied in the activities of the first cycle of classrooms action research. The result of the first cycle was not quiet successful because the average of post –test score in cycle one was 37,8. Therefore, the teacher-researcher conducted the second cycle. The second cycle was conducted based on the result of the first cycle. Songs were combined the body movement in second cycle of the classroom action research. The result of the second cycle was successful because the average of post-test score was 77,78. As a conclusion, it can be concluded that the implementation of english songs could help to increase the young learner’s vocabulary mastery.
Zaidi, Syeda Bushra
This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urduwedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation,and towards the understanding of the process ofconstruction and perpetuation of gender-basedstereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is tounderstand the portrayal of each gender along with thequestion that does such portrayal underlines thetraditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking adiscourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textualdata from the lyrics of the se...
Amalia Qistina Abdullah
Full Text Available Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would motivate ESL teachers to apply and adapt these strategies in their English language classrooms.
As an international language, English is taught and learnt by almost all of the people in the world. In Indonesia for example, English has been introduced since the learners are studying at the elementary school. Even many of the Kindergarten Schools too, have already introduced this language to their students. However, we cannot deny that teaching foreign language is not such an easy thing due to the fact thatmany of the learners are not capable of speaking English very well although they have been learning it for more than ten years (Elementary: 6 years, Junior and Senior High School: 6 years). In line with this problem, this study aims at providing a solution by offering one teaching technique which seems to make the learners (especially young learners) enjoy learning through singing songs (Kasihani, 1999).Furthermore, Phillips(1995) said that young learners really enjoyed learning and singing songs with highly motivating. Based on those two researches andin efforts to make it easier in English language learning, especially to young learners, the writer translated the very common and popular Indonesian kid songs into English. Thesetranslated songswere then used to teach the students of Kindergarten up to Elementary ones of the first and second grade. This meant that before a teacher started to teach, s/he had to translate the Indonesian kid songsat first into English.Due to its popularity and familiarity, it was expected that this teaching technique would be more effective and efficient to apply especially to young learners.
Saide Cortés Jacob
Full Text Available The metaphorical expression has gained strength and has a special recognition in any field of science of language as a powerful means of communication, not only in terms of feelings, but also as a deep doctrinal content. The metaphor shines in all its fullness as beautiful instrument to develop a theological pragmatics, although the lived reality overcomes this incomparable verbal invitation. The Song of Songs is present in the Teresian writing. The seventh mansion can be read as a good summary of latent Teresian theological anthropology. Upon reaching at the main dwelling of “Castillo”, the person may have gained awareness of the process performed. The experience of giving himself love is what she calls “spiritual marriage”, that occurs when the mystery of grace and you can be life of others.
Hesler, Nana; Sacher, Thomas; Coppack, Timothy
Bird song is thought to be subject of both inter- and intra-sexual selection and song complexity a signal of male quality. One aspect of song complexity, repertoire size, correlates with estimates of male quality in several passerine species. The Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) has a large...... repertoire of different song patterns which are organized in a complex structure without fixed song types. Previous studies found that Blackbirds show large individual differences in repertoire sizes and use these repertoires in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts. In this study we investigate the signal...... value of repertoire size in Blackbirds in an intra-sexual context with the hypothesis, that males use the repertoire sizes of rivals as a cue to assess their quality. We conducted playback experiments in which we broadcast songs of conspecifics with different repertoire sizes to the test birds...
This article focuses on a literal interpretation of Song of Songs 2:15. Initially, this verse is identified as an independent unit, as a song intended to scare off. Now it forms part of a garden / countryside scenery (2:8-17). In 2:15 the co-workers of the lover are addressed. They are asked to create an intimate mood by setting the ...
Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas
In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song organ...... is linked to overall male quality, our results are in accordance with the hypothesis that repertoire size represents an honest signal in Eurasian blackbirds that has evolved in response to sexual selection....
Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke
Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.
Singh, Puneet; Kapoor, Ashutosh; Kaushik, Vishal; Maringanti, Hima Bindu
Music is one of the basic human needs for recreation and entertainment. As song files are digitalized now a days, and digital libraries are expanding continuously, which makes it difficult to recall a song. Thus need of a new classification system other than genre is very obvious and mood based classification system serves the purpose very well. In this paper we will present a well-defined architecture to classify songs into different mood-based categories, using audio content analysis, affec...
Full Text Available The 2nd half of last century, the Italian composer Fabrizio De André (1940-1999 occupied a prominent place in the history of Italian song and even the modern Italian poetry. His fans admire the moral courage and artistic coherence with which he, in the post-war Italian society, through his libertarian and pacifist songs, portrayed the world of the marginalized, the rebels and the prostitutes, and other characters on the margins of society, among those, the war combatant, hero of lost victories on the battlefield. Three of his songs are emblematic: La Ballata dell'eroe, La Guerra di Piero and Girotondo. Three poems that talk about war, death, and the figure of the combatant as an outcast of society, that kills him and then relegates him to oblivion, on behalf of the Fatherland. Exposing his provocative vision of post-war society by showing two videos of the composer is the purpose of this presentation.
Endriana Sri Wahyuni
Full Text Available This research is to point out the colloquial styles and the meanings used in English songs. The writer took the data from the text of five cassettes consisting of twenty two English songs. The technique used was the purposive random sampling. The writer presented the data taken from the sample then used a qualitative analysis. The table shows a list of sentences from the sample songs (20 samples from 70 samples having non Standard English. The findings of this study showed that the characteristics of colloquial style are used in English songs are structural aspect, denotative meanings and connotative meanings.
Erin M Oleson
Full Text Available Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here.
Sue Anne Zollinger
Full Text Available Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.
Arraut Eduardo M.
Full Text Available The song of the Brazilian population of the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae was studied in its breeding and calving ground, the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil, from July to November 2000. Aural and spectral analyses of digital recordings were completed for approximately 20 song cycles, totaling 5 hours of song from 10 different recording events. We identified 24 note types, organized in five themes. All songs presented the same themes and the order in which they were sung did not vary. We registered the appearance of a note type and the disappearance of a phrase ending, which indicate that the song changed as the season progressed. Moreover, we detected individual variation in the way singers performed certain complex note types. As songs are transmitted culturally, it is likely that singers have different abilities to compose and/or learn new notes. If, as it has been previously suggested, 'new' songs are preferred to 'old' ones, these more able singers will be sending out information about their learning abilities that could be used by other whales to decide whether or not to interact with them.
Dianne Heather Brunton
Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others
Zeynep Merve ŞIVGIN
Full Text Available Modern era’s understanding of culture overlooked culture, as a social and cultural analysis category as well as a way of life. This point of view has lost its validity and culture gained significance as an area where rulership and power struggle exists. Especially the privileged existence of popular culture; having an interdependence attachment to power relations in addition to an allowing structure for alternative discourses other than the official discourse is a cruicial asset. This article examines Eurovision Song Contest with its over 50 years of traditionaled history, as a noteworthy television program of popular culture. Despite often being considered as “kitsch”, the contest refers more than of an ordinary song competition. The artists who participate in the contest compete for the country they represent rather than an individual race which takes “national identity” more on stage. In this respect the contest has a stimulus effect on national consciousness. This alerted effect can clearly be seen on public debates just before, during and after the contest. It is claimed in this study that Turkey’s position in Eurovision Song Contest offers a view of the “cultural struggle” towards Western civilization since the beginning of the modernization process. In this framework this study primarily focuses on the relationship between identity and culture, followed by the role of popular culture in the construction of cultural identity. Afterwards the study tries to discover how does this contest became a tool of cultural struggle in Turkish society by analyzing the news and the discource of the news that took place in national print media.
Fakory, M.R.; Olmos, J.
RETACT Code which is a major code for real time simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena has been enhanced and configured for the first time for Simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) of C-E designed PWRs at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. SONGS Unit 2/3 Simulator was upgraded for thermal-hydraulic and containment models as well as the instructor station. In this paper the simulator results for various transients and accidents were benchmarked against plant data, the comparison for some of the benchmarkings including steam generator level swell/shrink, and loss-of-coolant accident are presented
Batcho, Krystine Irene
Emotion and topic were manipulated in original song lyrics. Participants completed Batcho's and Holbrook's nostalgia surveys and rated 6 sets of lyrics for happiness, sadness, anger, nostalgia, meaning, liking, and relevance. Nostalgic lyrics were characterized by bittersweet reverie, loss of the past, identity, and meaning. Contrary to theories linking nostalgia to pathology, participants who scored high on Batcho's measure of personal nostalgia preferred happy lyrics, found them more meaningful, and related more closely to them. Consistent with theories relating nostalgia to social connectedness, high-nostalgia respondents preferred other-directed to solitary themes. Historical nostalgia was associated with relating more closely to sad lyrics.
Full Text Available The issue of migrants and refugees has occupied Europe for the last few months. Much of the discourse surrounding this issue has been overwhelmingly negative, lapsing at times into stereotype, prejudice and even hate speech. As language teachers at a humanities faculty, we have a responsibility to address this issue in the classroom, especially as classroom experience tells us that our students are prone to stereotypical thinking. The article presents a series of song-based activities intended for use in language development classes for future teachers and translators at the Faculty of Arts, University of Maribor.
Geider, Thomas; Vogels, Raimund
Our dichotomy of ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ is expressed in the Kanuri language with the terms al@ga for ‘creation’ and ‘creature’ which embraces trees, mammals, birds, insects, humans, in short the whole of the natural environment, and ada for ‘custom, habit, way of behaviour, family tradition’ for culture as a whole. There is no genre of oral literature, which would describe al@ga as such, but aspects of it can always be expressed in proverbs, riddles, toponymic praise phrases and songs, of whi...
Cattle epidemics broke out many times in Song Dynasty due to pasture transferring to south, abnormal climate, poor stabling hygiene and climatic sickness caused by migration. Mass Mortality and reduction of animal agriculture productivity threatened the stable production of grain, which influenced society and attracted attention from all social classes. Based on the principle of 'prevention before sicken' and 'contagion protection after sicken', the government took a series of medical and economical actions for prevention, such as veterinarians dispatching, drugs providing, pasturage rule regulating, law modifying (cattle trade permitted) and new farm implements popularization (to prevent missing the opportunity of cultivation), which was effective for Cattle Epidemics prevention at that time.
This podcast is a song about a major epizoodemic of a serious human and equine disease written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band. Band members: K.M. Johnson, T.E. Walton (Retired); D.F. Antczak (Cornell University); W.H. Dietz (CDC); and D.H. Martin (Louisiana State University Health Science Center). Created: 4/26/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/26/2011.
Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei
This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…
Alison K Stimpert
Full Text Available Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.
Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel
enforce also birdsong in forests. Song elements have to be long enough to be superimposed by reflections and therefore longer signals should be louder than shorter ones. An analysis of the influence of signal length on pure tones and on song elements of two sympatric rainforest thrush species demonstrates...
Menyhart, Otília; Kolodny, Oren; Goldstein, Michael H; DeVoogd, Timothy J; Edelman, Shimon
Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in an individual's mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch's song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999). Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual's full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language.
Calvet, Louis Jean; And Others
An annotated listing of recordings, useful in the foreign language classroom. The classifications are: Africa, Adolescents, Canada, Clubs, Children, Foreign Singers; Songs useful for testing, Folklore, Francophone singers, Guitar music and Traditional folk songs. Some books and periodicals are also listed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Feb 24, 2017 ... This will also relate to the way believers relate to or even exercise power. In South Africa we are no strangers to the power music has in the political sphere. The rise of. Afrikaner Nationalism was accompanied by an outpouring of creativity in music and song, songs which were to mould the consciousness of ...
Full Text Available Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996. Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999. Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language.
The article examines the texts of songs of the Ham of Nigeria, a minority group, whose social links originate from kinship with a commonly held ancestry, to establish how such a relationship could be explicated in the content of the songs people from the society engage with. The study seeks to demonstrate the relationship ...
Although song and music are often elements in children's books, little critical attention has gone into examining their literary uses. Alan Garner's "The Stone Book Quartet" is an example of four texts for children in which music plays a vital role. The several snatches of traditional songs found throughout the quartet bring to life the culture of…
Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.
The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…
Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail
Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…
This study focused on the inclusion of patriotic songs in schooling that were popular in Taiwan between 1949 and 1987. Many patriotic songs were composed after 1949, and these frequently found their way into primary textbooks. School curriculum policies such as "education for patriotism" cultivate Chinese consciousness among Taiwanese…
Full Text Available Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks--transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures--are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a 'small-world' architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date.
The traditional songs of the Thembu Xhosa area around Lumko Mission, about 60 kilometres east of Queenstown in the Eastern Cape Province, include songs about prostitutes and the sexual promiscuity of women who are unmarried or living without a husband. This type of sexual behaviour is a direct result of the migratory ...
Davis, Glenn M.
Songs have been a common feature of young learner classrooms for decades, and numerous publications describe how songs should be employed in order to improve motivation and facilitate the acquisition of various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, and listening skills. However, empirical research examining the effects…
Stimpert, Alison K; Peavey, Lindsey E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Nowacek, Douglas P
Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.
Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Dabelsteen, Torben
Bird song is thought to have a function in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts with song complexity serving as an honest signal of male quality. Theory predicts that males use repertoire sizes to estimate rivals’ fighting ability. Here we tested whether element repertoire size plays a role...
Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel
Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouri...
Focuses on the relationship between involuntary verbal rehearsal, Piaget's egocentric speech, Vygotsky's inner speech, and the song stuck in my head phenomena. It is hypothesized that song may act as a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) activator or be a strategy of the LAD in the ontogenetic development of language. (28 references) (Author/VWL)
Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew
Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Bolman Filip V.
Full Text Available Since the first annual Eurovision Song Contest in 1956, politics and popularity have intersected to influence the ways in which Eurovision songs have reflected the complex forms of European nationalism. With the Eurovision victory of Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ at the 52nd Eurovision in Helsinki the politics of regionalism and nationalism fully enveloped Southeastern Europe, creating the impression that old and new European alignments, from Habsburg nostalgia to an emerging Balkan brotherhood, overwhelmed the criteria that would otherwise mean that the grand prix would go to the best song. Taking Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ 2007 as a point of departure, this article examines the extremely complex set of networks that intersect at the Eurovision Song Contest and the national rituals and competitions that transform the power and pleasure driving European popular song in the twenty-first century.
Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola
Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified...... convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production...... and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes....
Shakerian, Pouya; Rezaei, Omid; Murnani, Zeinab Toghyani; Moeinmanesh, Hamid
Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced…
Larson, Tom, Comp.
Designed to accompany a series of telelessons to stimulate art activities in grades 2 and 3, this songbook correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in this book are: Take Time; The Frog's Flute; Howjido; 59th Street Bridge Song; The Put-Togetherer; Good Morning Starshine; Let the Sunshine In; Elephant Song; Spin…
Full Text Available Birdsong is regarded as a classic example of a sexually-selected trait and has been primarily studied in systems with male song. Complex solo female song is emerging from the shadows of overlooked phenomena. In males, rearing conditions affect male song complexity, and males with complex songs are often more successful at mate attraction and territorial defense. Little is known about the ontogeny or function of complex female song. Here we examine song elements in fledgling superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus in relation to the song elements of adult tutors. Male and female superb fairy-wrens produce solo song year-round to defend a territory. We ask if sons and daughters acquire song elements from sex-specific vocal tutors. We found that sons and daughters produced the song elements of their mothers and social fathers, and that sons and daughters had comparable song element repertoires at age 7-10 weeks. We conclude that sons and daughters increase their song element repertoire when vocally imitating elements from several vocal tutors, and that both sexes acquire elements from male and female vocal tutors in this system.
Full Text Available Developing awareness, exploration and expression of emotionally sensitive issues can be difficult for some clients in music therapy. They may find it hard to express emotion through improvised music and may turn instead to the perceived security of the repetition of known songs.This paper presents the results from a completed research PhD, a qualitative case study based on naturalistic clinical practice, which examined the song choices of one woman in a medium-secure forensic unit over the three-year course of her music therapy. A descriptive narrative account was subjected to analysis according to a modified form of therapeutic narrative analysis (Aldridge and Aldridge 2002, resulting in the abstraction of a series of generative metaphoric images, framed within a chronological series of events. Crucially, these images were found to be humanised figures, yet they were also emotionally decentred or depersonalised. When approached from the philosophical and methodological perspective of behaviourism, which views these as conditioned responses associating music with life experiences as part of a process of developing self-identity, such images can be seen to provide an unspoken voice for the client’s feelings to be expressed in a manner that is personally revealing, socially acceptable, culturally accessible and therapeutically constructive.I assert that using these third-person characters as a form of proxy facilitates mutual reference and experimentation, and places music firmly at the heart of a socially constructed process of music therapy.
Full Text Available Abstract: Listening is one of the fundamental language skills.Based on the pre survey research, many students at Senior High School were not interested in listening course.This research tried to develop podcast of English song (PES as the media in order to help the teacher in the teaching of listening and make the students interested in listening course. The type of the reseacher is developmental research.The steps of this research are self evaluation, expert review and one-to-one, small group, and field test. The subjects of this research are the students of SMAN 03 Metro and SMK Muhammadiyah 03 Metro. The researcher collected the data by giving some questionnaires to the expert review and students to find out whether the media is applicable and suitable or not. The result showed that: first, most of the studentsfelt fun and enjoyable in the learning process of listening course. Second, PES media was applicable, the students were active, very enthusiastic, excited with PES media. Key Words: English song, Listening media, Podcast.
Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J.; Gill, Douglas E.
Some grassland bird species, in particular grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), sing songs with especially high mean frequencies (7.0-8.0 kHz). Acoustic interference is one potential explanation for the evolution of high frequency vocalizations, particularly in open habitats. We tested predictions from a model of effective auditory communication distances to understand the potential effects of vocal production and environmental auditory masking on vocal behavior and territoriality. Variation in the spectral structure of songs and the size and shape of territories was measured for grasshopper sparrows in typical grassland habitats. Median territory areas were 1629 m2 at a site in the center of the species range in Nebraska, and 1466 m2 at our study site in Maryland, with average territory diameters measuring 20.2 m. Species densities and sound pressure levels also were determined for stridulating insects and other noise sources in the habitat. Based on current models of effective communication distances, known noise levels, and information on hearing abilities, our results suggest that auditory sensitivity and environmental noise could be factors influencing the mean frequency and spatial dynamics of territorial behavior in grassland birds. [Work supported by NIH and the CRFRC.
Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro
Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition.
Pang-Ching, Joshua M.; Paxton, Kristina L.; Paxton, Eben H.; Pack, Adam A.; Hart, Patrick J.
Little is known about how important social behaviors such as song vary within and among populations for any of the endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Habitat loss and non‐native diseases (e.g., avian malaria) have resulted in isolation and fragmentation of Hawaiian honeycreepers within primarily high elevation forests. In this study, we examined how isolation of Hawai'i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) populations within a fragmented landscape influences acoustic variability in song. In the last decade, small, isolated populations of disease tolerant ‘amakihi have been found within low elevation forests, allowing us to record ‘amakihi songs across a large elevational gradient (10–1800 m) that parallels disease susceptibility on Hawai'i island. To understand underlying differences among populations, we examined the role of geographic distance, elevation, and habitat structure on acoustic characteristics of ‘amakihi songs. We found that the acoustic characteristics of ‘amakihi songs and song‐type repertoires varied most strongly across an elevational gradient. Differences in ‘amakihi song types were primarily driven by less complex songs (e.g., fewer frequency changes, shorter songs) of individuals recorded at low elevation sites compared to mid and high elevation populations. The reduced complexity of ‘amakihi songs at low elevation sites is most likely shaped by the effects of habitat fragmentation and a disease‐driven population bottleneck associated with avian malaria, and maintained through isolation, localized song learning and sharing, and cultural drift. These results highlight how a non‐native disease through its influence on population demographics may have also indirectly played a role in shaping the acoustic characteristics of a species.
Full Text Available Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET. We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song, sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics, and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody. The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition.
Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik
When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546
Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik
When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise.
Full Text Available This article investigates the earliest Hebrew rendition of a Shakespearean comedy, Judah Elkind’s מוסר סוררה musar sorera ‘The Education of the Rebellious Woman’ (The Taming of the Shrew, which was translated directly from the English source text and published in Berditchev in 1892. Elkind’s translation is the only comedy among a small group of pioneering Shakespeare renditions conducted in late nineteenth-century Eastern Europe by adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment movement. It was rooted in a strongly ideological initiative to establish a modern European-style literature in Hebrew and reflecting Jewish cultural values at a time when the language was still primarily a written medium on the cusp of its large-scale revernacularisation in Palestine. The article examines the ways in which Elkind’s employment of a Judaising translation technique drawing heavily on romantic imagery from prominent biblical intertexts, particularly the Book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, affects the Petruchio and Katherine plotline in the target text. Elkind’s use of carefully selected biblical names for the main characters and his conscious insertion of biblical verses well known in Jewish tradition for their romantic connotations serve to transform Petruchio and Katherine into Peretz and Hoglah, the heroes of a distinctly Jewish love story which offers a unique and intriguing perspective on the translation of Shakespearean comedy.
Djarot Heru Santosa
Full Text Available Dolalak dance is highly dependent on the power of the song lyrics, so it can be called a lyrical dance. The dancers will not be able to do perfect dance moventents only by musical accompaniment; the displacement and combination of dance movements are characterized by lyrics that accompany the songs. Thus, song lyrics have a very dominant role in the arrangement of the dance movements. Dolalak dance has approximately 64 types of movements. A one-night staging, as an illustration, usually begins with 13 types of movements, followed by a trance dance, and ends with 7 types of movements as the closing. Song lyrics in the Dolalak dance are mostly influenced by the nuances of Islamic teachings. This is proven by the presence of a lot of words and/ or terms in the song lyrics which are very close to the. Arabic words in Islamic teachings. More interestingly, as a form of folk songs used in the performance of traditional Javanese arts, the Arabic words are widely adapted to the speech or pronunciation of the local language, especially the Javanese one. As a result, the origin and meaning of certain words or terms in the lyrics are difficult to trace. However, it is understandable since sometimes words in the song lyrics are preferred to adjust particular sounds.
Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W; Berger, Jonathan
Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the "life cycle" of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data.
Full Text Available The developmental trajectory of nervous system dynamics shows hierarchical structure on time scales spanning ten orders of magnitude from milliseconds to years. Analyzing and characterizing this structure poses significant signal processing challenges. In the context of birdsong development, we have previously proposed that an effective way to do this is to use the dynamic spectrum or spectrogram, a classical signal processing tool, computed at multiple time scales in a nested fashion. Temporal structure on the millisecond timescale is normally captured using a short time Fourier analysis, and structure on the second timescale using song spectrograms. Here we use the dynamic spectrum on time series of song features to study the development of rhythm in juvenile zebra finch. The method is able to detect rhythmic structure in juvenile song in contrast to previous characterizations of such song as unstructured. We show that the method can be used to examine song development, the accuracy with which rhythm is imitated, and the variability of rhythms across different renditions of a song. We hope that this technique will provide a standard, automated method for measuring and characterizing song rhythm.
George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo
Birdsong, like speech, is a learned behaviour whose critical function is to communicate with others and whose development critically depends on social influences. Song learning is a complex phenomenon that involves not only the development of species-specific vocalisations, but also the development of the ability to organise these vocalisations and to use them in an appropriate context. Although the fact that interactions with adult experienced models are essential for song production to develop properly has been well established, far less is known about song perception and processing. The fact that songbirds learn to vocalise and to use their vocalisations selectively through interactions with adults questions whether such interactions are also required for songbirds to perceive and process their vocalisations selectively and whether social interactions may shape song perception and processing as they shape song production. In order to address these questions, our team uses an original neuroethological approach to study the neural bases of song behaviour in a highly social songbird species: the European starlings. We provide here a synthesis of the results we have obtained using this approach over the last decade. Our results show that direct social experience with adult experienced models not only shapes song behaviour but also shapes these songbirds' brains and their ability to perceive and to process acoustic signals whose communicative value, as well as their acoustic structure, have to be learned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available On expressing ourselves using songs, lyrics play a grat role, regardless the lyrics are a translated version from another language than our mother tongue. This research focuses on JKT48‘s songs lyrics, which are both Indonesian and English translation of Japanese songs sung by its sister group, AKB48. Many Indonesian listeners feel that when listening to JKT48‘s songs, they feel that the translation is weird, they cannot receive the meaning of the songs. This is because on translating AKB48‘s songs, the translator not only has to translate the words, but also to adapt the words‘ syllables with the melody. Also, Japanese language has a different structure with both Indonesian and English language, therefore, it needs more effort on understanding a translated Japanese songs. The researcher interviewed JKT48 fans in the largest JKT48 online fan forum, JKT48 no Fansu. She asked on which translation do the fans can catch the meaning better, Indonesian or English, as well as the reason why they think so. Also, she asked what suggestions do they give for the betterment of JKT48‘s translated lyrics.
Eriksen, N.; Miller, L.A.; Tougaard, J.; Helweg, D.A.
Some humpback whales migrate annually from Antarctic feeding grounds to the seas around the Tongan Islands to give birth and mate. The Tongan humpbacks are considered part of Southern Hemisphere Group V that splits during migration, some swimming to Eastern Australia and others to various Polynesian Islands. During this time long complex songs are produced. The song is thought to be a male breeding display and may serve either as an intra-sexual or an inter-sexual signal or both. It is in a constant state of change that occurs every season. Since these changes are directional they cannot be described by drift, and singers incorporate changes as they occur, thus song must be shared through cultural transmission. This investigation describes the cultural changes that occurred in 158 songs recorded from Tongan humpbacks through the 1990s. The rate of change differed within years, some themes were retained for as much as five years and others were lost after only two years. The farther apart the years the less similar are the songs, as in the humpback songs of the Northern Hemisphere. The largest number of changes seems to have occurred in the early 1990s where all themes seemed to have been lost and new ones originated. What initiates these changes remains speculative, but we assess some hypotheses in relation to humpback whale behaviour and cultural transmission in avian song. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005.
Sherman, Susan M; Kennerley, Jo
By adapting a well-known paradigm for studying memory for words-the Deese-Roediger-McDermott or DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959, Roediger & McDermott, 1995)-the two experiments reported here explore memory for song titles and song clips. Participants were presented with five song titles (Experiment 1a) or five 30-second song clips (Experiment 1b) for each of nine popular artists (e.g., Robbie Williams). The most popular song identified for each artist in a pilot task was omitted from the sets of titles/clips. Following a distractor task, participants were asked to write down as many of the songs as they could recall. They were also asked to return a week later and complete a second recall task. Participants falsely recalled a significant number of the related but non-presented songs in both experiments and this increased a week later, while correct recall for presented items decreased. The results are discussed in terms of theory for musical memory as well as in the context of providing a novel method for exploring the organisation of musical memory.
Zollinger, Sue Anne; Slater, Peter J B; Nemeth, Erwin; Brumm, Henrik
It has been observed in many songbird species that populations in noisy urban areas sing with a higher minimum frequency than do matched populations in quieter, less developed areas. However, why and how this divergence occurs is not yet understood. We experimentally tested whether chronic noise exposure during vocal learning results in songs with higher minimum frequencies in great tits ( Parus major ), the first species for which a correlation between anthropogenic noise and song frequency was observed. We also tested vocal plasticity of adult great tits in response to changing background noise levels by measuring song frequency and amplitude as we changed noise conditions. We show that noise exposure during ontogeny did not result in songs with higher minimum frequencies. In addition, we found that adult birds did not make any frequency or song usage adjustments when their background noise conditions were changed after song crystallization. These results challenge the common view of vocal adjustments by city birds, as they suggest that either noise itself is not the causal force driving the divergence of song frequency between urban and forest populations, or that noise induces population-wide changes over a time scale of several generations rather than causing changes in individual behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).
Vargas-Castro, Luis E; Sánchez, Natalie V; Barrantes, Gilbert
Songbirds have been traditionally classified into close-ended or open-ended learning species according to the length of the sensitive period during which birds are able to memorize new vocalizations. Closed-ended learners are generally not capable of changing their song after the first year of life, while open-ended learners show song plasticity as adults. A few Turdus species have been suggested to be open-ended learners, but no long-term study has been conducted to investigate their song plasticity over time. We analyzed the songs of clay-colored thrushes, T. grayi, over four successive breeding seasons to assess song plasticity in their syllable repertoires within and between breeding seasons. A total of 16,262 syllables were classified through visual inspection of spectrograms and multidimensional scaling analysis based on spectrogram correlations. On average, 563 ± 153 (SD) syllables per male per breeding season were analyzed. Male repertoire size was 9-20 syllable types. Males were capable of modifying their syllable repertoire between the initial and final periods of the breeding season. Song plasticity within breeding seasons may be associated with imitation between neighboring males, suggesting song learning in males that were ≥2 years old. This short-term plasticity is not enough, however, to explain the high proportion of change (mean = 65 % syllable types) in repertoire composition between breeding seasons in adult males. Song plasticity resulting from annual changes in repertoire composition could be explained by open-ended learning, but another mechanism, extended memory and re-expression, could also explain long-term plasticity. Experimental studies controlling the acoustic environment are needed to determine which mechanism is responsible for such a high level of song plasticity.
Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.
Čokl, Andrej; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Stritih, Nataša
Substrate born songs of the southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula (L.) from Slovenia were recorded and analysed. The male calling song is composed of narrow-band regularly repeated single pulses and of broad-band frequency modulated pulses grouped into pulse trains. The female calling song is characterised by broad-band pulsed and narrow-band non-pulsed pulse trains. A frequency modulated pre-pulse precedes the narrow-band pulse train. A frequency-modulated post-pulse usually follows the pulse train of the male courtship song. The male calling song triggers broad-band pulse trains of the female courtship song. The female also produces a repelling low-frequency vibration that inhibits male calling and courtship. The male rival song is characterised by prolonged pulses with a typical frequency modulation.
-neighbour algorithm and leave-one-out cross-validation to classify the 360 melodies into tune families. The classifications produced by the algorithms were compared with a ground-truth classification prepared by expert musicologists. Twelve of the thirteen compressors used in the experiment were based...... compared. The highest classification success rate of 77–84% was achieved by COSIATEC, followed by 60–64% for Forth’s algorithm and then 52–58% for SIATECCompress. When the NCDs were calculated using bzip2, the success rate was only 12.5%. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness of NCD for measuring...... similarity between folk-songs for classification purposes is highly dependent upon the actual compressor chosen. Furthermore, it seems that compressors based on finding maximal repeated patterns in point-set representations of music show more promise for NCD-based music classification than general...
Full Text Available The article is an overview of Sami literature, past and present, with a specific emphasis on the connection between tradition and innovation, in which literature is regarded in a broader sense than only limited to the written word. Thus the relationship between the traditional epic yoik songs and contemporary poetry is being dealt with, as is the multimedia approach that several Sami artists have chosen for their creative expression. It is almost more the rule than an exemption that Sami artists express themselves through the use of more than only one medium. Through the introduction to Sami literature, the reader also gets acquainted with the history and the culture of the Sami, who are the indigenous people of the northern regions of Scandinavia, Finland and the Kola peninsula in Russia.
M.A. Our main objective in this M.A. dissertation was to explore the position of women in Greek folk songs and examine if these folk songs are representative of the social environment which created them or they oppose to it. For this purpose, we carefully studied a wide variety of folk songs and selected a number of songs concerning women in different phases of their lives. These songs belong to the kleftic songs and the songs of the cycle of life. They are widespread all over Greece with ...
Sri Wahyuni, Endriana
This research is to point out the colloquial styles and the meanings used in English songs. The writer took the data from the text of five cassettes consisting of twenty two English songs. The technique used was the purposive random sampling. The writer presented the data taken from the sample then used a qualitative analysis. The table shows a list of sentences from the sample songs (20 samples from 70 samples) having non Standard English. The findings of this study showed that the character...
Roč. 56, č. 4 (2015), s. 397-405 ISSN 1788-6244 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * folk music * folk song collections * revival * politics * nationalism * communism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Whissel, R; Whissel, C
Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.
Derezka Gunti Larasati
Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to describe the defining criteria of originality of song works. The aspect of originality is important to make such work be protected by Copyright Law. In this research, the criteria to define originality are based on certain doctrines and/or theories of originality that may vary case by case. The use of such doctrines and/or theories are necessary, since the stipulations regarding originality in the Indonesian Copyright Act has not been considered suffice. With regard to the song works, the criteria of originality may be different from other works. Therefore, a comprehensive research on the characteristics of song as a work is also important. This research is a qualitative research with prescriptive design. The research depicts the use of certain doctrines and/or theories as supplementary provisions to the Copyright Law in defining the originality of songs, which have specific characteristics resulted from their author’s creations and intellectuals.
Full Text Available This essay attempts to define the relationship between a song tradition that survives in the Mayan highlands of Guatemala, and 16th century poetic Mayan literature. This song tradition of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala is slowly disappearing as the socio-cultural context in which it flourished changes. By comparing the poetics of the song texts (including their rhythmic structure, versification, and use of poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia to the poetics of the Popol Vuh, a K’iché Maya text probably copied from a manuscript that predates the Spanish invasion, a continuity is discovered that places the song texts squarely within the tradition of Mayan literature and suggests common origins.
Schulkind, M D; Hennis, L K; Rubin, D C
Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, and year of popularity for each excerpt. They also performed a cued memory test for the lyrics. The older adults' emotionality ratings were highest for songs from their youth; they remembered more about these songs, as well. However, the stimuli failed to cue many autobiographical memories of specific events. Further analyses revealed that the older adults were less likely than the younger adults to retrieve multiple attributes of a song together (i.e., title and artist) and that there was a significant positive correlation between emotion and memory, especially for the older adults. These results have implications for research on long-term memory, as well as on the relationship between emotion and memory.
Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K
On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires.
Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution.
Gaunt, Kyra D.
This article explores connections between girls’ musical game-songs and commercial songs recorded by male artists over several decades in United States. Basing on analysis of game songs’ and interviews of African American women (collected during fieldworks conducted from 1994 to 2002), it describes how black girls, through their dance and singing games, experience a musical socialization and inhabit an African American musical aesthetics and a gendered blackness. Kyra Gaunt highlights the ora...
Kris, Indri Hariyanti
This thesis entitled The Oppressions On Women As Portrayed In Beyonce Selected Songs. In those selected songs, Beyonce portrays the social phenomenon of the women who often get bad treatment of social and family. This thesis covers the analysis of oppressions or the pressures experienced by women either physically or emotionally. This thesis also covers the analysis of the solutions that Beyonce given to the oppressions that are experienced by women. The conclusion of this thes...
Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A
The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.
Monterola, Christopher; Abundo, Cheryl; Tugaff, Jeric; Venturina, Lorcel Ericka
Accurately quantifying the goodness of music based on the seemingly subjective taste of the public is a multi-million industry. Recording companies can make sound decisions on which songs or artists to prioritize if accurate forecasting is achieved. We extract 56 single-valued musical features (e.g. pitch and tempo) from 380 Original Pilipino Music (OPM) songs (190 are hit songs) released from 2004 to 2006. Based on an effect size criterion which measures a variable's discriminating power, the 20 highest ranked features are fed to a classifier tasked to predict hit songs. We show that regardless of musical genre, a trained feed-forward neural network (NN) can predict potential hit songs with an average accuracy of ΦNN = 81%. The accuracy is about +20% higher than those of standard classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA, ΦLDA = 61%) and classification and regression trees (CART, ΦCART = 57%). Both LDA and CART are above the proportional chance criterion (PCC, ΦPCC = 50%) but are slightly below the suggested acceptable classifier requirement of 1.25*ΦPCC = 63%. Utilizing a similar procedure, we demonstrate that different genres (ballad, alternative rock or rock) of OPM songs can be automatically classified with near perfect accuracy using LDA or NN but only around 77% using CART.
Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N
Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.
Yoder, Kathleen M; Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S
Estradiol (E2) has recently been shown to modulate sensory processing in an auditory area of the songbird forebrain, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). When a bird hears conspecific song, E2 increases locally in NCM, where neurons express both the aromatase enzyme that synthesizes E2 from precursors and estrogen receptors. Auditory responses in NCM show a form of neuronal memory: repeated playback of the unique learned vocalizations of conspecific individuals induces long-lasting stimulus-specific adaptation of neural responses to each vocalization. To test the role of E2 in this auditory memory, we treated adult male zebra finches (n=16) with either the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD) or saline for 8 days. We then exposed them to 'training' songs and, 6 h later, recorded multiunit auditory responses with an array of 16 microelectrodes in NCM. Adaptation rates (a measure of stimulus-specific adaptation) to playbacks of training and novel songs were computed, using established methods, to provide a measure of neuronal memory. Recordings from the FAD-treated birds showed a significantly reduced memory for the training songs compared with saline-treated controls, whereas auditory processing for novel songs did not differ between treatment groups. In addition, FAD did not change the response bias in favor of conspecific over heterospecific song stimuli. Our results show that E2 depletion affects the neuronal memory for vocalizations in songbird NCM, and suggest that E2 plays a necessary role in auditory processing and memory for communication signals.
Full Text Available In February 2006, when he was Deputy President of the country, Mr Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma appeared in the Supreme Court in Johannesburg to defend himself against charges of rape. The charge of rape by a woman known only as Khwezi against a powerful politician, popular with many trade unions and many ordinary folk, not only gave rise to one of the major media events in that year in South Africa, but also revealed divisions in society and in politics. While Zuma supporters sang in his defence and to his praise, activists against women abuse criticised Zuma. On the one hand, the supporters of Zuma defended him with reference to his moral integrity; they also stated that he was the popular choice for future president, while they ridiculed the futile actions of his enemies. On the other hand, the activists against women abuse attempted to highlight Zuma’s behaviour as immoral and urged women to speak out against abuse. This opposition revealed new divisions in society at large, as will be shown in the analysis of the songs.
Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian
The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437
Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.
The authoritative story of the headline-making discovery of gravitational waves—by an eminent theoretical astrophysicist and award-winning writer. From the author of How the Universe Got Its Spots and A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines, the epic story of the scientific campaign to record the soundtrack of our universe. Black holes are dark. That is their essence. When black holes collide, they will do so unilluminated. Yet the black hole collision is an event more powerful than any since the origin of the universe. The profusion of energy will emanate as waves in the shape of spacetime: gravitational waves. No telescope will ever record the event; instead, the only evidence would be the sound of spacetime ringing. In 1916, Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves, his top priority after he proposed his theory of curved spacetime. One century later, we are recording the first sounds from space, the soundtrack to accompany astronomy’s silent movie. In Black Hole Blues and Other Songs fro...
Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian
University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.
Full Text Available Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn. CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive.
Yonghong, Li; SunTing; Lei, Guo; Hongzhi, Yu
Based on the statistical methods of corpus and the 124 love-songs of Tshang yang Gya tsho as the studying object, this paper have set up the principles of vocabulary segmentation and built the love-songs corpus of Tibetan and Tibetan-Chinese grammar separation lexicon corpus. Then it did quantitative research on the achievement of "love-songs" in the language arts from three aspects: the length of the vocabularie's, the frequency rate of the vocabularies, and the distribution of the term's number in the verses and the songs. In addition it also introduced a new kind of researching idea and method for the study of Tibetan literature.
Hamilton, Jill B; Worthy, Valarie C; Kurtz, Melissa J; Cudjoe, Joycelyn; Johnstone, Peter A
Acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, meditation, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and, to a lesser extent, music are among those integrative and complementary therapies with known beneficial effects on psychological symptoms. However, noticeably absent from this research is the use of religious song as a type of integrative and complementary therapy. The aim of this study was to explore how religious songs were used to alleviate psychological symptoms associated with a cancer diagnosis among a sample of older African American cancer survivors. Thirty-one older African American cancer survivors residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis. Participants used religious songs in response to feeling depressed, low, or sad; feeling weak and seeking strength to endure treatment; and feeling worried, anxious, or fearful. Religious songs were also a source of support and hope. Types of religious songs included instructive, thanksgiving and praise, memory of forefathers, communication with God, and life after death. Religious songs appear to be an important form of religious expression in this population and used to manage psychological symptoms. Integrative and complementary oncology therapy has generally focused on yoga, meditation, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral techniques. However, religious songs are an important strategy used among older African American cancer patients. Religious songs can be readily integrated into cancer care. The incorporation of religious songs into spiritually based support groups and other integrative and complementary therapies might enhance health outcomes among this medically underserved cancer population.
Merrill, Loren; Naylor, Madeleine F; Dalimonte, Merria; McLaughlin, Sean; Stewart, Tara E; Grindstaff, Jennifer L
Early-life adversity can have long-lasting effects on physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and somatic processes. Consequently, these effects may alter an organism's life-history strategy and reproductive tactics.In response to early-life immune activation, we quantified levels of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp) during development in male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ). Then, we examined the long-term impacts of early-life immune activation on an important static sexual signal, song complexity, as well as effects of early-life immune activation on the relationship between song complexity and a dynamic sexual signal, beak colouration. Finally, we performed mate-choice trials to determine if male early-life experience impacted female preference.Challenge with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) resulted in increased song complexity compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment or the control. Hp levels were inversely correlated with song complexity. Moreover, KLH-treatment resulted in negative associations between the two sexual signals (beak colouration and song complexity). Females demonstrated some preference for KLH-treated males over controls and for control males over LPS-treated males in mate choice trials.Developmental immune activation has variable effects on the expression of secondary sexual traits in adulthood, including enhancing the expression of some traits. Because developmental levels of Hp and adult song complexity were correlated, future studies should explore a potential role for exposure to inflammation during development on song learning.Early-life adversity may differentially impact static versus dynamic signals. The use of phenotypic correlations can be a powerful tool for examining the impact of early-life experience on the associations among different traits, including sexual signals.
Alonso, Irene; Davachi, Lila; Valabrègue, Romain; Lambrecq, Virginie; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine
Songs naturally bind lyrics and melody into a unified representation. Using a subsequent memory paradigm, we examined the neural processes associated with binding lyrics and melodies during song encoding. Participants were presented with songs in two conditions: a unified condition (melodies sung with lyrics), and a separate condition (melodies sung with the syllable "la"). In both cases, written lyrics were displayed and participants were instructed to memorize them by repeating them covertly or by generating mental images of the songs. We expected the unified condition to recruit the posterior superior temporal gyrus, known to be involved in perceptual integration of songs, as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Conversely, we hypothesized that the separate condition would engage a larger network including the hippocampus to bind lyrics and melodies of songs, and the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to ensure the correct sequence coupling of verbal and musical information in time. Binding lyrics and melodies in the unified condition revealed activation of the left IFG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left motor cortex, suggesting a strong linguistic processing for this condition. Binding in the separate compared to the unified condition revealed greater activity in the right hippocampus as well as other areas including the left caudate, left cerebellum, and right IFG. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the right hippocampus in binding lyrics and melodies in songs. Results are discussed in light of studies of binding in the visual domain and highlight the role of regions involved in timing and synchronization such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Julie E Miller
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental 'knockdown' of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels, phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills.
Vigoder, Felipe M; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bruno, Rafaela V; Costa, Pietra L; Ritchie, Michael G; Klaczko, Louis B; Peixoto, Alexandre A
Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis may constitute a complex of cryptic species, and this report investigates the distribution and number of potential sibling species. One of the main differences observed among Brazilian populations is the type of acoustic signal produced by males during copulation. These copulation song differences seem to be evolving faster than neutral molecular markers and have been suggested to contribute to insemination failure observed in crosses between these sibling species. In previous studies, two main types of copulation songs were found, burst-type and pulse-type. The latter type can, in turn, be further subdivided into five different patterns. We recorded male song from 13 new populations of the L. longipalpis complex from Brazil and compared the songs with 12 already available. Out of these 25 populations, 16 produce burst-type and 9 produce pulse-type songs. We performed a principal component analysis in these two main groups separately and an additional discriminant analysis in the pulse-type group. The pulse-type populations showed a clear separation between the five known patterns with a high correspondence of individuals to their correct group, confirming the differentiation between them. The distinctiveness of the burst-type subgroups was much lower than that observed among the pulse-type groups and no clear population structure was observed. This suggests that the burst-type populations represent a single species. Overall, our results are consistent with the existence in Brazil of at least six species of the L. longipalpis complex, one with a wide distribution comprising all the populations with burst-type songs, and five more closely related allopatric siblings with different pulse-type song patterns and more restricted distribution ranges.
Richard W Hedley
Full Text Available Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin's Vireos (Vireo cassinii, a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity-zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models-and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher's exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication.
Johanne Karen Hagen
Full Text Available To learn, acquire knowledge, and develop skills is an embodied process. In this article, the authors argue that merging the fields of song and dance is dependent on a deeper understanding of how the mind and the body interact, and they utilize the concept of enactive cognition to explain these processes. The authors maintain that students need insight into these processes in order to improve their learning and, consequently, their performance. Retrospective examples taken from three educational situations within the musical theatre context elucidate the discussion of the concepts of alignment and breathing. These frequently used concepts are often a source of confusion and misunderstanding for the student. To alleviate this, a stronger, interdisciplinary dialogue among the singing and dance teachers who are involved in the genre of musical theatre needs to be developed. The authors suggest collaborative teaching as a means to develop the teaching methods and as the pathway to attaining a common base when integrating the skills of singing and dancing.
Shevchouk, Olesya T; Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques
Testosterone plays a key role in the control of seasonal changes in singing behavior and its underlying neural circuitry. After administration of exogenous testosterone, song quality and song control nuclei volumes change over the course of weeks, but song rate increases within days. The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) controls sexual motivation and testosterone action in POM increases sexually motivated singing. In this study, we investigated the time course of testosterone action in the song control nuclei and POM, at the gross anatomical and cellular level. Photosensitive female canaries were injected with BrdU to label newborn neurons. One day later they were transferred to a long-day photoperiod and implanted with testosterone-filled or empty implants. Brains and blood were collected 1, 2, 9 or 21 days later. Testosterone increased POM volume within 1 day, whereas the volume of song control nuclei increased significantly only on day 21 even if a trend was already observed for HVC on day 9. The density of newborn neurons in HVC, labeled by Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin, was increased by testosterone on days 9 and 21 although a trend was already detectable on day 2. In POM, testosterone increased the number and size of aromatase-immunoreactive neurons already after 1 day. This rapid action of testosterone in POM supports its proposed role in controlling singing motivation. Although testosterone increased the number of newborn neurons in HVC rapidly (9, possibly 2 days), it is unlikely that these new neurons affect singing behavior before they mature and integrate into functional circuits. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim Jong H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.
.wav audio file This song says, “I bless you from my immaculate heart. Different people respond differently at various times, but my feelings for you won't change. I’ll always think about you.” 这首歌说道：“我从我纯洁的内心祝福你。不同的人在各种时期有不同的回答，但是我对你的感觉不会有任何变化。我会一直都想着你”。 གླུ་འདིས་འདི་ལྟར་བཤད་ཡོད་དེ། ངས་ཁྱོད་ལ་དྭངས་གཙང་གི་སེམས་པ་ནང་ནས་སྨོན་ལམ་ཞུ། མི་འདྲ་བའི་མིེ་ཡིས་དུས་མི་མཐུན་པར་ལན་འདེབས་པའང་འདྲ་བ་མ་རེད། འོན་ཀྱང་ངས་ཁྱོད་ལ་བཅངས་པའི་སེམས་པ་ནི་ནམ་ཡང་འགྱུར་བ་མེད། ངས་དུས་རྒྱུན་དུ་ཁྱོད་རང་སེམས་ལ་དྲན་ནས་འད...
Brian R. Cates
Full Text Available Throughout history, music has moved people in powerful ways, so much so that, at times, it leaves them speechless. They realize that it is a song, full of notes and rhythms, yet at the same time, it makes them become profoundly aware that there is something more, humming just below the surface. My presentation seeks to enter into this music moment by asking why these types of moments even occur. Does music speak or communicate? If so, does it communicate something meaningful and significant? What is the mechanism by which music conveys this meaning? How can this meaning be articulated in words? Many fields of science such as neuroimaging and psychoacoustics have revealed an empirical connection between language and music, namely that the human brain processes and understands music as communication and speech. Building upon this, I then discuss musical meaning by stating that music has both intrinsic, structural meaning, as well as extrinsic, referential meaning, and that together, these two paradigms of meaning aid the listener in experiencing the full nature of the music itself. I next introduce the field of theology, showing how throughout the Bible, all of creation has musically celebrated the presence of an immanently transcendent God. With all of these things in mind, I postulate that music has the capacity to act as a channel through which one can hear a linguistic God speaking vitality, order, beauty, depth, structure, and wonder into His creation by His Word and Spirit. The presentation concludes by asserting that music has the capacity to reveal the presence of God in our everyday lives through the divine realities of hope, faith, and love.
Full Text Available The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM, we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species.
Full Text Available The present work has its foundations on the necessity of adequating the teaching of school Genetics to the cultural diversity of the present-day classrooms. Thus, the social representations present in the music, adolescents usually listen to were researched. Assuming that songs are themselves massive communication acts and that these socially constructed representations are shared by most adolescents, the investigation was orientated to the way in which the songs influence the way of thinking, communicating and behaving of social actors. In addition to this, it was put into consideration the possibility of lyrics becoming an obstacle for the accurate learning of school Genetics. The corpus of analysis includes 334 songs, both lyrics and melodies, of a variety of musical genres. The results show a strong tendency of the scientific concepts to be re signified in the different cultural context in which they are used, both considering the discursive framework and the musical genre of each song. The present work states that understanding the meaning, popular knowledge print on scientific concepts through song, can be used as a starting point as well as a source of resources for the planning of provoking, thematic and pedagogical activities aimed to produce critical thinking and learning of school Genetics.
This paper explores the role of changing images of drinking and alcoholic beverage use in rap music from its beginnings in the United States in the late 1970s to the late 1990s. A sample of 341 rap music song lyrics released from 1979 to 1997 were selected using Billboard and Gavin rating charts. Song lyrics were coded for music genres, alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, intoxication, attitudes towards alcohol and consequences of drinking. From 1979 to 1997, songs with references to alcohol increased fivefold (from 8 to 44%); those exhibiting positive attitudes rose from 43% to 73%; and brand name mentions increased from 46% to 71%. There were also significant increases in songs mentioning champagne and liquor (mainly expensive brand names) when comparing songs released after 1994 with those from previous years. In addition, there were significant increases in references to alcohol to signify glamour and wealth, and using alcohol with drugs and for recreational purposes. The findings also showed that alcohol use in rap music was much more likely to result in positive than negative consequences. Many of these findings are consistent with the idea that rap music has been profoundly affected by commercial forces and the marketing of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is possible that the increase in references to alcoholic beverages in rap music, particularly spirits, is a reflection of a broader advertising culture which increasingly associates African Americans with alcohol use.
Michelle L Hall
Full Text Available Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised.
Farshid Tayari Ashtiani
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of English verbal songs on connected speech aspects of adult English learners’ speech production. 40 participants were selected based on the results of their performance in a piloted and validated version of NELSON test given to 60 intermediate English learners in a language institute in Tehran. Then they were equally distributed in two control and experimental groups and received a validated pretest of reading aloud and speaking in English. Afterward, the treatment was performed in 18 sessions by singing preselected songs culled based on some criteria such as popularity, familiarity, amount, and speed of speech delivery, etc. In the end, the posttests of reading aloud and speaking in English were administered. The results revealed that the treatment had statistically positive effects on the connected speech aspects of English learners’ speech production at statistical .05 level of significance. Meanwhile, the results represented that there was not any significant difference between the experimental group’s mean scores on the posttests of reading aloud and speaking. It was thus concluded that providing the EFL learners with English verbal songs could positively affect connected speech aspects of both modes of speech production, reading aloud and speaking. The Findings of this study have pedagogical implications for language teachers to be more aware and knowledgeable of the benefits of verbal songs to promote speech production of language learners in terms of naturalness and fluency. Keywords: English Verbal Songs, Connected Speech, Speech Production, Reading Aloud, Speaking
Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J; Ellison, William T; Parijs, Sofie M Van
The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species.
Full Text Available Vocal amplitude, one of the crucial factors for the exchange of acoustic signals, has been neglected in studies of animal communication, but recent studies on song variation in Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos have revealed new insights into its importance in the singing behavior of territorial birds. In nightingales song amplitude is not maximized per se, but is individually regulated according to the level of masking background noise. Also, birds adjust their vocal intensity according to social variables, as in male-male interactions. Moreover, during such interactions, males exploited the directionality of their songs to broadcast them in the direction of the intended receivers ensuring the most effective signal transmission. Studies of the development of this typical long-range signaling suggest that sound level is highly interrelated with overall developmental progression and learning, and thus should be viewed as an integral part of song ontogeny. I conclude that song amplitude is a dynamic feature of the avian signal system, which is individually regulated according to the ecological demands of signal transmission and the social context of communication.
Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
In the context of music, a cover version is a remake of a song, often with significant stylistic variation. In this paper we describe a distance measure between sampled audio files that is designed to be insensitive to instrumentation, time shift, temporal scaling and transpositions. The algorith...... was submitted to the Music Information Retrieval eXchange (MIREX) 2007 audio cover song identification task, where it came fourth of the eight submitted algorithms.......In the context of music, a cover version is a remake of a song, often with significant stylistic variation. In this paper we describe a distance measure between sampled audio files that is designed to be insensitive to instrumentation, time shift, temporal scaling and transpositions. The algorithm...
Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( = string and mirror ( = soundbox.
Christoffersen, Peter Woetmann
Important aspects of my discussion of Busnoys’ “In mijnen sijn” are most adequately represented by the musical editions appended to this article. They include separate editions of the song’s only two complete sources, which date from the first decade of the 16th century. For anybody who wants...... to perform the song, these sources raise some thorny questions about how to understand the music. The editions include my attempt to answer these questions by means of a restoration of “In mijnen sijn”. The process of restoration highlights some issues of importance to our perception of the development...... of compositional practice in the second part of the fifteenth century. These issues concern the extent and meaning of the roles of key signatures, strict canon techniques and the development of polyphonic settings of popular songs. Furthermore, in my opinion this Flemish song has not received the attention...
Mai Samir El-Falaky
Full Text Available The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called Mahraganat. The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both cultural and societal notions related to how males and females are portrayed in such kind of music. This study attempts to describe how males describe their social group in comparison to the social group to which the women belong. It, thus, constructs the social identity of males and females through the lyrics of this new genre of music. The findings from such an analysis answer the question about such genre within its social context and the ideologies by which it is dominated reflecting the discursive construction representation of gender and sexual identity. Keywords: gender, identity construction, genre, ideologies
Hannon, Erin E
Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87, B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic differences in a purely musical context (i.e., in instrumental music without words). In Experiment 1a, listeners successfully classified instrumental renditions of French and English songs having highly contrastive rhythmic differences. Experiment 1b replicated this result with the same songs containing rhythmic information only. In Experiments 2a and 2b, listeners successfully classified original and rhythm-only stimuli when language-specific rhythmic differences were less contrastive but more representative of differences found in actual music and speech. These findings indicate that listeners can use rhythmic similarities and differences to classify songs originally composed in two languages having contrasting rhythmic prosody.
Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the western vernacular and minimalist tendencies in Norman Mailer’s 1980 Pulitzer Prize winning “true-life story” The Executioner’s Song. Mailer’s use of a lean, often flat style of narration is read in relation to Truman Capote’s “non-fiction novel” In Cold Blood to measure the extent to which Mailer moved beyond a conventional novelistic approach. The article positions The Executioner’s Song alongside earlier minimalist styles in American Literature and takes stock of Mailer’s use of oral storytelling techniques and panoramic perspectives. Mailer’s minimal presence in the narrative and the original capital punishment proceedings is established, with support from early reviews, debates surrounding the genre of The Executioner’s Song and interviews given by the author since its publication in 1979.
Mori, Rafael Cava
This paper traces the thematic units of science and technology in the songs of Humberto Gessinger. We conducted an analysis of three songs, according to the studies of the Bakhtin Circle, by observing the inclusion of words and expressions of science in this poetic production. It transpires from this analysis that by including these words into popular song, Gessinger brings echoes of scientific texts into this genre, prosifying his poetry by adding an "unfinished" element. Since for Bakhtin prose is more dialogical and is in closer contact with its socio-historical context - compared to poetry - we conclude that by including scientific-technological words and themes in his compositions, Gessinger becomes an active participant of the discussions about postmodernity.
Poesel, Angelika; Dabelsteen, Torben
song alternating. A territory owner should therefore perceive an intruder overlapping its songs and staying inside its territory as a greater threat than one alternating and exiting the territory quickly. To test this hypothesis we used playback to interact with territorial male blue tits, Parus...
Henry, Charles S; Wells, Marta Lucía Martínez; Simon, Chris M
Although traits of related species are likely to be similar due to common ancestry, mating signals are an exception. In singing insects, for example, song similarity has been documented only for allopatric or allochronic species pairs, and even then, not often. Where song similarity does occur, it has been logically attributed to the inheritance of ancestral traits rather than convergence. It is quite common for related, sympatric insect species to differ dramatically in calling song, which is predicted by evolutionary theory to maximize intraspecific mating success. Given that there are a limited number of ways to make sounds on anatomically similar organs and given that there would be no selective pressure for songs to differ in widely separated geographic areas, convergence in songs among related species living on different continents might be expected. Here we present the first well-documented case of such convergence, in a group of sibling, cryptic species characterized by substrate-borne vibrational mating songs. In this example from green lacewings of the carnea group of the genus Chrysoperla, a variety of statistical tests shows that one species in North America and another in Asia possess songs that are strikingly similar to each other. DNA data demonstrate that the species involved belong to divergent speciose lineages, and behavioral data demonstrate that the convergent songs are readily accepted by members of both species. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Cowles, Anne; Beatty, William W; Nixon, Sara Jo; Lutz, Lanna J; Paulk, Jason; Paulk, Kayla; Ross, Elliott D
Previous studies have described patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who continued to play familiar songs skillfully, despite their dementias. There are no reports about patients with dementia who successfully learned to play new songs, and two papers describe failures of patients with AD to learn to play a new song although they continued to play familiar songs competently. In the present paper we describe a moderately demented patient (SL) with probable AD who learned to play a song (Cossackaya!) on the violin that was published after the apparent onset of his dementia. He showed modest retention of the song at delays of 0 and 10 minutes. This contrasts with his profound disturbance in both recall and recognition on other anterograde memory tests (word lists, stories, figures, environmental sounds, sounds of musical instruments), and marked impairment on measures of remote memory (famous faces, autobiographical memory). SL showed milder deficits in confrontation naming, verbal fluency and attention, but no dyspraxia or aphasic comprehension deficits. Except for the Block Design test, his visuospatial skills were intact. SL's learning of the new song in the absence of any evidence of episodic memory is reminiscent of patients with temporal lobe amnesia who show better memory for song melody than for lyrics or verse, although his retention was not as good.
Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is the important aspect for the students when they are studying English. The students need fresh method to make them enjoy in learning process. The teacher should be able to deliver the material well. Using media appropriately is also needed for teachers. The objectives of this research are to know whether English song can improve the students’ vocabulary at the second semester of English education study program in University of Muhammadiyah Metro, to reveal whether English song English song influence the students’ motivation at the second semester of English education study program in learning process, to portray how much English song influence the students’ vocabulary mastery and students’ motivation at the second semester of English education study program in academic year 2015/2016 The population in this research is 40 students. It is consist 2 classes and each class consists of 20 students..The result of the data analysis proved that the value of t-test (tobs is 8,742 and ttable is 2,021. It means that tobs is higher than ttable(8,742>2,021. Based on the criteria for testing hypothesis was if the value of t obtained is higher than t table at significant level 0,05 the null hypothesis (Ho is rejected and hypothesis alternative (HI is accepted. After viewing the result of One Sample t-test, the writer came to conclusion that “there was significant Influence of English Song Toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery and students’ motivation at the second semester of English education Study Program in the Muhammadiyah University of Metro Academic Year 2015/2016”. Key words: English song, Students’ Motivation, Vocabulary Mastery.
Gordon, Reyna L; Magne, Cyrille L; Large, Edward W
Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called "textsetting." Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners' attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning metronome clicks with all, some or none of the strong syllables in sung sentences. Electroencephalographic recordings were taken while participants listened to the sung sentences (primes) and performed a lexical decision task on subsequent words and pseudowords (targets, presented visually). Comparison of misaligned and well-aligned sentences showed that temporal alignment between strong/weak syllables and strong/weak musical beats were associated with modulations of induced beta and evoked gamma power, which have been shown to fluctuate with rhythmic expectancies. Furthermore, targets that followed well-aligned primes elicited greater induced alpha and beta activity, and better lexical decision task performance, compared with targets that followed misaligned and varied sentences. Overall, these findings suggest that alignment of linguistic stress and musical meter in song enhances musical beat tracking and comprehension of lyrics by synchronizing neural activity with strong syllables. This approach may begin to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs, and how rhythmic attending facilitates learning and recall of song lyrics. Moreover, the observations reported here coincide with a growing number of studies reporting interactions between the linguistic and musical dimensions of song, which likely stem from shared neural resources for processing music and speech.
Reyna L Gordon
Full Text Available Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called textsetting. Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners’ attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning metronome clicks with all, some or none of the strong syllables in sung sentences. Electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were taken while participants listened to the sung sentences (primes and performed a lexical decision task on subsequent words and pseudowords (targets, presented visually. Comparison of misaligned and well-aligned sentences showed that temporal alignment between strong/weak syllables and strong/weak musical beats were associated with modulations of induced beta and evoked gamma power, which have been shown to fluctuate with rhythmic expectancies. Furthermore, targets that followed well-aligned primes elicited greater induced alpha and beta activity, and better lexical decision task performance, compared with targets that followed misaligned and varied sentences. Overall, these findings suggest that alignment of linguistic stress and musical meter in song enhances musical beat tracking and comprehension of lyrics by synchronizing neural activity with strong syllables. This approach may begin to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs, and how rhythmic attending facilitates learning and recall of song lyrics. Moreover, the observations reported here coincide with a growing number of studies reporting interactions between the linguistic and musical dimensions of song, which likely stem from shared neural resources for processing music and speech.
Full Text Available Estrildid finches are known for great interspecific diversity in the degree of elaboration in courtship dance, song and plumage coloration and also for the considerable sex differences in these traits within species. To study the evolution of multimodal sexual signaling in these taxa, we collected data on 85 species and analyzed them in a phylogenetic comparative study. As dances are often displayed in parallel with songs and include behavioral elements to emphasize coloration, they are likely to evolve non-independently of songs and plumage characteristics. Hence, we hypothesized that the degree of elaboration in dance would be associated with song and plumage ornamentation due to correlated responses between traits. Alternatively, each sexual signal may evolve independently of the others under the influence of different aspects of reproductive ecology or life history. Finally, because trait expression occurs in both males and females and can be caused by pleiotropic effects, we predicted correlated exaggerations of the traits between sexes as well. We found that courtship dance, song and plumage coloration evolve independently, as these traits were not correlated among species in either sex (i.e. the presence of female song were not related to female dance repertoire. However, we found evidence for correlated responses between the sexes, as species that have males with complex dances or colorful plumage also have females with exaggerated traits. Yet, selection factors acting on these traits were only partially shared between sexes. While coloration can be predicted by intraspecific brood parasitism and dance by body size in females, we were unable to reveal similar relationships in males. Our results indicate that different secondary sexual characters in Estrildids finches evolved under the influence of complicated selection factors, in which both correlated responses between sexes as well as independent selective mechanisms play roles.
Mehdipour, Maedeh; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zamanian, Hossein
Tibicen plebejus is the largest cicada native to the ecosystem in northern Iran. The male cicada produces a loud calling song for attracting females from a long distance. It is presumed that the female selects a mate based on a combination of passive and active mechanisms, but it is not known if she selects for size, nor if the male's size correlates with any characteristic of the advertisement call. In this study, we report the relationship between calling song features and morphological characters in the male of T. plebejus. Research was conducted in northern Iran during the summer of 2010. Seventeen males were collected and their calling songs were recorded in a natural environment. Two morphological characters were measured: length and weight. Maximum, minimum and average of values of 10 key acoustic variables of the calling song were analyzed: phrase duration, phrase part 1, phrase part 2, number of phrases per minute, echeme duration, echeme period, interecheme interval, number of echeme per second, echeme/intereheme ratio, and dominant frequency. The data were tested for the level of association between morphology and acoustic variables using simple linear regression. In conclusion, in terms of song structure, three significant positive correlations existed between length and (1) mean echeme duration, (2) mean echeme/interecheme ratio, (3) maximum echeme/interecheme ratio. We found out also four significant negative correlations between both length and weight with (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency, and between weight and (1) minimum interecheme intervals, (2) mean dominant frequency, (3) minimum dominant frequency, (4) maximum dominant frequency. It can be found that larger males of T. plebejus produce songs of lower frequency and are less silent between echemes. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Valentina Yu. Suzukey
Full Text Available This is a study of author-performed song in Tuva, the history of which begins when the People’s Republic of Tuva was declared in 1921. This crucial moment in the history of the region, which bore a strong influence of the October Revolution in Russia and of the following years of social change, had a profound impact on songwriting in the 1920s. The songs expressed gratitude to the October Revolution, Lenin and the Russian people for helping Tuvans get rid of the socially oppressive system (“The Glorious International”, “Freedom from Torment”, “The Great River”, “The Emergency Session of the Khural”, “No More Oppression”, etc.. New songs glorified such iconic features of new life as the first schools, the birth of national literature and the new system of writing, the change in attitude to women, the rise of the new generation of authors, the construction of a new automobile road, etc. In the 1930s further socioeconomic transformation gave rise to songs like “I Am a Kolkhoz Member”; “The Tractor Driver”, “The Propagandist”, “The Beautiful Soviet Land”, etc. By the end of the 1930s Tuva got its first amateur composers and author-performed songs. The arrival of theater, dance and music professionals from the USSR at the beginning of the 1940s at the bequest of PRT’s government led to a sea change in professionalization of Tuvan performing arts. In 1951 A. Chyrgal-ool became the first Tuvan student to join a conservatoire in Kazan which he graduated from in 1957. His works composed in 1950s marked a new stage in the rise of professional music in the region. Thus Tuvan song art featured almost the same trends and developments as most other ethnic groups in the Soviet Union.
This essay is an account of an investigation of conceptual metaphors of LOVE in two albums by singer Mariah Carey. It also includes an investigation of if LOVE metaphors were used differently at the beginning of her career from how they are used twenty-four years later. The study is based on the singles of Carey's debut album and those of her latest album. The analysis showed that although the songs are separated by approximately twenty years the LOVE metaphors most reflected in the song lyri...
Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook
The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and
Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel
song elements to test sound degradation with distance in a mixed coniferous and a mixed deciduous forest, measuring broadcast sounds both inside and outside nestboxes. On average, sound degradation increased to a larger extent with distance in the deciduous than the coniferous forest......In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within...
Full Text Available This paper presents a stylistic analysis of female images in American song folklore in order to examine how sound symbolic language elements contribute to the construction of verbal images. The results obtained show the link between sound and meaning and how such phonetic means of stylistics as assonance, alliteration, and onomatopoeia function to reinforce the meanings of words or to set the mood typical of the characters. Their synergy helps create and interpret female images and provides relevant atmosphere and background to them in folk song texts.
Ivon Aleida Castro Huertas
Full Text Available We report on an action research project aimed at developing oral communication in first-graders, using songs as a strategy for young learners to use and enjoy English. It was developed at a Colombian public school over three months. The teacher-researchers attempted to encourage students using simple and amusing songs to help them learn new vocabulary in English and develop oral skills from the very moment they began their literacy process. In this article, we attempt to share our findings obtained from data collected through direct observation, field notes, video recordings, and interviews that show the process followed by very young learners to acquire vocabulary by singing.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
When the frontal lobes are damaged by neurodegeneration certain qualities of psychosocial functioning are changed. The person might show lack of initiative, poor social judgment, and loss of personal and social awareness. When these symptoms co-occur with other cortical degeneration (e.......g. in vascular or frontotemporal dementia) it is difficult to avoid secondary symptoms of the brain damage that is caused by missing communicative abilities and difficulties in fulfilment of psychosocial needs. Songs are used to build up the music therapy setting with this client group. The songs function...
Barker, Nicole K.S.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Mennill, Daniel J.
We performed a song transmission experiment to investigate the effects of distance, song post height, receiver perch height, signaller sex, and microhabitat on song degradation in rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus), a neotropical duetting songbird. We quantified the effects of these fa......We performed a song transmission experiment to investigate the effects of distance, song post height, receiver perch height, signaller sex, and microhabitat on song degradation in rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus), a neotropical duetting songbird. We quantified the effects...... of these factors on excess attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, tail-to-signal ratio, and blur ratio of male and female songs. As expected, song degradation increased with distance between signaller and receiver. Songs transmitted best when emitted from moderate heights (5-7 m), although this pattern varied....... Rufous-and-white wren songs appeared more attenuated in open field than forest habitats, but microhabitat conditions within the forests exerted a strong influence on song degradation. These findings match previous studies showing an effect of distance, song post height, and habitat, but contrast...
Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David
This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and…
Rolf De Heer's 1997 Australian feature film "Dance Me to My Song" was devised with the late Heather Rose, a person with Cerebral Palsy. The film also features a central performance by Heather (as the character of Julia) and is clearly about "her world". The ethic of engagement exemplified by this film resonates with what Gerard Goggin has termed…
Ong, C.E.; Jin, Ge
This paper examines an unusual type of ‘cultural theme park’, one that is not based on simulating existing cultural diversity or historical places, but based in some senses on a ‘double simulation’. The theme park is based on an historical painting assumed to represent the North Song Dynasty period
The Roles of Yoruba Songs on Pregnancy, Labour and Baby Care in Antenatal and Postnatal Clinic in Southwestern Nigerian Hospitals. Stephen Titus Olusegun. Abstract. Several studies have been conducted on music and medical discourse especially musical discourse in the hospital. These have lead to several works ...
Janssen, Berit; van Kranenburg, P.; Volk, A.
Much research has been devoted to the classification of folk songs, revealing that variants are recognised based on salient melodic segments, such as phrases and motifs, while other musical material in a melody might vary considerably. In order to judge similarity of melodies on the level of melodic
This short article serves as a programme note for The Songs of Madosini, contained on the CD appended to this issue of the journal. Apart from describing the composition structurally and dramaturgically, it suggests that beyond its musical effect the work's more important function is perhaps that of a 'social intervention' as ...
J. Jordan Price
Full Text Available Bird song is often cited as a classic example of a sexually-selected ornament, in part because historically it has been considered a primarily male trait. Recent evidence that females also sing in many songbird species and that sexual dimorphism in song is often the result of losses in females rather than gains in males therefore appears to challenge our understanding of the evolution of bird song through sexual selection. Here I propose that these new findings do not necessarily contradict previous research, but rather they disagree with some of our assumptions about the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in general and female song in particular. These include misconceptions that current patterns of elaboration and diversity in each sex reflect past rates of change and that levels of sexual dimorphism necessarily reflect levels of sexual selection. Using New World blackbirds (Icteridae as an example, I critically evaluate these past assumptions in light of new phylogenetic evidence. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such sexually dimorphic traits requires a clear understanding of their evolutionary histories. Only then can we begin to ask the right questions.
Louder, Matthew I M; Voss, Henning U; Manna, Thomas J; Carryl, Sophia S; London, Sarah E; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Hauber, Mark E
In many social animals, early exposure to conspecific stimuli is critical for the development of accurate species recognition. Obligate brood parasitic songbirds, however, forego parental care and young are raised by heterospecific hosts in the absence of conspecific stimuli. Having evolved from non-parasitic, parental ancestors, how brood parasites recognize their own species remains unclear. In parental songbirds (e.g. zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata), the primary and secondary auditory forebrain areas are known to be critical in the differential processing of conspecific vs. heterospecific songs. Here we demonstrate that the same auditory brain regions underlie song discrimination in adult brood parasitic pin-tailed whydahs (Vidua macroura), a close relative of the zebra finch lineage. Similar to zebra finches, whydahs showed stronger behavioral responses during conspecific vs. heterospecific song and tone pips as well as increased neural responses within the auditory forebrain, as measured by both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and immediate early gene (IEG) expression. Given parallel behavioral and neuroanatomical patterns of song discrimination, our results suggest that the evolutionary transition to brood parasitism from parental songbirds likely involved an "evolutionary tinkering" of existing proximate mechanisms, rather than the wholesale reworking of the neural substrates of species recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1 the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2 the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo, and (3 the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals. Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues.
The use of songs as audio materials in teaching Turkish as foreign language is an important part of language culture and has an important place in culture. Thus, the transfer of cultural aspects accelerates language learning process. In the light of this view, it becomes necessary to transfer cultural aspects into classroom environment in teaching…
Mark A. Rumble; Brian L. Dykstra; Lester D. Flake
We investigated the effects of stand size resulting from current logging practices on occurrence and species richness of song birds in the Black Hills. Richness of forest interior and forest interior/edge songbirds was not related to stand area (P > 0.40) in stands of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills. Brown creepers (...
Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau
The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution, ...
Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma
Insects have evolved a marked diversity of mechanisms to produce loud conspicuous sounds for efficient communication. However, the risk of eavesdropping by competitors and predators is high. Here, we describe a mechanism for producing extremely low-intensity ultrasonic songs (46 dB sound pressure...
Čapek Jr., Miroslav; Kloubec, B.
Roč. 57, č. 2 (2002), s. 267-276 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAC6087702; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acrocephalus warblers * seasonal and diel rhythm of song Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.169, year: 2002
Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A
Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences.
The main finding of the analysis is that the reported song reveals a number of sociocultural themes relating to ways of knowing in indigenous literacy systems. These include use of metaphoric expressions, call-and-response patterns, repetition, indirection, interactive and group dynamics that are general, yet particular, ...
The article further examines the role of women in inadvertently perpetuating gender inequality in their societies amidst public landscape of South Africa which challenges gender oppression of any kind. This will be interrogated through an exploration of songs composed by older women but sung by young maidens on such ...
... glimpses of the state of the art of fabrics of those times. This espousal of textile technology is a significant aspect of costume history. On the whole, the paper has demonstrated the potential of the content of indigenous songs as sources of dress-fabric, fashion trends and event-dress in their wider socio-cultural contexts.
Elvira Rosyida M. R.
Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating whether there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement This study was conducted at the first year students of State Senior High School 9 Bandarlampung, Lampung. A descriptive quantitative was employed in this study which used ex-post facto design and the data were taken from questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and listening test. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16.0. The hypothesis was tested by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The test result showed that there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement. From the result of interview, it showed that most of the students believe that by having high frequency of listening to English songs, it helps them in recognizing the spoken language and get high score in listening ability.Keywords: listening to English song, listening ability, frequency of listening
A disjuncture in the description of persists between practitioners of the genre, deemed custodians of Northern Sotho culture, and some scholars. Drawing from extensive fieldwork and ... song-dance performative compound. Keywords: Indigenous music, African drumming, African performance, African folklore, African dance.
Walworth, Darcy DeLoach
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.
Mathevon, Nicolas; Dabelsteen, Torben; Blumenrath, Sandra Helene
Birds often sing from high perches referred to as song posts. However, birds also listen and keep a lookout from these perches. We used a sound transmission experiment to investigate the changes for receiving and sending conditions that a territorial songbird may experience by moving upwards...
Five teaching experiments with French songs, in grades 7, 8 and 9, are described. Aural understanding was practiced first, then use of the text. In the 9th grade, work on the content became most important, with the aim of correcting and expanding the common conception of France. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Rafiee, Marzieh; Kassaian, Zohre; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid
Language learners need to feel secure and to be free of stress so they can focus on language tasks (Ellis, 1994). A language teacher should use different tools to encourage students and make them involved in learning process. Humor and song are effective tools, as they develop creativity and make the class environment an appropriate setting for…
This paper discusses A Society under Siege as presented in Ben Okri's Songs of Enchantment and Infinite Riches. The novels reveal many societal vices perpetrated by human beings and other forces against the weak and the masses in the society. The work reveals various levels and degrees of moral delinquencies in the ...
Keray Dinçel, Betül
Children's songs inspire the love of music in children and improve their musical skills and at the same time, teach national values and societal rules, contribute to their personality development, make children feel happier, foster interpersonal communication and particularly contribute to the cognitive and linguistic development of children at…
Iwasaki, Becky; Rasinski, Timothy; Yildirim, Kasim; Zimmerman, Belinda S.
Based on a first grade teacher's search for approaches to promote successful reading acquisition in her first grade classroom, the authors present a curricular engagement in which the teacher explored using music, specifically singing songs, as a fun and motivating way to accelerate reading progress. The premise is that singing (while at the…
Fletcher, Alice C.
This volume describes and gives instructions for Native American dances and games as gathered by, and in some cases adapted by, an anthropologist working among native peoples at the beginning of the 20th Century. Part I contains dances and songs. The first is called "The Life of the Corn," a drama in five dances. Also included are three…
Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T
Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Demirci, Sirin Akbulut
The article presents the results of a study carried out within the scope of a project entitled, "Arranged Bursa Folk Songs for Fourhands Piano Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments." It is number KUAP (E)-2014/28 of the Uludag University Scientific Research Projects Unit and was supported by the Bursa…
Moser-Purdy, Christopher; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Bonier, Frances; Graham, Brendan A; Boyer, Andrea C; Mennill, Daniel J
Upon hearing a conspecific signal, animals must assess their relationship with the signaller and respond appropriately. Territorial animals usually respond more aggressively to strangers than neighbors in a phenomenon known as the "dear enemy effect". This phenomenon likely evolved because strangers represent a threat to an animal's territory tenure and parentage, whereas neighbors only represent a threat to an animal's parentage because they already possess a territory (providing territory boundaries are established and stable). Although the dear enemy effect has been widely documented using behavioral response variables, little research has been conducted on the physiological responses of animals to neighbors versus strangers. We sought to investigate whether the dear enemy effect is observed physiologically by exposing territorial male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to playback simulating a neighbor or a stranger, and then collecting blood samples to measure plasma testosterone levels. We predicted that song sparrows would exhibit increased testosterone levels after exposure to stranger playback compared to neighbor playback, due to the role testosterone plays in regulating aggression. Contrary to our prediction, we found that song sparrows had higher testosterone levels after exposure to neighbor playback compared to stranger playback. We discuss several explanations for our result, notably that corticosterone may regulate the dear enemy effect in male song sparrows and this may inhibit plasma testosterone. Future studies will benefit from examining corticosterone in addition to testosterone, to better understand the hormonal underpinnings of the dear enemy effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spierdijk, L.; Vellekoop, M.H.
This paper analyses votes cast in the Eurovision Song Contest in the period 1975 - 2003. We test whether accusations of 'political' voting among participants can be substantiated by looking at geographical influences. Our approach differs in two ways from earlier studies. First, we take into account
Abdel Rhim, Azza Ashraf Mohammed
The study reported in this article investigated the effect of context of songs in teaching grammar implicitly on students writing. The study was conducted on sixty students who were assigned to an experimental group and a control one. The control group was taught grammar explicitly with an explanation of grammatical rules; however, the…
Presents the three different types of teachers that play an important role in Cynthia Voigt's novel, "Dicey's Song." Analyzes the three models of teaching behavior represented in the novel. Relates these models to Carol Pearson's psychological archetypes for heroic growth. (HB)
Spierdijk, Laura; Vellekoop, Michel
This paper assesses whether and how common characteristics of jury members or peer voters affect the outcomes of voting systems. In particular, we analyze to what extent these common features result in voting bias. We take as a case study the Eurovision Song Contest for which an extensive amount of
The ontogeny of bird song is compared with that of other vocal and postural displays. At the level of description both types of display show a gradual development towards a more conspicuous and stereotyped form. In addition, the developmental outcome shows in both cases plasticity under the
Songbirds, such as zebra finches, learn their songs from a ‘tutor’ (usually the father), early in life. There are strong parallels between the behavioural, cognitive and neural processes that underlie vocal learning in humans and songbirds. In both cases there is a sensitive period for auditory
Love is the prerequisite for marriage in all cultures. This fact is negated in the marriage relationships described in Ba's two works. This paper examines mixed marriages in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter and Scarlet Song and its impact on women. It also highlights the woman's predicament in general and the way forward ...
In this article I will first give a short introduction on the social dynamics and the observance of the raincult amongst the Lobedu people, who form part of the Northern Sotho branch of the Bantu-speakingpeoples of southern Africa. Examples of rain songs that I recorded at the tribal capital of the Lobedu rainqueen, Modjadji, ...
Bountouridis, D.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Balen, J.M.H. van
This paper investigates the novel task of situating music artists and songs in time, thereby adding contextual information that typically correlates with an artist’s similarities, collaborations and influences. The proposed method makes use of editorial metadata in conjunction with web mining
Igbo society provides avenues like ceremonies, festivals, and burials to mention but a few through which music are expressed. This paper among other things tries to examine the impact of folk music In Igbo culture, the place of music in the promotion of sustainable rural development. Selected Igbo folk songs with subject ...
Pallé, P. L.; Grundahl, F.; Hage, A. Triviño
Deployment of the prototype node of the SONG project took place in April 2012 at Observatorio del Teide (Canary Islands). Its key instrument (echelle spectrograph) was installed and operational a few weeks later while its 1 m feeding telescope suffered a considerable delay to meet the required sp...
Apfelbeck, Beate; Mortega, Kim G; Flinks, Heiner; Illera, Juan Carlos; Helm, Barbara
Testosterone facilitates physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes required for breeding in male vertebrates. However, testosterone concentrations and the link between its seasonal changes and those in reproductive behaviors vary greatly among species. To better understand the impact of tropical and temperate environments and life history factors on this variation, we have compared testosterone, territorial behavior and song performance across sequential stages of the breeding season in males of 16 closely related taxa of East African tropical and West European temperate stonechats (Saxicola spp), which all breed during a short breeding season, but differ in migratory behavior, seasonal territory-acquisition and pace of life. We found that generally, the profiles of testosterone and territorial behavior were similar across latitudes. African stonechats with a slow pace of life had equally high peak testosterone concentrations and responded as aggressively to an intruder as European stonechats with a fast pace of life. However, song performance at the beginning of the breeding season was lower in African than in European stonechats. The differences in song performance were not associated with variation in testosterone levels between tropical and temperate stonechats. The results suggest a very similar role for testosterone as a mediator of high intensity territorial aggression during the fertile period of females in tropical and temperate stonechats, which all are highly seasonal, locally synchronous breeders. A potential explanation may be high risk of extra-pair copulations which has been associated with synchronous breeding. Interestingly, an association was not consistent for song performance. Our data suggest that song performance can be disassociated from peak testosterone levels depending on its role in breeding behavior. Despite similar testosterone levels, European males, which early in the breeding season acquire territories and mates, showed
Basaglia-Pappas, S; Laterza, M; Borg, C; Richard-Mornas, A; Favre, E; Thomas-Antérion, C
In mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deficit in episodic memory, particularly autobiographical memory, is clearly established. Several recent studies have also shown impaired semantic memory from the onset of the disease. Musical memory capacities may be especially preserved and listening to music might encourage autobiographical recall. The aim of this study was to explore recall of popular songs in AD. We tested 12 patients with mild AD and 12 control subjects. We created a tool made up of old French popular songs: POP 10. This tool is a questionnaire composed of several subtests: melodic free recall, chorus free recall, melodic recognition, chorus recognition, semantic knowledge, autobiographical recall about the song, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter. We used non-parametric tests, the Mann-Whitney test (M-W), the Friedman test, and the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Results of AD patients were rather similar to those of control participants for melodic memory. Concerning chorus memory (except recognition), semantic knowledge, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter, results of AD patients were significantly weaker than those of control participants. The most important result concerned autobiographical recall about the song: we found no impairment-related differences between the two groups. Our findings demonstrate that popular songs can be excellent stimuli for reminiscence, such as the ability to produce an autobiographical memory related to a song. Thus, we confirm that musical semantic knowledge associated with a song may be relatively preserved in the early stages of AD. This leads to new possibilities for cognitive stimulation.
Justin P Bredlau
Full Text Available Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated "buzz" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude "boings," each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.
Full Text Available Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata. We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food.
Snell Cara L.
Full Text Available When habitats overlap and species compete for resources, negative interactions frequently occur. Character displacement in the form of behavioural, social or morphological divergences between closely related species can act to reduce negative interactions and often arise in regions of geographic overlap. Mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli have an altered song structure in regions of geographic overlap with the behaviourally dominant black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus. Similar to European and Asian tits, altered song in mountain chickadees may decrease aggression from black-capped chickadees. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a playback study in Prince George, BC, Canada, to examine how black-capped chickadees responded to the songs of mountain chickadees recorded in regions where the two species were either sympatric or allopatric. We used principal component analysis (PCA to collapse behavioural response variables into a single ‘approach’ variable and a single ‘vocalisation’ variable. We then used mixed-model analysis to determine whether there was a difference in approach or vocalisation response to the two types of mountain chickadee songs (allopatric songs and variant sympatric songs. Black-capped chickadees responded with equal intensity to both types of mountain chickadee songs, suggesting that the variant mountain chickadee songs from regions of sympatry with black-capped chickadees do not reduce heterospecific aggression. To our knowledge, this is the only instance of a character shift unassociated with reduced aggression in the family Paridae and raises interesting questions about the selective pressures leading to the evolution of this song divergence.
Kendra B Sewall
Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.
Sirin, Deniz; Mol, Abbas
The new species Dociostaurus (Kazakia) icconium Sirin & Mol sp. n. (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Gomphocerinae) is described on the basis of morphology and male calling song. The congeneric partner of new species is Dociostaurus (Stauronotulus) cappadocicus (Azam, 1913) whose song description is done for the first time in this study. The species Dociostaurus (Kazakia) brevicollis (Eversmann, 1848) is assumed to be the closest relative of Dociostaurus (Kazakia) icconium sp. n.. The relationships between the new species and the relatives/congeneric partners were evaluated by using both song and morphological characters, for which illustrations were provided. Finally, a brief remark on the distribution pattern of the species was given.
In the May of the third year of Chunhua (992) of the Northern Song dynasty, because of a long persistent drought and scorching hot day, the plague occurred and prevailed in Kaifeng, the capital of Northern Song, with a massive death toll, drawing much attention from the government. The cause of plague was related to high temperature, summer-heat warmth in TCM. In response to this, the government issued three imperial edicts: firstly, promulgating the formularies; secondly, sending some doctors to cure patient, as well as giving money and medicines. At the same time, the Imperial Medical Academy to preside over treatment and assigned an inner eunuch to be responsible for intendance; the third was sending the emissary to clear up the prison. This policies of the third year of Chunhua brought important effects to the system of prevention and rescue of epidemic disease in Song dynasty, exerting significant influences on the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in the Song dynasty.
Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F
Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.
Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene
The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...
Full Text Available We don’t get to know from Isaiah’s songs, who is the Servant of Yahwe. In Synoptic Gospels quotations are contained from the first and fourth songs about the Servant of Yahweh. Synopticians interpreted in a new way Old Testament texts in light of Christs resurrection. They see prophetic announcement and the same type of Jesus Christ, Messiah and Saviour in Isaiah’s Servant. In Jesus Christ is filled out in a perfect and final way everything the Old Testament has announced about the Servant of Yahweh. The evangelical context of these quotations allows one to see in the suffering of the Servant of God, announcement of the redemptive fatigue, death and resurrection of Jesus.
Full Text Available This article considers how the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC has come to be used as a platform for the politicisation of national identity in Ukraine. Ukraine can be described as an amalgam of regions with different ethnolinguistic, economic, cultural and political profiles. The rhetoric concerning some Ukrainian Eurovision entries illuminates these complexities and as such sheds light on the construction of Ukrainian nationhood in a post- Soviet context. In particular this paper uses interviews with key decision makers involved with the Ukrainian selection process in the Eurovision Song Contest and examines the rhetoric surrounding four Ukrainian Eurovision entries which have generated considerable interest and controversy both in the country itself and within the wider context of the European media. Eurovision presents an opportunity for Ukraine to present a unified national identity to a global audience. The question is however, which Ukraine and for what purpose?
Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།
Full Text Available Sangs rgyas bkra shis describes singing in a pastoral community in Mtsho sngon Province, China. Performances at weddings, family gatherings, neighborhood gatherings, and on the grassland while herding are richly contextualized. Musical instruments, what it means to be a singer, the worries of singing publicly, the introduction of electricity and cell phones and their impact on singing, singing competitions, generational preference for song types, recent prohibitions on alcohol consumption, and access to social media are examined. Musical notation, oral and literary texts, and English translation are given. Sang rgyas bkra shis’ BEING ANYTHING AND GOING ANYWHERE is a rich, vivid, and immensely informative account of songs and singing in Amdo. Written from personal experience but with a rigorous coverage and excellent illustration of music, texts, and contexts, this book is the next best thing to actually visiting Gcan tsha County. A beautiful and invaluable resource.--Anna Morcom, University of London
Mai Samir El-Falaky
Full Text Available The study explores gender differences and the role of the ideological background in portraying the roles of the males and the females. Socio-economic statuses affect the description of gender differences and this is proclaimed within the analysis of a recent phenomenon of poor quality street songs. The study represents a detailed description of male and female relationship, so as to spot the light on the literary and societal implications of this newly propagated genre. The study analyses two common songs spreading among commoners distorting the woman’s image predefined in the Egyptian culture. Negative cultural and societal conceptions are explicitly mentioned about the relation between males and females. Keywords: gender, media representation, discourse analysis
Full Text Available This study presents the different ways in which two Greek composers, Leonidas Zoras and Jani Christou, viewed modernism. The songs of Zoras are typical example of the gradual withdrawal from the aesthetic framework of the National School which dominated during the first decades of the twentieth century. In contrast, Jani Christou, who spent his childhood in Alexandria and received an exclusively Western-type education, remained untouched by Greek traditional music or the Greek National School. His work was moulded by the ancient Greek philosophical belief in the elation of the listener through the transcendental power of Art. By his Six T. S. Eliot Songs Christou offered some of the best examples of twentieth-century expressionistic vocal music.
Full Text Available This article is a general exploration of translation issues involved in the translation and performance of the art song, arguing that although critical interest in recent years has been growing, the problems involved in these hybrid translation projects involving both text and music present a number of conundrums: primacy of text or music, focus on performability, and age-old arguments about fidelity and/or foreignization vs domestication. Using information from theatre translation and input from singers themselves, the author argues that this particular area of translation studies will work best in the future with a collaborative approach that includes translators, musicologists, and performers working together in order to produce the most “singable” text as possible for the art song in performance.
studies recording sound from the Davis Strait population (Richardson et al 1995, Richardson and Finley 1989). Songs have been recorded from bowhead whales during their spring migration off Point Barrow when the whales were returning from their breeding grounds and swimming towards their feeding areas......presented by Outi at: Acoustic Communication by Animals, 2nd International Conference, August 12-15, 2008, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USAAnnual changes in the song of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetusin Disko Bay, Western GreenlandOuti Tervo and Mads F. Christoffersen, Arctic...... of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkBowhead whale Balaena mysticetus acoustic behaviour has been a target of several investigations, primarily from recordings of the Bering Sea population near Alaska (Ljungblad et al 1980, Clark and Johnson 1984, Cummings and Holliday 1987) with a few...
Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.
The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values
Outi M Tervo
Full Text Available The low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent, GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185±2 dB rms re 1 µPa @ 1 m and a high mean centroid frequency of 444±48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through mating aggregations that co-evolved with broadband song to form a complex and dynamic acoustically mediated sexual display.
Schechter, Rachel L.
This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and its parts) and their use of the precise scientific terms presented in the episode. A total of 91 preschoolers were included (3-5 years old). Clusters of children were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three video groups: (a) Dialogue Only, which did not include a song; (b) Dialogue Plus Lyrics, which included a song; or (c) Lyrics Only, which consisted of a song, played twice. Results from interviews suggested that children from all video groups (lyrics and/or dialogue) were able to explain the form and function of a pulley better than the control group. The data suggested that children from the Lyrics Only group understood the science content because of the visual imagery, not through the information provided in the lyrics. In terms of precise vocabulary terms, significantly more children in the Dialogue Only group recalled at least one precise term from the program compared to the Lyrics Only group. Looking at the interview as a whole, the children's responses suggested different levels of scientific understanding. Children would require additional teacher-led instruction to deepen their scientific understanding and to clarify any misconceptions. This paper discusses implications of these findings for teachers using multi-media tools in the science classroom and producers creating new educational programming for television and other platforms.
Bob Marley adalah penyanyi legendaris asal Jamaica yang telah membuat karya-karya hebat dalam bentuk lagu. Lagu-lagu yang diciptakannya telah membuat gebrakan bagi dunia tentang sebuah kebebasan, bahkan beliau telah menjadi ikon untuk kebebasan. Karya-karyanya banyak diciptakan untuk mengkritik ketidakadilan dan diskriminasi ras pada masanya. Berangkat dari permasalahan tersebut skripsi yang berjudul The Analysis of Black’s Struggle in Bob Marley’s Selected Songs ini dihadirkan untuk mengungk...
Raymaekers, Linsey; Luyten, Kris; Vermeulen, Jo; Coninx, Karin
Learning to play a musical instrument such as the piano requires a substantial amount of practice and perseverance in learning to read and play from sheet music. Our interactivity demo allows people to learn to play songs without requiring sheet music reading skills. We project a graphical notation on top of a piano that indicates what key(s) need to be pressed and create a feedback loop that monitors the player's performance. We implemented The Augmented Piano (TAP), which is a straightforwa...
Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-N?grel, Diane; Robertson, Jeremy; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert
Introduction Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism using the acoustical cues of brood parasites in the absence of visual stimuli. We broadcast the playback of song of three brood parasites (Chalcites cuckoo species) and a sympatric non-parasite (striated thornbill, Acanthiza lineata) in the territories of superb fairy-wrens (M...
Codocedo , Victor; Lykourentzou , Ioanna; Napoli , Amedeo
International audience; Semantic indexing and retrieval is an important research area, as the available amount of information on the Web is growing more and more. In this paper, we introduce an original approach to semantic indexing and retrieval based on Formal Concept Analysis. The concept lattice is used as a semantic index and we propose an original algorithm for traversing the lattice and answering user queries. This framework has been used and evaluated on a song dataset.
Anna Victoria Kasdan
Introduction: Many patients with aphasia, particularly those with nonfluent aphasia, have been observed to be able to sing the lyrics of songs more easily than they can speak the same words (Wan et al., 2010). The observation that not only singing, but even intoning words, can facilitate speech output in nonfluent aphasia patients provided the foundation for Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT; Sparks, 1974), an intensive therapy lasting ten or more weeks (Schlaug et al., 2008). The current study...
Janney, Eathan; Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer
Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the comple...
Apfelbeck, Beate; Mortega, Kim G.; Flinks, Heiner; Illera, Juan Carlos; Helm, Barbara
Background Testosterone facilitates physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes required for breeding in male vertebrates. However, testosterone concentrations and the link between its seasonal changes and those in reproductive behaviors vary greatly among species. To better understand the impact of tropical and temperate environments and life history factors on this variation, we have compared testosterone, territorial behavior and song performance across sequential stages of the br...
Governor, Donna; Hall, Jori; Jackson, David
This qualitative, multi-case study explored the use of science-content music for teaching and learning in six middle school science classrooms. The researcher sought to understand how teachers made use of content-rich songs for teaching science, how they impacted student engagement and learning, and what the experiences of these teachers and students suggested about using songs for middle school classroom science instruction. Data gathered included three teacher interviews, one classroom observation and a student focus-group discussion from each of six cases. The data from each unit of analysis were examined independently and then synthesized in a multi-case analysis, resulting in a number of merged findings, or assertions, about the experience. The results of this study indicated that teachers used content-rich music to enhance student understanding of concepts in science by developing content-based vocabulary, providing students with alternative examples and explanations of concepts, and as a sense-making experience to help build conceptual understanding. The use of science-content songs engaged students by providing both situational and personal interest, and provided a mnemonic device for remembering key concepts in science. The use of songs has relevance from a constructivist approach as they were used to help students build meaning; from a socio-cultural perspective in terms of student engagement; and from a cognitive viewpoint in that in these cases they helped students make connections in learning. The results of this research have implications for science teachers and the science education community in developing new instructional strategies for the middle school science classroom.
Chamberlin, J. Edward
Twenty-first-century skeptics would say that there are really no such things as beauty and truth and certainly not goodness. A Pueblo poet seemed to think there was--"the corn people have a song / it is very good"--and unless people think they know better, they'd better listen up. This article begins with a short piece, set down by the…
All cultural representations in the form of songs, pictures, literature, theater, film, television shows, and other media are deeply emotional and ideological, often difficult to define or analyze. Emotions are embedded as a cultural and social soundtrack of memories and minds, whether we like it or not. Feminist scholarship has emphasized over the past decade that affects and emotions are a foundation of human interaction. The cognitive understanding of the world has been replaced by a criti...
Elvira Rosyida M. R.
This study is aimed at investigating whether there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement This study was conducted at the first year students of State Senior High School 9 Bandarlampung, Lampung. A descriptive quantitative was employed in this study which used ex-post facto design and the data were taken from questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and listening test. The data were analyzed by using Statistical ...
Chinese records of the Song-Ming period provide the context necessary for our understanding of the history of the pre-colonial Philippines. Rulers of chiefdoms in the region employed unique methods and formed far-reaching networks when trading with each other and with China. Trade was one of their ways to build domestic power structure and to establish their positions relative to one another in regional politics. They also organized missions to seek Chinese recognition of these power relations.
This article examines how the ideological boundaries of East and West are built, maintained and challenged through the performance of sexual and other politics in the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC). It argues that the contest is a useful prism through which to examine and understand contemporary European debates about sexual politics, and the role that this plays in defining the borders of modern Europe and its conditions of belonging. The contest itself offers an important site for belonging ...
"Previous research has shown that exposure to violent media increased aggression-related affect and thoughts, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior as well as decreased prosocial tendencies. The present research examined the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial media promotes prosocial outcomes. Three studies revealed that listening to songs with prosocial (relative to neutral) lyrics increased the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, led to more interpersonal empathy, and fostered ...
Speelman Willem Marie
Full Text Available The Canticle of the Creatures or Canticle of Brother Sun is based on a particular way of perceiving reality. Francis, who had turned away from ‘the world’, discovered a different way of looking at it. This is a divine way of perceiving, in which the senses do not grasp reality, but accept it as it communicates itself. This way of perceiving is only possible if one does not attempt to master the environment, but allows one’s senses to be weak. It is significant, therefore, that this song of praise was born at a moment of the utmost despair and weakness. The song’s content is in line with this weak perception: it is not about Francis who praises God and (or for His creatures, but rather it is a testimony that the creatures-the elements-are already praising God, and a prayer that He should let Himself be praised by the creatures. Also in line with this weak perception is the fact that the creatures are praised just as they communicate themselves to Francis: as bodies. The theology of this song is that the creatures through their bodies resonate (strengthen, and colour the blessings that come from God, thereby making His blessing present here on earth. Francis’ role is to give a voice and a language to the heavenly praises as they resound in his environment. The transformative power of this song is that we, whether consciously or not, do the same thing when we participate in this song.
Key Words: Subculture, Straightedge, Movement, Semiotic, Sociology of Literature, Good Clean Fun Subculture is a part of the society. Sociologically, a subculture is a group of people who have their own attitudes and beliefs that are different from their parent culture. Subculture is also a form of resistance against the society. The subculture resistance can be seen through the various movements that they make such as by using song lyric. One example of subculture movement is by the messages...
Grigore Vasile HERMAN
Full Text Available The present study aims to identify, quantify and analyse the tourism potential offered by folk songs specific to Bihor, or by the triad folk music - folk ensemble - specific event. This approach is necessary in the context of the evolution and rise of tourism in the last period, together with the needs and expectations of tourists to spend their time in a more pleasant and also active way, integrated in the life of host communities.
Clift, Peter; Jonell, Tara; Carter, Andrew; Van Hoang, Long; Böning, Philipp
The Song Gianh is a small drainage on the northern central coast of Vietnam that delivers sediment into the Gulf of Tonkin. The basin provides the opportunity to evaluate what surface processes control continental erosion rates and patterns because there is a strong monsoonal precipitation gradient from the SW to NE. We apply several complimentary provenance methods to modern siliciclastic sediments of the Song Gianh to pinpoint regions of focused sediment generation and evaluate how sediment is mixed downstream and delivered to the ocean. We find that detrital zircon populations of Song Gianh main channel change radically downstream of the confluence with the northern Rao Tro tributary, which is dominated by 100-300 Ma grains eroded from granite bedrock. This tributary provides almost as much zircon to the main channel as all the headwater tributaries combined, despite being a much smaller, drier, and flatter sub-basin. In contrast, bulk sediment Nd and Sr isotopes indicate that most sediment is derived from the wetter headwater tributaries. Contribution from the southern tributaries to the net siliciclastic river flux is negligible. Precipitation and topography do not appear to modulate zircon production in the modern river although regions controlling bulk Nd and Sr compositions are wetter and have higher local relief. This apparent contrast in regions of sediment production suggests disequilibrium and differential travel times for zircon and mineral phases rich in Nd and Sr. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of alluvial terraces on the main channel show that the valleys aggraded rapidly from ~7-9 ka during a period of strong summer monsoon, suggesting that heavy rainfall generated large sediment volumes. Younger terraces dated to 500-1000 yrs BP are interpreted to reflect erosion and aggradation driven by extensive human agriculture. We speculate that agriculture, together with bedrock compositions, are the most likely control on producing the
Dalziell, Anastasia H; Peters, Richard A; Cockburn, Andrew; Dorland, Alexandra D; Maisey, Alex C; Magrath, Robert D
All human cultures have music and dance, and the two activities are so closely integrated that many languages use just one word to describe both. Recent research points to a deep cognitive connection between music and dance-like movements in humans, fueling speculation that music and dance have coevolved and prompting the need for studies of audiovisual displays in other animals. However, little is known about how nonhuman animals integrate acoustic and movement display components. One striking property of human displays is that performers coordinate dance with music by matching types of dance movements with types of music, as when dancers waltz to waltz music. Here, we show that a bird also temporally coordinates a repertoire of song types with a repertoire of dance-like movements. During displays, male superb lyrebirds (Menura novaehollandiae) sing four different song types, matching each with a unique set of movements and delivering song and dance types in a predictable sequence. Crucially, display movements are both unnecessary for the production of sound and voluntary, because males sometimes sing without dancing. Thus, the coordination of independently produced repertoires of acoustic and movement signals is not a uniquely human trait. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available All cultural representations in the form of songs, pictures, literature, theater, film, television shows, and other media are deeply emotional and ideological, often difficult to define or analyze. Emotions are embedded as a cultural and social soundtrack of memories and minds, whether we like it or not. Feminist scholarship has emphasized over the past decade that affects and emotions are a foundation of human interaction. The cognitive understanding of the world has been replaced by a critical analysis in which questions about emotions and how we relate to the world as human beings is central (Ahmed 2004: 5-12.It is in this memory-related instance that this article discusses the unexpected reappearance of a long forgotten song, Hasta siempre, as a part of my personal musical memory. It is a personal reflection on the complex interaction between memory, affect and the genre of protest songs as experiences in life and music. What does it mean when a melody intrudes in the middle of unrelated thoughts, when one’s mind is occupied with rational and purposive considerations? These memories are no coincidences, I argue, they are our forgotten selves singing to us.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.
Full Text Available We present a hypothesis-driven study on the variation of melody phrases in a collection of Dutch folk songs. We investigate the variation of phrases within the folk songs through a pattern matching method which detects occurrences of these phrases within folk song variants, and ask the question: do the phrases which show less variation have different properties than those which do? We hypothesize that theories on melody recall may predict variation, and as such, investigate phrase length, the position and number of repetitions of a given phrase in the melody in which it occurs, as well as expectancy and motif repetivity. We show that all of these predictors account for the observed variation to a moderate degree, and that, as hypothesized, those phrases vary less which are rather short, contain highly expected melodic material, occur relatively early in the melody, and contain small pitch intervals. A large portion of the variance is left unexplained by the current model, however, which leads us to a discussion of future approaches to study memorability of melodies.
Hedwig, Berthold G
Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.
Peh, Wendy Y X; Roberts, Todd F; Mooney, Richard
Vocal communication depends on the coordinated activity of sensorimotor neurons important to vocal perception and production. How vocalizations are represented by spatiotemporal activity patterns in these neuronal populations remains poorly understood. Here we combined intracellular recordings and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine how learned birdsong and its component syllables are represented in identified projection neurons (PNs) within HVC, a sensorimotor region important for song perception and production. These experiments show that neighboring HVC PNs can respond at markedly different times to song playback and that different syllables activate spatially intermingled PNs within a local (~100 μm) region of HVC. Moreover, noise correlations were stronger between PNs that responded most strongly to the same syllable and were spatially graded within and between classes of PNs. These findings support a model in which syllabic and temporal features of song are represented by spatially intermingled PNs functionally organized into cell- and syllable-type networks within local spatial scales in HVC. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355589-17$15.00/0.
Schneider, E; Hennig, R M
A behavioural gap detection paradigm was used to determine the temporal resolution for song patterns by female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. For stimuli with a modulation depth of 100% the critical gap duration was 6-8 ms. A reduction of the modulation depth of gaps to 50% led either to an increase or a decrease of the critical gap duration. In the latter case, the critical gap duration dropped to 3-4 ms indicating a higher sensitivity of auditory processing. The response curve for variation of pulse period was not limited by temporal resolution. However, the reduced response to stimuli with a high duty cycle, and thus short pause durations, was in accordance with the limits of temporal resolution. The critical duration of masking pulses inserted into pauses was 4-6 ms. An analysis of the songs of males revealed that gaps (5.8 ms) and masking pulses (6.9 ms) were at detectable time scales for the auditory pathway of female crickets. However, most of the observed temporal variation of song patterns was tolerated by females. Critical cues such as pulse period and pulse duty cycle provided little basis for inter-individual selection by females.
Xu Shuwei's Pu ji ben shi fang (Moxibustion in Prescription for Universal Relief) was carved for several times and disseminated to Hubei, Hunan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Sichuan Provinces and the areas under the rule of the Jin ethnic minority group. While Shang han bai zheng ge (Poets of Syndrome of Exo-pathogenic Cold disease), Shang han fa wei lun (Discourse on Elucidation of Exo-pathogenic Cold Disease), and Shang han jiu shi lun (90 Discourses on Exo-pathogenic Disease) were scarcely carved or spread in its copying form with very limited distribution. Hence, Pu ji ben shi fang exerts greater influence in the Southern Song Dynasty. When analysing the citations from the Pu ji ben sgiu fang in the books of the Southern Song Dynasty, very few texts were cited from Pu ji ben shi fang. Thus, in terms of knowledge on exo-pathogenic cold disease in the Southern Song Dynasty, Xu's influence was quite limited even though he himself had deep insight into this art of disease.
Warth, Marco; Kessler, Jens; van Kampen, Josien; Ditzen, Beate; Bardenheuer, Hubert J
Music therapy (MT) holds a promising potential to meet emotional and existential needs in palliative care patients. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the feasibility, acceptance and potential effectiveness of a novel MT intervention to improve life closure and spiritual well-being of terminally ill patients with cancer receiving palliative care. The 'Song of Life' (SOL) intervention was provided on two consecutive sessions containing a biographical interview and a live performance of a song with high biographical relevance to the patient in a lullaby style. Pre-to-post intervention assessments comprised brief self-report measures on life closure, well-being, stress, worry and pain. 13 out of 15 patients were able to complete the protocol as intended. The chosen songs were associated with a close person, an important place or event or with a religious belief. The results showed medium-sized improvements with regard to life closure, well-being, relaxation, worry and pain. 'SOL' proved to be a feasible and highly accepted intervention for patients approaching the end of their lives. Further consideration with regard to the procedures and outcomes is necessary before implementation of a randomised trial. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Groves, J.E.; Johnson, K.I.; Foulk, J.; Reinschmidt, K.F.; Tutos, N.C.
The use of advanced information systems will result in five million dollars potential cost reduction and two years less time for producing over 2000 Instrumentation and Control Loop Diagrams for the three nuclear units at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS). This new information technology will also assist plant management at SONGS in generating even larger savings from reduction in operations and maintenance costs. The key element of the new solution is the use of plant drawings, the traditional primary source of plant information, for on-line access to all plant databases and information systems, by replacing paper drawings with intelligent electronic drawings. The implementation of this concept for the Instrumentation and Control Loop Diagrams, presently in progress, is part of the Integrated Nuclear Data Management Systems (INDAMS) program at SONGS, a joint effort which includes support from Stone and Webster Advanced Systems Development Services, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), and Dassault Systems of France. The initial results have encouraged plant management to speed up the implementation process
Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus
Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.
Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.
Peno Vesna M.
Full Text Available In notated collections of Serbian church hymns from the 19th and 20th century there are, among others, communion songs with texts that were not regulated by the Typicon. These so-called "arbitrary communion songs" have been very popular in the recent tradition of Serbian church chanting. They have been gradually pushing out the hymns that are regulated for singing on concrete days and feasts during the church year. Analysis of possible influences that determined the way texts and the melodies delved into the recent Serbian church chanting follows two possible directions. The first commenced from late-Byzantine singing tradition; more specifically, from a group of songs that although based on liturgical texts, were performed in extra-liturgical occasions. These are calophonic irmoi which were composed by a great number of known late-Byzantine masters of singing. The second direction had its beginning in Russian spiritual music that generated a new melodic genre kant, based on western models. The majority of those compositions have freely written spiritual texts, too, and not part of the liturgy. Kanti were, namely, singing numbers in liturgical dramas - theatrical pieces with Christian historical themes. The majority of arbitrary communion hymns from Serbian collections have texts from the psalms or use texts for irmoi of specific canons. There is only one text that does not belong to the output of church hymnography. In spite of that, the melodies of the analyzed hymns reflect the presence of traditional compositional procedures characteristic of late-Byzantine and Serbian traditions. On either side, they possess atypical musical phrases that relate them to the the kanti. The usage of paraliturgical songs instead of communion hymns is commentated upon from the liturgic aspect also. That song belongs to the central part of the Liturgy and most fundamental during the service of the Orthodox church. Therefore the deviation in Serbian practice from
Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara
The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size.
Odom, Karan J; Omland, Kevin E; Price, J Jordan
Female bird song and combined vocal duets of mated pairs are both frequently associated with tropical, monogamous, sedentary natural histories. Little is known, however, about what selects for duetting behavior versus female song. Female song likely preceded duet evolution and could drive apparent relationships between duets and these natural histories. We compared the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae) by investigating patterns of gains and losses of both traits and their relationships with breeding latitude, mating system, nesting pattern, and migratory behavior. We found that duets evolved only in lineages in which female song was likely ancestral. Both female song and duets were correlated with tropical breeding, social monogamy, territorial nesting, and sedentary behavior when all taxa were included; however, correlations between duets and these natural history traits disappeared when comparisons were limited to taxa with female song. Also, likelihood values supported stronger relationships between the natural history traits and female song than between these traits and duets. Our results suggest that the natural histories thought to favor the evolution of duetting may in fact be associated with female song and that additional selection pressures are responsible for the evolution of duets. © 2015 The Author(s).
From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Song Dynasty, "reading text" became increasingly important and prominent in the inheritance of medical knowledge, which could be seen clearly from the descriptions on physicians in the Song Dynasty. For instance, Hao Yun's medical knowledge was recorded as a model of "master and apprentice" in Hao Yun's Epitaph written by Zhang Xun. However, in Ye Mengde's description, this model was played down, while at the same time, "reading text" was emphasized. Pang Anshi, though coming from a physician family for generations, got rid of some medical knowledge from his own family and turned to the medical knowledge by "reading text". According to Pang Anshi's Epitaph written by Zhang Lei and Fang ji Zhuan (Biography of Technicians) in Song shi (The Song History), Pang Anshi was a typical model of becoming a famous physician by "reading text". In the Epitaph, Pang Anshi's brilliance was stressed, and in the latter, "reading text" was more important and the family tradition was denied. In the description of the Song Dynasty, Chen Zhaoyu's wonderful medical skills was coming from the "practice", and "reading text" was denied right away. What is more, "reading text" was introspected and criticized through Chen Zhaoyu's lip. The different descriptions of the Song Dynasty reflected the change of inheritance model of medical knowledge.
Lins, Rachel M. M. A.; Souza, Nataly A.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Maingon, Rhayza D. C.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.
The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse) males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para) gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species. PMID:22970200
Rachel M M A Lins
Full Text Available The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species.
Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh
Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.
Full Text Available Today in France, there seems to be a resurgence of interest in 1930s French culture, with the release of Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain (2001, set in Montmartre, and Patrick Bruel's re-edition of 1930s popular songs (2002. Songs of the 1930s and 1940s have hardly been exploited by linguists. I have compiled a corpus of Maurice Chevalier's songs whose lexical items I have analysed to assess how language has evolved. The stereotypical representation of the lower class which was a popular theme in musical-hall songs at that time enables the analysis of vernacular forms used at the beginning of the 20th century. I willendeavour in this analysis to establish the change in attitudes towardsthe standard and stigmatised language varieties in France by looking at lexicographers' labelling of non-standard items with stylistic indicators such as familier, populaire and argotique. I also intend to gauge through a survey conducted recently in France whether the once denigrated français populaire found in Chevalier's songs is obsolete or whether it is still used in the 21st century.
Yuan, Y D; Jin, F; Zhang, C; Saitou, N
Surname in China, as a cultural genetic factor, is a very huge and remarkable human population study resource. The transmission feature of surname has been proved to be similar to that of the genetic markers on Y chromosome of males. It, therefore, has been applied in the population genetic studies since 1965's. In the present study, we have analyzed a group of Chinese surname data of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1179). The distribution of the present surname data is corresponded with the Karlin-McGregor's neutral allele model. The surname abundance alpha and the migration rate parameter v in the Song dynasty in 16 provincial regions reflected degrees of migration and admixture at that time. Surname phylogenetic dendrogram analysis demonstrated that the Han Chinese had been segregated into North and South two parts in Song dynasty of 1000 years ago. Wuyi and Nanling Mountains divided Northern and Southern Han populations into the two major parts of Han Chinese. The results also showed that the surname distribution of Song dynasty 1000 years ago was quite similar to the present model. The 100 high frequency surnames in Song dynasty were well corresponded with the current surname distribution. This phenomenon suggests that Chinese surnames have been steadily transmitted from ancient to the present. The present study improved that the Chinese surname is a very important genetic resource for the studies of structure of the Chinese populations, migration, and affinities among different populations.
Gomes, A C R; Funghi, C; Soma, M; Sorenson, M D; Cardoso, G C
Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other (e.g. due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication. We found little evidence for either joint evolution or trade-offs between song and colour ornamentation. Some negative correlations between dance repertoire and song traits may suggest a functional compromise, but generally courtship dance also evolved independently from other signals. Instead of correlated evolution, we found that song, dance and colour are each related to different socio-ecological traits. Song complexity evolved together with ecological generalism, song performance with investment in reproduction, dance with commonness and habitat type, whereas colour ornamentation was shown previously to correlate mostly with gregariousness. We conclude that multimodal signals evolve in response to various socio-ecological traits, suggesting the accumulation of distinct signalling functions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K
Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice.
Stefanie E. LaZerte
Full Text Available Low-frequency urban noise can interfere with avian communication through masking. Some species are able to shift the frequency of their vocalizations upwards in noisy conditions, which may reduce the effects of masking. However, results from playback studies investigating whether or not such vocal changes improve audibility in noisy conditions are not clear; the responses of free-ranging individuals to shifted signals are potentially confounded by functional trade-offs between masking-related audibility and frequency-dependent signal quality. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus naturally sing their songs at several different frequencies as they pitch-shift to match conspecifics during song-matching contests. They are also known to switch to higher song frequencies in response to experimental noise exposure. Each male produces both high- and low-frequency songs and absolute frequency is not a signal of aggression or dominance, making this an interesting species in which to test whether higher-frequency songs are more audible than lower-frequency songs in noisy conditions. We conducted playback studies across southern and central British Columbia, Canada, using paired song stimuli (high- vs low-frequency songs, n = 24 pairs embedded in synthetic background noise created to match typical urban sound profiles. Over the course of each playback, the signal-to-noise ratio of the song stimuli was gradually increased by raising the amplitude of the song stimuli while maintaining background noise at a constant amplitude. We evaluated variation in how quickly and aggressively territorial males reacted to each of the paired stimuli. We found that males responded more quickly to playbacks of high- than low-frequency songs when high-frequency songs were presented first, but not when low-frequency songs were first. This difference may be explained by high-frequency songs being more audible combined with a carry-over effect resulting in slower
Xia, C. D.; Ge, L. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.
The work presented here carried out elemental analyses on 60 porcelain shards of Tang and Song Dynasties, unearthed from Yongjinwan zone at Jinsha site, Sichuan, China, using a combination of PIXE and RBS methods. Six shards from Liulichang kiln site and 6 from Shifangtang kiln site were also analyzed as reference materials. The factor analyses for the elemental compositions in the bodies and glazes of the total 72 porcelain shards have been performed to explore their similarities and differences. Combining the results of factor analyses on elements in bodies and glazes and the classification by traditional archaeological criteria, the provenances for most of shards unearthed from Yongjinwan zone in Jinsha site could be determined. Majority of shards with a Qiong-kiln style were found as products of Liulichang kiln, this is consistent with Yongjinwan's geographical location and social environment, i.e., Yongjinwan was a suburban settlement nearest to Liulichang kiln in ancient times. Although both products of Liulichang kiln and Shifangtang kiln belonged to Qiong-kiln system and they shared a similar appearance such as red body and celadon glaze, there were distinct differences in chemical composition which could be unraveled by PIXE-RBS measurements and factor analysis. There were no apparent differences of chemical compositions for the same kinds of body and glaze between Tang and Song Dynasties, which may suggest that raw materials and production techniques for the same kinds of body and glaze continued between Tang and Song Dynasties. The chemical characteristics for each kind of body and glaze and the correlations between element composition and porcelain appearance were also obtained in this work.
Derryberry, Elizabeth P
In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos
The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fonseca Del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Valle Alonso, Joaquin; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa
To examine the effectiveness of a "cardiopulmonary resuscitation song" in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), F(1,120)=16.644, p=0.000). In addition, significant differences about students' basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest.
Cassandra M Martin
Full Text Available Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences.
Full Text Available This article takes as its point of departure 'Love Song of Kangding '(康定情歌, ''a romantic film from fall 2010 which propagandizes the positive consequences of the liberation of Tibetan cultural areas by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA in 1950-51. The article describes how the film fit into a semester-long course on contemporary Tibet taught to American students in Chengdu, Sichuan, and the particular sensitivities and difficulties relating to learning about Tibetan history in China. ''
Meutia, Zara Firsty; Asib, Abdul; Rais, Ahmad Dahlan
The study is aimed to find out the correlation between habit in listening to English songs, vocabulary mastery, and listening skill of the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 3 Surakarta in the academic year of 2012/2013; both partially and simultaneously. This study used a test and a questionnaire. The population of the study is all of the tenth grade students while the sample is 30 students taken by cluster random sampling technique. The techniques used to analyze the data are simple and mul...
Kavallakis, George; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios
This paper presents a scheme of creating an emotion index of cover song music video clips by recognizing and classifying facial expressions of the artist in the video. More specifically, it fuses effective and robust algorithms which are employed for expression recognition, along with the use...... of a neural network system using the features extracted by the SIFT algorithm. Also we support the need of this fusion of different expression recognition algorithms, because of the way that emotions are linked to facial expressions in music video clips....
Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau
The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... development sedimentation rate outpaced the formation of accommodation space and fluvial activity increased again. During periods when the general sedimentation rate was in balance with the creation of accommodation space the environment changed frequently between lake deposition and intermittent vigorous...
Patricia Shehan Campbell
Full Text Available What causes some children to want to play a musical instrument? Why do some children always have melodies running through their heads? In her book, Songs in Their Heads: Music and Its Meaning in subChildren’s Lives, Patricia Campbell addresses these types of questions while exploring how children of diverse ages, classes, and cultures use music in their daily lives, how ethnomusicology, the study of music through cultural influences, shape their musical experiences, and how recent advancements in technology and the influence of popular culture affect their musical choices.
Skey, Michael; Kyriakidou, Maria; McCurdy, Patrick
, in particular, notes how this shaped responses to a controversial incident involving the Russian entry. While those with an ongoing interest, including organizers and fans, tended to emphasize personal narratives and individual freedom of expression, mainstream media and audiences adopted a far more cynical...... addresses this lacuna with reference to the biggest nonsporting live TV event in the world, the Eurovision Song Contest. Drawing on data from the 2014 competition in Copenhagen, Denmark, it examines the varying levels of commitment to the event among organizers, fans, broadcasters, and journalists and...
Phillips, Carolyn; Welcer, Barbara
When caring for patients with cancer, a number of situations arise that cause nurses to grieve. Nurses need time and space to grieve to prevent the untoward effects of cumulative grief. While providing a safe space for nurses to be vulnerable in grief, Songs for the Soul combines the healing effects of expressive writing, storytelling, and music to help nurses address the grief and suffering they experience in their work. The use of storytelling through music portrays an expression of their grief that matches the intensity of their caregiving experience.
Full Text Available In the context of the worldwide globalization processes the issues pertaining to the quest for national identity acquire a particular signifi cance. This is true in the case of Ukraine as a newly independent state in the establishment and consolidation phase. In the conditions marked by a general obliteration of folk customs and traditions it is folk amateur choirs/gatherings (hurts that often become vehicles of folk culture. This study presents rare records of traditional Ukrainian songs, some of them dating back to the 19th century, which the author made in the course of several field trips.
Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the appreciation of music among the Benin, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It investigates how concepts such as folk and popular song, music, noise, speech and sound find their relevant expression and place in the socio-cultural, economic, moral and even psychological setting of the Benin world. Finally, it is discovered that a conceptual approach is crucial, not only to the situation of the Benin oral literary values within a Western ideological context, but also in the facilitation of an objective evaluation of critical aspects of the life of people.
Full Text Available This article deals with the French translation and performed covers of Bob Dylan songs, with a view to setting forth the general rules of adapting songs into another language. Using a large number of examples, this article first explains the difference between covering and translating, which is first and foremost a matter of meter and scansion. The article then explores two approaches to “faithfulness”: one can either be faithful to the sound of the initial *words* or to the *meaning*. What is at stake here is the concept of distance: we need intercessors, but still want them removed from the picture. Rather than creators, the singers covering foreign songs have to be considered as transmitters. That is why most of those efforts, whatever their commercial success, often fail to impress as genuine works of art.
Abdul Azis Turhan Kariko
Full Text Available Rage against the Machine is known for their politics as well as their music, which the later helped creating an aggressive-heavy rock-rap genre. Article presents a song by Rage against the Machine band related to ideological movement in America, titled Sleep Now in the Fire. This effort brings an understanding of ideology that is embraced by the band. The method is through literature study. Presentation begins with a short biography of the band, theoretical concepts, and analysis of the song as well its music video. It is concluded that the song represents ideological criticism toward capitalism using Marxism. Both of these lyric and music video represents Marxism as it shares the same movement to fight capitalism—which in this case, Rage against the Machine is using their music, lyric, and video to fight the crime against humanity and cultural imperialism.
By comparing the Song edition of Shang Han Lun with that of the pre -Song period, it is claimed that the original order of this book was not arranged on the sequence of 3- yin and 3- yang. Instead, it is arranged on the sequence of indications and contraindications of diaphoresis, emesis, purgation. During the process of its circulation, it was separated into two stems of circulated edition, the Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yu Han Jing, and the system of 3- yin and 3- yang, order of entries diagnosis based on differentiation of 6 channels, and polish of languages were completed during the process of its circulation. The edition collated by Lin Yi of the Song dynasty was the one circulated until today.
Originally, Shang Han Lun in the Song edition referred to the Shang Han Lun with large and small Chinese characters printed in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, its only edition of Shang Han Lun with small Chinese characters was again block-printed in Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Works) by Zhao Keimei and then the original one disappeared. So the Shang Han Lun in Zhong Jing Quan Shu was considered as the Song edition. Only 6 sets were in existence in the world, and were read by myself; I have detailed records and photos of 5 of them. The article is the result of textual research on Shang Han Lun of Zhong Jing Quan Shu preserved in Taiwan National Palace Museum.
Bridle, J R; Saldamando, C I; Koning, W; Butlin, R K
The grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus and Chorthippus jacobsi are highly differentiated for male mating signals, and form a mosaic hybrid zone in northern Spain. At some sites within this zone, many hybrids are observed. At others, few hybrids are observed. Such bimodal sites may reflect recent contacts between parental genotypes, or local variation in levels of assortative mating or selection against hybrids. Playback of 12 parental and F1 male songs to 296 parental and hybrid females revealed positive assortative preferences in C. brunneus and C. jacobsi females, supporting a direct role of male mating signals in female choice. However, all female genotypic classes showed reduced responsiveness to F1 male songs. Such sexual selection against hybrids is consistent with the narrow cline width observed in the field for song characters relative to morphology. These results have implications for the genetic structure of the hybrid zone and for models of speciation by reinforcement.
Herman, Louis M
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are seasonal breeders, annually migrating from high-latitude summer feeding grounds to low-latitude winter breeding grounds. The social matrix on the winter grounds is a loose network of interacting individuals and groups and notably includes lone males that produce long bouts of complex song that collectively yield an asynchronous chorus. Occasionally, a male will sing while accompanying other whales. Despite a wealth of knowledge about the social matrix, the full characterization of the mating system remains unresolved, without any firm consensus, as does the function of song within that system. Here, I consider and critically analyse three proposed functions of song that have received the most attention in the literature: female attraction to individual singers, determining or facilitating male-male interactions, and attracting females to a male aggregation within the context of a lekking system. Female attraction suggests that humpback song is an advertisement and invitation to females, but field observations and song playback studies reveal that female visits to individual singers are virtually absent. Other observations suggest instead that females might convey their presence to singers (or to other males) through the percussive sounds of flipper or tail slapping or possibly through vocalizations. There is some evidence for male-male interactions, both dominance and affiliative: visits to singers are almost always other lone males not singing at that time. The joiner may be seeking a coalition with the singer to engage cooperatively in attempts to obtain females, or may be seeking to disrupt the song or to affirm his dominance. Some observations support one or the other intent. However, other observations, in part based on the brevity of most pairings, suggest that the joiner is prospecting, seeking to determine whether the singer is accompanying a female, and if not soon departs. In the lekking hypothesis, the
Xing, F.; Meselhe, E. A.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D.
Two- and three-dimensional Delft3D Flow and Morphology models were constructed for the lower Song Hau distributary channel of the Mekong River in Vietnam to provide insights into the hydrodynamics and sand transport of the channel system. The models were calibrated and validated with data for observed water level, water discharge, velocity, and suspended-sand concentration during the high- and low-flow seasons of 2014 and 2015. The water and sand budgets of the Dinh An and Tran De channels, the two sub-distributaries of the lower Song Hau channel, were calculated, showing that 73% of the fluvial water discharge and 90% of suspended sand were transported through the Dinh An channel, while the rest was transported through the Tran De channel in the high-flow season. In the low-flow season, the total fluvial water discharge was saltwater intrusion issue in the lower Song Hau channel.
Meti?n Teki?n, Bilge; Isisag, Korkut Uluç
With the expansion of communication in the globalised world, translation has gained importance all over the world. Books, articles, magazines have been translated for over years. A new field in translation is song translation. The aim of the study is to analyze translation strategies that are applied in the translation process of songs in Walt…
Hosemann, Aimee J.
This dissertation explores the way Kotiria/Wanano (E. Tukanoan, Kotiria hereafter) women of the Brazilian "Alto Rio Negro" (ARN) contrive (McDowell 1990) "kaya basa" "sad songs" using linguistic and musical resources to construct songs that express loneliness and other private emotions, while also creating alliances…
Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran
Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…
Full Text Available Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced adult EFL learners based on their gender. In so doing a language placement test (Quick Oxford Placement Test was administered to 100 male and female language learners studying English at different language institutes in Esfahan, Iran. Ultimately, 60 advanced learners (30 males - 30 females were selected by leaving out the students of other levels of proficiency and randomly divided into two relatively homogenous groups as musical and non-musical groups. While the students of musical group (=30 were taught the new vocabulary in the syllabus through 60 different pop songs chosen by themselves through a questionnaire, the students of the non-musical group (n=30 were taught new vocabulary without using the songs. The participants were examined based on an English vocabulary test developed by the researchers, which probed into the learners’ vocabulary recall. A questionnaire was also used to investigate the attitude of the learners towards the instruction. A month later the vocabulary test was re-administered as a delayed retention test and obtained data were statistically analyzed. The results of t-tests demonstrated that the musical group outscored the non-musical group on vocabulary recall and retention. The results also showed the male learners perform better than the females. Keywords: incidental vocabulary, pop songs, vocabulary recall, attitude, retention
Chakravorty, Samya; Tanner, Bertrand C W; Foelber, Veronica Lee; Vu, Hien; Rosenthal, Matthew; Ruiz, Teresa; Vigoreaux, Jim O
The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain ( fln ΔN62 ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission. Moreover, we show that fln ΔN62 males produced an abnormal courtship song characterized by a higher sine song frequency and a pulse song with longer pulses and longer inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), the latter implicated in male reproductive success. When presented with a choice, wild-type females chose control males over mutant males in 92% of the competition events. These results demonstrate that flightin N-terminal domain is required for optimal myofilament lattice regularity and IFM activity, enabling powered flight and courtship song production. As the courtship song is subject to female choice, we propose that the low amino acid sequence conservation of the N-terminal domain reflects its role in fine-tuning species-specific courtship songs. © 2017 The Author(s).
Anderson, Chad M; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Kruger, Taneshka; McNeill, Fraser
In 2015, malaria infected over 212 million people and killed over 429,000 individuals, mostly children under 5 years of age, with 90% of malaria cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim was to develop an age and culturally appropriate song for Tshivenda-speaking children under 5 years of age to decrease the risk of malaria in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Document review was used to identify appropriate disease determinants to decrease risk in children develop lyrics and music for a song about malaria in line with the principles of participatory risk analysis. The age and cultural appropriateness of the song as well as disease determinants chosen were reviewed using a modified Delphi technique, by 10 purposively selected experts in malaria (4), Vhavenda music (3) and early childhood education (3). Thereafter, the song was translated into Tshivenda and reviewed by two focus groups living in the study area, one including female caregivers and pre-school teachers (n = 7) and a second comprising of male community based malaria control personnel (n = 5). The experts surveyed and both focus groups strongly supported the inclusion of knowledge about the link between mosquitoes and malaria and that children should know the signs of malaria to facilitate early diagnosis. Although the expert group felt that bed nets should not be mentioned, both focus groups suggested the inclusion of bed nets and it was observed that community members were purchasing their own nets. Focus group members also felt that young children should not be involved in internal residual spraying initiatives. It was concluded that although risk communication on malaria prevention and treatment in young children should be aimed at caregivers, an age and culture appropriate song about malaria could be developed to help young children protect themselves. This song focused on understanding the link between mosquitoes and malaria, preventing exposure and recognising signs of disease.
Lill Tove Fredriksen
Full Text Available The article is a literary analysis of the satirical Sámi folk-song ”Elveland”. The song about about the road man, forester and river attendant Elveland on the west side of the municipality of Porsanger was made in the beginning of the 1900s, as a form of revenge on the part of the local community because he would not let them cut as much firewood as they needed. With irony as an important device, the text serves as a meeting point for dialogues between different voices, and where power relations and the political nature of cultural identity is revealed.
The song was submitted to CERN Courier by Danuta Orlowska, a clinical psychologist with Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in London. It is written to be sung to the tune of The Hippopotamus Song, by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, which will be well known to many British readers. On 3 February, members of the CERN choir gathered to give a rendition in the CERN Control Centre – the nerve centre of the LHC, which lies at the heart of the lyrics.
Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila
Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism.
Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R
There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect.
Full Text Available This article examines how music functions as social commentary on a group’s lived experience and as a tool to inform identity. Music is a data source that articulates historical and cultural contexts and can thus be utilized as social commentary to socially construct the identity of people of African ancestry and descent. The "sorrow songs" are the music genre created by slaves in the American South and were considered by W. E. B. Du Bois as the most important historical narrative for African Americans. In comparison, the more contemporary "mbira music" or Chimeranga (rebellion songs of Thomas Mapfumo, led the liberation struggle against colonialism in Zimbabwe. His music played a journalistic role in communicating with the masses. Several theoretical perspectives were employed in this study which included Du Bois’ inductive, empirical framework for the study of "the Negro problems"; Georg Simmel’s perspective on the role of music in society; Berger and Luckmann’s social construction of reality; and O'Shaughnessy and Stadler's social construction of the media. This paper uses content analysis to analyze the musical lyrics of both genres. These musical forms shed light on Du Bois' understanding of the veil and double consciousness within the African American experience and Zimbabwe's struggle for liberation respectively. Points of intersection between the two genres provide insight into how music creates knowledge and constructs social reality.
Full Text Available In the Jewish tradition, the Tu Bishvat, or “Festivity of the Trees”, at the end of January is the occasion to challenge the harshness of winter, celebrate nature’s vitality and fruitfulness, and to admire the articulate relationship between man and environment. All those aspects, related to the mythical and spiritual concept of the sacredness of the Land of Israel, are rooted in an antique tradition expressed in Deuteronomy: 20, 19 “When thou shalt besiege a city […], thou shalt not destroy the trees”. A similar concept is announced hundreds years later in a mysterious text, called Perek Shira, imbedded as part of the Tu Bishvat synagogue recitation. At the beginning of the 19th century, the famous Hassidic Rebbe, Nachman from Breslav, meditated intensely about the insolvable bonds existing between human being and the plant’s world. In his book Likkutei Moharan he persuades his disciples: “You should know that every plant and plant/ has its own and specific melody”. In the seventies, this Nigun becomes a very popular and beloved song by the talented Israeli chansonnière Naomi Shemer, born in kibbutz Degania, near the Lake of Galilee. The song is sung in public, at the Shabbat table, in religious and secular occasions, embracing biblical memory, spiritual history and a new musical approach.
Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane; Robertson, Jeremy; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert
Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism using the acoustical cues of brood parasites in the absence of visual stimuli. We broadcast the playback of song of three brood parasites (Chalcites cuckoo species) and a sympatric non-parasite (striated thornbill, Acanthiza lineata) in the territories of superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the peak breeding period and opportunistic breeding period. The three cuckoo species differ in brood parasite prevalence and the probability of detection by the host, which we used to rank the risk of parasitism (high risk, moderate risk, low risk). Host birds showed the strongest response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism in accordance with the risk of parasitism. Resident wrens had many alarm calls and close and rapid approach to the playback speaker that was broadcasting song of the high risk brood parasite (Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo, C. basalis) across the year (peak and opportunistic breeding period), some response to the moderate risk brood parasite (shining bronze-cuckoo, C. lucidus) during the peak breeding period, and the weakest response to the low risk brood parasite (little bronze-cuckoo, C. minutillus). Playback of the familiar control stimulus in wren territories evoked the least response. Host response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism was assessed using vocal cues of the cuckoo and was predicted by the risk of future parasitism.
Mathevon, Nicolas; Dabelsteen, Torben; Blumenrath, Sandra H.
Birds often sing from high perches referred to as song posts. However, birds also listen and keep a lookout from these perches. We used a sound transmission experiment to investigate the changes for receiving and sending conditions that a territorial songbird may experience by moving upwards in the vegetation. Representative song elements of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla were transmitted in a forest habitat in spring using a complete factorial design with natural transmission distances and speaker and microphone heights. Four aspects of sound degradation were quantified: signal-to-noise ratio, excess attenuation, distortion within the sounds determined as a blur ratio, and prolongation of the sounds with ``tails'' of echoes determined as a tail-to-signal ratio. All four measures indicated that degradation decreased with speaker and microphone height. However, the decrease was considerably higher for the microphone than for the speaker. This suggests that choosing high perches in a forest at spring results in more benefits to blackcaps in terms of improved communication conditions when they act as receivers than as senders. .
Falk, Simone; Kello, Christopher T
Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech. Events were defined as peaks in the amplitude envelope, and clusters of various sizes related to periods of acoustic speech energy at varying timescales. Infant-directed speech and song clearly showed greater event clustering compared with adult-directed registers, at multiple timescales of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. We discuss the relation of this newly discovered acoustic property to temporal variability in linguistic units and its potential implications for parent-infant communication and infants learning the hierarchical structures of speech and language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morten Krogh Petersen
Full Text Available As economic and budgetary scandals reached Danish front pages in 2014 over the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC held that year in Copenhagen, many bystanders questioned the sense of the event, proclaiming it a massive waste of public money. In this article, we introduce the concept of "potlatch" to explore the valuation and values of this event, seeing it as a "total social phenomenon" in which more than merely economic matters are at stake. Framing Eurovision as a cross-sectoral innovation project, we show how a wide array of actors from the public and private sector collaboratively sought to turn the event into "much more than a song contest." This "much more" is investigated by describing the partnering actors' arduous work to create value through different project logics. Where other valuations of the event put little work into bringing forth values which transgress the realm of the economic and quantifiable, we argue that a more caring engagement enacts non-economic event outcomes usually made invisible or, at best, perceived as "intangible."
Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf
We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anna Victoria Kasdan
Full Text Available Introduction: Many patients with aphasia, particularly those with nonfluent aphasia, have been observed to be able to sing the lyrics of songs more easily than they can speak the same words (Wan et al., 2010. The observation that not only singing, but even intoning words, can facilitate speech output in nonfluent aphasia patients provided the foundation for Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT; Sparks, 1974, an intensive therapy lasting ten or more weeks (Schlaug et al., 2008. The current study aims to look at patients with aphasia in their ability to complete song lyrics by either singing, speaking, or humming them. Methods: Thus far, 11 patients with aphasia and 6 age- matched healthy controls have participated in an experimental stem-completion task examining singing abilities. The task consists of three conditions each consisting of 20 well-known songs and all participants completed all three conditions. Participants heard the first half of a phrase that was either sung in its original format (e.g., “Mary had a Little Lamb”, spoken, or intoned on the syllable “bum”, and were asked to complete the phrase according to the format in which the stimulus was presented, (i.e., either by singing, speaking the words, or humming/singing the melody correspondingly. The task was untimed, though most finished the task within an hour. Each participant completed a survey about their musical experience. Results: Patients were scored on their ability to complete the melody and words together in the sung condition, only the words in the spoken condition, and only the tune of the song in the melody condition. A parametric t-test indicated no significant difference between groups in the sung condition (mean patients=45.3%, mean controls=68.2%, t-value= -1.96, p=0.0684, though this test almost reached significance. There was also no significant difference between groups in the melody condition (mean patients= 18.2%, mean controls=20.0%, t-value= -0.335, p=0
The article examines two forms of public pedagogies in a rural region of Southwest China-tourism and ethnic songs-to illustrate their contested roles in transforming local relations with natural and built environment. While tourism development daily alters the village landscape by spatial intervention, demolition, and construction, the…
Deckman, Sherry L.
In recounting the history and present dynamics in the Kuumba Singers of Harvard College, Sherry Deckman presents a portrait of what it means to leave a space better than you found it through song. The story of Kuumba--Harvard's oldest black student organization and now its largest multicultural organization--is told through the experiences of…
Simons, Mirre J.P.; Verhulst, Simon
Male zebra finches display multiple secondary sexual traits such as song and red bill coloration. This color is dependent on carotenoids, which enhance immune function and are antioxidants. A red bill may thus function as an indicator signal. The zebra finch is extensively used in the study of
Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold
Decoding the neural basis of behaviour requires analysing how the nervous system is organised and how the temporal structure of motor patterns emerges from its activity. The stereotypical patterns of the calling song behaviour of male crickets, which consists of chirps and pulses, is an ideal model to study this question. We applied selective lesions to the abdominal nervous system of field crickets and performed long-term acoustic recordings of the songs. Specific lesions to connectives or ganglia abolish singing or reliably alter the temporal features of the chirps and pulses. Singing motor control appears to be organised in a modular and hierarchically fashion, where more posterior ganglia control the timing of the chirp pattern and structure and anterior ganglia the timing of the pulses. This modular organisation may provide the substrate for song variants underlying calling, courtship and rivalry behaviour and for the species-specific song patterns in extant crickets. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dillman, Adler R; Cronin, Christopher J; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A; Sternberg, Paul W
Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species, such as Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos 1894, are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semipermanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps, we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations.
Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT), many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT's listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn…
Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 289-303 ISSN 0350-0861 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Folklore and creativity * song composing * inovation and revitalization of tradition * cultural heritage * folklore movement * folk revival movement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Folklore studies
Goering, Christian Z.; Wei, Huang
In 2009 Rupke and Blank noted that the Chinese students in their study sang American songs that the researchers had never heard. This perceived dissonance could have a multitude of causes, but the authors of this article turned their attention to the curriculum used for teaching English in China to further understand the popularity and persistence…
Ashtiani, Farshid Tayari; Derakhshesh, Ali
This paper is a corpus-based comparative discourse analysis of top fifty pop English and Persian song lyrics in 2014 to investigate the production of four figures of speech including metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole. The English corpus was compiled from the End-Year 2014 Chart of Billboard and the Persian corpus was complied from…
Coulter, Susan J.
Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)
Valdecy de Oliveira Pontes
Full Text Available We hereby present a didactic approach for the teaching of Castilian pronouns tú / vos / usted, based on songs from different Spanish-speaking regions. Our debate, focused on the pedagogical context, is based on the Labovian Sociolinguistic theoretical principles as well as on official documents addressing teaching subjects.---Original in Spanish.
Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles
Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.
Full Text Available Noise pollution has a strong impact on wildlife by disrupting vocal communication or inducing physiological stress. Songbirds are particularly reliant on vocal communication as they use song during territorial and sexual interactions. Birds living in noisy environments have been shown to change the acoustic and temporal parameters of their song presumably to maximize signal transmissibility. Also, research shows that birds advance their dawn chorus in urban environments to avoid the noisiest hours, but little is known on the consequences of these changes in the time they spent singing at dawn. Here we present a comprehensive view of the European blackbird singing behavior living next to a large airport in Madrid, using as a control a population living in a similar but silent forest. Blackbird song is composed of two parts: a series of loud low-frequency whistles (motif and a final flourish (twitter. We found that airport blackbirds were more likely to sing songs without the twitter part. Also, when songs included a twitter part, airport blackbirds used a smaller proportion of song for the twitter than control blackbirds. Interestingly, our results show no differences in song frequency between airport and control populations. However airport blackbirds not only sang earlier but also increased the time they spent singing when chorus and aircraft traffic overlapped on time. This effect disappeared as the season progressed and the chorus and the aircraft traffic schedule were separated on time. We propose that the typical urban upshift in frequency might not be useful under the noise conditions and landscape structure found near airports. We suggest that the modifications in singing behavior induced by aircraft noise may be adaptive and that they are specific to airport acoustic habitat. Moreover, we found that adjustment of singing activity in relation to noise is plastic and possibly optimized to cope with aircraft traffic activity. In a
Whitten, Shannon Nicole
The primary goal of this dissertation was to examine whether variations in the complexity of texts, readers, and tasks have a systematic influence on the comprehension, memory, and appreciation of texts. A second purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether the same relationships exists across different genres of text, specifically song lyrics and science texts. In two experiments, variations in the complexity of three dimensions of the reading process served as independent variables. These were the number interpretations that readers were instructed to generate per text (i.e., instruction), the cognitive flexibility of the reader (cognitive flexibility), and text clarity (clarity). Three dependent measures were assessed: reading times, memory, and appreciation of the texts. Four theoretical positions were tested: the encoding variability hypothesis, script theories, the polyvalence assumption, and the construction-integration model. Predictions were derived from these theoretical positions and tested empirically. The two experiments used a 3 (instruction) x 2 (cognitive flexibility) x 2 (text clarity) factorial design to test the theoretical predictions. Experiment 1 was conducted with song lyrics as stimuli, whereas Experiment 2 tested scientific texts. The three levels of instruction were (1) no instructions on producing interpretations (no-interpretation condition), (2) produce one interpretation (single-interpretation condition), and (3) produce as many interpretations as possible (many-interpretation condition). There were two levels of cognitive flexibility: high versus low. Participants were categorized into high vs. low flexibility based on a composite of three measures: The Adult Torrance Test Abbreviated, Epistemological Belief Scale, and Openness portion of the NEO personality inventory (Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Openness). There were two levels of text clarity: clear versus unclear. The results revealed that text clarity was the most
Full Text Available This study concerns the relationship between verbal and musical components of Serbian epic songs with rhythm seen as a morphological dominant. My aim is to enrich the musicological inquiry of this issue and provide a contribution that complements existing folkloristic and philological research outcomes. In terms of methodology, the study promotes the necessity of recording the performers’ recited versions of songs for the purposes of investigating the relationships between verbal and musical communication, as well as an interdisciplinary approach to these issues. Two paradigmatic examples are examined, each performed by the guslar representative of his respective period of guslar practice: Tanasije Vućić (1883-1937 and Boško Vujačić (b. 1947. The observed periods span less than one century, yielding an insignificant passage of time in terms of epic historicism, but nonetheless indicate significant differences between these two guslars’ sung and narrated rhythms. Compared to Vujačić, Vućić’s singing demonstrates a considerably smaller range of the absolute duration of the sung syllables (and therefore of an entire verse, and subsequently a much stricter syllabicity. Furthermore, Vućić’s singing reflects the ideal type of “isochronous pulse in duple meter” in a rather high degree, while Vujačić more consistently refers to narration, whereas the trochaic tendency is noticeable only at the initial part of the verse. The connections between these focused individual styles are discussed through the lens of guslars’ transition from amateur to professional capacity and the changed function of epics. Considering the consequences of the policy of invalid representation and experiencing epic song as poetry (void of musical component, and on the other hand, the effects of the strategy insistent on “citatory” (verbatim treatment of poetic templates that leads to suppressing poetic creativity, I intend to draw attention of the
Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight how inspirational the figure of Nelson Mandela has been for several musicians and songwriters. In particular, it focuses on songs written by Western musicians from the early Eighties until 2013 – all showing the extent to which the South African leader has epitomized the struggle for equality and freedom. This study points out how the success of a hit single in 1984 – British ska group The Special AKA’s “Free Nelson Mandela” – paved the way for a quick increase in the number of musicians who got involved in the anti-apartheid movement and contributed to make Western audiences know about Mandela and increasingly demand that apartheid be put to an end. This survey seeks to examine the main achievements in pop-rock songs that generated both from the growing awareness about the South African leader’s experience when he was imprisoned, and the legacy of his exemplum after he was set free. Among the songs cited: Simple Minds’ “Mandela Day”, the various artists’ tribute “46664” and the most recent Golden Globe-awarded “Ordinary Love” by U2, written for the soundtrack of the biopic The Long Walk to Freedom. To better understand how the figure of Mandela has been addressed in these works, the paper includes analyses of the most complex and significant lyrics among the songs discussed, thus also showing how the South African cultural background as it was received by the West could have informed the songwriting, and how the Western reception of such songs determined an increasing awareness about Mandela’s plight and the whole phenomenon of apartheid.
Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.
Soma, Masayo; Mori, Chihiro
Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora), a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.
Jenny M. James
in which he defines “errantry” as a fundamental characteristic of diaspora that resists the claustrophobic, filial violence and territorial dispossession that are slavery’s legacies. Baldwin represents errant kinship in JAMH through his inclusion of music and formal experimentation. Departing from previous scholarship that reads JAMH as emblematic of the author’s artistic decline, I interpret the novel’s numerous syntactic and figurative experiments as offering new formal insight into his portrait of brotherly love. Baldwin’s integration of two distinctive leitmotifs, blood and song, is therefore read as a formal gesture toward a more capacious and migratory kinship.
Morakeng E.K. Lebaka
Full Text Available The Bapedi is an ethnic group in South Africa whose traditional music is not well documented. For this article, 31 traditional Pedi religious songs from 11 elderly Bapedi women in Sekhukhune, Limpopo Province, South Africa were collected and analysed. They were analysed using religious, musicological and contextual perspectives, and two choruses were selected. Eight Sepedi-speaking children from a school choir at Baxoxele Primary School in Soshanguve were observed whilst learning these two choruses. Repetition was used as a powerful, rhetorical and expressive device, skilfully employed to express and internalise faith and to impart dominant emotions. Informal discussions with teachers indicated that the children showed an improvement in their concentration and attitude to schoolwork. Learning these two choruses also unlocked some creative talent and improved their social skills. The joyous nature, rhythmic foundation, harmonic simplicity, and combination of intellect and emotion as well as the repetitiveness and briefness of these songs appealed to both children and adults. It was concluded that for the preservation of traditional Pedi religious music and culture there is an urgent need for the collection and documentation of traditional Pedi religious songs. In recognising their identity, such songs could contribute to the attitudes and cultural values of Sepedi-speaking children. Similar projects are suggested for the other 10 language groups in South Africa. Analisering van tradisionele godsdienstige Pedi-liedere vir gebruik in die laerskoolkurrikulum. Die Bapedi is ’n etniese groep in Suid-Afrika wie se tradisionele musiek nie goedgedokumenteer is nie. Vir hierdie artikel is 31 tradisionele godsdienstige Pedi-liedere van 11 bejaarde Bapedi vroue in Sekhukhune, Limpopo Provinsie, Suid-Afrika, ingesamel en ontleed.Hierdie liedere is volgens godsdienstige, musiekwetenskaplike en kontekstuele perspektiewe ontleed en twee kore uit die liedere
Full Text Available Despite the fact that Keats’s “Song of four faeries” received very little critical attention, the poem raises interesting issues regarding the creative and destructive forces in nature. The poem presents a conversation between the four elemental faeries about union and separation. Using Empedocles’ four-element theory of creation and change in nature as framework, this article explores through close reading how the form and content of the poem mirror creative and destructive natural processes. It concludes that both Empedocles’ concepts “philia” (the creative force, and “neikos” (the destructive force, feature in both form and content, but that “philia” is more prevalent in the form, whereas “neikos” is expressed mostly in the content of the poem. Furthermore, the natural changes presented in the poem suggest themselves in the form of the poem before they become evident in its content.
centuries, is an essential element of Cretan culture and identity. In the following pages, I will provide an analysis of this Cretan musical repertoire based on the data I collected over my Erasmus period of research and study in Rethymno. I will further draw on the research of Roberto Leydi and Tullia......According to the Cretans, the genre of the rizìtiko song is the most important of the western part of Crete. In addition, the singing of the mandinàdhes is a symbolic process which bonds men and the landscape together. This particular kind of musical practice, today as well as over the past...... Magrini, i.e. two Italian ethnomusicologists who thirty years ago led important research on the vocal and instrumental music of Crete. Moreover, I have taken into consideration the most recent and detailed contribution of the Cretan ethnomusicologist Maria Hnaràki. In addition, I discuss the results...
LIBU LAKHI (LI JIANFU 李建富, DAWA TENZIN ཟླ་བ་བསྟན་འཛིན།
Full Text Available The present study is a straightforward, pragmatic attempt to document the particulars of na53 mi53 song and musical traditions comprising the local 'performance-scape'. The primary researcher, Libu Lakhi, is a native of the community who was trained in a specialized mode of auto-ethnography developed by Charles Kevin Stuart and Gerald Roche at Qinghai Normal University 青海师范大学, Xining City 西宁市, Qinghai Province 青海省. Drawing on ethnomusicology, socio-linguistics, and the 'performance' school of folkloristics, the model is intended to enable local peoples to document and display their own traditions in a form available to scholars and interested persons on a global scale.
Mónica Duarte Romero
Full Text Available This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind of activities thus giving students the opportunity to learn in a fun way during their first years of learning a foreign language. As a result of this research project, we found that learners could pronounce many words freely and accurately in a non-threatening environment. Students acquired new vocabulary and, the most important aspect, they were motivated to learn English.
Skingley, Ann; Bungay, Hilary
Attention has recently been drawn to the contribution of the arts, and of singing in particular, to health and wellbeing. This article describes a qualitative research project which aimed to gain participants' views of taking part in Silver Song Clubs--community-based singing groups for older people. Seventeen individuals aged 60-plus from six clubs were interviewed and a number of benefits were identified. These included: enjoyment; better mental health and wellbeing; increased social interaction; improvements in physical health; cognitive stimulation and learning; and improved memory and recall. It is suggested that such benefits sit well within a model of health relevant to older people themselves. Community nurses working with this age group might consider including an assessment for interest in musical and related activities, and also should be aware of any local initiatives into which individuals can be referred.
Wanamaker, C E; Reznikoff, M
The differences between hostility scores on projective and objective tests as a function of listening to aggressive or nonaggressive rock music were studied. While taking the Thematic Apperception Test (Cards 1, 3BM, 4, 9BM, and 10) and the Buss-Durkee (1957) Hostility Scale, subjects (N = 90) randomly assigned to one of three groups listened to a rock song with (a) nonaggressive music and nonaggressive lyrics, (b) aggressive music and nonaggressive lyrics, or (c) aggressive music and aggressive lyrics. TAT stories were scored for aggressive content according to Hafner and Kaplan's (1960) hostility rating scale. Hostility scores did not differ between groups. The findings are congruent with other investigators' reports that subjects do not pay attention to rock lyrics. Previous findings that music affects the emotional quality of TAT stories and hostility scores on the Buss-Durkee scale were not supported.
Full Text Available We recently presented a new model for singing synthesis based on a modified version of the WaveNet architecture. Instead of modeling raw waveform, we model features produced by a parametric vocoder that separates the influence of pitch and timbre. This allows conveniently modifying pitch to match any target melody, facilitates training on more modest dataset sizes, and significantly reduces training and generation times. Nonetheless, compared to modeling waveform directly, ways of effectively handling higher-dimensional outputs, multiple feature streams and regularization become more important with our approach. In this work, we extend our proposed system to include additional components for predicting F0 and phonetic timings from a musical score with lyrics. These expression-related features are learned together with timbrical features from a single set of natural songs. We compare our method to existing statistical parametric, concatenative, and neural network-based approaches using quantitative metrics as well as listening tests.
Full Text Available Gwen Pharis Ringwood (1910–1984 is one of the most eminent Canadian playwrights of the 20th century. In her drama Drum Song: An Indian Trilogy which consists of three parts: Maya (Lament for Harmonica, 1959, The Stranger (1971 and The Furies (1981 the author implements her knowledge of First Nations’ traditions and customs. Moreover, it is “in the lives of the Indian tribes [that] Gwen Ringwood had found an elemental struggle for survival that has produced conflicts comparable with those of Greek tragedy” (Perkyns 330. Such conflicts and elements characteristic of Greek tragedy find their place in this trilogy as well. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to analyse those elements, examine their function, the way and form in which they are presented in the trilogy. Keywords: Canada, drama, First Nations, Gwen Ringwood, tradition, tragedy, trilogy
Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L
The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Moore, R. Channing; Lee, Tyler; Theunissen, Frédéric E.
Given the extraordinary ability of humans and animals to recognize communication signals over a background of noise, describing noise invariant neural responses is critical not only to pinpoint the brain regions that are mediating our robust perceptions but also to understand the neural computations that are performing these tasks and the underlying circuitry. Although invariant neural responses, such as rotation-invariant face cells, are well described in the visual system, high-level auditory neurons that can represent the same behaviorally relevant signal in a range of listening conditions have yet to be discovered. Here we found neurons in a secondary area of the avian auditory cortex that exhibit noise-invariant responses in the sense that they responded with similar spike patterns to song stimuli presented in silence and over a background of naturalistic noise. By characterizing the neurons' tuning in terms of their responses to modulations in the temporal and spectral envelope of the sound, we then show that noise invariance is partly achieved by selectively responding to long sounds with sharp spectral structure. Finally, to demonstrate that such computations could explain noise invariance, we designed a biologically inspired noise-filtering algorithm that can be used to separate song or speech from noise. This novel noise-filtering method performs as well as other state-of-the-art de-noising algorithms and could be used in clinical or consumer oriented applications. Our biologically inspired model also shows how high-level noise-invariant responses could be created from neural responses typically found in primary auditory cortex. PMID:23505354