WorldWideScience

Sample records for television program temptation

  1. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  2. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  3. Modularization and Packaging of Public Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; And Others

    This report examines the changing relationship between public television programming and program distribution methods, and considers whether there is a need to change the design and packaging of some public television programming to respond to changes in the way the audience receives its programming as interactive cable systems, videocassettes,…

  4. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  5. Action for Children's Television; The First National Symposium on the Effect on Children of Television Programming and Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarson, Evelyn, Comp.

    Action for Children's Television (ACT) was organized to attempt to change the nature of television (TV) for children--to persuade TV networks that children are not miniature consumers, to encourage appropriate programming for children, and to eliminate commercialism. This report of the First National Symposium of ACT presents papers of…

  6. Teaching Program Evaluation on Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Keith; Steinhauser, Jim; Newman, Isadore

    This paper describes a five-session course entitled "Program Evaluation," which was taught via interactive television in the summer of 2002 to 68 doctoral and master's students in 5 of 6 locations throughout New Mexico. Students received a 4-hour lecture and then participated in off-line activities directed by the instructor. Problems in distance…

  7. Impact on Adults of Dramatized Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; And Others

    Psychosocial adaptations are sometimes affected by experiences that are ordinarily considered to be amusements. In 1974, a field study was undertaken by the Program on Psychosocial Adaptation and the Future to determine if it is possible to measure the effect of television on adult viewers. A sample of 260 couples, controlled for demographic…

  8. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  9. About Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  10. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  11. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  12. The Effects of Dubbing Versus Subtitling of Television Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Fattawi B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…

  13. 76 FR 23795 - Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    .... 110418247-1247-01] Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date AGENCY... receipt of applications for the Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program (Upgrade Program) will... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...

  14. 75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue...

  15. Parents of preschoolers’ usage of television program rating symbols and their protective ways from television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Banko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is detecting parent’s, who have 3-6 ages of children, knowledge and usage level of these systems, and their protective ways for TV. Research sample was formed by 130 mothers in qualiatative part of the study and 8 mothers in quantitative part of the study.  In this study, which include both quantitative and qualitative methods, semi-structured interview form and survey were used. For the evaluation of qualitative data, ANOVA and t-test were used. The relationship between parents’ awareness level and program rating symbols usage level was revealed by correlation analysis. The evaluation of quantitative data was carried out with content analysis. Findings show that participants mostly know television content rating systems except symbol used for negative behaviours. Moreover, usage level and children guidance level of participants are generally high. Participant’s education level was the only effective variable of the study. Post hoc test showed that  and their awareness and guidance level. After qualitative analyzes it is found that families use television on the purpose of entertainment and education. Parents thought that TV includes negative sample behaviors and parents protect their children from negative effects of TV by controlling their watching.

  16. Television and Violence: Implications of the Surgeon General's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John P.

    1973-01-01

    Reports studies concerning: (a) the characteristics of television program content; (b) the characteristics of the audience--Who watches what? For how long? and, (c) the potential impact of televised violence on the attitudes, values, and behavior of the viewer. (Author/JM)

  17. 75 FR 16763 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television...

  18. 75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number 84.295A] Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for... FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television...

  19. Virtual set on television. Analysis of the use of virtual set in the realization of a TV program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Esteban Galán Cubillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtual studio is a very recent phenomenon that emerged in the mid-90 'as an application of virtual reality to the television field. This article examines how virtual studio amending process of realizing television affecting their various stages of pre-production, production and post-production of a television program. This research has been carried out considering the impact in technology, creative and economic offered by the use of this technology. The field work that has been used to carry out this analysis has been on-line questionnaires and in-depth interviews with professionals who work with virtual scenery in Spain in public and private television channels with national and regional coverage.

  20. Television Programming for Children: A Report of the Children's Television Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan C.; And Others

    These two volumes of a 5-volume report on commercial broadcaster compliance with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 1974 policies on programming and advertising to children provide an overall analysis of children's television, as well as a detailed analysis of broadcast industry compliance. The first volume reviews the social, cognitive,…

  1. Television Programming: The "Boob Tube" Takes a Bum Rap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, John E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to test objectively one of the most prominent criticisms--that television programming is imitative and restrictive of viewer choice--in an effort to determine whether that criticism is legitimate. (Author/RK)

  2. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-10-01

    Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  3. Research on the Safe Broadcasting of Television Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing way of broadcasting and television monitoring has a lot of problems in China. On the basis of the signal technical indicators monitoring in the present broadcasting and television monitoring system, this paper further extends the function of the monitoring network in order to broaden the services of monitoring business and improve the effect and efficiency of monitoring work. The problem of identifying video content and channel in television and related electronic media is conquered at a low cost implementation way and the flexible technology mechanism. The coverage for video content and identification of the channel is expanded. The informative broadcast entries are generated after a series of video processing. The value of the numerous broadcast data is deeply excavated by using big data processing in order to realize a comprehensive, objective and accurate information monitoring for the safe broadcasting of television program.

  4. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  5. Critical Media Literacy: TV Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurie

    Television programming has a huge impact on the lives of children. This lesson focuses on the stereotypical and racial messages that are portrayed through television programming with a focus on situational comedies. During the four 45-minute lessons, grade 6-8 students will: analyze portrayals of different groups of people in the media;…

  6. Picking of foreign television formats by Czech televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Šopovová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...

  7. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  8. Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping on American Television Programs: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Harrison, Sheila K.

    The frequencies of specific types of verbal attractiveness stereotypes portrayed on television commercials and regular programs were determined in two studies. In the first, the 4,294 commercials aired between 8 and 10 p.m. on the 3 major networks were observed during a 7-day period in the spring of 1982. Statements related to attractiveness were…

  9. Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoord, Joost; de Groot, Vanja; van Son, Nic

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in most other European countries, closed captions for the deaf summarize texts rather than render them verbatim. Caption editors argue that in this way television viewers have enough time to both read the text and watch the program. They also claim that the meaning of the original message is properly conveyed. However, many…

  10. Physical Disability on Children's Television Programming: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Media representations of physical disability can influence the attitudes of child audiences. In the current study, the depiction of physical disability was analyzed in more than 400 episodes of children's television programming to better understand how media depict physical disability to children and, in turn, how exposure may…

  11. Violence in Children's Television Programming: Assessing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Smith, Stacy L.; Potter, W. James; Kunkel, Dale; Linz, Daniel; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Donnerstein, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the nature and extent of violence contained in television programming that targets children aged 12 and younger. Notes that the violence itself is just as likely to be glamorized in children's as in nonchildren's shows, but it is even more sanitized and more likely to be trivialized. Documents five subgenres of children's programming…

  12. "This program contains product placement": Effects of sponsorship disclosure on television viewers’ responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Television viewers are increasingly exposed to texts saying "This program contains product placement" or PP (short for product placement) logos incorporated in television programs. These so-called sponsorship disclosures aim to inform viewers about advertising that is embedded in television

  13. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  14. Does the television program connectedness explain the television viewership patterns in Pakistani housewives?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2012-01-01

    Media always helps to reveal the real face of the societies while it is also a source of entertainment besides portraying the various societal allegories to illuminate the various issues of various societies. This research aims at interrogating the viewership pattern of housewives while gauging and identifying the existence of any sort of relationship between the viewership and the connectedness of individuals (Housewives) with the TV programs. In order to interrogate the outlined relationshi...

  15. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  16. PERCEIVING THE CONTENT OF TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husejn Musić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous research, daily occurrences and an information perceived through the mass media indicate the complexity and topicality of problems considered in this paper, as well as the need of its' examination from several aspects, with the aim of identifying, preventing and overcoming the very frequent displays of unacceptable behavioural patterns in children and adolescents in their environment. More precisely stated, the television with its program content, information and messages, in addition to the family, educational institutions, and other factors has a large and responsible part, influencing both positively and negatively the quality of an entire educational process and development of children and adolescents

  17. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  18. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  19. Conflicts of assisted reproduction in the public sphere: an analysis in the agenda-setting on the television program Fantastico/Globo TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lívia Tallon Bozi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the role of massmedia in structuring the discussions in society about the advances in biotechnology and the possibilities of intervention in human reproduction. It analyzes the agenda-setting of the matter in the television program Fantastico, Globo TV, that motivated the public to comment about the right of the maternity in cases of egg donation and replacement uterus. The article indicates the complexity of the relationship of the public and private routing of personal conflicts but related to moral and ethical issues of the society, they need, because it, a broad and pluralistic debate in the public sphere.

  20. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  1. 75 FR 7370 - Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 [CG Docket No. 05-231; ET Docket No. 99-254; FCC 08-255] Closed Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television... Captioning of Video Programming; Closed Captioning Requirements for Digital Television Receivers, Declaratory...

  2. The depiction of protective eyewear use in popular television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Robert; Slade, Martin; Mayer, Hylton

    2011-04-01

    Media portrayal of health related activities may influence health related behaviors in adult and pediatric populations. This study characterizes the depiction of protective eyewear use in the scripted television programs most viewed by the age group that sustains the largest proportion of eye injuries. Viewership ratings data were acquired to assemble a list of the 24 most-watched scripted network broadcast programs for the 13-year-old to 45-year-old age group. The six highest average viewership programs that met the exclusion criteria were selected for analysis. Review of 30 episodes revealed a total of 258 exposure scenes in which an individual was engaged in an activity requiring eye protection (mean, 8.3 exposure scenes per episode; median, 5 exposure scenes per episode). Overall, 66 (26%) of exposure scenes depicted the use of any eye protection, while only 32 (12%) of exposure scenes depicted the use of adequate eye protection. No incidences of eye injuries or infectious exposures were depicted within the exposure scenes in the study set. The depiction of adequate protective eyewear use during eye-risk activities is rare in network scripted broadcast programs. Healthcare professionals and health advocacy groups should continue to work to improve public education about eye injury risks and prevention; these efforts could include working with the television industry to improve the accuracy of the depiction of eye injuries and the proper protective eyewear used for prevention of injuries in scripted programming. Future studies are needed to examine the relationship between media depiction of eye protection use and viewer compliance rates.

  3. Food Commercials and Kids: Characterizing Advertising Content of Children's Online Television Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Jerrod; Staley, Daniel; Smith, Chaquenta; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    Internet marketing has gained attention as a new medium to advertise food products to children. This study examines the prevalence of food marketing during children's television programs that are available on the internet. While food is the largest product category advertised, commercials make up a smaller portion of episode time online compared to previous reports of television advertising.

  4. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  5. Empire: New Mexico's First Television Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    In recent years, New Mexico has hosted television and motion picture film crews working on both famous and not-so-famous productions. Perhaps the most famous of these productions was the television hit Breaking Bad. Perhaps the least famous production, which almost certainly no one remembers, is the 1962-1963 television series Empire. Empire was an hour long western that chronicled the lives of 1960s ranchers in New Mexico. The series starred Richard Egan, Ryan O’Neal, Denver Pyle, and Charles Bronson. Guest stars included Robert Vaughn (The Man from Uncle), Inger Stevens (The Farmer’s Daughter), Robert Culp (I Spy), and Telly Savalas (Kojak).

  6. Status of Satellite Television Broadcast Programs Implementation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70.4 % of teachers agreed that the depth was up to the level of the students. Relevance ... importance of ICT in education. Among others ... advantages of satellite plasma television. ...... Standard English, could understand the contextual ...

  7. The Effects of Action and Violence in Television Programs on the Social Behavior and Imaginative Play of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Stein, Aletha; And Others

    The independent contributions of action and violence in television programs to children's attention and social behavior were investigated. Pairs of preschool children were assigned to one of four television conditions (1) high action-high violence, (2) high action-low violence, (3) low action-low violence, or (4) no television. Action was defined…

  8. Virginity loss narratives in "teen drama" television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maura

    2010-09-01

    "Teen drama" television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as a stigma and virginity loss as necessary to maintain social status and affirm gendered identity; and (c) the management script, which suggests teenagers' sexual behavior is inevitable and focuses on managing the physical, social, and emotional risks associated with virginity loss. Reliance on different scripts resulted in varied meanings of virginity, characteristics of the storylines, consequences of virginity loss, and implications for sexually healthy messages. The narratives included positive components, such as contraception use and portrayals of consensual sex, but also contained problematic elements, such as a lack of female desire and underrepresentation of racial, ethnic, and sexual minority characters. This article suggests that an analysis of the sexual scripts used in virginity-loss narratives provides insight into both the messages about virginity provided to teenagers as well as the social construction of the multiple meanings of virginity.

  9. Violence in television commercials during nonviolent programming. The 1996 Major League Baseball playoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C

    1997-10-01

    To identify the frequency of violent television commercials aired during major league baseball playoffs, traditionally thought to be a family-oriented viewing time. All 6 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 5 American League Championship Series playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and 4 first-round playoff games televised by ESPN Sports Television Network (ESPN) were videotaped in October 1996. During the 15 televised games reviewed, 104 (6.8%) of the 1528 commercials contained violent content. Sixty-one commercials (10 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 30 (6 per game) during the American League Championship Series, and 13 (3 per game) during the 4 first-round playoff games for a total of 104. In these 104 violent commercials, 69 contained at least 1 violent act, 90 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 27 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. Seventy (67.3%) of the violent commercials were promotions for television programs, 7 (6.7%) were cable television program advertisements, and 20 (19.2%) were big-screen movie promotions. Twenty (71.4%) of 28 big-screen movie promotions were violent. Twenty-two (21.2%) of the 104 violent commercials and 7 "nonviolent" commercials contained blood or other graphic content, all of which were televised during the Fox presentation of the World Series. Fox also accounted for all 24 violent commercials that used a knife. Guns were involved in 25 violent commercials on NBC (5.0 per game), in 20 on Fox (3.33 per game), and in 7 on ESPN (1.75 per game). Overt violent content in commercials during the 1996 major league playoffs was common and consisted mainly of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It is counterintuitive to find such commercials in nonviolent programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.

  10. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children′s Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  11. How Television News Programs Use Video News Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Mark D.; White, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Examines actual use in television news broadcasts of video news releases (VNRs). Finds that all sizes of markets were likely to use VNRs. Finds that the most common use was as a voice-over story in an early evening newscast, and that VNRs associated with children and their safety or health got the greatest number of uses. (SR)

  12. Effects of Prosocial Television Programming on Viewer Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle D.

    Moderate amounts of self-disclosure and willingness to let others disclose are considered essential in moving from casual to lasting relationships. Self-disclosure, however, is a private behavior which is seldom observed directly. Television provides a unique opportunity for the observation of otherwise personal behaviors, and may affect viewers'…

  13. Status of Satellite Television Broadcast Programs Implementation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the ICT domination in our day to day life is increasing, the Ethiopian Government convinced to utilize its opportunity for improving quality of education by introducing plasma television learning media in high schools of the country. The objective of this study was to determine implementation status of satellite plasma ...

  14. Television commercial violence during nonviolent programming: the 1998 major league baseball playoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C R

    2000-10-01

    playoffs were similar in violent content, compared with 1996. The violent commercials continue to consist primarily of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It continues to be counterintuitive to find such commercials in family-oriented programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.

  15. Exercise portrayal in children’s television programs: analysis of the UK and Irish programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scully P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Scully,1 Orlaith Reid,1 Alan P Macken,1–3 Mark Healy,4 Jean Saunders,4 Des Leddin,3,5 Walter Cullen,3 Colum P Dunne,3 Clodagh S O’Gorman1–3,5 1The Children’s Ark, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, 2National Children’s Research Centre, Dublin, 3Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i, Graduate Entry Medical School, 4C-Star, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; 5Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Background: Television watching is obesogenic due to its sedentary nature and programming content, which influences children. Few studies have examined exercise placement within children-specific programming. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and type of exercise placement in children-specific television broadcasts and to compare placements on the UK and Irish television channels.Methods: Content analysis for five weekdays’ worth of children-specific television broadcasting totaling 82.5 hours on both the UK (British Broadcasting Corporation and Irish (Radió Teilifís Éireann television channels was performed. For the purposes of comparing the UK and Irish placements, analysis was restricted to programming broadcast between 6 am and 11.30 am. Exercise placements were coded based on type of activity, activity context, activity motivating factors and outcome, and characters involved.Results: A total of 780 cues were recorded during the total recording period. A wide variety of sports were depicted, but dancing-related cues were most commonly seen (n=163, 23.3%, with the majority of cues being of mild (n=365, 65.9% or moderate (n=172, 31.0% intensity. The majority of cues were associated with a positive outcome (n=404, 61.4%, and social motivations were most commonly seen (n=289, 30.3%. The Irish and the UK portrayals were broadly similar.Conclusion: This study highlights the wide variety of sports portrayed and the active effort undertaken by television

  16. Children's direct fright and worry reactions to violence in fiction and news television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Juliette H Walma; Bushman, Brad J

    2008-09-01

    To examine whether violence in fictional and news television content frightens and worries children. Mixed factorial. Type of reaction (fright, worry) and television programming (violent news, violent fiction) were within-subjects factors, whereas age, sex, and television viewing frequency were between-subjects factors. Participants included 572 children (47% boys), aged 8 to 12 years, from 9 urban and rural primary schools in the Netherlands. The main exposure was to descriptions of 8 threats frequently depicted in fictional and news programs (eg, murder, war, house fires). Children reported whether they were frightened or worried by these threats. Violent threats increased both fright and worry. These 2 reactions could be distinguished from one another in a factor analysis. When violent content was described as news, it produced more fear reactions than when it was described as fiction. Fright and worry were greater in girls than in boys, in younger children than in older children, and in light television viewers than in heavy television viewers. Pediatricians should inform parents, educators, policy makers, and broadcasters about the potentially harmful effect of violent programming on children's emotions, especially in the case of news programming.

  17. Thinking about television science: How students understand the nature of science from different program genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2003-02-01

    Student views on the nature of science are shaped by a variety of out-of-school forces and television-mediated science is a significant force. To attempt to achieve a science for all, we need to recognize and understand the diverse messages about science that students access and think about on a regular basis. In this work I examine how high school students think about science that is mediated by four different program genres on television: documentary, magazine-format programming, network news, and dramatic or fictional programming. The following categories of findings are discussed: the ethics and validity of science, final form science, science as portrayed by its practitioners, and school science and television science. Student perceptions of the nature of science depicted on the program sample used in this study ranged from seeing science as comprising tentative knowledge claims to seeing science as a fixed body of facts.

  18. Influences of Television Toward Modern Society Reflected in TV People by Haruki Murakami

    OpenAIRE

    KHIKMAH, ZIYAADATUL

    2014-01-01

    Khikmah, Ziyaadatul. 2014. Influences of Television toward Modern SocietyReflected in TV People By Haruki Murakami. Study Program of English,Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, UniversitasBrawijaya. Supervisor: Juliati; Co-supervisor : Arcci Tusita. Keyword: Television, Mass Media, Effect, Construction, Culture, Influence. Television has become part of daily life in the society in modern era. Television functions as a medium of information and entertainment. ...

  19. Infotainment in the central informative TV programs of national broadcasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Dejana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to determine the presence of infotainment elements as well as differences in the amount of their participation in the top news programs of the Public Service in Serbia: Radio Television of Serbia (RTS and two commercial televisions, Pink, being the most watched private television, and Television B92. 'Infotainment ' is an English compound word which denotes a phenomenon related to the television. This media phenomenon is not a new one, but it has experienced its massive breakthrough into the media content in the market competition. It was created with the intention of making the news program more popular in order to entice advertisers who pay for advertising time and on whom commercial televisions depend. The methods which were used in the research are qualitative (a discourse analysis and quantitative (a content analysis. The analysis of the data showed that there is a difference in news program of RTS, mostly in relation to TV Pink in terms of infotainment, and to some extent in relation to TV B92. In addition to the importance of the research that should show the state of the newscast on the Serbian national television, this paper also provides a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the infotainment problem.

  20. Participatory cues and program familiarity predict young children’s learning from educational television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity model is designed to predict young children's learning from educational television. It posits that select program features and individual child characteristics can support this learning either by increasing total working memory allocated to the program or altering the allocation of

  1. 75 FR 54048 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Televisions; Request for Information and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... plasma, cathode ray tube (CRT), and locally dimmed LED-backlit LCD designs. As a result, it can be useful.... This may disadvantage Plasma TVs, and has proven to be unpredictable with LED models. Furthermore, the... by the electronic programming guide, monitoring for emergency messaging/ communications and/or...

  2. Based on a True Story? The Portrayal of ECT in International Movies and Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienaert, Pascal

    Movies and television (TV) programs are an important source of public information about ECT. To narratively review the portrayal of ECT in international movies and TV programs from 1948 until present. Several Internet movie databases and a database of phrases appearing in movies and TV programs were searched, supplemented with a Medline-search. No language restrictions were applied. ECT was portrayed in 52 movies (57 scenes), 21 TV programs (23 scenes), and 2 animated sitcoms (2 scenes). In movies, the main indication for ECT is behavioral control or torture (17/57, 29.8%), whereas in TV programs, the most frequent indication is erasing memories (7/25, 28%). In most scenes (47/82; 57.3%) ECT is given without consent, and without anesthesia (59/82; 72%). Unmodified ECT is depicted more frequently in American scenes (48/64, 75%), as opposed to scenes from other countries (11/18; 64.7%). Bilateral electrode placement is used in almost all (89%, 73/82) scenes. The vast majority of movies (46/57, 80.7%) and TV programs (18/25, 72%) show a negative and inaccurate image of the treatment. In the majority of scenes, ECT is used as a metaphor for repression, mind and behavior control, and is shown as a memory-erasing, painful and damaging treatment, adding to the stigma already associated with ECT. Only a few exceptions paint a truthful picture of this indispensable treatment in modern psychiatry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Government Style as a Factor in Information Flow: Television Programming in Argentina, l979-l988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jeffrey Alan

    Noting that Argentina's recent history is particularly useful for analysis of the varying effects that differing government styles can have on a single mass communication system, a study compared Argentine (specifically Buenos Aires) television's 1979 programming schedule, prepared during a military dictatorship, with recent schedules prepared…

  4. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  5. Sound Effects for Children's Comprehension of Variably-Paced Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Scott, M. Catherine

    In this study, children's selective attention to, and comprehension of, variably-paced television programs were examined as a function of sound effects. Sixty-four children, equally distributed by sex and by preschool and fourth grades, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions which crossed two levels of sound effects (presence…

  6. 78 FR 40421 - Inquiry Regarding Video Description in Video Programming Distributed on Television and on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... description services for television are provided on a secondary audio stream, and typically a consumer can... box. The Commission recently adopted rules requiring apparatus that is designed to receive, play back, or record video programming transmitted simultaneously with sound to make secondary audio streams...

  7. The International Marketplace for Television Programming: New Strategies for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jean-Luc; Litman, Barry R.

    The growing importance of the export market for the United States television industry--specifically, the structure of the syndication industry, and the strategies developed by U.S. producers and syndicators as a response to the new economic imperatives and the disciplining force of the international media environment on programing decisions--was…

  8. MIDWEST PROGRAM ON AIRBORNE TELEVISION INSTRUCTION -- A REGIONAL EXPLORATION IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IVEY, JOHN E.; AND OTHERS

    STARTING IN FEBRUARY 1961, THE MIDWEST PROGRAM ON AIRBORNE TELEVISION INSTRUCTION (MPATI) TRANSMITTED COURSES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, SCIENCE, ARITHMETIC, ART, THE HUMANITIES, MUSIC, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS TO 18 SCHOOLS IN THE MIDWEST. THE AIRBORNE TELECAST OPERATED OVER NORTH CENTRAL INDIANA AND TRANSMITTED COURSES OVER AN AREA…

  9. 47 CFR 15.120 - Program blocking technology requirements for television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program blocking technology requirements for television receivers. 15.120 Section 15.120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO... transmitted pursuant to industry standard EIA/CEA-766-A “U.S. and Canadian Region Rating Tables (RRT) and...

  10. Food and beverage cues in UK and Irish children-television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2014-11-01

    Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  12. Television Use by Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationships between child and adolescent television use motivations and various sociodemographic characteristics, television viewing levels, program preference, and television attitudes. Viewing motivations include learning, passing time, companionship, escape, arousal, and relaxation. Discusses implications within the conceptual…

  13. Nutritional content of food and beverage products in television advertisements seen on children's programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. TV ratings data for children 2-5 and 6-11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2-5 and 6-11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required.

  14. Nutritional Content of Food and Beverage Products in Television Advertisements Seen on Children's Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260

  15. A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Carlson-McGuire, Ashley; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-09-01

    This study provides updated information regarding the prevalence and characteristics of weight stigma in popular adolescent television programming, using a sample of favorite shows named by diverse adolescents. Participants in a large, population-based study of Minnesota adolescents (N = 2,793, mean age = 14.4) listed their top three favorite television shows. A coding instrument was developed to analyze randomly selected episodes from the most popular 10 programs. Weight-stigmatizing incidents were compared across television show characteristics and characters' gender and weight status. Half (50%) of the 30 episodes analyzed contained at least one weight-stigmatizing incident. Both youth- and adult-targeted shows contained weight-stigmatizing comments, but the percent of these comments was much higher for youth-targeted (55.6%) than general audience-targeted shows (8.3%). Male characters were more likely than females to engage in (72.7% vs. 27.3%), and be the targets of, weight stigma (63.6% vs. 36.4%), and there was no difference in the amount of weight stigmatizing directed at average weight females compared to overweight females. Targets of these instances showed a negative response in only about one-third of cases, but audience laughter followed 40.9% of cases. The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows-including targeting women of average weight-sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 78 FR 15807 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Television Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... displaying dynamic visual content from wired or wireless sources including but not limited to: * * *''. DOE...) standard ``CEA-2037-A, Determination of Television Average Power Consumption'' into the SNOPR. In today's SNOPR, DOE proposes to update the input power requirements in the TVs test procedure NOPR by referencing...

  17. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  18. Television in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  19. Potential youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet: A study of internet versions of popular television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Kurland, Rachel P; Castrini, Marisa; Morse, Catherine; de Groot, Alexander; Retamozo, Cynthia; Roberts, Sarah P; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H

    No previous paper has examined alcohol advertising on the internet versions of television programs popular among underage youth. To assess the volume of alcohol advertising on web sites of television networks which stream television programs popular among youth. Multiple viewers analyzed the product advertising appearing on 12 television programs that are available in full episode format on the internet. During a baseline period of one week, six coders analyzed all 12 programs. For the nine programs that contained alcohol advertising, three underage coders (ages 10, 13, and 18) analyzed the programs to quantify the extent of that advertising over a four-week period. Alcohol advertisements are highly prevalent on these programs, with nine of the 12 shows carrying alcohol ads, and six programs averaging at least one alcohol ad per episode. There was no difference in alcohol ad exposure for underage and legal age viewers. There is a substantial potential for youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet through internet-based versions of television programs. The Federal Trade Commission should require alcohol companies to report the underage youth and adult audiences for internet versions of television programs on which they advertise.

  20. Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

  1. Children’s identification processes with television characters: case studies about colombian children and their favorite cartoon programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cuervo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the articulation of psychoanalysis and narrative analysis this study explores the processes of identification of children audiences with their favorite cartoon television programs. In order to understand the characteristics of identification processes, this study explores the way in which both the structure of cartoons and the affective histories of children influence children’s identification with their favorite television characters. To achieve that understanding we a analyzed the narrative elements of the television programs, b explored the children’s affective history, and c examined how these narrative elements and affective histories influence the appropriation of television programs. These three scenarios were examined through case study on four Colombian children between 6 to 10 years old. The analysis showed that affective factors of children’s personal history constitute a significant source of mediation on the appropriation of cartoons. In addition, the narrative elements of the programs become an essential motivation on children’s fantasies.

  2. 1979 Nielsen Report on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

    The Nielsen data on commercial television viewing and programming contained in this report are estimates of the audiences and other characteristics of television usage as derived from Nielsen Television Index and Nielsen Station Index measurements. Data and brief discussions are provided on the number of commercial and public stations; number of…

  3. Life imitating art: depictions of the hidden curriculum in medical television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Agatha; Clarkin, Chantalle; Bould, M Dylan; Writer, Hilary; Doja, Asif

    2015-09-26

    The hidden curriculum represents influences occurring within the culture of medicine that indirectly alter medical professionals' interactions, beliefs and clinical practices throughout their training. One approach to increase medical student awareness of the hidden curriculum is to provide them with readily available examples of how it is enacted in medicine; as such the purpose of this study was to examine depictions of the hidden curriculum in popular medical television programs. One full season of ER, Grey's Anatomy and Scrubs were selected for review. A summative content analysis was performed to ascertain the presence of depictions of the hidden curriculum, as well as to record the type, frequency and quality of examples. A second reviewer also viewed a random selection of episodes from each series to establish coding reliability. The most prevalent themes across all television programs were: the hierarchical nature of medicine; challenges during transitional stages in medicine; the importance of role modeling; patient dehumanization; faking or overstating one's capabilities; unprofessionalism; the loss of idealism; and difficulties with work-life balance. The hidden curriculum is frequently depicted in popular medical television shows. These examples of the hidden curriculum could serve as a valuable teaching resource in undergraduate medical programs.

  4. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. From Franchise to Programming: Jobs in Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This article takes a look at some of the key jobs at every level of the cable industry. It discusses winning a franchise, building and running the system, and programing and production. Job descriptions include engineer, market analyst, programers, financial analysts, strand mappers, customer service representatives, access coordinator, and studio…

  6. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  7. The magic of television: Thinking through magical realism in recent TV [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Joyrich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades in which television has been marked as more banal than bewitching, recalling the "magic of television" is more likely to evoke a sense of wonder for the perceived innocence of an earlier televisual audience than for television itself. With TV offered on demand, captured with DVRs, downloaded or watched streaming on the Web, purchased as DVD sets, miniaturized for private screenings, jumbo-sized for public spectacles, monitored in closed circuits, and accessed for open forums, once-mysterious television flows have flowed to new media forms, giving TV an appearing/disappearing, now-you-see-it/now-you-don't magical act of its own. Has TV disappeared, or has it multiplied—redoubled each time it's sawed in half, replicating like rabbits pulled out of a hat? Is it still TV or something else when programs are screened (as if through a magic curtain via today's delivery systems?

  8. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  9. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  11. De "papai sabe tudo" a "como educar seus pais": considerações sobre programas infantis de TV From "father knows best" to" how to educate your parents": considerations regarding children's television programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Torraca de Brito

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura evidenciar o conteúdo implícito de certos programas infanto-juvenis apresentados na TV nos últimos quarenta e cinco anos, relacionando-os às transformações observadas na família contemporânea e ao processo de socialização de crianças e adolescentes. Foi avaliado que a autoridade dos responsáveis tem sido, progressivamente, desvalorizada em diversos programas televisivos, oferecendo-se superpoderes, até mesmo tirânicos às crianças, em desacordo com as necessidades infanto-juvenis.This article intends to evidence the implicit content of certain children and teenager's television programs in the last forty five years, linking them to the changes observed in the contemporary family and the children's socialization processes. It was assessed that the parental authority has been gradually depreciated in several television programs. These programs offer super and even tyrannical power to the children, which is not in appropriate to the needs of the underaged.

  12. Perceived realism and Twitter use are associated with increased acceptance of cosmetic surgery among those watching reality television cosmetic surgery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; King, Kahlil

    2014-08-01

    Reality television programming is a popular type of television programming, and features shows about cosmetic surgery. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly popular methods of sharing information. The authors surveyed college students to determine among those watching reality television cosmetic surgery programs whether perceived realism or social media use was associated with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Participants (n=126) were surveyed about their reality television cosmetic surgery program viewing habits, their perception of the realism of reality television programming, and social media topics of Twitter and Facebook. Outcome variables were the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scales of social, intrapersonal, and consider. Perceived realism was significantly associated with increased scores on the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale subscales of social (p=0.004), intrapersonal (p=0.03), and consider (p=0.03). Following a character from a reality television program on Twitter was significantly associated with increased social scores (p=0.04). There was no significant association of Facebook behavior with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic plastic surgeons may benefit by advertising their services on cosmetic surgery reality television programs. These reality television programs portray cosmetic surgery in a positive manner, and viewers with increased perceived realism will be a potential receptive audience toward such advertising. Also, advertising cosmetic surgery services on Twitter feeds that discuss cosmetic surgery reality television programs would be potentially beneficial.

  13. Television violence and its effect on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  14. The extinct animal show: the paleoimagery tradition and computer generated imagery in factual television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent

    2009-03-01

    Extinct animals have always been popular subjects for the media, in both fiction, and factual output. In recent years, a distinctive new type of factual television program has emerged in which computer generated imagery is used extensively to bring extinct animals back to life. Such has been the commercial audience success of these programs that they have generated some public and academic debates about their relative status as science, documentary, and entertainment, as well as about their reflection of trends in factual television production, and the aesthetic tensions in the application of new media technologies. Such discussions ignore a crucial contextual feature of computer generated extinct animal programs, namely the established tradition of paleoimagery. This paper examines a selection of extinct animal shows in terms of the dominant frames of the paleoimagery genre. The paper suggests that such an examination has two consequences. First, it allows for a more context-sensitive evaluation of extinct animal programs, acknowledging rather than ignoring relevant representational traditions. Second, it allows for an appraisal and evaluation of public and critical reception of extinct animal programs above and beyond the traditional debates about tensions between science, documentary, entertainment, and public understanding.

  15. A content analysis of food references in television programming specifically targeting viewing audiences aged 11 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Poor, Morgan; Stephenson, Tammy J

    2014-01-01

    Examine food in cable television programming specifically targeting 11- to 14-year-olds ("tweens"). Content analysis of food-related scenes (FRS)-in which food was shown, mentioned, and/or consumed-in 880 minutes of programming was conducted. Five days of afternoon/early evening television programs on the Disney Channel. Food references were compared with USDA MyPlate and classified according to modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components. The authors found 331 FRS, averaging 16.6 scenes/h. Preponderance of FRS was physiological needs (40.7%), followed by display (10%), party (8.5%), social event (8%), and retail store (6.6%). Snacks dominated 41% of FRS, and breakfast, lunch, and dinner were much lower in frequency. Half of FRS was visual only, followed by verbal only. Food references were not congruent with MyPlate recommendations; 42% of food items did not fit into MyPlate food groups. Only 24% of food items were fruit or vegetables, which is considerably less than recommended by MyPlate guidelines. Using modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components, 66% of food items scored food, which likely influences tweens' attitudes and behaviors. Television programming may consider past approaches to tobacco smoking and health messages on television. More attention is warranted regarding television programming by nutrition educators, researchers, health professionals, and industry specialists. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "He Works Outside the Home; She Drinks Coffee and Does the Dishes" Gender Roles in Fiction Programs on Dutch Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, P.A.A.; Wester, F.P.J.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 503 prime-time fiction programs broadcast on Dutch television between 1980 and 2005, the study compared gender portrayals in programs produced in the US with Dutch programs. It revealed more older males, more females involved in childcare, more males in paid employment, and fewer

  17. He works outside the home, she drinks coffee and does the dishes : gender roles in fiction programs on Dutch television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, P.; Wester, F.; Scheepers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 503 prime-time fiction programs broadcast on Dutch television between 1980 and 2005, the study compared gender portrayals in programs produced in the US with Dutch programs. It revealedmore older males, more females involved in childcare, more males in paid employment, and fewer

  18. Food advertising during children's television programming on broadcast and cable channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Carmen; Kunkel, Dale

    2008-11-01

    The rise in the number of overweight and obese children in the United States is recognized as a serious health threat. Among the factors contributing to this increase is the preponderance of food marketing on television targeted at children. Previous content analysis studies have identified patterns of food product types that are commonly associated with unhealthy diets, but few have attempted to independently evaluate the nutritional quality of advertised foods. This study identifies the nature and extent of food marketing messages presented during children's television programs, while also classifying the products advertised using a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services consumer food rating scheme. The findings indicate that food advertising accounts for nearly half of all commercial messages on children's programs. An average hour includes 11 food ads that account for 4:25 of total ad time. Broadcast channels deliver more food advertising than cable channels, although the types of food products marketed on both channels are highly similar. The overwhelming majority of foods ads directed to children are for high-calorie, low nutrient food products that should not be part of a regular diet. These data provide a baseline for evaluating anticipated future industry efforts at reform, such as attempts to comply with a recent Institute of Medicine (2006) policy recommendation that food marketing to children should be balanced between more healthy and less healthy food products within two years time.

  19. Without Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri A. Schwab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.

  20. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend... television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees''). The Commission has also revised...

  1. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  2. Impact of Television Programs and Asvertisements of School Going Adolescents: A Case Study of Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hassan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage is the most vital and delicate stage of human life. During teenage youngsters try to follow new fashion, culture and style which is being presented in different programs and advertisements on television. They have strong urge and inclination to adopt something new and extra ordinary different from their surroundings. In Pakistan, there are about 43.40% are the adolescents of the age between 13-16 years as stated by Federal Bureau of Statistics. Adolescents are the age group that is the most effected by T.V pro-grams and advertisements. Target audience of most of the programs and ad-vertisements area adolescents e.g. cell phone advertisements. Most of the children in different countries spend almost 3-4 hours per day in watching T.V as per statement of UNESCO. The effects of the commercials and T.V pro-grams on children vary from person to person. This research tries to dig out the impact of different T.V programs and ads on the children between the age group of 13-16 of different schools of Bahawalpur City.

  3. Television Viewing at Home: Age Trends in Visual Attention and Time with TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decribes age trends in television viewing time and visual attention of children and adults videotaped in their homes for 10-day periods. Shows that the increase in visual attention to television during the preschool years is consistent with the theory that television program comprehensibility is a major determinant of attention in young children.…

  4. Frames of scientific evidence: How journalists represent the (un)certainty of molecular medicine in science television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrmann, Georg; Guenther, Lars; Kessler, Sabrina Heike; Milde, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    For laypeople, media coverage of science on television is a gateway to scientific issues. Defining scientific evidence is central to the field of science, but there are still questions if news coverage of science represents scientific research findings as certain or uncertain. The framing approach is a suitable framework to classify different media representations; it is applied here to investigate the frames of scientific evidence in film clips (n=207) taken from science television programs. Molecular medicine is the domain of interest for this analysis, due to its high proportion of uncertain and conflicting research findings and risks. The results indicate that television clips vary in their coverage of scientific evidence of molecular medicine. Four frames were found: Scientific Uncertainty and Controversy, Scientifically Certain Data, Everyday Medical Risks, and Conflicting Scientific Evidence. They differ in their way of framing scientific evidence and risks of molecular medicine. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. 78 FR 35642 - Certain TV Programs, Literary Works for TV Production and Episode Guides Pertaining to Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2959] Certain TV Programs, Literary Works for TV... Certain TV Programs, Literary Works for TV Production and Episode Guides Pertaining to Same, DN 2959; the... importation of certain TV programs, literary works for TV production and episode guides pertaining to same...

  6. Structure and Strategies in Children's Educational Television: The Roles of Program Type and Learning Strategies in Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or…

  7. Research Issues in the Study of Public Attitudes toward Ethical Problems in Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, David L.; Lind, Rebecca Ann

    Three empirical studies focused on viewer reactions to ethical issues in television news, and on actions audience members felt were appropriate to control possibly unethical behaviors in television broadcasting. The first study was a 12-minute telephone survey of 293 randomly selected adults in Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minnesota) in 1989 to determine…

  8. Humor in Television Entertainment Programming: Implications for Social Relations and Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    There are three "communication contexts": interpersonal, intrapersonal (relating to others through internal thought), and mass media, especially television (relating to others in an indirect, impersonal manner). People satisfy different needs through different contexts. Open-minded people may choose television for relaxation and the interpersonal…

  9. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  10. Structure and strategies in children's educational television: the roles of program type and learning strategies in children's learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children’s learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children’s program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features

  11. Public Policy and Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Advocates the promotion of television programing that serves the diverse needs of children for education, entertainment, aesthetic appreciation, and knowledge; and the protection of children from television content and advertising practices that exploit their special vulnerability. More regulation is needed. (Author/BJV)

  12. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  13. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  14. Adolescents and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)

  15. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  16. Television Literacy: Amplifying the Cognitive Level Effects of Television's Prosocial Fare through Curriculum Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Courtright, John

    1983-01-01

    An in-school mediation strategy focused on teaching children to watch television critically and to recognize the prosocial content of commercial television programs. Changes in children's attitudes and understanding that resulted from the strategy are discussed. (PP)

  17. Child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage brand appearances during prime-time television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Sarah E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-09-01

    The food industry disproportionately markets to young people through product placements. Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to these disguised persuasive attempts. Quantify incidence and youth exposure to food and beverage brand appearances within shows on prime-time TV. Data on the number of food, beverage, and restaurant brand appearances within shows during prime-time programming in 2008 were purchased from Nielsen and analyzed by product category and company in 2010. Exposure to these brand appearances by children, adolescents, and adults were examined and compared with exposure to prime-time TV advertisements for the same categories and companies using additional Nielsen data. Food, beverage, and restaurant brands appeared a total of 35,000 times within prime-time TV programming examined by Nielsen in 2008. Regular soft drinks, traditional restaurants (i.e., not quickserve), and energy/sports drinks made up 60% of all brand appearances. Young people viewed relatively few of these appearances with one notable exception. Coca-Cola products were seen 198 times by the average child and 269 times by the average adolescent during prime-time shows over the year, accounting for 70% of child exposure and 61% of adolescent exposure to brand appearances. One show, American Idol, accounted for more than 95% of these exposures. Exposure of children to Coca-Cola products through traditional advertisements was much less common. Brand appearances for most food industry companies, except for Coca-Cola, are relatively rare during prime-time programming with large youth audiences. Coca-Cola has pledged to refrain from advertising to children, yet the average child views almost four Coke appearances on prime-time TV every week. This analysis reveals a substantial, potential loophole in current food industry self-regulatory pledges to advertise only better-for-you foods to children. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddlee

    Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

  19. American Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....

  20. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  1. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  2. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346; 47 CFR 74.793(d); LPTV Out-of-Core Digital... collection requirements: 47 CFR 74.793(d) proposes that certain digital low power and TV translator stations...

  3. Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovantseva, Natalia, E-mail: nmilovan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Saphores, Jean-Daniel, E-mail: saphores@uci.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Economics, and Planning, Policy, and Design Departments, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► US households are storing 84.1 million broken or obsolete (junk) TVs. ► They represent 2.12 million metric tons of scrap. ► The value of these materials is approximately $21 per TV. ► Our count models characterize US households who store junk TVs. ► Our results are useful for designing more effective TV recycling programs. - Abstract: Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream.

  4. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  5. Teaching Television Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  6. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  7. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  8. 78 FR 42106 - Certain TV Programs, Literary Works for TV Production and Episode Guides Pertaining to Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-886] Certain TV Programs, Literary Works for TV Production and Episode Guides Pertaining to Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U... of certain TV programs, literary works for TV production and episode guides pertaining to same by...

  9. Digital TV: structures of feeling in the television of becoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marquioni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.

  10. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  11. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  12. Analysis of television food advertising on children's programming on "free-to-air" broadcast stations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Mota Marques Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the content of television food advertising on Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations during children's programming. METHODS: This is a descriptive study which evaluated the content of food advertising between 08:00 a.m. and 06:00 p.m. on three Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations (A, B and C. Data collection was performed during 10 week days and weekends. Food advertising was organized according to the food group classification from the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. The annual exposure to food advertising was obtained considering the national children average exposure to television of five daily hours. The χ2 and Fisher's exact test were conducted in order to identify differences in the content of television advertising in the morning and in the afternoon and between broadcast stations. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty six hours of programming were recorded, totalizing 1,369 commercials - 13.8% of food. There was major participation of 'sugars and sweets' (48.1% and 'oils and fats' (29.1% among food advertising and much food publicity in the afternoon (15.7%; morning: 12.2%, p = 0.037. Moreover, the broadcast with more audience was the one that advertised more food (A: 63.5%; B: 12.2%; C: 24.3%, especially 'sugar and sweets' (A: 59.2%; B: 43.5%; C: 21.7%. Finally, an annual average exposure to 2,735.5 commercials was obtained for Brazilian children, totalizing 2,106.3 of food rich in sugar and fat publicity. CONCLUSION: Food advertising is focused on poor nutritionally food, emphasizing the need for specific intervention strategies.

  13. Analysis of television food advertising on children's programming on "free-to-air" broadcast stations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the content of television food advertising on Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations during children's programming. This is a descriptive study which evaluated the content of food advertising between 08:00 a.m. and 06:00 p.m. on three Brazilian 'free-to-air' broadcast stations (A, B and C). Data collection was performed during 10 week days and weekends. Food advertising was organized according to the food group classification from the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. The annual exposure to food advertising was obtained considering the national children average exposure to television of five daily hours. The χ2 and Fisher's exact test were conducted in order to identify differences in the content of television advertising in the morning and in the afternoon and between broadcast stations. One hundred and twenty six hours of programming were recorded, totalizing 1,369 commercials - 13.8% of food. There was major participation of 'sugars and sweets' (48.1%) and 'oils and fats' (29.1%) among food advertising and much food publicity in the afternoon (15.7%; morning: 12.2%, p = 0.037). Moreover, the broadcast with more audience was the one that advertised more food (A: 63.5%; B: 12.2%; C: 24.3%), especially 'sugar and sweets' (A: 59.2%; B: 43.5%; C: 21.7%). Finally, an annual average exposure to 2,735.5 commercials was obtained for Brazilian children, totalizing 2,106.3 of food rich in sugar and fat publicity. Food advertising is focused on poor nutritionally food, emphasizing the need for specific intervention strategies.

  14. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television Booster Stations, and to Amend Rules for Digital Class...

  15. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  16. Television for Children in Japan: Trends and Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    In Japan, the production and broadcasting of television (TV) programs for children began in 1953. After the first few years of trial and error, children's programs gradually rose in popularity with the introduction of TV animation, dramas, special-effects photography, music/variety and quiz shows, comedies, and action dramas. Since the inception…

  17. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  18. 77 FR 2829 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Television Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... reviewing TV, display, digital picture frame market trends, and accessory technologies, as well as other... readers, music player inputs, that are not standard among different manufacturers and models. Furthermore...

  19. 47 CFR 73.4050 - Children's TV programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children's TV programs. 73.4050 Section 73.4050 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4050 Children's TV programs. (a) See Report and Policy...

  20. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  1. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  2. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  3. Television and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  4. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules... translator facilities in the 700 MHz band. These provisions provide procedures for a primary wireless...

  5. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...

  6. Oral Argument in Children's Television Proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B.

    The author advocates the outright ban of commercials from Saturday and Sunday morning television and makes several other recommendations that he believes would improve programing and reduce the hard sell of child targeted advertising. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could form a Children's Television Broadcast Center and establish a…

  7. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  8. Children's Perceived Realism of Family Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Beth E.; And Others

    This study examined the influence of grade level, program content, and ethnic match between viewer and television characters on children's perceptions of the realism of families portrayed in television series. In the 1986-87 school year, a sample of 1,692 children in 2nd, 5th, and 10th grades completed a 13-item questionnaire measuring their…

  9. Prosocial effects of entertainment television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W J

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the prosocial effects of Hum Log (We People), India's 1st long running television soap opera. Hum Log was a prosocial TV program that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Regression analysis was used to measure the degree to which exposure to Hum Log affected viewers' (1) awareness of certain prosocial beliefs promoted by the series, (2) level of TV dependency, (3) involvement with the characters of Hum Log, and (4) adherence to 3 prosocial beliefs promoted by Hum Log. Exposure to Hum Log was positively associated with viewer's awareness of the program's prosocial messages, TV dependency, and involvement with TV characters in the series. Viewers who were more exposed to Hum Log were also more likely to believe in women's equality and women's freedom of choice, but not in family planning. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of present and future research on the use of prosocial TV programs for development in Asia.

  10. Structure and strategies in children's educational television: the roles of program type and learning strategies in children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. [The coverage of science in television news programs in Brazil and Colombia: a comparative study of media constructs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Marina; Arboleda, Tania; Hermelin, Daniel; Reznik, Gabriela; Massarani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares the science and technology coverage in Brazil's main television news program (Jornal Nacional) and its Colombian counterpart (Noticias Caracol). Using content analysis, we investigated a corpus of news stories broadcast from April 2009 to March 2010. We found that Jornal Nacional presented over twice as many reports on science and technology as Noticias Caracol, and that its levels of reporting remained fairly stable throughout the year. The Brazilian reports were also longer, were featured more prominently, and used more visual resources. Even so, some similarities were found: news about health and medicine was most frequent; the reports focused primarily on announcing new research; scientists were the main sources cited; and national research was prioritized.

  12. Composer: Authoring Tool for iTV Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); R.M.R. Costa; L.F.G. Soares

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper presents Composer, an authoring tool to help creating interactive TV programs for the Brazilian Terrestrial Digital TV System. In Composer, several abstractions are defined creating different document views (structural, temporal, layout and textual). One of these views, the

  13. Women and Minorities in Television Drama, 1969-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George; Signorielli, Nancy

    This report presents an analysis of the characters created for prime time and weekend daytime network television drama and viewer conceptions associated with exposure to television. Data was gathered through 10 years of monitoring television programs, analyzing characters, and conducting surveys of child and adult viewers. Trends in representation…

  14. Men's Adultery as Sickness: Metaphor, Gender Categories and the Discursive Construction of Gender Differences on Japanese Television Consultation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saft, Scott; Ohara, Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how Japanese TV programs adopting a consultation framework construct different realities for women and men concerning a specific social phenomenon, namely adultery. To do so, two perspectives, the theory of metaphor promoted by George Lakoff and membership category analysis, are combined toward a discursive analysis which…

  15. Exploring Consumer Behavior towards Product Placement Strategy through Television Programs: A Case Study of Q Mobile in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ullah Khan; Rabna Nawaz Lodhi; Muhammad Faisal Saddique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The changing attitude of viewers in skipping conventional television advertisements is causing a serious concern for advertisers. To respond this, marketing professionals are using diverse and more dynamic advertising strategies for instance, product placement to attract prospective customer attention. The study uses case study approach and the respondents are asked about the product placement of a mobile phone company (Q mobile) that uses product placement in a famous TV play (Bulba...

  16. TV 1.9: A experiência das webTVs universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Becker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and multimedia resources and socialization. This article presents results of a study about four universities’ webTVs from Rio de Janeiro city.

  17. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  18. Music stations in czech TV broadcasting and their presenters

    OpenAIRE

    Klementová, Ema

    2013-01-01

    This thesis compares two significant music televisions in Czech television broadcasting, MTV and TV Óčko. Also it describes the development and history of the first American music television MTV and also it provides a view to some similar features of the development of the American MTV and the development of the Czech music televisions. Both Czech music televisions are also compared in terms of the program structure. The practical part of this thesis is based on interviews with four presenter...

  19. The new Digital Television channels in Spain. The changes of the free TV offer two years after the switch on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan VIDELA RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of television in our country has had like last stage the analogue switch off and the birth of multiple programs that nourish the offer of the Digital Television. In the present article we analyze the reconfiguration of the offer of Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT in our country, after the approval of the Real-Decree 365/2010 to assign the multiple of the TDT once finalized the analog broadcasts.

  20. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  1. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  2. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  3. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  4. Pre-Learning Low-Frequency Vocabulary in Second Language Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of pre-learning frequently occurring low-frequency vocabulary as a means to increase comprehension of television and incidental vocabulary learning through watching television. Eight television programmes, each representing different television genres, were analysed using the RANGE program to determine the 10…

  5. Children and Television. Current Issues in Education: A Bibliographic Series. Volume 5, No. 1, July 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Doris Hedlund

    Focused on research concerning children and television, this annotated bibliography lists 44 articles selected from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database from 1983 to 1988. Topics include: (1) the effects of television violence on children; (2) television viewing patterns; (3) children's television programs; and (4)…

  6. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-12-27

    Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary

  7. How Neoliberal Imperialism is Expressed by Programming Strategies of Phoenix TV: A Critical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This project is a case study of Phoenix Television, which is a Hong Kong-based satellite TV network broadcasting to the global Chinese-speaking community, primarily to the mainland of China. In the theoretical framework of media imperialism and neoliberal imperialism, this study focuses on the programming strategies of Phoenix TV and examines how the global trend of neoliberalism, the Chinese government’s tight control of the media, and the sophisticated ownership of Phoenix TV intertwined to influence on its programming. The analysis of the format, content, naming, and scheduling reveals that US-inspired neoliberalism is expressed in the network’s programming strategies. This expression, in fact, is the balance that Phoenix found between the tension of global and Chinese interests, the tension between revenue making and public service, and the tension between Party-control and profit seeking.

  8. The Future of TV Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    The future of television – and particularly of TV drama – was widely on the Danish industry agenda in June with the Copenhagen Future TV Conference and an international seminar on producing, selling, programming and remaking TV series. Eva Novrup Redvall reports....

  9. Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

  10. "Quality television" na příkladu publicistického pořadu České televize "Q"

    OpenAIRE

    Beladová, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis "Quality TV" explained, exemplified by Czech television program "Q" explains the term quality television. Firstly, it describes its development, criteria and use. The following part of this paper describes the program "Q" itself, which is dedicated to the queer minority and is being broadcasted by Czech television. The program has been analyzed using a semiotic analysis of television. The animated open (theme) of the program has been studied thoroughly; I also tried to find...

  11. [Television and children: is television responsible for all the evils attributed to it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Altable, B E; Quesada Fernández, E; Herranz, J L

    2000-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyze children's television viewing habits and their parents attitudes towards such viewing. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Primary care. A survey was undertaken with 317 three to fourteen year old children and their parents as part of the primary care check-up program for healthy children. Time devoted to television viewing was 106 +/- 50 minutes on weekdays and 141 +/- 80 minutes weekends. Despite this, 49.2% of parents thought their children saw little television, especially those with children under six (57.6%). Children of parents in highly qualified positions and of parents in the uppermost socioeconomic group saw television the least, on non-working days (70 +/- 61 minutes and 144 +/- 78 minutes respectively, p children watched television alone and 34% did so at meal-times. Altogether 48.3% of parents were unaware as to what their children watched and some 61.5% encouraged television viewing, above all those having children of under six (76%). The youngest children preferred to watch cartoons which were generally of a violent nature. For those aged from 11 to 14, 19.5% chose as their favorite programs those having a high level of violence. Television habits are an educational problem for parents, an important shake-up in their attitudes being called for, in which pediatricians should be involved in developing health programs aimed at proper use of the television.

  12. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  13. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  14. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to T...

  15. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  16. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  17. Parents, television and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Hauk, Esther; Immordino, Giovanni; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV's entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural di...

  18. Adspots and Green Eyes: 'National' Identity in Irish TV Commercials and Other 'Marginal' Areas of Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Stephanie

    This paper discusses the relationship between national identity and the so-called "marginal" areas of Irish television, i.e., advertisements, continuity announcements, and promotional trailers. The following issues are considered: (1) how these "spaces" between television programs compare in terms of use and influence to…

  19. At konstruere et TV-program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Poulsen

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available I Danmarks Radio har man siden 1982 uddannet TV-produktionsmed- arbejdere ud fra ét bestemt æstetisk koncept, der i daglig tale kaldes for TV-SUM. Konceptet er sammensat af teorier of analysemetoder fra vidt forskellige faglige dicipliner og traditioner i et - ved første øjekast - kon- sistent og produktionsklart system. Henrik Poulsen har kigget nærmere på dette system og gennemgår i denne artikel dets vigtigste elementer med Baadsgaards "søforklaring" som eksempel. I tilknytning hertil vur- derer han SUM-materialets anvendelighed i medieundervisningen samt trækker enkelte af de begrebsmæssige urimeligheder frem, som kon- ceptet - trods sin besnærende logik - indeholder.

  20. Factors that affect television viewing time in preschool and primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songül Yalçin, Siddika; Tugrul, Belma; Naçar, NazIre; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2002-12-01

    Excessive viewing of television (TV) has been linked to aggressive behavior, violence and childhood obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children and primary schoolchildren in Ankara during March and April 1999 to detect the factors that affect TV viewing time and to evaluate their parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to TV. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about TV habits of their family, the number and location of TVs in the household and the effect of TV on children. Of 400 questionnaires, 350 answered the questions appropriately for this study. Children were divided into two groups, preschool children and primary schoolchildren. Television viewing time was given daily, as a mean of weekday. The mean age for becoming a TV viewer was 2.7 +/- 1.6 years. Of all, 62% of children spent >/= 2h/day watching TV and 8.3% of children spent > 4 h. The TV viewing time of child was significantly and positively correlated with that of siblings, mother and father for both groups. Age and sleeping time of the child, age and the education level of mother, presence of TV in the child's room and the starting age watching TV did not affect the viewing time. One-half of parents reported that the TV programs watched included violence, and one-third thought TV depicts child abuse, especially emotional abuse. It was found that the TV watching habits of parents had an influence on those of their children. Therefore, pediatricians should take 'TV histories' of children and their parents and educate parents how to become good TV viewers.

  1. Structuring virtual spaces as television places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    As all major American broadcast and cable networks now provide some form and amount of online distribution of their television programming, we are beginning to see more interactive features being attached to this distribution to remediate the conditions of television consumption in the physical...... world.  Attaching such interactivity to their online distribution creates cyberspaces of consumption that become places for virtual audiences to congregate as they view the program.  To illustrate how the virtual environments and worlds are constructed to become places for virtual audiences, four case...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship.  The form in which...

  2. Core fuel management using TVS-2M fuel assembly and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Min; Wang Hongxia; Li Youyi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the economic efficiency, TVS-2M fuel assembly was considered to apply in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant units 3, 4. Using KASKAD program package, a preliminary research and design was carried out for the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant loading TVS-2M fuel assembly from the first cycle to equilibrium cycle. An improved fuel management program was obtained, and the economic analysis of the two fuel management programs with or without TVS-2M assembly was studied. The analysis results show that TVS-2M fuel assembly can improve the economic efficiency of the plant remarkably. (authors)

  3. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  4. Women in Television News: Analysis of Primetime News on HTV, RTL and Nova TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Knežević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the particularly low level of women represented on national primetime television newscasts in Croatia. In doing so, it presents the results of a content analysis covering a random,stratified sample of HTV, Nova TV, and RTL primetime news broadcasts over the years 2009 and 2010. According to these results, women are significantly underrepresented as main characters, experts, or even persons relevant to news stories concerning issues or problems. In particular, the results are most apparent on the primetime newscast Dnevnik, broadcasted daily on Croatia’s main public television station. Ideally, this news broadcast should rank among the best in terms of gender equality, given the principles of equality stipulated throughout Croatian law (and especially where it concerns programming legislation. Concerning the analyzed content, when women serve as the main characters in a news story, their emotional response to an issue appears to be almost obligatory. Further, women are often portrayed as victims, or as a figure to galvanize a rather black and white response, i.e. they are to be praised or blamed. Adding to this gender discrepancy, statistics show that more women than men have earned BA and MA degrees, which not only highlights the unbalanced representation of women on television news, but also distorts the actual level of female participation in society, particularly where it regards sociopolitical fields.

  5. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  6. La privacidad en programas televisivos: percepción de los adolescentes Intimacy in Television Programs: Adolescents’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Martínez de Morentín

    2010-10-01

    Shows (Diario de Patricia, within the interpretative framework of Turiel’s theory (2002. To this end, interviews were conducted with adolescents from the Basque Autonomous Region and the answers given were grouped into three domains: conventional, moral or private. The results found show that the vast majority would not consider attending these programs for private reasons, and when asked to think in what hypothetical case they would consider participating, any change of opinion was always «Diario de Patricia» or almost always «Salsa Rosa» prompted by moral motives. All of those who said they would participate in the two programs justified their answer using conventional arguments. We can conclude that the adolescents participating in the study continue to value personal privacy, even in association with certain television programs in which the limits between private and public are transgressed.

  7. The Effects of Appeal on Children's Comprehension and Recall of Content in Educational Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrelian, Natalie; Blumberg, Fran C.; Hogan, Tracy M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the effects of audience appeal on fourth-graders' (n = 25) and fifth-graders' (n = 24) comprehension of and selective attention to narrative and academic content in educational program segments. Students were shown two program segments that focused on one of two math concepts, perimeter or scale, and that were…

  8. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  9. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  10. Weekend Commercial Children's Television, 1975. A Study of Programming and Advertising to Children on Five Boston Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Some 25-1/2 hours of Boston commercial television for children were monitored on a Saturday and Sunday in April 1975. The monitoring covered three network affiliated stations and two independent UHF stations. Monitoring, coding, and editing provided much statistical data, which was analyzed to yield findings in the areas of distribution of…

  11. Audiovisual infotainment in European news: a comparative content analysis of Dutch, Spanish and Irish television news programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alencar, A.; Kruikemeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent audiovisual infotainment features can be found in the narrative structure of television news in three European countries news. Content analysis included a sample of 639 news reports (or reporter packages) aired in the first three weeks of September 2013, in six

  12. Coming out with the media: the ritualization of self-disclosure in the Dutch television program Uit de Kast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Boross (Balázs); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using the media to disclose one’s sexual identity has become an increasingly salient practice in recent years. Yet little is known about the reasons for the emergence of this form of self-disclosure. Based on an analysis of the Dutch television programme Uit de Kast

  13. Parents, Television and Cultural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV’s entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural ...

  14. 谈音乐在电视节目中的作用%Discussion on the Role of Music in TV Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀

    2011-01-01

    当音乐进入电视,它就成为电视节目的一个重要组成部分,它从属于服务于电视节目.结合实际,针对音乐在电视节目中的作用进行了阐述.%When the music is integrated into TV, it becomes an important part of TV program, which serves television. Combined with reality, the music function in television program is described.

  15. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  16. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  17. Linked Data Methodologies for Managing Information about Television Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OntoTV is a television information management system designed for improving the quality and quantity of the information available in the current television platforms. In order to achieve this objective, OntoTV (1 collects the information offered by the broadcasters, (2 integrates it into a ontology-based data structure, (3 extracts extra data from alternative television sources, and (4 makes possible for the user to perform queries over the stored information.This document shows the way Linked Data methodologies have been applied in OntoTV system, and the improvements in the data consumption and publication processes that have been obtained as result. On the one hand, the possibility of accessing to information available in the Web of Data has made possible to offer more complete descriptions about the programs, as well as more detailed guides than those obtained by using classic collection methods. On the other hand, as the information of the television programs and channels is published according to the Linked Data philosophy, it becomes available not only for OntoTV clients, but also for other agents able to access Linked Data resources, who could offer the viewer more fresh and innovative features.

  18. Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael

    The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

  19. 78 FR 63823 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Television Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ..., Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... test signals for test content and was geared heavily for older screen technologies like cathode ray... tested. For example, in Figure 5, testing would not be required with Eco mode both enabled and disabled...

  20. Using eye tracking to understand the effects of brand placement disclosure types in television programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the influence of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, the use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. The results showed that (1) a combination of text ("This program contains product placement") and a

  1. Explaining the Effects of Narrative in an Entertainment Television Program: Overcoming Resistance to Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Guse, Emily; Nabi, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research has examined the ability of entertainment-education (E-E) programs to influence behavior across a variety of health and social issues. However, less is known about the underlying mechanisms that account for these effects. In keeping with the extended elaboration likelihood model (E-ELM) and the entertainment overcoming resistance model…

  2. Enticing Viewers: Sex and Violence in TV Guide Program Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gilbert A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines advertisements in TV Guide for the years 1980 to 1985 to determine whether the presence of sex and violence in program advertisements affects audiences' viewing habits. Finds that sex and violence are prevalent in the advertisements but that the effect on the ratings is mixed. (RS)

  3. The effects of live music groups versus an educational children's television program on the emergent literacy of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Dena

    2004-01-01

    Research suggests that music is beneficial in teaching both social and academic skills to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a music therapy program designed to teach reading skills versus the "Between the Lions" television program on the early literacy behaviors of Kindergarten children from a low socioeconomic background. Subjects (n = 86) were children, aged 5-7 years, enrolled in one of four different Kindergarten classes at a public elementary school in Northwest Florida. Each class was assigned one of four treatment conditions: Music/Video (sequential presentation of each condition), Music-Only, Video-Only, and no contact Control group. Growth in early literacy skills was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and 3 subtests of the Test of Early reading Ability-3rd edition (TERA-3). Teachers' perceptions of classroom literacy behaviors were measured using a pre and poststudy survey. This study also compared on- and off-task behavior of students during video versus music conditions. Results of the 7 subtests measuring early literacy were varied. The Music/Video and Music-Only groups achieved the highest increases in mean scores from pre to posttest on 4 of the 7 subtests. Students in the Video-Only group scored significantly better on the phonemic segmentation portion of the DIBELS than peers in the Music/Video condition. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between the Letter Naming, Initial Sounds Fluency tests, and total raw score of the TERA-3 tests for both pre and posttesting. Additionally, graphic analysis of mean off-task behavior per session indicated that students were more off-task during both video conditions (video alone and video portion of Music/Video condition) than during the music conditions. Off-task behavior was consistently lower during music sessions for the duration of the study. This study confirmed that music increases the on-task behavior of students

  4. Producing Reality Stardom: Constructing, Programming, and Branding Celebrity on Reality Television

    OpenAIRE

    Giggey, Lindsay Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The popular preoccupation with celebrity in American culture in the past decade has been bolstered by a corresponding increase in the amount of reality programming across cable and broadcast networks that centers either on established celebrities or on celebrities in the making. This dissertation examines the questions: How is celebrity constructed, scheduled, and branded by networks, production companies, and individual participants, and how do the constructions and mechanisms of celebrity i...

  5. Comparing the effects of entertainment and educational television programming on risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Nabi, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    Entertainment-education (E-E) may offer an effective way to reduce risky behavior by modeling healthy behaviors. Although there is some empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the E-E strategy, much of this research has been conducted in countries with different media landscapes than that of the United States and controlled experiments in this context are rare. Moreover, empirical tests of the relative effectiveness of E-E messages and other message formats are needed. In this study, 437 undergraduates participated in a three-wave panel experiment in which they viewed one of three programs (E-E, education, or entertainment). Safer sex intentions and behaviors were measured several days before, immediately following, and 2 weeks after exposure. Results demonstrate that effects of exposure to this E-E program vary depending on gender and past experience with sexual intercourse. In particular, females and those who had not initiated sexual intercourse showed the strongest effects. Discussion of theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  6. Waking Up Buried Memories of Old TV Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzabal, Christelle; Bacon-Macé, Nadège; Muratot, Sophie; Thorpe, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that visual and auditory stimuli can be recalled decades after the initial exposure, previous studies have generally not ruled out the possibility that the material may have been seen or heard during the intervening period. Evidence shows that reactivations of a long-term memory trace play a role in its update and maintenance. In the case of remote or very long-term memories, it is most likely that these reactivations are triggered by the actual re-exposure to the stimulus. In this study we decided to explore whether it is possible to recall stimuli that could not have been re-experienced in the intervening period. We tested the ability of French participants ( N = 34, 31 female) to recall 50 TV programs broadcast on average for the last time 44 years ago (from the 60's and early 70's). Potential recall was elicited by the presentation of short audiovisual excerpts of these TV programs. The absence of potential re-exposure to the material was strictly controlled by selecting TV programs that have never been rebroadcast and were not available in the public domain. Our results show that six TV programs were particularly well identified on average across the 34 participants with a median percentage of 71.7% ( SD = 13.6, range: 48.5-87.9%). We also obtained 50 single case reports with associated information about the viewing of 23 TV programs including the 6 previous ones. More strikingly, for two cases, retrieval of the title was made spontaneously without the need of a four-proposition choice. These results suggest that re-exposures to the stimuli are not necessary to maintain a memory for a lifetime. These new findings raise fundamental questions about the underlying mechanisms used by the brain to store these very old sensory memories.

  7. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  8. Peggy Charren: Pioneer TV Activist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rosemary Lee; Charren, Peggy

    1980-01-01

    In this interview, Peggy Charren, the founder and president of Action for Children's Television (ACT), talks about the organization's concerns, goals, and activities, as well as its effect on television programing and commericals intended for children. (Editor/SJL)

  9. Visibility that demystifies: gays, gender, and sex on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzley, Sara Baker

    2010-01-01

    A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.

  10. Cable Television and the Performing Arts. The Proceedings of a Conference (New York, New York, June 5-7, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Univ., NY. School of the Arts.

    Included in this set of proceedings are a keynote address on the state of the art of cable television and the future of the television economy by Les Brown, editor-in-chief of "Channels" magazine; panel discussions on the structure of the cable television industry; the potential market for cable television arts programming; the birth and…

  11. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  12. How People Think about a TV Program: A Q-Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgooyanfard, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies four viewpoints about a TV program by making use of Q-method. Based on a factor analysis, 35 participants of this study are classified into four groups that each one creates a viewpoint towards the TV program. Each viewpoint is interpreted carefully by using 48 statements representing possible opinions about the TV program.…

  13. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  14. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  15. Framing Persoalan Indonesia Melalui Film Dokumenter Model Direct Cinema (Studi Pada Film-film Dokumenter Terbaik, Program Eagle Award Competitions Di Metro TV)

    OpenAIRE

    Styo Wibowo, Novin Farid

    2013-01-01

    FRAMING PERSOALAN INDONESIA MELALUI FILM DOKUMENTER MODELDIRECT CINEMA(STUDI PADA FILM-FILM DOKUMENTER TERBAIK, PROGRAM EAGLEAWARD COMPETITIONS DI METRO TV)Frames Indonesia Issues Through Direct Cinema DocumentaryFilm On Television (Framing Analysis of the 3 Best Documentary Film, Eagle AwardCompetitions Program at Metro TV)Novin Farid Styo WibowoJurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas Muhammadiyah MalangEmail : TThe research disc...

  16. Identifying family television practices to reduce children's television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be

  17. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  18. The World According to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Don

    1985-01-01

    Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)

  19. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  20. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedoorn Berber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television, negotiating a shared understanding of the past. This is evidenced by the increasing popularity of reboots, newly developed history and documentary programming, re-use of archival footage and nostalgia content. This article takes a closer look at television’s abilities to circulate and contextualize the past in the current era of convergence through narrowcasting or niche programming on digital television platforms, specifically via nostalgia programming. Such platforms exemplify the multifaceted way of looking at and gaining access to television programming through a variety of connected platforms and screens in the current multi-platform era. Since the way in which television professionals (producers, schedulers, commissioners, researchers act as moderators in this process needs to be further analysed, the article places an emphasis on how meaningful connections via previously broadcast history and nostalgia programming are also curated, principally through scheduling and production practices for niche programming – key elements in television’s creative process that have received less academic attention. Furthermore, the article discusses to what extent media policy in the Netherlands is attuned to the (re-circulation of previously broadcast content and programming about past events, and reflects on television’s possibilities for “re-screening” references to the past in the contemporary media landscape. The analysis is based on a combination of textual analysis of audio-visual archival content and a production studies approach of interviews with key professionals, to gain insight into the creators’ strategies in relation to nostalgia programming and scheduling. Subsequently, the article demonstrates how national collective memory, as understood by television professionals in the Netherlands, informs the scheduling and

  1. The Evaluation of Dogmatic Television Characters by Dogmatic Viewers: "Is Archie Bunker a Credible Source?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    The highly rated television program series, "All in the Family," was used to test the relationship between attitudes espoused by televised characters and attitudes held by viewers of this type of television programing. On the basis of survey questionnaires, it was condluded that people who hold dogmatic and, especially, racist beliefs find…

  2. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  3. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  4. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  5. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  6. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’

  7. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  8. Internet for Educational Television: An Opportunity or Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…

  9. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  10. Children's Memory for Auditory and Visual Information on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Stevens, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between preschool children's (n = 96) cognitive processing of video (V) and audio (A) information on television under four conditions: A/V match, A/V mismatch, V alone, and A alone. Results suggest that in regular television programs the video material simply appears to be more salient and more memorable than the audio…

  11. Women Out of View. An Analysis of Female Characters on 1987-88 TV Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Sally; Whittemore, Lauren

    This study of the images of women as portrayed on new television programs in 1987-88 not only compared them with the images of the last season, but examined the similarities and differences between these characters and real life women. Each continuing female character on every new show was coded for race, age, occupation, marital and socioeconomic…

  12. Grey’s Anatomy effect: television portrayal of patients with trauma may cultivate unrealistic patient and family expectations after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrone, Rosemarie O; Weinberg, Jordan A; Goslar, Pamela W; Wilkinson, Erin P; Thompson, Terrell M; Dameworth, Jonathan L; Dempsey, Shawna R; Petersen, Scott R

    2018-01-01

    Background Expectations of the healthcare experience may be influenced by television dramas set in the hospital workplace. It is our perception that the fictional television portrayal of hospitalization after injury in such dramas is misrepresentative. The purpose of this study was to compare trauma outcomes on television dramas versus reality. Methods We screened 269 episodes of Grey’s Anatomy, a popular medical drama. A television (TV) registry was constructed by collecting data for each fictional trauma portrayed in the television series. Comparison data for a genuine patient cohort were obtained from the 2012 National Trauma Databank (NTDB) National Program Sample. Results 290 patients composed of the TV registry versus 4812 patients from NTDB. Mortality was higher on TV (22% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Most TV patients went straight from emergency department (ED) to operating room (OR) (71% vs 25%, P<0.0001). Among TV survivors, a relative minority were transferred to long-term care (6% vs 22%, P<0.0001). For severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥25) survivors, hospital length of stay was less than 1 week for 50% of TV patients versus 20% in NTDB (P<0.0001). Conclusions Trauma patients as depicted on television dramas typically go from ED to OR, and survivors usually return home. Television portrayal of rapid functional recovery after major injury may cultivate false expectations among patients and their families. Level of evidence Level III. PMID:29766127

  13. Selective Television Viewing: A Limited Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorielli, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that prime-time television presents a remarkably consistent portrayal of the world across program genres and that it offers few scheduling alternatives to avoiding violence-laden adventure programs. Finds that the average viewer has little opportunity to exercise any kind of choice in viewing. (JD)

  14. Violence in Children's Programmes on British Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie

    1997-01-01

    Studied violence on children's television in Britain. Found 39% of children's programs examined contained violence, primarily involving shootings and physical assault committed for negative purposes and rarely followed by painful consequences. The fast pace of such programs is also a significant factor. Results pose wider implications for those…

  15. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. "High quality" (19%), "good taste" (15%), "novelty", and "message on nutritional composition" (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on "high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products" was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) ( P TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product ("Tomato paste B") was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials ( P TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area.

  16. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  17. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  18. Social TV: How Social Media Activity Interacts With TV Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Fossen Beth L.; Schweidel David A.

    2017-01-01

    Social TV is the simultaneous consumption of television alongside social media chatter about the programming. This topic is highly relevant for marketers. Usually it is considered as a bad thing for TV advertisers. While there can be distraction from the ads, marketers can also benefit from positive effects. Consumers’ multiscreen activities can be used to attract more viewers, to leverage TV campaigns and to increase sales. This chatter creates free exposure for the brand online, extends the...

  19. Just Images. Television News Coverage of High-Profile Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, Mindy S.

    This guide describes "Just Images" a series of television programs and exhibitions that offers a public forum for analyzing television's influential portrayals of trials, lawyers, and the legal system. Contending that television portrayals of high-profile trials has altered the public's perception of law and the role of lawyers in the legal…

  20. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: an exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.; Beentjes, J.; Nuijten, K.; Peeters, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content

  1. Arousing news characteristics in Dutch television news 1990-2004: An exploration of competitive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks Vettehen, P.G.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; Nuijten, C.M.; Peeters, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content

  2. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  3. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  4. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  5. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  6. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Latino preschoolers' TV viewing is needed to reduce their risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. This study's objective was to evaluate the Fit 5 Kids (F5K) TV reduction program's impact on Latino preschooler's TV viewing. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  7. Temptation at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bucciol

    Full Text Available To encourage worker productivity, companies routinely adopt policies requiring employees to delay gratification. For example, offices might prohibit use of the internet for personal purposes during regular business hours. Recent work in social psychology, however, suggests that using willpower to delay gratification can negatively impact performance. We report data from an experiment where subjects in a Willpower Treatment are asked to resist the temptation to join others in watching a humorous video for 10 minutes. In relation to a baseline treatment that does not require willpower, we show that resisting this temptation detrimentally impacts economic productivity on a subsequent task.

  8. Temptation at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Houser, Daniel; Piovesan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    To encourage worker productivity, companies routinely adopt policies requiring employees to delay gratification. For example, offices might prohibit use of the internet for personal purposes during regular business hours. Recent work in social psychology, however, suggests that using willpower...... to delay gratification can negatively impact performance. We report data from an experiment where subjects in a Willpower Treatment are asked to resist the temptation to join others in watching a humorous video for 10 minutes. In relation to a baseline treatment that does not require willpower, we show...... that resisting this temptation detrimentally impacts economic productivity on a subsequent task....

  9. The Sociability of Mobile TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, David

    Both mobile phones and television are known for the social practices they enable. Television has been a social medium since its introduction in households all over the world. Although its main aim is entertaining and informing its viewers, people often watch television together with close relatives or good friends, talk about what is going on while watching television or even structure their social activities around a television show (e.g., eating dinner while watching the news) (Lull 1980). But television programs are also part of social interactions away from the television set, when discussing favorite television programs around the water cooler at work, or recommending shows to watch to good friends. The main function of mobile phones on the other hand has always been social from the start: communicating with other people, when and wherever you want, first using voice communication and later also with text messages and video communication. So what happens when these two social media are combined? It is clear that mobile TV cannot be successful without taking social practices when watching TV on a mobile device into account. Although one approach could be to let the users appropriate the device in their social environment, as happened with text messaging, the risk that it does not match their current practices is too big. A better approach is to design mobile TV applications that take direct advantage of the social aspects of each medium, which means adding interactive features that will enable and support social interaction between users on different levels. In order to get an idea of the possibilities, it is interesting to look at recent research in the closely related domain of interactive television.

  10. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite...... feminine values” of nurturing and home management. However, this chapter brings out a series of examples in which these gendered models are negotiated and transgressed. This chapter, which draws on examples from the US, UK, and France, argues that the gendering of cooking shows should be understood...... in relation to other social categories, notably ethnicity and class. With this in mind, I conclude that food television not only reproduces hierarchies between men and women, but also between various kinds of masculinity and femininity....

  11. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  12. Cable Television for Librarians. Ordinances and Franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel Library Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A short lecture is presented on how librarians can incorporate their programing into that of existing and future cable television stations. The lecture was followed by a question/answer period. (Other conference materials are LI 503071-503076 and 503078 through 503084.) (SM)

  13. Television Research: The Potential for Ecological Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan C.

    The failure of television research to affect broadcast policy is attributed partially to its methodological inadequacies and its narrow audience. Research tends not to take into account such variables as the program selection behavior itself, the natural viewing context, and other non-content influences. Existing research suggests that television…

  14. Doctors on display: the evolution of television's doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, Elliot B.

    2010-01-01

    Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation...

  15. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  17. Manifestations of Speech Aggression in the Creativity of "Literaturnaya Gazeta" Television Criticists (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Bakanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the examples of verbal aggression manifestations in publicistic texts that assess the modern broadcasting practice and the content of the main Russian television companies, "Literaturnaya gazeta", one of the popular weekly periodicals in Russia. In each issue of this newspaper, several articles were published with an assessment of the quality of television broadcasts. Having studied the archives of "Literaturnaya gazeta" issues (260 in total for the period of 2012-2016, we found 842 articles containing both positive and negative evaluations of TV shows, the work of the TV show hosts and the trends of modern federal television broadcasting. Using the methods of "Literaturnaya gazeta" continuous monitoring, a quantitative and a content analysis of its articles and the comparison of the articles of television critics published in different years, we found out that a large part of the analyzed articles, the thing was about television programs and famous persons taking part in them. Having analyzed the style of information presentation in the publications of television critics of "Literaturnaya gazeta", we found out that verbal aggression over the chronological period of the research was one of the frequently used methods to develop a negative public opinion about the practice of the main Russian television channel functioning. In 2012-2016 this language phenomenon was applied in relation to television programs, television personalities and to characterize a social-political situation in the country where Russian television operates. We believe that the regular appeal of critics to verbal aggression testifies to the desire of "Literaturnaya gazeta" authors to influence the audience more emotionally than rationally and follow a simple path, revealing and replicating the negative.

  18. The portrayal of Tourette Syndrome in film and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder-Sprackman, Samantha; Sutherland, Stephanie; Doja, Asif

    2014-03-01

    To determine the representation of Tourette Syndrome (TS) in fictional movies and television programs by investigating recurrent themes and depictions. Television and film can be a source of information and misinformation about medical disorders. Tourette Syndrome has received attention in the popular media, but no studies have been done on the accuracy of the depiction of the disorder. International internet movie databases were searched using the terms "Tourette's", "Tourette's Syndrome", and "tics" to generate all movies, shorts, and television programs featuring a character or scene with TS or a person imitating TS. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified the types of characters, tics, and co-morbidities depicted as well as the overall representation of TS. Thirty-seven television programs and films were reviewed dating from 1976 to 2010. Fictional movies and television shows gave overall misrepresentations of TS. Coprolalia was overrepresented as a tic manifestation, characters were depicted having autism spectrum disorder symptoms rather than TS, and physicians were portrayed as unsympathetic and only focusing on medical therapies. School and family relationships were frequently depicted as being negatively impacted by TS, leading to poor quality of life. Film and television are easily accessible resources for patients and the public that may influence their beliefs about TS. Physicians should be aware that TS is often inaccurately represented in television programs and film and acknowledge misrepresentations in order to counsel patients accordingly.

  19. MOBILE TELEVISION: UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlSheikSalem

    2015-01-01

    Television have converged the technologies of movies and radio and now being converged with mobile phones. Mobile TV is the result of the convergence between mobile devices and television. Mobile TV is a key device and service that enrich civilization with applications, vast market and great investment. Mobile TV is an important subject that has a potential impact on leading edge technologies for promising future. In the time being Mobile TV is still in its early stages and has many potential...

  20. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  1. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Devadas M.B,; Saravanan V.M,

    2015-01-01

    Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term dev...

  2. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  3. Male adolescents' reactions to TV beer advertisements: the effects of sports content and programming context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Rouner, D; Murphy, K; Beauvais, F; Van Leuven, J; Rodríguez, M D

    1996-07-01

    This study examines white male adolescent responses to TV beer advertisements with and without sports content and to nonbeer ads when embedded in sports and entertainment programming. A total of 72 advertisements and 24 television program excerpts were randomly sampled from national television programming. White male adolescents (N = 157) recruited in a public school system each viewed six ads (one of each of three types of ad embedded in each of two types of programming) comprising the 2 x 2 x 3 factorial, within-subjects, mixed-model (random and fixed effects) experimental design along with an age-level blocking factor and random factors for commercial and program stimuli. Cognitive responses to each ad were content-analyzed. Individual difference variables including alcohol use behavior, sensation-seeking, masculinity and sports involvement were also measured. Subjects showed a consistent preference for beer ads with sports content. A significant three-way interaction between ad type, programming type and junior versus senior high-school age level also indicated that sports programming had an inconsistent effect on responses to beer ads but that nonbeer ads were responded to more positively during sports than during entertainment programming. Other analyses showed that subjects were more cognitively resistant to beer ads than to nonbeer ads. These results support public and official concerns that sports content in beer ads increase the ads appeal to underage youth. They do not support hypothesized concerns that sports programming might prime adolescents to be more receptive to beer ads. Implications for alcohol education efforts are discussed.

  4. TV and Capitalization of Free Time. TV Programming as Means of Production / TV y capitalización del tiempo de ocio. La programación como medio de producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ddo. Richard Danta; rdanta@ucu.edu.uy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to build a conceptual bridge between the communication theories and the contemporary economic ones, concentrating on the added value concept on television industry. More specifically, it pays especial attention to the idea of considering television programming as a means of production that is able to capitalize the emission by using location strategies (day and time in which a television show is offered to the target audience, as well as contents strategies (the narrative nature of TV shows as a cultural message. TV programming, discursive strategy, message, format, narrative genre and cultural proximity are some of the communication and technical categories that will be confronted and judged against economic notions of capitalized value, such as: added time, economic yield and cultural commodity; in order to formulate a theoretical model that allows to understand TV programming as a means of production in all of its industrial implications. Este trabajo intenta el acercamiento entre las teorías comunicacionales y las teorías económicas contemporáneas, centrándose en el concepto de generación de valor agregado en la industria cultural televisiva. Más específicamente, focaliza su atención en la programación televisiva considerada como un medio de producción capaz de capitalizar espacios de emisión a través de estrategias discursivas de localización (el día y hora en que se emite un programa de televisión y de estrategias discursivas de contenido (la propuesta narrativa del mensaje televisivo. Las nociones de programación, estrategia discursiva, mensaje, formato, género televisivo, y proximidad cultural serán confrontadas y vinculadas con las categorías de capitalización, tiempo agregado, rentabilidad y mercancía cultural, con el propósito de formular un modelo incipiente que permita la comprensión de la programación televisiva en tanto medio de producción, ya sea en sus cualidades económicas como en sus

  5. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  6. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  7. The Social Uses of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates that audience members create specific and sometimes elaborate practical actions involving television in order to gratify particular needs in the context of family viewing. Supports a typology of the social uses of television using ethnographic research and current uses and gratifications literature. (JMF)

  8. HAVi components in digital television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2001-01-01

    htmlabstractDigital television broadcast started in Finland on 27th of August 2001. A new period in this entertainment field has already begun. Because of the importance of television in the society, the shift between analogue and digital has to be done with the viewers in mind. The User

  9. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  10. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  11. Where has the doctor gone? The mediazation of medicine on Dutch television, 1961-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Piet

    2008-10-01

    Health issues and medical science receive a lot of attention on television. Of all the sciences, the European public is most interested in medicine, and the public uses television as their main source of information on science. There has been hardly any empirical research, however, into the historical development of the representation of medical science on television. The development of medical television was explored by carrying out a content analysis of Dutch non-fiction medical television programs spanning a period of 40 years. The speaking time allotted to experts has decreased over the years, while that allotted to laypeople has increased. We are seeing fewer references to sources and science and more expression of emotion and tension. The results suggest three periods of medical television: a scientific, a journalistic and a lay period. Medical television in 2000 shows a personified picture of patients against an instrumentalized and symbolized medical backdrop.

  12. Television violence--reactions from physicians, advertisers and the networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, M; Johnson, G T

    1977-02-24

    In response to our call for letters on television violence we received more than 1500 letters from readers of the Journal. Seventy-two per cent of the leading television advertisers responded to a subsequent letter requesting a description of their policies regarding content of the programs they sponsor. Their responses included exculpating factors such as lack of control over programming, the limited amount of available advertising time and censorship. We presented these responses to network representatives. They commented on the difficulty in defining violence, the current decrease in the amount of violence shown and their activities in response to this issue. We maintain that the burden of proof that television violence does not harm lies with those who introduce it into society. Advertisers and networks will respond, we believe, to the problem of television violence if continuous public pressure is maintained.

  13. [Television, children and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2002-06-08

    Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.

  14. Death and Television: Terror Management Theory and Themes of Law and Justice on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on terror management theory, it was hypothesized that media choices may be affected by the salience of death-related thoughts. Three experiments with samples of undergraduate students were conducted to investigate whether such a process would affect preferences for law and justice television programming. In the first experiment (n = 132),…

  15. ‘Remember, it’s just television’: Rubicon TV and the Commercialisation of Norwegian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundet, Vilde Schanke; Bakøy, Eva

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article discusses the corporate strategy of one of the most successful television production companies in Norway: Rubicon TV. Based on a historical analysis from the company’s establishment in the early 1990s until today, the article illuminates how Rubicon TV has navigated in and

  16. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  17. Process Concepts for Semi-automatic Dismantling of LCD Televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  18. The Market for Television Advertising: Model and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kieschnick; B. McCullough; Steven Wildman

    2001-01-01

    We provide a model of television advertising based on an explicit characterization of an advertisement's contribution to an advertiser's profits that suggests that each program faces a downward sloping demand for its ad time. Hence Fournier and Martin's (1983) "law of one price" does not hold in our model. We study these contrasting arguments about television advertising by examining the pricing of broadcast network advertising. In conducting this empirical examination we encounter and solve ...

  19. Television use in the 21st century: An exploration of television and social television use in a multiplatform environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the multiplatform and individualized video viewing environment, this study conducted focus groups to delve into reasons behind the choice and use of television over other types of video platforms, and the motives for using social television. The results suggest that the focus group participants feel affection for television as a medium itself — a feeling that is independent of the content available on television. The motives for seeking social television include a sense of communi...

  20. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  1. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  2. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  3. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  4. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  5. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria; Campoy, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398-3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC.

  6. Television-related injuries in children--the British Columbia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica; Grushka, Jeremy; Butterworth, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    In Canada, mortality from falling televisions (TVs) is the 15th leading cause of childhood death owing to injury. Frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of TV childhood injuries were examined to determine any at risk populations. All TV-related traumas at a tertiary children's hospital from 1997 to 2011 were identified using the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database and the hospital's trauma database. Charts of admitted patients were reviewed. Analysis of 179 injuries (10-24 per year) revealed a high frequency of injury in the home and a preponderance of head and neck injuries. Toddlers were the most commonly injured age group. Eleven admitted patients were identified; 6 were admitted to intensive care unit with significant head injuries, 2 of whom required surgery. More than half of admitted patients were First Nations or recent immigrants. The length of stay for a ward vs intensive care unit admission was 1.3 days (range, Television injury would likely have been prevented by a securing device or support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  8. TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

  9. A Case of Asynchronous Media Change in the 1950s: How US-American TV Series Came to Early West German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Dechert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of radio and cinema on the first television program designs in West Germany, and other nations, can be explained by a theory which has recently been put forward by communication scholar Gabriele Balbi. According to Balbi, in a first step new media imitate old media in manifold ways before they develop characteristics of their own and become a truly new medium. However, the ‘producers’ of early West German national television were not only looking to radio or cinema for clues on how to design the program of Deutsches Fernsehen (DFS, West Germany’s first and only national television channel from 1954 to 1961/63. DFS’ executives and executive employees were also looking to other nations, particularly to those – like the United States – that were years ahead in television’s evolution. Especially the implementation of the entertainment series in West German television is strongly rooted in visits to the United States and newly gathered information and impressions. To exemplify this argument, I delve into examples which demonstrate that West German television executives and executive employees were either creating television series on the basis of US-American television series or were broadcasting the latter after synchronization. In this context, major findings of diffusion research constitute a useful addition to current theories on media change.

  10. Ubiquitous TV: A Business Model Perspective on the Norwegian Television Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjøndal, Tore Stautland; Gedde, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging distribution channel for television content that will deeply impact industry incumbents in the long term. This master thesis explores what challenges are brought forth in this industry by the possibility of Internet distribution of TV and how these issues should be addressed from the business model perspective of incumbent distributors in the Norwegian television market.There have been tremendous developments in Internet related infrastructure over the last decade....

  11. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  12. Nature and Impact of Alcohol Messages in a Youth-Oriented Television Series

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W.; Grube, Joel W.

    2009-01-01

    This research contributes to the extant literature on television influence by pairing a stimulus-side approach documenting how information is presented within a TV series with a response-side assessment of whether connectedness and exposure to a series influence the processing of that information differently depending on its format. The inquiry focuses on the nature and impact of messages about alcohol contained within a youth oriented TV program. The findings indicate that the recall and per...

  13. Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Susan R.

    The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes commercial, a "Batman" and Robin episode, a news story on the MIG-25 and a segment of the…

  14. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Karin M; Kair, Laura R; Arain, Yassar H; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Zuckerman, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time. This was a cross-sectional survey study of 314 parents of children ages 0-5 years surveyed in English or Spanish by self-administered questionnaire at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinic in Oregon. In this majority Latino sample (73%), half (53%) of the children met AAP guidelines on screen time limits, 56% met AAP guidelines for no TV in the child's bedroom, and 29% met both. Children were more likely to meet AAP guidelines when there were child screen time. Programs aimed at reducing child screen time may benefit from interventions that address parental viewing habits.

  15. Television journalism as a tool for public communication: a study of cases of violence against women in the newscast Bom Dia Goiás from Tv Anhanguera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the social function of journalism, the scope and the credibility of TV journalism, as well as the possibility of its use as a tool for public communication. To this end, it is necessary to refer to details surrounding the deployment and development of TV journalism in Brazil and to conceptualize public communication and citizenship. Also, this study carries out an analysis of the channels that the individual uses to get information, mass communication characteristics and, above all, television and the need for the existence of public communication for citizenship. In addition, this article puts forward a content analysis of the TV news program Bom Dia Goiás - TV Anhanguera (an affiliate of Rede Globo in Goiás, outlining its approach and the type of information conveyed to the public about a serious social problem - violence against women.

  16. TELEVISION JOURNALISM AS A TOOL FOR PUBLIC COMMUNICATION: A STUDY OF CASES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE NEWSCAST BOM DIA GOIÁS FROM TV ANHANGUERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mainieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the social function of journalism, the scope and the credibility of TV journalism, as well as the possibility of its use as a tool for public communication. To this end, it is necessary to refer to details surrounding the deployment and development of TV journalism in Brazil and to conceptualize public communication and citizenship. Also, this study carries out an analysis of the channels that the individual uses to get information, mass communication characteristics and, above all, television and the need for the existence of public communication for citizenship. In addition, this article puts forward a content analysis of the TV news program Bom Dia Goiás - TV Anhanguera (an affiliate of Rede Globo in Goiás, outlining its approach and the type of information conveyed to the public about a serious social problem - violence against women.

  17. 47 CFR 74.601 - Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.601 Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. (a) TV pickup stations. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program material and related communications...

  18. German Television in the U.S. and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  19. German Television in the United States and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I review the options that teachers and students have to obtain German TV in the U.S.: through satellite and cable networks and by streaming, downloading, or recording TV programs through the internet. I also address how one can access TV programs over the air in the German-speaking countries by using a notebook PC and TV card.

  20. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  1. A strategic analysis of a service company in the film and television industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nex, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading ‘full service’ provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...

  2. A Consumer Model for TV Audiences: The Case of TV Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deanna C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explores attitudes toward television violence and censorship using a consumer behavior model. Findings suggest that support for the anti-television-violence campaign is not universal and that excessive violence is only one of four distinct viewer complaints about television programs. (JMF)

  3. The effects of reality-based television programming on diet and exercise motivation and self-efficacy in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Thomas, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, this research examines the effects of reality entertainment programming and embedded commercials on viewers' perceived motivations and efficacy to exercise and consume a healthy diet as well as on food preference. In a 3 (program type) × 2 (advertisement type) study design, 253 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to watch an episode of a health-oriented reality program, a non-heath-oriented reality program, or a health-themed sitcom in which commercials for either healthy or unhealthy foods were embedded. Results indicated that perceived realism of the health-oriented reality program generated greater confidence to eat more healthily and exercise, as well as greater motivation to exercise. Additionally, program viewing differentially affected motivations to eat healthily and to exercise, but only when type of advertisement (high vs. low calorie food ads) was taken into consideration. Finally, women who watched the health-oriented reality program were more likely to choose a healthy snack at the conclusion of the experiment than those exposed to other programs, thus supporting the assertion that reality programming may potentiate positive health behaviors. The role of the embedded advertisements in altering the interpretation and health impact of the programming is also discussed.

  4. Doctors on display: the evolution of television's doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Elliot B

    2010-10-01

    Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science.

  5. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  6. Quantification of Rain Induced Artifacts on Digital Satellite Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, digital satellite television (DSTV) and terrestrial television content providers. In this paper, the artifacts present in a typical DSTV signal is examined on a ...

  7. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  8. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  9. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  10. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  11. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  12. Children's Television: More than Mere Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The authors propose that television, while entertaining children, also socializes them. To support this conclusion they review the literature regarding effects of television content on aggressive and prosocial behavior and social attitudes. (Editor)

  13. Racism and the Media: Racism in Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marquita

    1971-01-01

    The major problem confronting black people working in the television industry today is that of communicating with the black community, despite the nature of television and its system of operation. (DM)

  14. Sundhed på tv: fra læge til sundhedsguru [Health on television: from doctor to health guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Lykke Christensen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns health programs that the Danish public service broadcaster DR produced from the 1990s to 2012. The study is based on a qualitative content analysis of selected health programs and considers the purpose of the programs, their generic composition, and their positioning of the viewer as well as their intention to communicate knowledge about health. The article is theoretically informed by mediatization theory and demonstrates how the medium of television influences the discursive construction of health in factual programming. In the early 1990s, television relied primarily on health expertise from institutions outside of the media, and the programs made use of external experts. Today, the media to a greater extent creates its own know-how experts, who are produced and tailored to the needs of television and the demand for dramatically successful entertainment. This article demonstrates how the early factual programs were dominated by information on illness, medical treatment, and nursing care, communicated by medical experts and laymen. Today’s programs present health as an individual and entrepreneurial project that rapidly changes and improves the individual’s lifestyle and behavior.

  15. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  16. Children's Perceptions of Moral Themes in Television Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter G.

    To determine children's perceptions of underlying morals or messages in television drama, a study was conducted in which four early prime time situation comedies were selected for viewing by 15 children per program in kindergarten/first grade, 15 children per program in third/fourth grade, and 8 children per program at the sixth grade level. The…

  17. Identifying household television practices to reduce children’s television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more

  18. Exploring Uses and Gratifications: A Comparison of Reported Uses of Television and Reported Uses of Favorite Program Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantz, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    Results indicate respondents do not identify medium-specific or program-specific uses. Lack of differentiation suggests: (1) additional assessment of the relationship of medium and content is needed and (2) medium and content should be considered related variables in uses and gratification research, and research not incorporating their interaction…

  19. Disclosing celebrity endorsement in a television program to mitigate persuasion: how disclosure type and celebrity credibility interact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, K.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment (N = 165) examined the effects of two aspects of in-program celebrity endorsement on brand attitudes and product claim acceptance: credibility of the celebrity and the effects of disclosure types. Although there is an increasing call for endorsement disclosures, the effects of these

  20. Television's "crazy lady" trope: female psychopathic traits, teaching, and influence of popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Cathleen; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Smith, Delaney

    2014-04-01

    This article describes notable illustrations of female psychopathy on modern television to review various characters that will have utility in teaching students about female psychopathy in distinction to male psychopathy and to encourage consideration of the potential effects that viewing these countless examples may have on a generation of young women. The authors use examples from soap operas, crime procedurals, reality television, fantasy, comedies, and young adult programs to illustrate gender differences in psychopathy and make specific teaching points. They also review the research literature related to popular culture's impact on behavior and gender roles. Gender differences in real-world psychopathy are mirrored in television portrayals. For example, female psychopaths, on TV and in reality, use sexual manipulation, demonstrate unstable emotions, and employ social aggression to achieve their ambitions. The examples of female psychopathic traits are prevalent on TV and easily accessible for teaching purposes. Research does give some support for a popular culture impact on behavior and gender roles. As compared to male psychopathy, female psychopathy is less recognized, and there are some notable differences in how the psychopathic traits manifest. Television provides myriad teaching examples that can highlight the gender distinctions such as use of sexual manipulation, emotional instability, and social aggression. Research suggests that the prevalence of "crazy ladies" on television may be negatively impacting gender stereotypes and normalizing bad behavior in young women.

  1. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major television markets. 76.51 Section 76.51... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...

  2. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  3. Upbringing with a TV set in the background. Of television in everyday family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRYCJA HANYGA-JANCZAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily, television is the most popular of all mass media and watching it is the most frequent way of spending leisure time. It seems that no one argues for a positive role of television in family life anymore, with complete lack of contact with television being disadvantageous to the family, as well. The opportunity to use television increases self-esteem and allows for participation in what is going on in the country and in the world; it is, therefore, worth it to make use of its benefits reasonably

  4. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  5. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  6. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  7. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  8. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  9. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  10. Trends in US newspaper and television coverage of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Pederson, Linda L; Mowery, Paul; Bailey, Sarah; Sevilimedu, Varadan; London, Joel; Babb, Stephen; Pechacek, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  12. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  13. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  14. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  15. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  16. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  17. Will Television Bring Us This?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 Mei 1974 ... In October 1973 viewers of a popular show on. BBC television in the UK were given unequivocal statements about the treatment of rheumatic disease and advice on treatment recommending a 'prescrip- tion only' drug recently introduced to that market. The use of the medium to advise specific anti-.

  18. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  19. The Advent of Streaming Television in Denmark - Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk, Syv......-demand. It discusses the potential impact of declining accuracy of audience measurement on market actors’ decisions concerning streaming, as well as potential strategies for improving audience measurement.......Digital media convergence is turning television practices upside down, including advertising, the motives for political and administrative decisions, and also extends to planning, producing, distributing, and programming content (Buzzard 2012; Cunningham and Silver 2013; Havens 2014; Ihlebæk....... It is noteworthy that although the shift towards online television distribution entails that viewing become measurable by the existing system for online audience tracking (Gemius), market actors have so far failed in their attempt to consolidate online measurements of viewing time with audience ratings of flow...

  20. Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.

  1. Heterogeneity in time and energy use of watching television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Ashok; Williams, Eric; Chen, Roger

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial variability in residential energy use, partly driven by heterogeneous behavioral patterns. Time-use is relevant to energy when consumption tracks the time a device is used. Cluster analysis is a promising approach to identify time-use patterns. If clusters with particularly long time use and thus high energy consumption emerge, these groups could merit targeted policy intervention. We investigate these ideas via an empirical study of time use for television watching in the U.S. Three clusters were identified. In 2013, the average time spent watching television by Clusters 1, 2 and 3 are dramatically different: 1.1, 3.5 and 7.7 h per day respectively. While members of Cluster 3 are only 14% of the total population they represent 34% of TV energy consumption. The population of Cluster 3 tends to be older, less employed and less educated. Energy savings per adopter is much larger for Cluster 3, suggesting much higher benefits from efficient devices. These results are relevant to the design of efficiency programs, indicating potential for variable rebates and/or tiered communication. With variable rebates, utilities would offer higher incentives to high-use customers. In tiered communication, utilities would devote more resources to engage customers with larger savings potential. - Highlights: •Utility and other efficiency programs often treat consumers as homogenous groups. •Heterogeneity in consumer behavior affects benefits/costs of efficiency upgrade. •Significant heterogeneity is found in U.S. television watching patterns. •Heavy watchers (7.7 h/day) are 14% of population but consume 34% of energy. •Energy savings of efficient television for heavy watcher is 3 times the average.

  2. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  3. The new medical media elite: the rise of laymen on medical television in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.; Holz-Bacha, C.; Reus, G.; Becker, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the European television landscape and the supply of television programs have changed greatly. In the Netherlands, for example, the broadcasting system has changed from the typical Dutch pillarised system, where broadcasting organizations represented segments of society (for example

  4. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  5. Radio and television use in Butte County, California: application to fire prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1975-01-01

    A sample of Butte County residents were interviewed about their radio and television use habits. Their responses were analyzed in terms of demographic, social, and economic characteristics. The findings can be used in developing more effective fire prevention programs. Most people in Butte County listen to the radio or watch television but they differ widely in the way...

  6. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FACULTY AND STUDENT ACCEPTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION, TEMP II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANFORD, FILLMORE H.

    PERTINENT FACTORS WERE DELINEATED IN THE ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS USED WITH THE TEXAS EDUCATIONAL MICROWAVE PROJECT (TEMP)--AN EFFORT LINKING 11 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES BY MICROWAVE TRANSMITTERS TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRATED CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM. DATA-GATHERING INSTRUMENTS WERE INTERVIEWS,…

  7. 26 CFR 1.181-3T - Qualified film or television production (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... season of programming. (3) Exception for certain sexually explicit productions. A production does not... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified film or television production... (continued) § 1.181-3T Qualified film or television production (temporary). (a) In general. The term...

  8. Using Social Science to Improve Children's Television: An NBC Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Horst; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the evolution and activities of the Social Science Advisory Panel at NBC (National Broadcasting Company) that brings knowledge about children and television to the production of Saturday morning children's television programs. Highlights include self-regulatory aspects of the panel, issues confronted such as violence and stereotyping,…

  9. Testing Confounds to a Developmental Theory of Children's Learning from Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.

    Children's learning from television was studied in 343 fourth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who viewed an edited version of a television program and took a posttest. It was hypothesized that children would learn more plot-relevant information (central learning material) as they moved from concrete operational to formal operational…

  10. Scheduling science on television: A comparative analysis of the representations of science in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo; Petkova, Kristina; Trench, Brian

    2012-11-01

    This article explores the factors that influence the volume and structure of science programming by European television broadcasters, focussing on differences among channel patterns. It proposes three factors as relevant to understanding differences in science programming: A) the segmentation/fragmentation of television markets; B) the presence of middle sized commercial channels; C) the dependency of public service TV channels on commercial income (trading/advertising). We identified countries whose channel patterns encourage a varied picture of science - namely Sweden, Finland and Germany. They are distinguished from those which show a less differentiated picture and present a smaller volume of science content on television - such as Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, we identified countries whose channel patterns don't encourage a varied picture of science - namely Spain, Greece, Bulgaria and Estonia - and these countries present their small volume of science content at off-peak hours, in contrast to patterns in Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Television in Latin America Is “Everywhere”: Not Dead, Not Dying, but Converging and Thriving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Orozco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, the now-venerable expression “the end of television” itself looks old, tired, and flawed: markets, cultures, politics, and policies alike find television more alive than ever, albeit in its usual state of technological, institutional, and textual flux. Advertising investment in TV continues to increase, governments still use television to promote generalized propaganda as well as their daily agendas, football on screen remains wildly popular, and fiction programs, most notably telenovelas, dominate prime time and draw large audiences aged between 25 and 60. While younger viewers watch television on a wider variety of screens and technologies, and do so at differing times, the discourse of TV remains an important referent in their audiovisual experiences. In addition, across age groups, divides persist between a minority with routine high-quality access to the digital world of technology and information and a majority without alternatives to the traditional audiovisual sphere, for whom cell phones, for instance, are at most devices for communicating with friends and family members. We cannot predict the future of TV in Latin America—but we can say with confidence that the claims for its demise are overstated. Television remains the principal cultural game in town.

  12. Extending the lessons of educational television with young American children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jennings, N.A.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    As the availability of children's educational television has increased, initiatives to expand the educational impact of programs have emerged. One such initiative is experiential mediation, a form of mediation in which the viewer physically engages with materials designed to extend the program's

  13. Factual accuracy and the cultural context of science in popular media: Perspectives of media makers, middle school students, and university students on an entertainment television program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Evan; Osborne, Jonathan; Patterson, Alexis D

    2017-07-01

    Popular media influences ideas about science constructed by the public. To sway media productions, public policy organizations have increasingly promoted use of science consultants. This study contributes to understanding the connection from science consultants to popular media to public outcomes. A science-based television series was examined for intended messages of the creator and consulting scientist, and received messages among middle school and non-science university students. The results suggest the consulting scientist missed an opportunity to influence the portrayal of the cultural contexts of science and that middle school students may be reading these aspects uncritically-a deficiency educators could potentially address. In contrast, all groups discussed the science content and practices of the show, indicating that scientific facts were salient to both media makers and audiences. This suggests popular media may influence the public knowledge of science, supporting concerns of scientists about the accuracy of fictional television and film.

  14. Development of multi-group spectral code TVS-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V.; Kalugin, M. A.; Gurevich, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the latest version of TVS-M code - TVS-M 2007, which allows the neutron flux distribution inside fuel assemblies to be calculated without using the diffusion approximation. The new spatial calculation module PERST introduced in TBS-M code is based on the first collisions probability method and allows the scattering anisotropy to be accounted for. This paper presents some preliminary results calculated with the use of the new version of TVS-M code. (Authors)

  15. An ethnographic study of the construction of science on television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    1999-10-01

    The medium of television is an important manifestation of popular culture. Television stories and images frequently represent the position occupied by science and scientists in society. This study focuses on three questions. First, what is the form and content of the science that is constructed on television programs in which high school students see science? Second, how do television practitioners who deal with science approach and think about their work? Third, in what ways do high school students appropriate the science in these programs? Ethnographic methods, which did not include the technique of participant observation, were used to address these questions. Two types of text provided the basis for ethnographic analysis. First, text whose production was beyond the control of the researcher was used in the form of approximately 10 hours of programming, which included both fictional and non-fictional genres. Selection was based upon the results of questionnaires, in which students were asked to list those programs in which they saw the most science together with their reasons for each choice. Second, text whose production was somewhat within my control as researcher was used in the form of transcripts of interviews with television practitioners and students. In addition, written responses to the researcher's questions and transcripts of student discussion groups are texts that fall into this second category. The findings point to the centrality of the notion of the nature of science, which is constructed by a variety of factors. These include, first, story---representing events, people and the process of science on television. Story is shaped by plot, discourse, characters and genre. Second, images work to construct a nature of science and, in turn, constitute choices made about the composition, sequence and duration of shots. Third, who the television practitioners who produce a program are in conjunction with the culture of the institution they work for

  16. Analysis of Violence in Cartoons Broadcasted on Kids TV Channels in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür ÖZEN; Faik KARTELLİ

    2017-01-01

    Violence is probably the most discussed effect of television. 61% of the children programs contain violence. The amount of violence in the cartoons is higher. There is a relation between the violence on television and children’s violent behavior. Previous studies show that, children learn and attempt the positive and negative behaviors they see on TV. Children look at the television from the perspective of a researcher and try to make sense of what they watch. Their interest is gener...

  17. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide : ‘Living’ History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2017-01-01

    Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: b.hagedoorn@rug.nl Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,

  18. Social TV: How Social Media Activity Interacts With TV Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossen Beth L.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social TV is the simultaneous consumption of television alongside social media chatter about the programming. This topic is highly relevant for marketers. Usually it is considered as a bad thing for TV advertisers. While there can be distraction from the ads, marketers can also benefit from positive effects. Consumers’ multiscreen activities can be used to attract more viewers, to leverage TV campaigns and to increase sales. This chatter creates free exposure for the brand online, extends the reach of television ad campaigns to the online space, and offers real-time feedback to advertisers on how their ads are being received. To take advantage of social TV, marketers need to develop a social media and ad design strategy for TV shows. Not every “social show” is good for them. Many programs receive a high volume of program-related chatter at the expense of advertiser-related word-of-mouth, but some programs generate high levels of online conversations that can also benefit their advertisers. Marketers are well served to identify those programs that are conducive to advertiser-related chatter. Also, specific ad designs can further encourage buzz.

  19. Innovations in television field: transition to the digital television

    OpenAIRE

    Serzhuk Anastasia Volodymyrivna; Kozlova Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is about significance of innovations and innovative process. It is investigated that the development of the innovative activity acquires a great importance for management innovations at the enterprise; the pre-conditions of the innovative are determined and the innovative implementation to the telecommunication market are studied. The role of the digital television as a new type of broadcasting technology, where the transmission, processing and storage of t...

  20. Automatic topics segmentation for TV news video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmayda, Mounira; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    Automatic identification of television programs in the TV stream is an important task for operating archives. This article proposes a new spatio-temporal approach to identify the programs in TV stream into two main steps: First, a reference catalogue for video features visual jingles built. We operate the features that characterize the instances of the same program type to identify the different types of programs in the flow of television. The role of video features is to represent the visual invariants for each visual jingle using appropriate automatic descriptors for each television program. On the other hand, programs in television streams are identified by examining the similarity of the video signal for visual grammars in the catalogue. The main idea of the identification process is to compare the visual similarity of the video signal features in the flow of television to the catalogue. After presenting the proposed approach, the paper overviews encouraging experimental results on several streams extracted from different channels and compounds of several programs.

  1. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Khinkulova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exposure to what was seen as “cheap mass-culture” left TV viewers and producers disillusioned. With the change of attitude towards Western TV, the ideas about Soviet TV changed, too. From a grey and unexciting model Soviet TV had become a shining example of “high quality” and nostalgia-driven content set in for the next few years. In Ukraine, where no domestic TV had existed as such prior to 1991 and where Soviet TV was rapidly fading into the past (and some-one else’s past, too, a decade of experimenting with programming had left the TV producers much more open to global television formats and Western ideas, developing programmes very different than the Russian ones.

  2. Political Tv Talk Shows on Greek Television: Live Broadcasting as an ideological and Cognitive frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vovou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semiopragmatic analysis of the political talk shows on Greek television that reveals a symbolic conception of the TV studio and it’s value-attributing mechanisms through which principles of democratic dialogue are enacted inside this kind of social and media frame. Political talk shows create the notion of a complex temporality, larger than the concept of events presented live, afecting the political and social vision of the audience.

  3. THE IMPACT OF AN EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION SERIES, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MERRILL, I.R.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER WHETHER THE DOCUMENTARY TV FILM SERIES, "COUNTY AGENT," HAD APPEAL FOR AND IMPACT UPON A GENERAL AUDIENCE AND WHETHER A SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN THE METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION USED. THE TV SERIES, BROADCAST OVER WKAR-TV, CONSISTED OF 13 PROGRAMS ABOUT PROJECTS SPONSORED BY THE…

  4. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ (TV), channel *10... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  5. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV), channel 8, Cleveland...

  6. The influence of television on cultural values -- with special reference to Third World countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasekera, A

    1987-01-01

    In focusing on the influence of television on cultural values, particularly in third world countries, the discussion covers the impact of the technology of communication on cultural values, the impact of existing, that is traditional, cultural values on television, and the impact of television programs on cultural values. It is not a problem to set up a television transmitting station in any third world country; the hardware is manufactured in developed countries and assembled in a third world country by technicians of the television manufacturing company. The key question is whether the third world country that has acquired this modern piece of technology can put it into operation run it. The operation of a modern television station calls for 3 types of professionals: engineers and technicians, television journalists and producers, and managers and administrators. Consequently, if the host country is to benefit from this transfer of technology it needs to have a community of modern professionals. Also, for a culture to successfully utilize television, it is helpful if the other media of communication are developed. In sum, at the time of the introduction of television in third world countries, such countries should possess an advanced sector of education and mass media which could form the basis for initiating the multiplier effect for which television has the potential. When introducing television to a third world country, one further needs to be aware of the impact that traditional values may have on the utilization of this medium. It can work to entrench traditional inequities in social relationships in the name of cultural uniqueness, and from the perspective of disadvantaged minority groups it could be a form of "cultural imperialism." Thus, when introducing television, the governments of these countries need to consider fostering a set of values and norms that could assist in the modernization of these countries. These should be values that promote human

  7. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  8. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  9. Some Uses-and-Gratifications of Television News Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Wayne M.

    Fourteen statements relating to the surveillance, diversion, and social interaction uses of media were drawn from a review of uses and gratification research and applied to the viewing of local and national early evening news and nighttime local news television programs. A telephone survey of 543 adults elicited information concerning demographics…

  10. Teen Series' Reception: Television, Adolescence and Culture of Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Dominique

    1996-01-01

    Noting the popularity of television teen series among young viewers in France, this study examined how the programs are used as a way of defining gender identity for children and adolescents. Results indicated construction of meanings of characters and plots varied by age, gender, and social background of viewers. Relationship to series relied on…

  11. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  12. Form and Content: Looking at Visual Features of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kelly L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Collins, Patricia A.

    1999-01-01

    Recorded home television viewing of 2-, 5-, 8-, 12-year olds, and adults on time-lapse videotapes over 10-day period. Found that cuts, movement, and overt purposeful character behavior were positively related to viewer's looking behavior, independent of child versus adult programming. Associations with looking behavior for other features depended…

  13. Instructional Television: Visual Production Techniques and Learning Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergleid, Michael Ian

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing levels of complexity in visual production techniques would increase the viewer's learning comprehension and the degree of likeness expressed for a college level instructional television program. A total of 119 mass communications students at the University of Alabama participated in the…

  14. Piaget's Theories and Some Possible Implications for Educational Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Joan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Details Piaget's four stages in the cognitive development of children--the sensorimotor period, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage--and discusses their implications for the planning and design of programs for instructional television, and possible effects on mental development and the cognitive…

  15. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among television viewing, eating practices, and overweight and health status of a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data on adults aged 20 years or older from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996 were used for the study. Participants' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, macronutrient intakes, weight status, prevalence of health conditions, television viewing, and overweight status were analyzed. Survey design effects were used in the analyses. More than 2 hours of television viewing per day was associated with a high mean body mass index and overweight or obesity in both men and women. Other characteristics associated with watching more than 2 hours of television per day were being 50 years of age or older, having a high school education or less, living in a household with income below 131% of the federal poverty level, and not being employed. Adults who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had high intakes of energy and macronutrients and were more likely to be overweight. They also obtained more energy from snacks and supper. A higher percentage of adults with health conditions watched more than 2 hours of television per day compared with adults without health conditions. Obesity intervention programs, especially those aimed at adults who are retired or not employed, should emphasize reducing time spent viewing television or videos or participating in similar sedentary activities and discourage snacking or eating while watching television.

  16. Educating critical TV viewers in secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rocío Díaz Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the television phenomenon is an increasing necessity. As shown in this report, hundreds are the inquiries about this media that have been carried out in different areas and in the most remote countries. However, research has rarely transcended to the general population and therefore, it has had a scarce impact on forms of TV consumption of our society. Education for the «television competence» becomes the crux of this investigation through the concrete didactic program «Teaching to watch televisión», aimed specifically at students of secondary education. Our main focus is the design and development of curricular materials to enable teachers to work with their students to acquire the necessary «television competence» «to watch» TV in a critical and creative way.

  17. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  18. Pay Television Among Low-Income Populations: Reflections on Research Performed in the Rio de Janeiro Favela of Rocinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Lynn Letalien

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study performed in Brazil's most notorious shantytown (or favela, Rocinha, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Over 150 residents with pay television subscriptions responded to questions regarding their television viewing habits before and since subscribing. The author contends that pay television was used primarily to gain better or increased access to Brazilian programming and a small number of particular types of foreign programming. She questions whether pay television viewership in Rocinha should be characterized as evidence of cultural imperialism and suggests that, in places such as Rocinha, where having access to only broadcast stations can effectively mean having access to a single television channel, it could be useful to extend conventional notions of the "digital divide" to include non-"interactive" media such as television.

  19. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development: Design of a 12 channel FM microwave receiver. [color television from communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, C. O.; Rosenbaum, F. J.; Gregory, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of elements of a low cost FM microwave satellite ground station receiver is described. It is capable of accepting 12 contiguous color television equivalent bandwidth channels in the 11.72 to 12.2 GHz band. Each channel is 40 MHz wide and incorporates a 4 MHz guard band. The modulation format is wideband FM and the channels are frequency division multiplexed. Twelve independent CATV compatible baseband outputs are provided. The overall system specifications are first discussed, then consideration is given to the receiver subsystems and the signal branching network.

  20. TV programming in times of changing political communication: a longitudinal analysis of the political information environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the quantity of political information often tends to evaluate television negatively since it became a widely used mass medium. Systematic data on the supply and proportion of political information on television, however, are scarce. This research fills this gap by presenting a

  1. Ethics and Indian Television Content Portrayals: A Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemaiah Krishnan Ravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics in communication approaches by the Indian electronic media, particularly television about its content on air are a heated debate in the country today. Why do channels adopt “devious” ways to lure the viewers? How fair are channels conducting media trials? Is judiciary in India unable to address that TV channels should take up head-on? Does political ownership of Channels affect ethical practices? Do artistes on programs pass-off comments that affect social order? Do channels air programs without prior permissions or copyrights from the artistes or organizers? What is the degree of professionalism and credibility among viewers? The theoretical framework of the study is based on the macroscopic theory of Political Economy. This critical study examines case studies of program content drawn from different pan-India channels, satellite or cable. This study focuses on media ethics and effects on society.

  2. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  3. Children's attitudes toward violence on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, K J; Erwin, P G

    1997-07-01

    Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.

  4. Digital Technology and the Interactive Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozéias Teixeira de Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the impact that the digital technology process causes in the way that television participates of the social life in Brazil. Trying a non-hermeneutic approach, it is proposed to think this new role of television, from the materiality existing on this media that can bring more interactivity and conducts the changes over people behavior. In our opinion, we realize that materiality can support the transposition of the nowadays analogical interaction form – the televiewer-television model – to a user-machine model in the digital television.

  5. «Telediario infantil»: recurso para el aprendizaje en TV «Infant television newscast»: learning resource in TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Sánchez Carrero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Los telediarios infantiles son programas de noticias destinados a niños y adolescentes. En algunos países han logrado posicionarse entre los lugares preferidos por ese tipo de telespectador. Indagar en el origen de los primeros telediarios y mostrar algunas de sus utilidades es el objeto de este trabajo. Así se concluye que el formato ofrece una ventaja a padres y maestros interesados en enseñar a sus hijos y alumnos cuestiones importantes sobre el medio televisivo: por su corta duración se puede aprender a ver y analizar conjuntamente con la infancia. Se trata, sin duda, de una oportunidad para conocer las noticias y descubrir cómo están construidas a través de un diálogo lúdico y entretenido entre adultos y nuevas generaciones. Infant television newscasts are news programs for children and teenagers. In some countries they are among top places. This article will research on the origin of the first television newscasts and will show some of their uses. The format offers an advantage for parents and teachers interested in teaching such important things to children and pupils about television. Due to their short duration it is possible to learn to see and analyze them together with the children. It is an opportunity to know the news and to discover how they are constructed across an entertaining dialogue among adults and children.

  6. Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman S.

    Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

  7. Television Violence and Behavior: The Effects of Television Violence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    Television violence and the impact it has on children is a growing concern in the world today. Although research indicates that violence on television triggers aggressive behavior in children, the characteristics of those children also need to be examined. Factors such as age, intellectual level, identification with television personalities, the…

  8. Meanings of television in older adults’ lives: an analysis of change and continuity in television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; van Selm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Television viewing is an important leisure activity for older adults. The aim of the current study is to provide insight into the meanings of television in older adults' lives, by analysing change and continuity in their television viewing. A qualitative study was conducted that included in-depth

  9. 77 FR 14811 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertisements-the Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Direct-to- Consumer Television Advertisements--FDAAA DTC Television Ad Pre- Dissemination Review Program.'' This draft guidance is intended to assist sponsors of human prescription drug products, including biological drug products, who are subject to the pre-dissemination review of television advertisements (TV ads) provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). (The term ``pre- dissemination review'' is used throughout the guidance to refer to review under the FD&C Act, which is entitled ``Prereview of Television Advertisements.'') The draft guidance describes which TV ads FDA intends to make subject to this provision, explains how FDA will notify sponsors that an ad is subject to review under this provision, and describes the general and center-specific procedures sponsors should follow to submit their TV ads to FDA for pre-dissemination review in compliance with the FD&C Act. These proposed TV ads will be subject to a 45-calendar day review clock by FDA.

  10. DWPF remotable television and cell lighting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for radioactive waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is now under construction. Development of specialized low cost television (TV) viewing equipment for in-cell and within-melter applications is now complete. High resolution TV cameras not originally designed for high radiation environments have been demonstrated in crane remotable packages to be well suited to the DWPF. High intensity in-cell lighting has also been demonstrated in crane remotable assemblies. These dual 1000 W units (2000 W total) are used to support the multiplicity of TV and cell window viewing requirements. 8 figures

  11. Children's Perception of Television Commercial in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separating television adverts effect from influence of peers, parents, friends, and others. This constitutes one of the major problems confronting television advertising to ... Key Words: Perception, Television Commercial, Children Consumer

  12. 77 FR 46631 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  13. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  14. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R. Harding...

  15. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...

  16. Energy Use of Televisions and Videocassette Recorders in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate current energy use of residential televisions (TVs) and videocassette recorders (VCRs) in the United States. Ownership and usage statistics were taken from media research, while average power values were derived from power measurements of nearly 500 units. Results indicate that TVs and VCRs comprise 3.6% of U.S. residential electricity consumption. In homes with at least one TV, the average annual household TV energy consumption is 310 kWh, 23% of which i...

  17. The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Lotz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.

  18. Resisting temptation: a psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R J

    1989-03-01

    It is proposed that self control involves several related processes including vivid awareness of future consequences, overcoming learned helplessness and tunnel vision, developing commitment and accepting anxiety/frustration. Facing up to temptation and resisting the compulsive urge is considered to be a crucial therapeutic experience. Evidence is presented to support the view that cue exposure should therefore be a central component of treatments for compulsions and addictions.

  19. Changes in cultural representations on Indonesian children's television from the 1980s to the 2000s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriyani, H.; Hollander, E.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the changes over time in the portrayal of socio-cultural characteristics; namely gender, age, ethnicity, religious outlook, family unit, violence experienced, living conditions, and cultural values in Indonesian children's television programs. Using systematic-quantitative

  20. The Recording and Use of Off-Air French Television Programmes with Advanced Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program at the University of Kent in which UHF broadcasts on French television are taped on video cassettes for use in a variety of courses, including French language classes. Instructional uses of the video cassettes are discussed. (KM)

  1. Medical practice branding using cable television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaoulis, George; Kissinger, Mark; Sirko-Fiorilli, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Genesis Medical Associates is an independent primary care practice in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. Given competitive pressures, a member of the physician leadership began thinking about the need for the practice to develop an "identity and awareness" program to set the practice apart from the competition. The idea for branding the campaign began when Dr. Rob Potter, Jr., was attending a Pittsburgh Pirates baseball game and a fan said to him, "You're that doctor I see on television" in the nursing home commercial. Triggered by this experience, Potter saw the opportunity to develop an awareness and identity campaign for Genesis. In this article we share the reasons for, the steps taken, and initial results in developing a medical practice branding strategy.

  2. Dictionary of television and audiovisual terminology

    CERN Document Server

    Moshkovitz, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    "Recommended"--Booklist; "unique"--Reference Reviews; "handy"--Multimedia Information & Technology; "clear...descriptive"--Classic Images; "clear, practical definitions"--Rettig on Reference; "recommended"--E-Streams; "extensive and comprehensive"--ARBA; "a handy guide"--Communication Booknotes Quarterly. With television programming being broadcast worldwide in real time, the industry needs a common professional language. Constantly changing technology, however, has resulted in continuously changing terminology, sometimes leaving even the most knowledgeable broadcasters with a lack of understanding. In this dictionary over 1,500 terms and acronyms, both modern and classical, are presented. The definitions are designed to be straightforward and jargon-free (except where defining jargon), permitting ease of use to readers from a variety of fields. Ample cross-references are provided.

  3. The Interactions of Television Uses and Gratifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…

  4. Regulating Children's Television Advertising: Reassessing Parental Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.

    In response to public concern over the effects of television commercials on children, the Federal Trade Commission formulated regulatory proposals that would ban certain advertising from children's television and regulate advertising intended for the eight year old to the eleven year old age group. However, in the light of two recent research…

  5. Factors to Consider When Designing Television Pictorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal; Du Monceau, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The authors have developed a framework for improving the visual communication element of television. After warning that seeing is not enough to insure learning they discuss the five pre-production components which research indicates should be considered when designing television pictorials." (Editor)

  6. Parent-Child Coviewing of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses parent-child television coviewing and describes the results of a study that examined coviewing of television series featuring families via questionnaire responses from second, sixth, and tenth graders and their parents. The paper and pencil instruments that were administered are described, and dependent and independent variables are…

  7. Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

    This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television…

  8. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  9. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  10. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it

  11. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  12. Gender role biases on Indian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, S K

    1989-01-01

    Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.

  13. Television as an Aid to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    In the late nineteenth-century, readily available dry, gelatin-based photographic emulsions revolutionized astronomy. Photography not only provided a permanent record, but also allowed for integration over extended exposures, helping astronomers observe fainter objects than possible with the eye alone. In 1942, television pioneer Vladimir Zworykin, patented the Telelectroscope, an electronic telescope which removed the observer from the eyepiece and replaced photographic emulsion with a television camera. By the mid-1950s, the astronomical community had developed a growing interest in the possible uses of television technology and at the 1955 Dublin meeting of the IAU, a special session was devoted to the application of television in astronomy.Here, I will examine the use of commercially-available television camera tubes by professional and amateur astronomers and explain how results from these early observations encouraged the astronomical community to further test, design, and build electronic imaging devices specifically for astronomical use.

  14. [Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-10-01

    Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.

  15. Where Vygotsky Meets Piaget: American Educational Television Goes to Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Alison E.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the current effort to develop a Russian version of the acclaimed American educational television program Sesame Street highlights some fundamental differences between American and Russian educational philosophies and research methods. The program’s producers have shown much sensitivity in their willingness to adapt the show to local conditions; yet there are many features and ideas implicit in the program that conflict with Russian views on education and research. Thus Russian...

  16. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network.

  17. Television use and binge eating in adults seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Carels, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating has a complex etiology and is likely influenced by a wide range of biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Among the environmental and behavioral contributors, television use has been strongly linked to obesity and unhealthy eating behaviors. The current study tested whether television use predicts binge eating symptomatology in adults seeking behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants (N=116) were adults seeking weight loss treatment in group-based behavioral weight loss programs. Average body mass index was 38.5; average age was 45.3. They completed measures of binge eating symptomatology, television use, internalized weight stigma, depression, body satisfaction, and habitual physical activity. The amount of television participants watched per week was associated with binge eating symptomatology even after controlling for relevant covariates. Binge eating symptomatology was positively associated with television use, internalized weight stigma, depression, and decreased body satisfaction. The findings of the current study support the hypothesis that television use is a significant predictor of binge eating symptomatology for adults attempting weight loss. Determining the causal nature of the relationship and whether binge eating is occurring during television viewing will be important areas of future inquiry. © 2013.

  18. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    In a plant that employs remote handling techniques for equipment maintenance, operators perform maintenance tasks primarily by using the information from television systems. The efficiency of the television system has a significant impact on remote maintenance task performance. High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines as standard-resolution television (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution NTSC television). The added scan lines dramatically improve the resolution of images on the HDTV monitors. This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (a) high-definition color television, (b) high-definition monochromatic television, (c) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (d) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television

  19. Symbolic Capital in a Virtual Heterosexual Market: Abbreviation and Insertion in Italian iTV SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.; Zelenkauskaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes gender variation in nonstandard typography--specifically, abbreviations and insertions--in mobile phone text messages (SMS) posted to a public Italian interactive television (iTV) program. All broadcast SMS were collected for a period of 2 days from the Web archive for the iTV program, and the frequency and distribution of…

  20. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing and associations with children's television viewing time: a longitudinal analysis over 15-months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuk, Jill A; Salmon, Jo; Campbell, Karen J; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-05-30

    Mothers' self-efficacy for limiting their children's television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children's television viewing over 15-months and associations with children's television viewing time. In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child's television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children's television viewing time. Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p television viewing time at 19-months (β = -35.5; 95 % CI = -54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = -54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children's television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.

  1. Viewing Death on Television Increases the Appeal of Advertised Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  2. Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered.

  3. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  4. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  5. 47 CFR 76.1630 - MVPD digital television transition notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Analog-only TVs should continue to work as before to receive low power, Class A or translator television....DTV.gov, 1-888-CALL-FCC (TTY 1-888-TELL-FCC), or this MVPD at [telephone number and Web site if...

  6. Analyzing Prosocial Content on T.V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Emily S.; Neale, John M.

    To enhance knowledge of television content, a prosocial code was developed by watching a large number of potentially prosocial television programs and making notes on all the positive acts. The behaviors were classified into a workable number of categories. The prosocial code is largely verbal and contains seven categories which fall into two…

  7. Reactions of Children to Violence on TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Olga

    A study was devised to investigate the possible impact of fictional television violence on children with reference to short and long term effects. Thirty-four children ranging in age from five to six were selected from a sample of children who had seen a series of violent television programs and were divided into two groups according to high and…

  8. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  9. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  10. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Karin M.; Kair, Laura R.; Arain, Yassar H.; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Zuckerman, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time.

  11. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. National Workplace Literacy Program. Garment-Related Bilingual (English & Chinese) T.V. Broadcast Lessons. Book I: Episodes 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication contains a series of 15 garment-related bilingual (English and Chinese) television broadcast lessons produced by the National Workplace Literacy Program of Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc. (Other partners were the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees and the Greater Blouse, Skirt and Undergarment Association in…

  13. [Food advertising in Mexican television: are children more exposed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salgado, Diana; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate food advertisements on broadcast television channels in Mexico City. Between July and October, 2007 programming by the 11 broadcast channels (N=11) in Mexico City was recorded during one weekday and one weekend day. The length of advertisements (N = 9178), types of products, and nutritional content of foods advertised were analyzed. The time devoted to food products advertising was greater during children's television than during programming targeted to the general audience (25.8 vs. 15.4%). The foods more frequently advertised were sweetened beverages, sweets and cereals with added sugar. Calorie, carbohydrate and fat contents were higher in foods advertised during children's shows. The two most common marketing strategies were to offer some kind of gift and to link the item to positive emotions. The findings of this research indicate the need for an effective system to regulate advertising directed towards children and adolescents.

  14. Analisis Framing Pemberitaan Kisruh Partai Golkar Pasca Keputusan Menkumham Dalam Program Dialog Primetime News Metro TV Dan Kabar Petang TVOne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etika Widya Kusumadewi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the span of 2014 to 2015, the Golkar Party experienced a tumultuous duality of leadership between Aburizal Bakrie and Agung Laksono version. The Government through the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights issued a decree stating Golkar Party Agung Laksono version is a legitimate stewardship. Two national television news station, Metro TV and TVOne, which are both owned by political party leaders, also 'warm' to the conflict on both sides. This study aims to understand, analyze, describe and compare dialog program Primetime News Metro and Evening News TVOne in framing news Golkar chaotic post-issuance of a decree by the Minister of Justice and Human Rights. Data analysis techniques used in this research is the analysis method with the paradigm framing or constructionist approach. This study uses a model framing analytical approach by using categorization Murray Edelman. From the results of research show can be quite impartial Metro while TVOne are beyond reasonable limits. Both seemed to favor and do not promote objectivity. Media ownership is considered to impact content that do both. Pada rentang waktu 2014 hingga 2015 Partai Golkar mengalami kisruh dualisme kepemimpinan yakni Golkar Aburizal Bakrie versi Munas Bali dan Golkar Agung Laksono versi Munas Jakarta. Menkumham kemudian mengeluarkan SK yang semakin membuat panas tubuh partai. Dua media televisi nasional, Metro TV dan TVOne, yang keduanya dimiliki oleh pimpinan partai politik, turut ‘menghangatkan’ konflik kedua kubu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami, menganalisis, mendeskripsikan serta menbandingkan program dialog Primetime News Metro TV dan Kabar Petang TVOne dalam membingkai pemberitaan kisruh partai Golkar pasca dikeluarkannya SK Menkumham yang isinya menyatakan Golkar Agung Laksono adalah kepengurusan yang sah. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode analisis framing dengan paradigma atau pendekatan konstruksionis. Penelitian ini

  15. Using Television to Stimulate Learning and Develop Evaluative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Wright, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Poses two questions regarding use of television in the social studies classroom--"How can television be used as motivation for learning?" and "How can teachers assist students to make rational evaluations concerning the issues presented on television?" Answers to these questions focus on teaching methods involving television in the classroom.…

  16. 75 FR 25119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically feasible. DATES: This... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  17. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  18. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  19. Patterns of energy drink advertising over US television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    To describe programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience for television channels with high levels of energy drink advertising airtime. Secondary analysis of energy drink advertising airtime over US network and cable television channels (n = 139) from March, 2012 to February, 2013. Programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in each channel's base audience were extracted from cable television trade reports. Energy drink advertising airtime. Channels were ranked by airtime; programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience were summarized for the 10 channels with the most airtime. Over the study year, 36,501 minutes (608 hours) were devoted to energy drink advertisements; the top 10 channels accounted for 46.5% of such airtime. Programming themes for the top 10 channels were music (n = 3), sports (n = 3), action-adventure lifestyle (n = 2), African American lifestyle (n = 1), and comedy (n = 1). MTV2 ranked first in airtime devoted to energy drink advertisements. Six of the 10 channels with the most airtime included adolescents aged 12-17 years in their base audience. Energy drink manufacturers primarily advertise on channels that likely appeal to adolescents. Nutritionists may wish to consider energy drink media literacy when advising adolescents about energy drink consumption. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Folklore Music on Romanian TV. From State Socialist Television to Private Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urdea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music genres rooted in folklore have often been interpreted as ideological manoeuvres to forge a sense of national identity (Gordy, Mihailescu, Baker, Cash. This article explores formalized folklore performances of muzică populară as forms ‘media rituals’ (Couldry, and focuses on the role that television has played in establishing the genre as we know it today. It analyses the link between muzică populară as rooted in mass participation activities during communism, and ‘media rituals’ as framed on television (Couldry, indiscriminately and democratically involving the entire population that it addresses (and is available beyond that.

  1. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  2. The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, C C

    1989-01-01

    In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO.

  3. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.

  4. TV programs that denounce unfair advantage impact women's sensitivity to defection in the public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongmin A; Jeong, Soyeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    We explore the neural underpinnings of gender differences in cooperation and their modulation by intensive media watching. We compared cooperative decisions and electroencephalograph data between genders from who participated in repeated rounds of the public goods game (PGG) and investigated within groups changes that occurred after watching a TV program known as "investigative reporting" that denounces unfair advantages taken by free-riders against the public. Women tended to be more cooperative than men during early rounds of PGG, mostly because they react differently to the defection of others; women also had greater β and γ band activity in regions estimated to be associated with social cognition. These gender differences disappeared after participants watched the TV programs: women were more likely to choose free-riding in response to the defection of others that elicits significant increases in γ band activities that were estimated to be right insula. Greater activity in social cognition leads women to make decisions considering the motives of others, while men tend to make a decision by complying with the social norm. Watching the investigative TV reports produced a greater negative emotion to the defection and led women, in a similar manner as men, to opt for a "tit-for-tat" strategy.

  5. Minority Produced Television: Problems of Policy and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Robert W.; McDermott, Joseph T.

    1970-01-01

    The authors treat some of the special problems faced in evaluating a black-produced television series. Black-Voices was a weekly offering of KTCA-TV in Minneapolis, owned and operated by the Twin Cities Area Educational Television Corporation." (Editor)

  6. Hooked for a Week on Two Yugoslav TV Channels: PALMA and RTS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanic, Aleksandar

    1996-01-01

    Investigates content composition, quality, and origin of two Yugoslav TV channels reflecting current media make-up in the region (remaining domination of state television and proliferation of commercial TV). Corroborates some assumed directions of new electronic media: focus on entertainment; lack of news and information programming; and high…

  7. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    on a moment-to-moment basis throughout everyday life beyond the TV screens. We take the phenomenon of ticket-to-talk as our point of departure when analyzing observations made during a study of the ways senior citizens go about socializing in everyday face-to-face situations. We then discuss how this analysis...

  8. Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

  9. Psychological Strategies in Managing Television Commercial Efficacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    familiar versus novel), and information source (credible versus non-credible) as psychological strategies of managing television commercial efficacy. Subject's total score on recall of advert information, attitude to an advert, and intention to buy an ...

  10. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  11. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  12. Television and Social Problems: A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two documentary television movies, "Johnny Go Home" and "Goodbye Longfellow Road," in terms of their resultant social change. Includes consideration of audience, time shown, and previous attitudes to provide evidence for his argument. (JEG)

  13. Parental Mediation of Television Advertising Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Thomas S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the current research on the effects of television advertising on children and the interaction between parent and child regarding the child's consumer behavior. Suggests areas for future research. (JMF)

  14. Public Relations Applications in Librarianship and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations is an indispensable management function for an organization to reach its target audiences so as to serve them better and, at the same time, to upgrade its status in society as an organization. Television, as mass communication medium, is used effectively in public relations in librarianship. Researches showed that planned public relations is not utilized in the field of librarianship in our country, and television is not made use of for this purpose.

  15. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  16. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-01-01

    Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic...

  17. Reality Check: How Reality Television Can Affect Youth and How a Media Literacy Curriculum Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Holly S; Beresin, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    For the past decade, reality television programming has dominated the television market while inherently giving the impression that what occurs on the screen is in fact reality. Although mature audiences may be savvy about the differences between reality and reality television, for children and adolescents, these differences can be less clear. It is important to know what values youth are ascertaining from reality television, as studies have suggested that these media images may have a negative impact on adolescent values. Fortunately, media literacy education has shown promising results in counteracting the negative impact of some television programming. The goals of this paper are to show the potential benefits for the development of a media literacy curriculum for psychiatry residents, including critical media literacy skills, media history taking, and counseling concepts. Our hopes are that trained residents may learn to effectively teach these literacy skills to their patients, patients' families, educators, and other health professionals as a preventive measure against potential negative mental health effects of reality television.

  18. Television viewing and externalizing problems in preschool children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Hudziak, James J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Guxens, Mònica; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the amount, type, and patterns of television viewing predict the onset or the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children. Longitudinal study of a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Parents reported time of television exposure and type of programs watched by children. Externalizing problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist at 18 and 36 months. A population-based sample of 3913 children. Television viewing time, content, and patterns of exposure (at 24 and 36 months) in children with and without preexisting problems to assess the incidence and persistence of externalizing problems. Externalizing problems at 36 months. Program content and time of television exposure assessed at 24 months did not predict the incidence of externalizing problems at 36 months (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 0.97-5.18). However, the patterns of exposure over time reflecting high levels of television viewing were associated with the incidence of externalizing problems (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.75) and the persistence of the preexisting externalizing problems (2.59; 1.03-6.55). Our study showed that high television exposure increases the risk of the incidence and the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children.

  19. Must See TV: The Timelessness of Television as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Courtney Shelton

    2001-01-01

    Examples of ways to use themes and characters from television shows in classroom activities for organizational behavior courses are provided, related to need theories of motivation, perceptual biases and errors, and equity theory. Six appendices provide sample activities and test questions. (SK)

  20. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...

  1. Television Traffic: A One-Way Street? A Survey and Analysis of the International Flow of Television Programme Material. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstreng, Kaarle; Varis, Tapio

    An international inventory was made to determine the composition of television programs, particularly from the point of view of program material exported to a country outside. A survey was also made of the international networks for sales and exchanges of program material for broadcast. A report of these studies includes the scope and methods of…

  2. Ergonomics intervention in an Iranian television manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedzade, M; Mohseni, M; Golmohammadi, R; Mahjoob, H

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to use the Strain Index (SI) to assess the risk of developing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in a television (TV) manufacturing industry and evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The project was designed and implemented in two stages. In first stage, the SI score was calculated and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was completed. Following this, hazardous jobs were identified and existing risk factors in these jobs were studied. Based on these data, an educational intervention was designed and implemented. In the second stage, three months after implementing the interventions, the SI score was re-calculated and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) completed again. 80 assembly workers of an Iranian TV manufacturing industry were randomly selected using simple random sampling approach. The results showed that the SI score had a good correlation with the symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders. It was also observed that the difference between prevalence of signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders, before and after intervention, was significantly reduced. A well conducted implementation of an interventional program with total participation of all stakeholders can lead to a decrease in musculoskeletal disorders.

  3. Use of fictional medical television in health sciences education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth L; Hoffman, Robert; Wessel, Charles B; Shensa, Ariel; Woods, Michelle S; Primack, Brian A

    2018-03-01

    While medical television programs are popular among health profession trainees, it is not clear to what extent these programs affect their knowledge, perceptions, and/or behaviors. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of research evaluating associations between program exposure and outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in Pubmed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Selected studies were required to be scholarly research, involve exposure to fictionalized medical television programming by health professional students, and assess associations between exposure and outcomes. Studies were classified according to quality and factors related to population, exposure, and outcomes. Of 3541 studies identified, 13 met selection criteria. Six studies involved undergraduate medical students, one involved nursing students, two involved both medical and nursing students, two involved medical residents, one involved medical students, residents and attending physicians, and one involved graduate epidemiology students. Mean study quality according to the MERSQI was 8.27. The most commonly assessed television programs were ER and Grey's Anatomy (six each). Five studies assessed regular viewing habits, and found that fictional medical programs are popular among students and that students recall health topics from episodes. The eight studies that assessed the association with outcomes when using clips as educational tools reported high satisfaction and increased knowledge of the presented health topics. While relatively few published studies have explored influences of fictional medical television on health professional students, those conducted suggest that students often view these television programs independently and that integration of this programming into medical education is feasible and acceptable.

  4. The Relations between Television Exposure and Executive Function in Chinese Preschoolers: The Moderated Role of Parental Mediation Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Zhenhong; Zhu, Liqi

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between preschoolers’ television exposure and executive functions (EF). One hundred and nineteen 3- to 6-year-old children and their parents participated. Parents filled in a questionnaire regarding children’s television viewing time, television content and parental mediation behaviors about their child’s television viewing. The children were asked to finish six EF tasks, including the backward digit span task, the spatial span task, the boy–girl Stroop, the Simon task, the flanker task and the Tower of Hanoi task that assessed working memory, inhibition and planning, respectively. Children’s vocabulary was tested using Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and included as control variables in addition to socioeconomic status of the participated families. The results showed that television viewing time and child-directed educational programs were positively associated with EF. In addition, television content fully mediated the effect of television viewing time on EF and parental restrictive approach strategies moderated the effect of television viewing time on EF. PMID:29089912

  5. TV FOR CHILDREN : How the Swedish Public Service Television Imagines a Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    The study explores how the Swedish public service TV institution imagines a child audience in a societal context where the broadcasting landscape hastransformed greatly over the past thirty years and where TV is seen to  constitute both risks and benefits for children. The concept of TV for children is established to broaden the scope for studying what has been broadcast for a child audience on public service TV. The empirical material consists of both broadcasting policy documents and an ext...

  6. There Is More(s) in Television. Studying the relationship between television and moral imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation the central focus lies with exploration the relationship of television and moral imagination. The underlying aim was to explore how television might be valuable in reaching moral maturity in order to diminish needless suffering in this world. To give form to these

  7. Television the Surrogate Parent: Uses and Correlates of Television as Babysitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter

    A study was conducted to determine (1) how often television was used as a surrogate parent, (2) the reasons leading to its use as such, and (3) the correlates of using television as a babysitter. Telephone interviews were conducted with 226 mothers who had children between the ages of 2 and 12. The respondents answered questions that addressed…

  8. The impact of Televised and Non-Televised Instruction on achivement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    THE IMPACT OF TELEVISED AND NON-TELEVISED. INSTRUCTION ON ... instruction in motivating students by bringing real- life ... To the researchers' knowledge, the success .... promote their retention. Acknowledging the importance of engaging students in extended .... Instructional Technology ; its nature and use.

  9. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  10. Entertainment nature of modern television: prospects and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Олександрович Недо

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes trends of the development of entertainment television in Ukraine as westernization, McDonaldization, tabloidization, development of post-show. Westernization is viewed as the process of borrowing commercial formats of entertainment shows from the US and Western Europe. McDonaldization is considered as a process of simplifying program formats. Tabloidization is shown as a process of manipulating the viewer’s attention through lively and provocative announcements of programs. Development of post-show is covered as a process of creating programs that supplement reality shows

  11. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  12. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  13. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  14. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  15. Females and Minorities in TV Ads in 1987 Saturday Children's Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how females and minorities are represented on children's Saturday morning television commercials, focusing on how often they are present, settings in which they are portrayed, and types of White-minority interactions. Finds that more women and minorities are present in advertisements than earlier studies indicated, but that White males…

  16. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Background television in the homes of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2012-11-01

    US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children's background television exposure. US parents/caregivers (N = 1454) with 1 child between the ages of 8 months and 8 years participated in this study. A nationally representative telephone survey was conducted. Parents were asked to report on their child's exposure to background television via a 24-hour time diary. Parents were also asked to report relevant home media behaviors related to their child: bedroom television ownership, number of televisions in the home, and how often a television was on in the home. The average US child was exposed to 232.2 minutes of background television on a typical day. With the use of multiple regression analysis, we found that younger children and African American children were exposed to more background television. Leaving the television on while no one is viewing and children's bedroom television ownership were associated with increased background television exposure. Although recent research has shown the negative consequences associated with background television, this study provides the first nationally representative estimates of that exposure. The amount of exposure for the average child is startling. This study offers practitioners potential pathways to reduce exposure.

  18. TV journalism in the digital age: aspects of transmedia storytelling on paper television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaide Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reflection on audiovisual journalism from the perspective of transmedia storytelling (NT, a term coined by Henry Jenkins (2009a in his research on the culture of convergence. How has media convergence affected the language and aesthetics of audiovisual journalism? And what of the routine and profile of its professionals? Or the relationship with the audience? What are the new paradigms and what has changed in their production processes as regards the use of new media? To reflect on these and other issues, it is necessary to identify and analyze aspects of transmedia storytelling on TV Folha, an audiovisual program inspired by printing, which began as a private channel on the web and is today shown by a public broadcaster. It is a product which seems to indicate that transmedia storytelling is beginning to establish a firm place in Brazilian audiovisual journalism based on its relationship with new information platforms.

  19. TV JOURNALISM IN THE DIGITAL AGE: ASPECTS OF TRANSMEDIA STORYTELLING ON PAPER TELEVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaide Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reflection on audiovisual journalism from the perspective of transmedia storytelling (NT, a term coined by Henry Jenkins (2009a in his research on the culture of convergence. How has media convergence affected the language and aesthetics of audiovisual journalism? And what of the routine and profile of its professionals? Or the relationship with the audience? What are the new paradigms and what has changed in their production processes as regards the use of new media? To reflect on these and other issues, it is necessary to identify and analyze aspects of transmedia storytelling on TV Folha, an audiovisual program inspired by printing, which began as a private channel on the web and is today shown by a public broadcaster. It is a product which seems to indicate that transmedia storytelling is beginning to establish a firm place in Brazilian audiovisual journalism based on its relationship with new information platforms.

  20. A stereoscopic television system for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    A stereoscopic television system suitable for reactor inspection has been developed. Right and left eye views, obtained from two conventional black and white cameras, are displayed by the anaglyph technique and observers wear appropriately coloured viewing spectacles. All camera functions, such as zoom, focus and toe-in are remotely controlled. A laboratory experiment is described which demonstrates the increase in spatial awareness afforded by the use of stereo television and illustrates its potential in the supervision of remote handling tasks. Typical depth resolutions of 3mm at 1m and 10mm at 2m have been achieved with the reactor instrument. Trials undertaken during routine inspection at Oldbury Power Station in June 1978 are described. They demonstrate that stereoscopic television can indeed improve the convenience of remote handling and that the added display realism is beneficial in visual inspection. (author)

  1. Bruce X Longwood television reception survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    Property owners living close to a proposed 500-kV transmission line route in Ontario expressed concerns that the line would affect their television reception. To give a reasonable evaluation of the impact of the transmission line, tests were conducted before and after installation of the line in which the possibility of active or passive interference to reception was assessed. Measurements were made of signal strength and ambient noise, and television reception was also recorded on videotape. Possible transmission line effects due to radiated noise, signal reduction, and ghosts are analyzed. The analysis of signal and noise conditions, and the assessment of videotaped reception, provide reasonable evidence that the line has had negligible impact on the television reception along the line route. 13 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Tucker, K L

    2002-10-01

    The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status.

  3. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  4. Television News Uses: A Cross-National Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Reports that a classification of television news uses and gratifications based on research in Leeds, England, did not adequately encompass the functions of television news for a United States audience. (GW)

  5. Progress Report of the Schools Television Research Project--III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelfield, Graeme

    1969-01-01

    "This concluding article provides the first published account of a series of psychological experiments which are presently being undertaken by the Schools Television Research Project, examining presentation factors in instructional television. (Editor)

  6. the television factor in vocabulary development among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study investigated the influence of television viewing frequency on the performance in ... Language, but also in other content subjects. .... TABLE 1: One- way analysis of variance of the influence of frequency of television ... favourite movie.

  7. Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating Among Children in Peru ... television exposure increases unhealthy eating among Peruvian children. ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  8. The Official Radio and Television Institute in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Anibal Arias

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)

  9. Nature and Impact of Alcohol Messages in a Youth-Oriented Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W; Grube, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    This research contributes to the extant literature on television influence by pairing a stimulus-side approach documenting how information is presented within a TV series with a response-side assessment of whether connectedness and exposure to a series influence the processing of that information differently depending on its format. The inquiry focuses on the nature and impact of messages about alcohol contained within a youth oriented TV program. The findings indicate that the recall and perception of the more overt negative messages increase with exposure and that receptiveness to the subtle and less remembered positive messages increases with levels of program connectedness. Highly connected viewers are both more receptive to and in greater agreement with the underlying positive alcohol message communicated in the series.

  10. Improving Acoustic Models by Watching Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrock, Michael J.; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient labelled training data is a persistent difficulty for speech recognition research. Although well transcribed data is expensive to produce, there is a constant stream of challenging speech data and poor transcription broadcast as closed-captioned television. We describe a reliable unsupervised method for identifying accurately transcribed sections of these broadcasts, and show how these segments can be used to train a recognition system. Starting from acoustic models trained on the Wall Street Journal database, a single iteration of our training method reduced the word error rate on an independent broadcast television news test set from 62.2% to 59.5%.

  11. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.

  12. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  13. The Use of Television in Adult Education; Research Evidence and Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Herbert Lorenz

    This study sought to detect major trends and areas in the use of television in adult education and to suggest useful generalizations. Research studies were grouped by program source, educational method, program format, production techniques, program reception, and viewer reaction. These communication categories were then correlated, with the…

  14. Use of Fictional Medical Television in Health Sciences Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth L.; Hoffman, Robert; Wessel, Charles B.; Shensa, Ariel; Woods, Michelle S.; Primack, Brian A.

    2018-01-01

    While medical television programs are popular among health profession trainees, it is not clear to what extent these programs affect their knowledge, perceptions, and/or behaviors. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of research evaluating associations between program exposure and outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in…

  15. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Teacher Study Guides Used in Conjunction with Educational Television Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne Schafer

    One of three different types of study guide materials was given to teachers whose classes watched televised music lessons. One guide provided a description of the program content, suggested activities to be performed before and after the program, and other supplementary material; a second guide provided only a description of the program content;…

  16. Television tulevaisuus tubettajien aikana : miten YouTuben suosio vaikuttaa television tulevaisuuteen?

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytteessä selvitetään, millainen television murros on parhaillaan käynnissä. Keskeisimpänä kysymyksenä on kuitenkin television tulevaisuus. Jos nuoria katsojia kiinnostaa videopalvelu YouTube enemmän perinteisen televison sijaan, niin miten tämä tulee vaikuttamaan television tulevaisuuteen? Entä miksi nuoret ylipäätään katsovat YouTubea? YouTuben katselu sekä sisällön tuottajien eli tubettajien fanittaminen nuorten keskuudessa ovat kasvava ilmiö. Samaan aikaan perinteisen telev...

  17. Indian television channels become vehicle for tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS violations in India - results of a sub-national survey in a northern Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Indian tobacco control legislation (Section 5, subsequent rules dated October 2 nd , 2012 of COTPA, 2003 puts complete ban on Tobacco Advertisement Promotion and Sponsorships (TAPS, but industry is circumventing the law to carry the bussiness. Rules also mandate that, if there are tobacco use scenes in a movie or television program, a health spot, an audio visual disclaimer and health warning must be displayed during the telecast. However, there are gaps in the implementation. It is important for law enforcers to understand the nature and types of TAPS violations being carried out through television channel to better prepared for taking action. Methods Total 32 television channels telecasted between January-March 2017 in Shimla city in Northern India selected through stratified random sampling were observed during prime time (19:00 PM-22:00 PM for their compliance to the provisions of Indian cinema and television rules, 2012. The TV programs including serials and movies and the advertisements in between the programs were assessed as per the pre-tested checklist. Results Direct advertisements were not found in any of the channel. In near one fourth of television channels, TAPS was carried out as surrogate advertisements in the form of mouth freshners and paan masala and brand stretching/trademark diversification. Atleast one smoking scene was found in 9 television channels playing the movie, however, specified health spot, audio-video disclaimer and health warning could be observed in eight channels. News channels and regional channels had comparatively more surrogate advertisments and smoking violations as compared to other channels. Conclusions Cinema and television rules under Section 5 of COTPA are not strictly implemented in Indian television channels. TAPS are being carried out as surrogate advertisments, brand stretching and trademark diversification. Statuary requirements recommended under the rules for scenes showing tobacco

  18. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  19. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  20. Tobacco and alcohol in films and on television

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...