WorldWideScience

Sample records for telescope bright source

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  2. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bignami, G. F.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  3. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  4. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  5. Increasing the Brightness of Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling

    2006-01-01

    In modern illumination systems, compact size and high brightness are important features. Light recycling allows an increase of the spectral radiance (brightness) emitted by a light source for the price of reducing the total radiant power. Light recycling means returning part of the emitted light to the source where part of it will escape absorption. As a result, the output brightness can be increased in a restricted phase space, ...

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  7. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  8. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  9. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  10. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  11. Very-High-Brightness Picosecond Electron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Bright, RF photocathode electron guns are the source of choice for most high-performance research accelerator applications. Some of these applications are pushing the performance boundaries of the present state-of-the-art guns. Advanced Energy Systems is developing a novel photocathode RF gun that shows excellent promise for extending gun performance. Initial gun simulations with only a short booster accelerator easily break the benchmark emittance of one micron for 1 nC of bunch charge. The pulse length in these simulations is less than 2 ps. It is expected that with more detailed optimization studies, the performance can be further improved. The performance details of the gun will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the present design concept along with the status of the project

  12. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  13. Brightness distribution data on 2918 radio sources at 365 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.D.; Owen, F.N.; Ghigo, F.D.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series describing the results of a program attempting to fit models of the brightness distribution to radio sources observed at 365 MHz with the Bandwidth Synthesis Interferometer (BSI) operated by the University of Texas Radio Astronomy Observatory. Results for a further 2918 radio sources are given. An unresolved model and three symmetric extended models with angular sizes in the range 10--70 arcsec were attempted for each radio source. In addition, for 348 sources for which other observations of brightness distribution are published, the reference to the observations and a brief description are included

  14. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Beam Measurements and the Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Uranus and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Moodley, Kavilan; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T(149/U) = 106.7 +/- 2.2 K and T(219/U) = 100.1 +/- 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T(149/S) = 137.3 +/- 3.2 K and T(219/S) = 137.3 +/- 4.7 K.

  16. Three Bright X-ray Sources in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E.

    1992-12-01

    Three bright X-ray sources were detected in a recent (April/May 1991) ROSAT PSPC observation of the nearby (D ~ 4.5 Mpc) face--on barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313. Two of the sources were at positions coincident with X-ray sources detected by Fabbiano & Trinchieri (ApJ 315, 1987) in a previous (Jan 1980) Einstein IPC observation. The position of the brightest Einstein source is near the center of NGC 1313, and the second Einstein source is ~ 7' south of the ``nuclear'' source, in the outskirts of the spiral arms. A third bright X-ray source was detected in the ROSAT observation ~ 7' southwest of the ``nuclear'' source. We present X-ray spectra and X-ray images for the three bright sources found in the ROSAT observation of NGC 1313, and compare with previous Einstein results. Spectral analysis of these sources require them to have very large soft X-ray luminosities ( ~ 10(40) erg s(-1) ) when compared with typical X-ray sources in our Galaxy. Feasible explanations for the X-ray emission are presented. The third X-ray source is positively identified with the recently discovered (Ryder et. al., ApJ 1992) peculiar type-II supernova 1978K.

  17. Synchrotron source may have a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, D.

    1988-01-01

    If all goes well on Capitol Hill, construction of the proposed $456 million 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) could start next year. President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1989 federal budget proposed $6 million for the construction and the request now awaits congressional approval. The long-planned facility will emit X rays that are 10,000 times more brilliant than any currently produced for research purposes. According to many scientists, it will be a major boost to a variety of fields, including chemistry, materials science and medicine. Because of the brilliance of its X rays, the APS facility will permit experiments that reveal atomic and molecular structures faster and in greater detail than is now possible

  18. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  19. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: BEAM MEASUREMENTS AND THE MICROWAVE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES OF URANUS AND SATURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Nolta, Michael R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica; Schmitt, Benjamin L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dünner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W.; Niemack, Michael D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Gralla, Megan B.; Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Page, Lyman A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Partridge, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T{sub U}{sup 149}= 106.7 ± 2.2 K and T{sub U}{sup 219}= 100.1 ± 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T{sub S}{sup 149}= 137.3 ± 3.2 K and T{sub S}{sup 219}= 137.3 ± 4.7 K.

  20. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  1. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  2. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Brown, Shea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Brunetti, Gianfranco [INAF/Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec{sup –2}, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  3. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring

  4. Using the Chandra Source-Finding Algorithm to Automatically Identify Solar X-ray Bright Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Tennant, A.; Cirtain, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This poster details a technique of bright point identification that is used to find sources in Chandra X-ray data. The algorithm, part of a program called LEXTRCT, searches for regions of a given size that are above a minimum signal to noise ratio. The algorithm allows selected pixels to be excluded from the source-finding, thus allowing exclusion of saturated pixels (from flares and/or active regions). For Chandra data the noise is determined by photon counting statistics, whereas solar telescopes typically integrate a flux. Thus the calculated signal-to-noise ratio is incorrect, but we find we can scale the number to get reasonable results. For example, Nakakubo and Hara (1998) find 297 bright points in a September 11, 1996 Yohkoh image; with judicious selection of signal-to-noise ratio, our algorithm finds 300 sources. To further assess the efficacy of the algorithm, we analyze a SOHO/EIT image (195 Angstroms) and compare results with those published in the literature (McIntosh and Gurman, 2005). Finally, we analyze three sets of data from Hinode, representing different parts of the decline to minimum of the solar cycle.

  5. Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenson, P.; Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Noyes, R.

    1987-01-01

    High angular resolution observations of the supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SN 1987A, have revealed a bright source separated from the SN by approximately 60 mas with a magnitude difference of 2.7 at 656 nm (H-alpha). Speckle imaging techniques were applied to data recorded with the CfA two-dimensional photon counting detector on the CTIO 4 m telescope on March 25 and April 2 to allow measurements in H-alpha on both nights and at 533 nm and 450 nm on the second night. The nature of this object is as yet unknown, though it is almost certainly a phenomenon related to the SN.

  6. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Harris, Jack L.; Williams, David J.; Jones, Glenn E.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Fuller, Michael J.; Rothbart, George H.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Gough, R.A.; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-01-01

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  7. MILAGRO OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-TeV EMISSION FROM GALACTIC SOURCES IN THE FERMI BRIGHT SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Morgan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis which employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.

  8. Spatially single-mode source of bright squeezed vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A. M.; Iskhakov, T. Sh.; Sharapova, P.; Lemieux, S.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.; Leuchs, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bright squeezed vacuum, a macroscopic nonclassical state of light, can be obtained at the output of a strongly pumped non-seeded traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier (OPA). By constructing the OPA of two consecutive crystals separated by a large distance we make the squeezed vacuum spatially single-mode without a significant decrease in the brightness or squeezing.

  9. Quantitative Measurements of Daytime Near Infrared Sky Brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    photometric filters. In the case of the 1250 nm filter, the quoted results reflect the brightness that would be seen through a standard 2MASS J filter [9...brightness per unit wavelength through the broader 2MASS filter with 162 nm bandpass. Given the known colors of the star, we estimate this error to be...Megeath, S. T. “Spectral irradiance calibration in the infrared. XIV. The absolute calibration of 2MASS ,” Astron. J., 126, 1090–1096 (2003) [10] Jim

  10. Recent results on galactic sources with MAGIC telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De los Reyes, R.

    2009-01-01

    Located at the Canary island of La Palma, the single-dish MAGIC telescope currently has the lowest energy threshold achieved by any Cherenkov telescope, which can be as low as 25 GeV. In the last two years, the MAGIC telescope has detected a significant amount of galactic sources that emit at very high energies (up to several TeV). Here we present the most recent results that have yielded important scientific highlights in astrophysics, which include the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a pulsar, an X-ray binary system and a stellar-mass black hole. We also make a review of the latest results of the MAGIC observations on galactic sources, which will include also γ-ray unidentified sources (TeV J2032+4130), the Galactic Centre, X-ray binaries (LSI +61 303), pulsars (Crab pulsar) and SNRs (IC443).

  11. GRB 090926A AND BRIGHT LATE-TIME FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Vetere, L.; Kennea, J. A.; Maxham, A.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhang, B.; Schady, P.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Page, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 090926A was detected by both the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Swift follow-up observations began ∼13 hr after the initial trigger. The optical afterglow was detected for nearly 23 days post trigger, placing it in the long-lived category. The afterglow is of particular interest due to its brightness at late times, as well as the presence of optical flares at T0+10 5 s and later, which may indicate late-time central engine activity. The LAT has detected a total of 16 gamma-ray bursts; nine of these bursts, including GRB 090926A, also have been observed by Swift. Of the nine Swift-observed LAT bursts, six were detected by UVOT, with five of the bursts having bright, long-lived optical afterglows. In comparison, Swift has been operating for five years and has detected nearly 500 bursts, but has only seen ∼30% of bursts with optical afterglows that live longer than 10 5 s. We have calculated the predicted gamma-ray fluence, as would have been seen by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift, of the LAT bursts to determine whether this high percentage of long-lived optical afterglows is unique, when compared to BAT-triggered bursts. We find that, with the exception of the short burst GRB 090510A, the predicted BAT fluences indicate that the LAT bursts are more energetic than 88% of all Swift bursts and also have brighter than average X-ray and optical afterglows.

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  13. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  14. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  15. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects

  16. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  17. Probing Very Bright End of Galaxy Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Using Hubble Space Telescope Pure Parallel Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haojing; Yan, Lin; Zamojski, Michel A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Fan, Xiaohui; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Robertson, Brant E.; Davé, Romeel; Cai, Zheng

    2011-02-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 arcmin2 in total area. We have found three bright Y 098-dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z >~ 7.4. One of these objects shows an indication of peculiar variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass Lyman break galaxies observed at lower redshifts (up to z ~ 5). While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by "cosmic variance" than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z ≈ 7.4 is not well explained by the current luminosity function (LF) estimates at z ≈ 8. However, its inferred surface density could be explained by the prediction from the LFs at z ≈ 7 if it belongs to the high-redshift tail of the galaxy population at z ≈ 7. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11700 and 11702.

  18. FIRST EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM DEGAS, THE QUANTUM LIMITED BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotorev, Max S.; Commins, Eugene D.; Oneill, James; Sannibale, Fernando; Tremsin, Anton; Wan, Weishi

    2008-01-01

    The construction of DEGAS (DEGenerate Advanced Source), a proof of principle for a quantum limited brightness electron source, has been completed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The commissioning and the characterization of this source, designed to generate coherent single electron 'bunches' with brightness approaching the quantum limit at a repetition rate of few MHz, has been started. In this paper the first experimental results are described

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Extragalactic Sources at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, T. A.; Juin, J. B.; Lin, Y. T.; Marsden, D.; Nolta, M. R.; Partridge, B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on extragalactic sources detected in a 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data at a frequency of 148 GHz from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. We provide a catalog of 157 sources with flux densities spanning two orders of magnitude: from 15 mJy to 1500 mJy. Comparison to other catalogs shows that 98% of the ACT detections correspond to sources detected at lower radio frequencies. Three of the sources appear to be associated with the brightest cluster galaxies of low redshift X-ray selected galaxy clusters. Estimates of the radio to mm-wave spectral indices and differential counts of the sources further bolster the hypothesis that they are nearly all radio sources, and that their emission is not dominated by re-emission from warm dust. In a bright (> 50 mJy) 148 GHz-selected sample with complete cross-identifications from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, we observe an average steepening of the spectra between .5, 20, and 148 GHz with median spectral indices of alp[ha (sub 5-20) = -0.07 +/- 0.06, alpha (sub 20-148) -0.39 +/- 0.04, and alpha (sub 5-148) = -0.20 +/- 0.03. When the measured spectral indices are taken into account, the 148 GHz differential source counts are consistent with previous measurements at 30 GHz in the context of a source count model dominated by radio sources. Extrapolating with an appropriately rescaled model for the radio source counts, the Poisson contribution to the spatial power spectrum from synchrotron-dominated sources with flux density less than 20 mJy is C(sup Sync) = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 1O (exp-6) micro K(exp 2).

  20. A very bright (i = 16.44) quasar in the 'redshift desert' discovered by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Chen Zhaoyu; Jia Zhendong; Zuo Wenwen; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Chen Jianjun; Zhang Haotong; Yan Hongliang; Ren Juanjuan; Sun Shiwei; Wu Hong; Zhang Yong; Li Yeping; Lu Qishuai; Wang You; Ni Jijun; Wang Hai; Kong Xu

    2010-01-01

    The redshift range from 2.2 to 3 is known as the 'redshift desert' of quasars because quasars with redshifts in this range have similar optical colors as normal stars and are thus difficult to find in optical sky surveys. A quasar candidate, SDSS J085543.40-001517.7, which was selected by a recently proposed criterion involving near-IR Y - K and optical g - z colors, was identified spectroscopically as a new quasar with a redshift of 2.427 by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) commissioning observation in 2009 December and confirmed by the observation made with the NAOC/Xinglong 2.16 m telescope in 2010 March. This quasar was not identified in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Comparing with other SDSS quasars, we found that this new quasar, with an i magnitude of 16.44, is apparently the brightest one in the redshift range from 2.3 to 2.7. From its spectral properties, we derived its central black hole mass to be (1.4 ∼ 3.9) x 10 10 M o-dot and its bolometric luminosity to be 3.7 x 10 48 erg s -1 , which indicates that this new quasar is intrinsically very bright and belongs to the class of the most luminous quasars in the universe. Our identification supports the notion that quasars in the redshift desert can be found by the quasar selection criterion involving the near-IR colors. More missing quasars are expected to be uncovered by future LAMOST spectroscopic surveys, which is important to the study of the cosmological evolution of quasars at redshifts higher than 2.2. (research papers)

  1. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  2. High-brightness electron source driven by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Geng Rongli; Wang Lifang

    1996-01-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven by photo emissive electron gun is being developed at Beijing University, in order to produce 50∼100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathode, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. 100 kV DC high voltage is fed to the anode through a careful designed ceramic insulator. The laser system is a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelength (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is discussed

  3. PROBING VERY BRIGHT END OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼> 7 USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PURE PARALLEL OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Yan Lin; Zamojski, Michel A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Roettgering, Huub J. A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Robertson, Brant E.; Cai Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 arcmin 2 in total area. We have found three bright Y 098 -dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z ∼> 7.4. One of these objects shows an indication of peculiar variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass Lyman break galaxies observed at lower redshifts (up to z ∼ 5). While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by 'cosmic variance' than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z ∼ 7.4 is not well explained by the current luminosity function (LF) estimates at z ∼ 8. However, its inferred surface density could be explained by the prediction from the LFs at z ∼ 7 if it belongs to the high-redshift tail of the galaxy population at z ∼ 7.

  4. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  5. Electron Source Brightness and Illumination Semi-Angle Distribution Measurement in a Transmission Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börrnert, Felix; Renner, Julian; Kaiser, Ute

    2018-05-21

    The electron source brightness is an important parameter in an electron microscope. Reliable and easy brightness measurement routes are not easily found. A determination method for the illumination semi-angle distribution in transmission electron microscopy is even less well documented. Herein, we report a simple measurement route for both entities and demonstrate it on a state-of-the-art instrument. The reduced axial brightness of the FEI X-FEG with a monochromator was determined to be larger than 108 A/(m2 sr V).

  6. Pulsar searches of Fermi unassociated sources with the Effelsberg telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, E. D.; Guillemot, L.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Eatough, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope operating at 1.36 GHz, we have performed a targeted radio pulsar survey of 289 unassociated γ-ray sources discovered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite and published in the 1FGL catalogue (Abdo et al. 2010a). In addition, this survey resulted in the discovery of millisecond pulsar J1745+1017, which resides in a short-period binary system with a low-mass companion, M c,min ~0.0137M⊙, indicative of ‘black widow’ type systems. A 2-yr timing campaign has produced a refined radio ephemeris, accurate enough to allow for phase-folding of the LAT photons, resulting in the detection of a dual-peaked γ-ray light curve, proving that PSR J1745+1017 is the source responsible for the γ-ray emission seen in 1FGL J1745.5+1018 (2FGL J1745.6+1015; Nolan et al. 2012). We find the γ-ray spectrum of PSR J1745+1017 to be well modelled by an exponentially cut-off power law with cut-off energy 3.2 GeV and photon index 1.6. The observed sources are known to contain a further 10 newly discovered pulsars which were undetected in this survey. Our radio observations of these sources are discussed and in all cases limiting flux densities are calculated. Lastly, the reasons behind the seemingly low yield of discoveries are also discussed.

  7. The emittance and brightness characteristics of negative ion sources suitable for MeV ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the description and beam properties of ion sources suitable for use with ion implantation devices. Particular emphasis is placed on the emittance and brightness properties of state-of-the-art, high intensity, negative ion sources based on the cesium ion sputter principle

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  9. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  10. High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...

  11. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  12. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  13. Silicon nanowire based high brightness, pulsed relativistic electron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that silicon nanowire arrays efficiently emit relativistic electron pulses under irradiation by a high-intensity, femtosecond, and near-infrared laser (∼1018 W/cm2, 25 fs, 800 nm. The nanowire array yields fluxes and charge per bunch that are 40 times higher than those emitted by an optically flat surface, in the energy range of 0.2–0.5 MeV. The flux and charge yields for the nanowires are observed to be directional in nature unlike that for planar silicon. Particle-in-cell simulations establish that such large emission is caused by the enhancement of the local electric fields around a nanowire, which consequently leads to an enhanced absorption of laser energy. We show that the high-intensity contrast (ratio of picosecond pedestal to femtosecond peak of the laser pulse (10−9 is crucial to this large yield. We extend the notion of surface local-field enhancement, normally invoked in low-order nonlinear optical processes like second harmonic generation, optical limiting, etc., to ultrahigh laser intensities. These electron pulses, expectedly femtosecond in duration, have potential application in imaging, material modification, ultrafast dynamics, terahertz generation, and fast ion sources.

  14. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  15. Bright nanoscale source of deterministic entangled photon pairs violating Bell's inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jöns, K.D.; Schweickert, L.S.; Versteegh, M.A.M.; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Gulinatti, Angelo; Giudice, Andrea; Zwiller, V.G.; Reimer, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Global, secure quantum channels will require efficient distribution of entangled photons. Long distance, low-loss interconnects can only be realized using photons as quantum information carriers. However, a quantum light source combining both high qubit fidelity and on-demand bright emission has

  16. Studies on a laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source and novel photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Rongli; Song Jinhu; Yu Jin

    1997-01-01

    A laser driven photoemissive high-brightness electron source at Beijing University is reported. Through a DC accelerating gap of 100 kV voltage, the device is capable of delivering high-brightness electron beam of 35-100 ps pulse duration when irradiated with a mode-locked YAG laser. The geometry of the gun is optimized with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. The results of experimental studies on ion implanted photocathode and cesium telluride photocathode are given. The proposed laser driven superconducting RF gun is also discussed

  17. Contribution of field effects to the achievement of higher brightness ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudraud, P.; Walle, J. van de; Colliex, C.; Castaing, R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of field effects for the delivery of high brightness ion beams is considered. Two solutions have been experimentally investigated, which are intended to increase the supply function in a field ion microscope: a liquid fed field ionization source and a field desorption source. Their performances and characteristics have been compared and they suggest two different regimes of emission. The field desorption source seems however more likely to produce reliable results. Brightnesses on the source side of the order of 10 8 to 10 9 A/cm 2 sr are expected but much care must be devoted to the design of the electrostatic transfer optics of the gun to take full benefit of the intrinsic properties of such large solid angle emitters. (Auth.)

  18. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  19. Optical observations of LIGO source GW 170817 by the Antarctic Survey Telescopes at Dome A, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Wu, Xuefeng; Andreoni, Igor; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cooke, Jeff; Cui, Xiangqun; Du, Fujia; Dai, Zigao; Gu, Bozhong; Hu, Yi; Lu, Haiping; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhengyang; Liang, Ensi; Liu, Liangduan; Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Sun, Tianrui; Suntzeff, N. B.; Tao, Charling; Udden, Syed A.; Wang, Lifan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wen, Haikun; Xiao, Di; Su, Jin; Yang, Ji; Yang, Shihai; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Jilin; Zhu, Zonghong

    2017-10-01

    The LIGO detection of gravitational waves (GW) from merging black holes in 2015 marked the beginning of a new era in observational astronomy. The detection of an electromagnetic signal from a GW source is the critical next step to explore in detail the physics involved. The Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3), located at Dome A, Antarctica, is uniquely situated for rapid response time-domain astronomy with its continuous night-time coverage during the austral winter. We report optical observations of the GW source (GW 170817) in the nearby galaxy NGC 4993 using AST3. The data show a rapidly fading transient at around 1 day after the GW trigger, with the i-band magnitude declining from 17.23±0.13 magnitude to 17.72±0.09 magnitude in ˜ 0.8 hour. The brightness and time evolution of the optical transient associated with GW 170817 are broadly consistent with the predictions of models involving merging binary neutron stars. We infer from our data that the merging process ejected about ˜ 10^{-2} solar mass of radioactive material at a speed of up to 30% the speed of light.

  20. Discovery of the Millisecond Pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a Fermi Source with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Cognard, I.; Johnson, T. J.; Takahashi, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Desvignes, G.; Camilo, F.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of the millisecond pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a search of a Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source with no known associations, with the Nancay Radio Telescope. The new pulsar, confirmed with the Green Bank Telescope, has a spin period of 2.38 ms, is relatively nearby (d approx. pulsars seen with Fermi. X-ray observations of the pulsar with Suzaku and the Swift X-ray Telescope yielded no detection. At 1.4 GHz, we observe strong flux density variations because of interstellar diffractive scintillation; however, a sharp peak can be observed at this frequency during bright scintillation states. At 327 MHz, the pulsar is detected with a much higher signal-to-noise ratio and its flux density is far more steady. However, at that frequency the Arecibo instrumentation cannot yet fully resolve the pulse profile. Despite that, our pulse time-of-arrival measurements have a post-fit residual rms of 2 micro s. This and the expected stability of this system have made PSR J2043+1711 one of the first new Fermi-selected millisecond pulsars to be added to pulsar gravitational wave timing arrays. It has also allowed a significant measurement of relativistic delays in the times of arrival of the pulses due to the curvature of space-time near the companion, but not yet with enough precision to derive useful masses for the pulsar and the companion. Nevertheless, a mass for the pulsar between 1.7 and 2.0 solar Mass can be derived if a standard millisecond pulsar formation model is assumed. In this paper, we also present a comprehensive summary of pulsar searches in Fermi LAT sources with the Nancay Radio Telescope to date.

  1. A high brightness source for nano-probe secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N.S. [Oregon Physics LLC, 2704 SE 39th Loop, Suite 109, Hillsboro, OR 97123 (United States)], E-mail: n.smith@oregon-physics.com; Tesch, P.P.; Martin, N.P.; Kinion, D.E. [Oregon Physics LLC, 2704 SE 39th Loop, Suite 109, Hillsboro, OR 97123 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The two most prevalent ion source technologies in the field of surface analysis and surface machining are the Duoplasmatron and the liquid metal ion source (LMIS). There have been many efforts in this area of research to develop an alternative source [; N.S. Smith, W.P. Skoczylas, S.M. Kellogg, D.E. Kinion, P.P. Tesch, O. Sutherland, A. Aanesland, R.W. Boswell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24 (6) (2006) 2902-2906] with the brightness of a LMIS and yet the ability to produce secondary ion yield enhancing species such as oxygen. However, to date a viable alternative has not been realized. The high brightness and small virtual source size of the LMIS are advantageous for forming high resolution probes but a significant disadvantage when beam currents in excess of 100 nA are required, due to the effects of spherical aberration from the optical column. At these higher currents a source with a high angular intensity is optimal and in fact the relatively moderate brightness of today's plasma ion sources prevail in this operating regime. Both the LMIS and Duoplasmatron suffer from a large axial energy spread resulting in further limitations when forming focused beams at the chromatic limit where the figure-of-merit is inversely proportional to the square of the energy spread. Also, both of these ion sources operate with a very limited range of ion species. This article reviews some of the latest developments and some future potential in this area of instrument development. Here we present an approach to source development that could lead to oxygen ion beam SIMS imaging with 10 nm resolution, using a 'broad area' RF gas phase ion source.

  2. Search for the sources of the solar wind in the 9.1 cm brightness temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of solar wind streams have been the object of intensive research for many years, but the various ideas of where and how streams originate on the sun are still incomplete and contradictory. The present study is an attempt to find the solar wind sources by mathematically approximating the 9.1 cm brightness temperature which would be expected at the foot of spacecraft-measured solar wind streams and by then comparing it with actual radio brightness temperature measurements. Several significant results were found from an analysis of the correlation results. Most plasma emanating from the sun was found to come from high solar latitudes and to deviate significantly from the normally expected east-west path in the low corona. Magnetic channelng causes correlation studies to fail when the sun's magnetic configuration is unstable. The travel time of the plasma from the sun's 9.1 cm emission level to the earth is often more than a month

  3. Bright and durable field emission source derived from refractory taylor cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2016-12-20

    A method of producing field emitters having improved brightness and durability relying on the creation of a liquid Taylor cone from electrically conductive materials having high melting points. The method calls for melting the end of a wire substrate with a focused laser beam, while imposing a high positive potential on the material. The resulting molten Taylor cone is subsequently rapidly quenched by cessation of the laser power. Rapid quenching is facilitated in large part by radiative cooling, resulting in structures having characteristics closely matching that of the original liquid Taylor cone. Frozen Taylor cones thus obtained yield desirable tip end forms for field emission sources in electron beam applications. Regeneration of the frozen Taylor cones in-situ is readily accomplished by repeating the initial formation procedures. The high temperature liquid Taylor cones can also be employed as bright ion sources with chemical elements previously considered impractical to implement.

  4. Plans to increase source brightness of NSLS x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safranek, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss plans to increase the NSLS X-Ray ring source brightness by an order of magnitude. Proposed improvements include doubling current from 250 mA to 500 mA, reducing vertical emittance by a factor of 6 and reducing insertion device gaps and periods by up to a factor of two. Experimental results are reported which indicate we have succeeded in reducing the vertical emittance below 2 Angstrom

  5. Detection of a Very Bright Source Close to the LMC Supernova SN 1987A: Erratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenson, P.; Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Noyes, R.

    1988-01-01

    In the Letter "Detection of a Very Bright Source Close to the LMC Supernova SN 1987A" by P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, and R. Noyes (1987 Ap. J. [Letters], 320, L15), two of the figure labels for Figure 1 were inadvertently transposed in the production process. A corrected version of the figure appears as Plate L4. The Journal regrets the error.

  6. Variability Properties of Four Million Sources in the TESS Input Catalog Observed with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Somers, Garrett; Kafka, Stella; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) has been surveying more than 70% of the celestial sphere for nearly a decade. While the primary science goal of the survey is the discovery of transiting, large-radii planets around bright host stars, the survey has collected more than 106 images, with a typical cadence between 10–30 minutes, for more than four million sources with apparent visual magnitudes in the approximate range 7TESS Input catalog and the AAVSO Variable Star Index to precipitate the follow-up and classification of each source. The catalog is maintained as a living database on the Filtergraph visualization portal at the URL https://filtergraph.com/kelt_vars.

  7. Development of a high brightness ion source for IFMIF and preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, Takashi; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Kashiwagi, Mieko

    2001-05-01

    Development of a high brightness ion source for the 40MeV/250mA deuteron beam accelerator, IFMIF, is in progress at JAERI. A prototype ion source using hot filament cathodes has been developed. This ion source consists of a multi-cusp plasma generator and a two-stage accelerator. Beam optics has been investigated at the energy of up to 60keV. Experimental results of the beam optics agreed well with the simulation by assuming that the equivalent ion mass is 2.38. Ion beam of 60keV/100mA H+, which corresponds to ion beam of 100keV/220mA D+, was obtained with optimum perveance (minimum divergence). This result indicates that the current requirement for the IFMIF ion source would be satisfied with this ion source. (author)

  8. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  9. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  10. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  11. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF A GAMMA-RAY SOURCE AT THE POSITION OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a γ-ray source that is spatially consistent with the location of Eta Carinae. This source has been persistently bright since the beginning of the LAT survey observations (from 2008 August to 2009 July, the time interval considered here). The γ-ray signal is detected significantly throughout the LAT energy band (i.e., up to ∼100 GeV). The 0.1-100 GeV energy spectrum is well represented by a combination of a cutoff power-law model ( 10 GeV). The total flux (>100 MeV) is 3.7 +0.3 -0.1 x 10 -7 photons s -1 cm -2 , with additional systematic uncertainties of 10%, and consistent with the average flux measured by AGILE. The light curve obtained by Fermi is consistent with steady emission. Our observations do not confirm the presence of a γ-ray flare in 2008 October, as reported by Tavani et al., although we cannot exclude that a flare lasting only a few hours escaped detection by the Fermi LAT. We also do not find any evidence for γ-ray variability that correlates with the large X-ray variability of Eta Carinae observed during 2008 December and 2009 January. We are thus not able to establish an unambiguous identification of the LAT source with Eta Carinae.

  12. Modal evaluation of the anthropogenic night sky brightness at arbitrary distances from a light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bará, Salvador; Ribas, Salvador J; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    The artificial emissions of light contribute to a high extent to the observed brightness of the night sky in many places of the world. Determining the all-sky radiance of anthropogenic origin requires solving the radiative transfer equation for ground-level light sources, generally resorting to a double-scattering approximation in order to account for the observed radiance patterns with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Since the all-sky radiance distribution produced by an elementary light source depends on the distance to the observer in a way that is not immediately obvious, the contributions of sources located at different distances have to be computed on an individual basis, solving for each one the corresponding scattering integrals. In this paper we show that these calculations may be significantly alleviated by using a modal approach, whereby the hemispheric night-sky radiance is expanded in terms of a convenient basis of two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal functions. Since the modal coefficients of this expansion do vary smoothly with the distance to the observer, the all-sky brightness distributions produced by light sources located at arbitrary intermediate distances can be efficiently estimated by interpolation, provided that the coefficients at a discrete set of distances are accurately determined beforehand. (paper)

  13. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY SPINNING PULSARS AND FAST TRANSIENTS IN UNIDENTIFIED RADIO SOURCES WITH THE NRAO 43 METER TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Deborah; Crawford, Fronefield; Gilpin, Claire [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We have searched 75 unidentified radio sources selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog for the presence of rapidly spinning pulsars and short, dispersed radio bursts. The sources are radio bright, have no identifications or optical source coincidences, are more than 5% linearly polarized, and are spatially unresolved in the catalog. If these sources are fast-spinning pulsars (e.g., sub-millisecond pulsars), previous large-scale pulsar surveys may have missed detection due to instrumental and computational limitations, eclipsing effects, or diffractive scintillation. The discovery of a sub-millisecond pulsar would significantly constrain the neutron star equation of state and would have implications for models predicting a rapid slowdown of highly recycled X-ray pulsars to millisecond periods from, e.g., accretion disk decoupling. These same sources were previously searched unsuccessfully for pulsations at 610 MHz with the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. This new search was conducted at a different epoch with a new 800 MHz backend on the NRAO 43 m Telescope at a center frequency of 1200 MHz. Our search was sensitive to sub-millisecond pulsars in highly accelerated binary systems and to short transient pulses. No periodic or transient signals were detected from any of the target sources. We conclude that diffractive scintillation, dispersive smearing, and binary acceleration are unlikely to have prevented detection of the large majority of the sources if they are pulsars, though we cannot rule out eclipsing, nulling or intermittent emission, or radio interference as possible factors for some non-detections. Other (speculative) possibilities for what these sources might include radio-emitting magnetic cataclysmic variables or older pulsars with aligned magnetic and spin axes.

  14. Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...... efficiency (~7%). The converted band has a large pulse energy (~1 nJ), high spectral brightness (~1 mW/nm), and broad Gaussian-like spectrum compressible to clean transform-limited ~17 fs pulses. The corresponding coherent fiber sources open up portable applications of optical parametric oscillators and dual......-output synchronized ultrafast lasers....

  15. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  16. Source brightness and useful beam current of carbon nanotubes and other very small emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Bezuijen, M.; Barth, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The potential application of carbon nanotubes as electron sources in electron microscopes is analyzed. The resolution and probe current that can be obtained from a carbon nanotube emitter in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope are calculated and compared to the state of the art using Schottky electron sources. Many analytical equations for probe-size versus probe-current relations in different parameter regimes are obtained. It is shown that for most carbon nanotube emitters, the gun lens aberrations are larger than the emitters' virtual source size and thus restrict the microscope's performance. The result is that the advantages of the higher brightness of nanotube emitters are limited unless the angular emission current is increased over present day values or the gun lens aberrations are decreased. For some nanotubes with a closed cap, it is known that the emitted electron beam is coherent over the full emission cone. We argue that for such emitters the parameter ''brightness'' becomes meaningless. The influence of phase variations in the electron wave front emitted from such a nanotube emitter on the focusing of the electron beam is analyzed

  17. Development of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source for ERL applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Collaboration: bERLinPro Team

    2016-07-01

    Energy recovery linacs (ERL) offer the potential to combine major beam properties of the two main domains of particle accelerators: The low emittance of linear accelerators and the high average beam current of storage rings, while also allowing to compress to short bunches below the ps regime. This makes among other applications ERLs an ideal candidate for future light sources. The beam properties of the ERL are given by the performance of the injection section and hence of the beam source. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin is currently designing and building a high average current all superconducting CW driven ERL as a prototype to demonstrate low normalized beam emittance of 1 mm*mrad at 100 mA and short pulses of about 2 ps. In this contribution we discuss the development of this class of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source and present recent commissioning results. Also, alternative approaches at other laboratories are shortly reviewed.

  18. High-brightness electron guns for linac-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Most proposed linac-based light sources, such as single-pass free-electron lasers and energy-recovery-linacs, require very high-brightness electron beams in order to achieve their design performance. These beam requirements must be achieved not on an occasional basis, but rather must be met by every bunch produced by the source over extended periods of time. It is widely assumed that the beam source will be a photocathode electron gun; the selection of accelerator technique (e.g., dc or rf) for the gun is more dependent on the application.The current state of the art of electron beam production is adequate but not ideal for the first generation of linac-based light sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL). For the next generation of linac-based light sources, an order of magnitude reduction in the transverse electron beam emittance is required to significantly reduce the cost of the facility. This is beyond the present state of the art, given the other beam properties that must be maintained. The requirements for current and future linac-based light source beam sources are presented here, along with a review of the present state of the art. A discussion of potential paths towards meeting future needs is presented at the conclusion.

  19. Source Plane Reconstruction of the Bright Lensed Galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Wuyts, Eva; Koester, Benjamin P.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Barrientos, L. Felipe

    2011-01-01

    We present new HST/WFC3 imaging data of RCS2 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100-pc scale structures in a high redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially-resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  20. Millimeter Wavelength Observations of Galactic Sources with the Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, K. L.; Caldwell, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T.; Miller, A. D.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Torbet, E.; Tran, H. T.

    1999-12-01

    The Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT) has completed two observing seasons (1997 and 1998) in Chile from the Cerro Toco site. Although the primary goal of MAT was to measure anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the chosen observation scheme also allowed daily viewing of the Galactic Plane. We present filtered maps at 30, 40 and 144 GHz of a region of the Galactic Plane which contains several millimeter-bright regions including the Carinae nebula and IRAS 11097-6102. We report the best fit brightness temperatures as well as the total flux densities in the MAT beams (0.9, 0.6 and 0.2 degrees FWHM) . The data are calibrated with respect to Jupiter whose flux is known to better than 8% in all frequency bands. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  1. Hubble space telescope near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the bright cemp-no star BD+44°493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Smith, Verne V.; Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I.; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako

    2014-01-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 a ninth magnitude subgiant with [Fe/H] =–3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44°493, log ε (B) <–0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we obtain even lower upper limits on the abundances of beryllium, log ε (Be) <–2.3, and lead, log ε (Pb) <–0.23 ([Pb/Fe] <+1.90), than those reported by previous analyses in the optical range. Taken together with the previously measured low abundance of lithium, the very low upper limits on Be and B suggest that BD+44°493 was formed at a very early time, and that it could well be a bona-fide second-generation star. Finally, the Pb upper limit strengthens the argument for non-s-process production of the heavy-element abundance patterns in CEMP-no stars.

  2. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  3. Development and Utilization of Bright Tabletop Sources of Coherent Soft X-Ray Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    2005-01-01

    This project investigated aspects of the development and utilization of compact XUV sources based on fast capillary discharges and high order harmonic up conversion. These sources are very compact, yet can generate soft x-ray radiation with peak spectral brightness several orders of magnitude larger than a synchrotron beam lines. The work has included the characterization of some of the important parameters that enable the use of these sources in unique applications, such as the degree of spatial coherence and the wavefront characteristics that affect their focusing capabilities. In relation to source development, they have recently completed preliminary work towards exploring the generation of high harmonics in a pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge. Since ions are more difficult to ionize than neutral atoms, the use of pre-ionized nonlinear media may lead to the generation of coherent light at > 1 KeV photon energy. Recent application results include the first study of the damage threshold and damage mechanism of XUV mirrors exposed to intense focalized 46.9 nm laser radiation, and the study of the ablation of polymers with soft x-ray laser light

  4. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  5. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Ji, Qing [Albany, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA; Jiang, Ximan [El Cerrito, CA; Ji, Lili [Albany, CA

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  6. Observations of VHE γ-Ray Sources with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, H.

    2008-10-01

    The MAGIC telescope with its 17m diameter mirror is today the largest operating single-dish Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT). It is located on the Canary Island La Palma, at an altitude of 2200m above sea level, as part of the Roque de los Muchachos European Northern Observatory. The MAGIC telescope detects celestial very high energy γ-radiation in the energy band between about 50 GeV and 10 TeV. Since Autumn of 2004 MAGIC has been taking data routinely, observing various objects like supernova remnants (SNRs), γ-ray binaries, Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB). We briefly describe the observational strategy, the procedure implemented for the data analysis, and discuss the results for individual sources. An outlook to the construction of the second MAGIC telescope is given.

  7. A bright single-photon source based on a photonic trumpet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël

    Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application to the r......Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application...... to the realization of bright sources of quantum light and, reversibly, provide an efficient interface between propagating photons and the QD. For a wire diameter ∼ λ/n (λ is the operation wavelength), the fraction of QD SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode exceeds 90%. The collection of the photons can...... be brought close to unity with a proper engineering of the wire ends. In particular, a tapering of the top wire end is necessary to achieve a directive far-field emission pattern [1]. Recently, we have realized a single-photon source featuring a needle-like taper. The source efficiency, though record...

  8. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.

  9. THE STATISTICS OF RADIO ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY: BRIGHT SOURCES AND HIGH TIME RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Straten, W.

    2009-01-01

    A four-dimensional statistical description of electromagnetic radiation is developed and applied to the analysis of radio pulsar polarization. The new formalism provides an elementary statistical explanation of the modal-broadening phenomenon in single-pulse observations. It is also used to argue that the degree of polarization of giant pulses has been poorly defined in past studies. Single- and giant-pulse polarimetry typically involves sources with large flux-densities and observations with high time-resolution, factors that necessitate consideration of source-intrinsic noise and small-number statistics. Self-noise is shown to fully explain the excess polarization dispersion previously noted in single-pulse observations of bright pulsars, obviating the need for additional randomly polarized radiation. Rather, these observations are more simply interpreted as an incoherent sum of covariant, orthogonal, partially polarized modes. Based on this premise, the four-dimensional covariance matrix of the Stokes parameters may be used to derive mode-separated pulse profiles without any assumptions about the intrinsic degrees of mode polarization. Finally, utilizing the small-number statistics of the Stokes parameters, it is established that the degree of polarization of an unresolved pulse is fundamentally undefined; therefore, previous claims of highly polarized giant pulses are unsubstantiated.

  10. First all-flavor neutrino pointlike source search with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope between early 2007 and the end of 2015 is performed. For the first time, all neutrino interactions --charged and neutral current interactions of all flavours-- are considered in a search for point-like

  11. High-resolution SMA imaging of bright submillimetre sources from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryley; Chapman, Scott C.; Scott, Douglas; Petitpas, Glen; Smail, Ian; Chapin, Edward L.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Perry, Ryan; Blain, Andrew W.; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Dunlop, James S.; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Geach, James E.; Howson, Paul; Ivison, R. J.; Lacaille, Kevin; Michałowski, Michał J.; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 860 μm to observe the brightest sources in the Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). The goal of this survey is to exploit the large field of the S2CLS along with the resolution and sensitivity of the SMA to construct a large sample of these rare sources and to study their statistical properties. We have targeted 70 of the brightest single-dish SCUBA-2 850 μm sources down to S850 ≈ 8 mJy, achieving an average synthesized beam of 2.4 arcsec and an average rms of σ860 = 1.5 mJy beam-1 in our primary beam-corrected maps. We searched our SMA maps for 4σ peaks, corresponding to S860 ≳ 6 mJy sources, and detected 62, galaxies, including three pairs. We include in our study 35 archival observations, bringing our sample size to 105 bright single-dish submillimetre sources with interferometric follow-up. We compute the cumulative and differential number counts, finding them to overlap with previous single-dish survey number counts within the uncertainties, although our cumulative number count is systematically lower than the parent S2CLS cumulative number count by 14 ± 6 per cent between 11 and 15 mJy. We estimate the probability that a ≳10 mJy single-dish submillimetre source resolves into two or more galaxies with similar flux densities to be less than 15 per cent. Assuming the remaining 85 per cent of the targets are ultraluminous starburst galaxies between z = 2 and 3, we find a likely volume density of ≳400 M⊙ yr-1 sources to be {˜ } 3^{+0.7}_{-0.6} {× } 10^{-7} Mpc-3. We show that the descendants of these galaxies could be ≳4 × 1011 M⊙ local quiescent galaxies, and that about 10 per cent of their total stellar mass would have formed during these short bursts of star formation.

  12. Observation of Galactic Sources of Very High Energy γ-RAYS with the Magic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, H.

    The MAGIC telescope with its 17m diameter mirror is today the largest operating single-dish Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT). It is located on the Canary Island La Palma, at an altitude of 2200 m above sea level, as part of the Roque de los Muchachos European Northern Observatory. The MAGIC telescope detects celestial very high energy γ-radiation in the energy band between about 50 GeV and 10 TeV. Since the autumn of 2004 MAGIC has been taking data routinely, observing various objects, like supernova remnants (SNRs), γ-ray binaries, Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB). We briefly describe the observational strategy, the procedure implemented for the data analysis, and discuss the results of observations of Galactic Sources.

  13. Normalized Point Source Sensitivity for Off-Axis Optical Performance Evaluation of the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Angeli, George

    2010-01-01

    The Normalized Point Source Sensitivity (PSSN) has previously been defined and analyzed as an On-Axis seeing-limited telescope performance metric. In this paper, we expand the scope of the PSSN definition to include Off-Axis field of view (FoV) points and apply this generalized metric for performance evaluation of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We first propose various possible choices for the PSSN definition and select one as our baseline. We show that our baseline metric has useful properties including the multiplicative feature even when considering Off-Axis FoV points, which has proven to be useful for optimizing the telescope error budget. Various TMT optical errors are considered for the performance evaluation including segment alignment and phasing, segment surface figures, temperature, and gravity, whose On-Axis PSSN values have previously been published by our group.

  14. High Brightness Electron Guns for Next-Generation Light Sources and Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Bluem; M.D. Cole; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; I. Ben-Zvi; T. Srinivasan-Rao; P. Colestock; D.C. Nguyen; R.L. Wood; L. Young; D. Janssen; J. Lewellen; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems continues to develop advanced electron gun and injector concepts. Several of these projects have been previously described, but the progress and status of each will be updated. The project closest to completion is an all superconducting RF (SRF) gun, being developed in collaboration with the Brookhaven National Laboratory, that uses the niobium of the cavity wall itself as the photocathode material. This gun has been fabricated and will shortly be tested with beam. The cavity string for a closely-coupled DC gun and SRF cavity injector that is expected to provide beam quality sufficient for proposed ERL light sources and FELs will be assembled at the Jefferson Laboratory later this year. We are also collaboration with Los Alamos on a prototype CW normal-conducting RF gun with similar performance, that will undergo thermal testing in late 2004. Another CW SRF gun project that uses a high quantum efficiency photocathode, similar to the FZ-Rossendorf approach, has just begun. Finally, we will present the RF design and cold test results for a fully axisymmetric, ultra-high-brightness x-band RF gun

  15. Bright Single-Photon Sources Based on Anti-Reflection Coated Deterministic Quantum Dot Microlenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schnauber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency (PEE of deterministic quantum dot (QD microlenses via anti-reflection (AR coating. The AR-coating deposited on top of the curved microlens surface is composed of a thin layer of Ta2O5, and is found to effectively reduce back-reflection of light at the semiconductor-vacuum interface. A statistical analysis of spectroscopic data reveals, that the AR-coating improves the light out-coupling of respective microlenses by a factor of 1.57 ± 0.71, in quantitative agreement with numerical calculations. Taking the enhancement factor into account, we predict improved out-coupling of light with a PEE of up to 50%. The quantum nature of emission from QDs integrated into AR-coated microlenses is demonstrated via photon auto-correlation measurements revealing strong suppression of two-photon emission events with g(2(0 = 0.05 ± 0.02. As such, these bright non-classical light sources are highly attractive with respect to applications in the field of quantum cryptography.

  16. Micro-fresnel structures for microscopy of laser generated bright x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Shavers, D.C.; Flanders, D.C.; Smith, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief parametric survey of the x-ray characteristics of a gold micro-disk irradiated at 3 x 10 14 watt/cm 2 by a 1 nsec Nd-glass laser pulse has been provided as an example of a laser generated bright x-ray source. It was shown that a simple phenomenological model of the laser generated x-ray source as a microscopic equilibrium plasma radiating as a blackbody for a finite time determined by its hydrodynamic disassembly and radiation losses, serves to provide an adequate approximation to the x-ray characteristics of such sources. The current state of x-ray microscopy within the LLL laser fusion program was briefly reviewed. Kirpatrick--Baez grazing incidence reflection x-ray microscopes are being used to provide 3 to 5 μm resolution, broadband images (ΔE/E approx. 0.3) over a spectral range from .6 keV to 3.5 keV. Zone Plate Coded Imaging is used to provide 5 to 10 μm resolution, broadband (ΔE/E approx. 0.5) images over a spectral range from 3 keV to 50 keV. Efficient x-ray lensing elements with anticipated submicron resolution are being developed for narrowband (ΔE/E approx. 10 -2 ) imaging applications over a spectral range .1 keV to 8 keV. The x-ray lens design is that of a transmission blazed Fresnel phase plate. Micro--Fresnel zone plates with 3200 A minimum linewidth have been fabricated and preliminary resolution tests begun. The first resolution test pattern, having minimum linewidth of 2.5 μm, was imaged in lambda = 8.34 A light with no difficulty. Newer test patterns with submicron minimum line are being prepared for the next stage of resolution testing. An off-axis Fresnel zone plate with 1600 A minimum linewidth is presently being fabricated for use as an imaging spectrometer in order to provide spatially separated, chromatically distinct images of characteristic line emissions from laser fusion targets

  17. High brightness fiber laser pump sources based on single emitters and multiple single emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Wagner, Lars; Wolf, Jürgen; Bonati, Guido; Dörfel, Falk; Gabler, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Driven by the potential of the fiber laser market, the development of high brightness pump sources has been pushed during the last years. The main approaches to reach the targets of this market had been the direct coupling of single emitters (SE) on the one hand and the beam shaping of bars and stacks on the other hand, which often causes higher cost per watt. Meanwhile the power of single emitters with 100μm emitter size for direct coupling increased dramatically, which also pushed a new generation of wide stripe emitters or multi emitters (ME) of up to 1000μm emitter size respectively "minibars" with apertures of 3 to 5mm. The advantage of this emitter type compared to traditional bars is it's scalability to power levels of 40W to 60W combined with a small aperture which gives advantages when coupling into a fiber. We show concepts using this multiple single emitters for fiber coupled systems of 25W up to 40W out of a 100μm fiber NA 0.22 with a reasonable optical efficiency. Taking into account a further efficiency optimization and an increase in power of these devices in the near future, the EUR/W ratio pushed by the fiber laser manufacturer will further decrease. Results will be shown as well for higher power pump sources. Additional state of the art tapered fiber bundles for photonic crystal fibers are used to combine 7 (19) pump sources to output powers of 100W (370W) out of a 130μm (250μm) fiber NA 0.6 with nominal 20W per port. Improving those TFB's in the near future and utilizing 40W per pump leg, an output power of even 750W out of 250μm fiber NA 0.6 will be possible. Combined Counter- and Co-Propagated pumping of the fiber will then lead to the first 1kW fiber laser oscillator.

  18. GYRO-ORBIT SIZE, BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE LIMIT, AND IMPLAUSIBILITY OF COHERENT EMISSION BY BUNCHING IN SYNCHROTRON RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that an upper limit on the maximum brightness temperature for a self-absorbed incoherent synchrotron radio source is obtained from the size of its gyro orbits, which in turn must lie well within the confines of the total source extent. These temperature limits are obtained without recourse to inverse Compton effects or the condition of equipartition of energy between magnetic fields and relativistic particles. For radio variables, the intra-day variability implies brightness temperatures ∼10 19 K in the comoving rest frame of the source. This, if interpreted purely due to an incoherent synchrotron emission, would imply gyroradii >10 28 cm, the size of the universe, while from the causality arguments the inferred maximum size of the source in such a case is ∼ 15 cm. Such high brightness temperatures are sometimes modeled in the literature as some coherent emission process where bunches of non-thermal particles are somehow formed that radiate in phase. We show that, unlike in the case of curvature radiation models proposed in pulsars, in the synchrotron radiation mechanism the oppositely charged particles would contribute together to the coherent phenomenon without the need to form separate bunches of the opposite charges. At the same time we show that bunches would disperse over dimensions larger than a wavelength in time shorter than the gyro orbital period (∼< 0.1 s). Therefore, a coherent emission by bunches cannot be a plausible explanation of the high brightness temperatures inferred in extragalactic radio sources showing variability over a few hours or longer.

  19. Radio Follow-up on All Unassociated Gamma-Ray Sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinzel, Frank K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Petrov, Leonid [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States); Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: fschinze@nrao.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, 1710 NSW (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    The third Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -ray source catalog (3FGL) contains over 1000 objects for which there is no known counterpart at other wavelengths. The physical origin of the γ -ray emission from those objects is unknown. Such objects are commonly referred to as unassociated and mostly do not exhibit significant γ -ray flux variability. We performed a survey of all unassociated γ -ray sources found in 3FGL using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array in the range 4.0–10.0 GHz. We found 2097 radio candidates for association with γ -ray sources. The follow-up with very long baseline interferometry for a subset of those candidates yielded 142 new associations with active galactic nuclei that are γ -ray sources, provided alternative associations for seven objects, and improved positions for another 144 known associations to the milliarcsecond level of accuracy. In addition, for 245 unassociated γ -ray sources we did not find a single compact radio source above 2 mJy within 3 σ of their γ -ray localization. A significant fraction of these empty fields, 39%, are located away from the Galactic plane. We also found 36 extended radio sources that are candidates for association with a corresponding γ -ray object, 19 of which are most likely supernova remnants or H ii regions, whereas 17 could be radio galaxies.

  20. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  1. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Akerlof, Carl; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien; Klotz, Alain; Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand; Vecchi, Manuela; Zheng, Weikang

    2012-11-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5°. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  2. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, Michel [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Al Samarai, Imen, E-mail: samarai@cppm.in2p3.fr [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Akerlof, Carl [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Basa, Stephane [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Bertin, Vincent [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boer, Michel [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); Brunner, Juergen; Busto, Jose; Dornic, Damien [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Klotz, Alain [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); IRAP, 9 avenue du colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Schussler, Fabian; Vallage, Bertrand [CEA-IRFU, centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vecchi, Manuela [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Zheng, Weikang [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all the times with a duty cycle close to unity and an angular resolution better than 0.5 Degree-Sign . Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core collapse supernovae (SNe), and flaring active galactic nuclei (AGNs). To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated one or two times per month for special events such as two or more neutrinos coincident in time and direction or single neutrinos of very high energy. Since February 2009, ANTARES has sent 37 alert triggers to the TAROT and ROTSE telescope networks, 27 of them have been followed. First results on the optical images analysis to search for GRBs are presented.

  3. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  5. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations (TAToO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornic, Damien; Brunner, Jurgen; Basa, Stephane; Al Samarai, Imen; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Busto, Jose; Escoffier, Stephanie; Klotz, Alain; Mazure, Alain; Vallage, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, flares of active galactic nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity to these sources, we have developed a new detection method based on the follow-up by optical telescopes of 'golden' neutrino events, such as neutrino doublets coincident in time and space or single neutrinos of very high energy. The ANTARES collaboration has therefore implemented a very fast on-line reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow us to trigger an optical telescope network. Since February 2009, ANTARES is sending alert triggers once or twice per month to the two 25 cm robotic telescope of TAROT. This optical follow-up of such special events would not only give access to the nature of the sources, but also would improve the sensitivity to transient neutrino sources.

  6. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations (TAToO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, Damien, E-mail: dornic@cppm.in2p3.f [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); IFIC, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valenciaa, Apdo. de correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Brunner, Jurgen [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Basa, Stephane [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Al Samarai, Imen; Bertin, Vincent [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boer, Michel [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); Busto, Jose; Escoffier, Stephanie [CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3-Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Klotz, Alain [OHP, 04870 Saint Michel de l' Observatoire (France); CESR, Observatiore Midi-Pyrenees, CNRS Universite de Toulouse, BP4346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Mazure, Alain [LAM, BP8, Traverse du siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Vallage, Bertrand [CEA-IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-21

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, flares of active galactic nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity to these sources, we have developed a new detection method based on the follow-up by optical telescopes of 'golden' neutrino events, such as neutrino doublets coincident in time and space or single neutrinos of very high energy. The ANTARES collaboration has therefore implemented a very fast on-line reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow us to trigger an optical telescope network. Since February 2009, ANTARES is sending alert triggers once or twice per month to the two 25 cm robotic telescope of TAROT. This optical follow-up of such special events would not only give access to the nature of the sources, but also would improve the sensitivity to transient neutrino sources.

  7. Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs

  8. Using Deep Learning for Gamma Ray Source Detection at the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Jacob

    2018-06-01

    Finding gamma-ray sources is of paramount importance for Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). This study looks at using deep neural networks on data from the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) as a proof-of-concept of finding gamma-ray sources with deep learning for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this study, FACT’s individual photon level observation data from the last 5 years was used with convolutional neural networks to determine if one or more sources were present. The neural networks used various architectures to determine which architectures were most successful in finding sources. Neural networks offer a promising method for finding faint and extended gamma-ray sources for IACTs. With further improvement and modifications, they offer a compelling method for source detection for the next generation of IACTs.

  9. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  10. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  11. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope: a Vision to 2020 and Beyond: The Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is an initiative centered on what science would be enabled by a master catalog of all the sources HST has imaged over its lifetime. The first version of this catalog was released in early 2015, and included approximately 30 million sources from archived direct imaging with WFPC2, ACS (through 2011), and WFC3 (to 2014). Version 2, scheduled for release in early 2016, will feed off the Hubble Legacy Archive DR9 release, updating the ACS sources with more detections, and more direct imaging, through to mid-2015. This talk will overview the properties and goals of the HSC in terms of its source detection, object resolution, confusion limits, and overall astrometric and photometric precision. I will also discuss the connections to other MAST activities (e.g., the Discovery Portal interface), to STScI and user products (e.g., the Spectroscopic Catalog and High-Level Science Products), and to community resources (e.g., Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and eventually GAIA). The HSC successfully amalgamates the diverse observations with HST, and despite the limitations in uniformity on the sky, will be an important reference for JWST, LSST, and other future telescopes.

  13. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Development and preliminary results of point source observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan P.

    2009-06-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a six meter diameter telescope designed to measure the millimeter sky with arcminute angular resolution. The instrument is currently conducting its third season of observations from Cerro Toco in the Chilean Andes. The primary science goal of the experiment is to expand our understanding of cosmology by mapping the temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales corresponding to multipoles up to [cursive l] ~ 10000. The primary receiver for current ACT observations is the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC). The instrument is specially designed to observe simultaneously at 148 GHz, 218 GHz and 277 GHz. To accomplish this, the camera has three separate detector arrays, each containing approximately 1000 detectors. After discussing the ACT experiment in detail, a discussion of the development and testing of the cold readout electronics for the MBAC is presented. Currently, the ACT collaboration is in the process of generating maps of the microwave sky using our first and second season observations. The analysis used to generate these maps requires careful data calibration to produce maps of the arcminute scale CMB temperature fluctuations. Tests and applications of several elements of the ACT calibrations are presented in the context of the second season observations. Scientific exploration has already begun on preliminary maps made using these calibrations. The final portion of this thesis is dedicated to discussing the point sources observed by the ACT. A discussion of the techniques used for point source detection and photometry is followed by a presentation of our current measurements of point source spectral indices.

  14. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  15. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  16. Temporary blinding from bright light sources as a significant impact on occupational safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Low power laser and high-brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs) have been applied in specially developed and computer assisted test setups in order to determine the duration and progression of colours in afterimages, the disturbance of visual acuity as well as the impairment of colour and contrast vision. Interrelationships between wavelength, exposure duration, optical power and energy have been investigated. Afterimage durations up to 300 seconds were found if the fovea of the human retina is irradiated from a laser beam at less than 30 μW, whereas lower values are valid in the Parafoveal region and in the periphery. The visual acuity was strongly reduced during about 30 % of the afterimage time. The time-dependent progression of the afterimage colours was determined for 4 different dominant wavelengths of HB-LEDs, i.e. 455 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 625 nm, in the power range between 0.05 m W and 0.5 m W for exposure durations between 0.5 s and 5 s. The flight of colours obtained with 5 test persons is given as 8-bit RGB-values and illustrated as a function of the applied optical energy in the CIE chromaticity diagram together with the respective total afterimage durations. The colour contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with specially developed test charts in 7 colours, namely without and after glare from 4 coloured high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 time-consuming tests since adequate adaptation was necessary between the respective tests. Glare increases the identification times about 14 s and 16 s and even stronger impairment is observable especially at low colour contrast. Tests with 40 subjects and 4 different pseudoisochromatic colour plates have shown that colour vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied colour plate and respective LED colour. Such relatively long lasting visual disturbances could be of particular concern connected with performing safety critical operations such as working with machines

  17. High brightness K+ ion source for heavy ion fusion linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Rutkowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    Low emittance, high current, singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the Induction Linac System Experiment injector, ILSE. The ILSE, now in study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam considered is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated on a porous tungsten cup. The Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) 120keV cesium source was redesigned and modified with the aid of an ion optics and gun design program (EGUN) to enable the evaluation of the K + source performance at high extraction currents of about 80mA from a one inch diameter source. The authors report on the source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, phase space distributions using the double slit scanning technique, and source emitting surface temperature dependence on heating power using a wire pyrometer

  18. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  19. A Silicon-Chip Source of Bright Photon-Pair Comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    quantum light sources. Nature Photon. 1, 215 (2007). 14 Kwait, P. G., Mattle, K., Weinfurter, H., & Zeilinger , A. New High-Intensity Source of...Jennewein, T., & Zeilinger , A. A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled 26 source of narrowband entangled photons. Opt. Express 15, 15377 (2007). 18 Chen...Lett. 101, 051108 (2012). 47 Ramelow, S., Ratschbacher, L., Fedrizzi, A., Langford, N. K., & Zeilinger , A. Discrete tunable color entanglement. Phys

  20. Perspectives of the lobster-eye telescope: The promising types of cosmic X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-07-01

    We show the astrophysical aspects of observing the X-ray sky with the planned lobster-eye telescope. This instrument is important because it is able to provide wide-field X-ray imaging. For the testing observations, we propose to include also X-ray binaries in which matter transfers onto the compact object (mostly the neutron star). We show the typical features of the long-term X-ray activity of such objects. Observing in the soft X-ray band is the most promising because their X-ray intensity is the highest in this band. Since these X-ray sources tend to concentrate toward the center of our Galaxy, several of them can be present in the field of view of the tested instrument.

  1. Photocathodes inside superconducting cavities. Studies on the feasibility of a superconducting photoelectron source of high brightness. External report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalke, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have done studies and experiments to explore the feasibility of a photoemission RF gun with a superconducting accelerator cavity. This concept promises to provide an electron beam of high brightness in continuous operation. It is thus of strong interest for a free-electron-laser or a linear collider based on a superconducting accelerator. In a first step we studied possible technical solutions for its components, especially the material of the photocathode and the geometrical shape of the cavity. Based on these considerations, we developed the complete design for a prototype electron source. The cathode material was chosen to be alkali antimonide. In spite of its sensitivity, it seems to be the best choice for a gun with high average current due to its high quantum efficiency. The cavity shape was at first a reentrant-type single cell of 500 MHz. It is now replaced by a more regular two-and-half cell shape, an independent half cell added for emittance correction. Its beam dynamics properties are investigated by numerical simulations; we estimated a beam brightness of about 5x10 11 A/(m.rad) 2 . But the mutual interactions between alkali antimonide photocathode and superconducting cavity must be investigated experimentally, because they are completely unkown. (orig.)

  2. On the Feasibility of Very-Low-Density Pure Metal Foams as Bright High-Energy X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    We have used the Busquet approximation (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5(11), 4191 (1993)) to explore calculationally what the possible x-ray conversion efficiencies into the K-band would be from irradiating very-low-density pure metal foams with tens of kilojoules of 1/3-micron laser light. We will discuss the advantages of pure metal foams as bright high-energy x-ray sources, and some results of this calculational study. We will also present our ideas for how to fabricate pure metal foams with densities of a few milligrams per cubic centimeter. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Production of hollow atoms by high brightness x-ray sources and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2004-01-01

    We study x-ray emissions from the (multi-)inner-shell states and hollow atoms of Si ions excited by high intensity x-ray sources. It is found that the x-ray number from multi-inner-shell excited states (1s 2 2s 2 2p k 3s 2 3p 2 , k=1-4) and hollow atoms (1s 2 2s 2 3p 2 ) is affected greatly by the high intensity short-pulse x-rays and little by weak intensity post-long pulse x-rays. The ratio of the x-ray intensities from hollow atoms to those from the multi-inner-shell excited states becomes almost independent of the pulses and dependent on the intensities of x-ray sources. This ratio may be used for the measurement of intensities of high intensity short pulse x-ray sources. (author)

  4. Development of a High-Brightness VHF Electron Source at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, Steven M.; Sannibale, Fernando; Staples, John W.; Virostek, Steve P.; Wells, Russell P.

    2007-01-01

    Currently proposed ERL and high average power FEL projects require electron beam sources that can generate ∼1nC bunch charges at high repetition rates. Many proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose a novel solution that greatly diminishes high voltage breakdown issues while also decreasing peak RF power requirements in a warm copper device, and that has the benefit of mapping the rf oscillation period much more closely to the required beam repetition rate. We present the initial RF and mechanical design for a 750kV electron source and beam injection system utilizing a gun resonant in the VHF band. Beam dynamics simulations demonstrate excellent beam quality preservation and transport

  5. Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....

  6. Atomic physics with high-brightness synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1985-11-01

    A description of atomic physics experiments that we intend to carry out at the National Synchrotron Light Source is given. Emphasis is given to work that investigates the properties of multiply charged ions. The use of a synchrotron storage ring for highly charged heavy ions is proposed as a way to produce high current beams which will make possible experiments to study the photoexcitation and ionization of multiply charged ions for the first time. Experiments along the same lines which are feasible at the proposed Advanced Light Source are considered briefly. 7 refs., 2 figs

  7. Generation of high brightness x-ray source and its medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Sadao; Muro, Mikio; Oku, Yasunari; Daido, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenjiro

    2001-01-01

    Laser produced plasmas are one of the most feasible sources to be used for industrial applications, especially medical applications: Angiography, Protein crystallography, X-ray microscopy and XAFS. In the present paper, laser requirements are clarified for the medical and life science fields and then we estimate both the photon energy spectra and the number of photons based on Monte-Carlo simulation. (author)

  8. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 x 10 -9 m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of ∼2 π mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces

  9. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L170, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5–9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ∼460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  10. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  11. A LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS DETECTED IN THE ROSAT ALL-SKY-SURVEY BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Letcavage, Ryan; Shevchuk, Andrew S. H.; Fox, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Using new and archival observations made with the Swift satellite and other facilities, we examine 147 X-ray sources selected from the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) to produce a new limit on the number of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the RASS/BSC, the most constraining such limit to date. Independent of X-ray spectrum and variability, the number of INSs is ≤48 (90% confidence). Restricting attention to soft (kT eff < 200 eV), non-variable X-ray sources-as in a previous study-yields an all-sky limit of ≤31 INSs. In the course of our analysis, we identify five new high-quality INS candidates for targeted follow-up observations. A future all-sky X-ray survey with eROSITA, or another mission with similar capabilities, can be expected to increase the detected population of X-ray-discovered INSs from the 8-50 in the BSC, to (for a disk population) 240-1500, which will enable a more detailed study of neutron star population models.

  12. Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...... dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new...... avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission....

  13. Cesium-enhanced D sup - beam characteristics from a high-brightness volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiak, T.W. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the H{sup -} beam extracted from a volume ion source may increase by a factor of 4 or more when cesium vapor is introduced into the arc discharge chamber. We have extended these experiments to cesiated D{sup -} beams transported with and without space-charge neutralization by xenon gas. The D{sup -} results show qualitatively similar characteristics to those obtained with H{sup -}. In particular, a factor of almost 7 in current enhancement was obtained compared with noncesiated beams accompanied by a dramatic reduction in electron current. A study of the beam divergence as a function of extracted equivalent current showed that the divergence of the cesiated beams was larger than the uncesiated beams at the same equivalent current. Introduction of xenon gas at a partial pressure of 2.5x10{sup -5} Torr reduced the divergence of the cesiated beams to the value obtained for the uncesiated beams. (orig.).

  14. Jet emission in young radio sources: A Fermi large area telescope gamma-ray view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Celotti, A. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), via Bonomea, 265-34136 Trieste (Italy); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: migliori@cfa.harvard.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (≲10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ∼10{sup 46}-10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ∼4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L {sub jet,} {sub kin}/L {sub disk} > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (≲ 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  15. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. X. X-ray variability of bright sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Comastri, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Ranalli, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We aim to study the variability properties of bright hard X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range between 0.3 and 1.6 detected in the Chandra Deep Field South (XMM-CDFS) by a long ( 3 Ms) XMM observation. Methods: Taking advantage of the good count statistics in the XMM CDFS, we search for flux and spectral variability using the hardness ratio (HR) techniques. We also investigate the spectral variability of different spectral components (photon index of the power law, column density of the local absorber, and reflection intensity). The spectra were merged in six epochs (defined as adjacent observations) and in high and low flux states to understand whether the flux transitions are accompanied by spectral changes. Results: The flux variability is significant in all the sources investigated. The HRs in general are not as variable as the fluxes, in line with previous results on deep fields. Only one source displays a variable HR, anti-correlated with the flux (source 337). The spectral analysis in the available epochs confirms the steeper when brighter trend consistent with Comptonisation models only in this source at 99% confidence level. Finding this trend in one out of seven unabsorbed sources is consistent, within the statistical limits, with the 15% of unabsorbed AGN in previous deep surveys. No significant variability in the column densities, nor in the Compton reflection component, has been detected across the epochs considered. The high and low states display in general different normalisations but consistent spectral properties. Conclusions: X-ray flux fluctuations are ubiquitous in AGN, though in some cases the data quality does not allow for their detection. In general, the significant flux variations are not associated with spectral variability: photon index and column densities are not significantly variable in nine out of the ten AGN over long timescales (from three to six and a half years). Photon index variability is

  16. TH-CD-207B-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Development of High Brightness Multiple-Pixel X-Ray Source Using Oxide Coated Cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandlakunta, P; Pham, R; Zhang, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a high brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source. Methods: Multiple-pixel x-ray sources allow for designs of novel x-ray imaging techniques, such as fixed gantry CT, digital tomosynthesis, tetrahedron beam computed tomography, etc. We are developing a high-brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source based on oxide coated cathodes. Oxide cathode is chosen as the electron source due to its high emission current density and low operating temperature. A MPTEX prototype has been developed which may contain up to 41 micro-rectangular oxide cathodes in 4 mm pixel spacing. Electronics hardware was developed for source control and switching. The cathode emission current was evaluated and x-ray measurements were performed to estimate the focal spot size. Results: The oxide cathodes were able to produce ∼110 mA cathode current in pulse mode which corresponds to an emission current density of 0.55 A/cm 2 . The maximum kVp of the MPTEX prototype currently is limited to 100 kV due to the rating of high voltage feedthrough. Preliminary x-ray measurements estimated the focal spot size as 1.5 × 1.3 mm 2 . Conclusion: A MPTEX source was developed with thermionic oxide coated cathodes and preliminary source characterization was successfully performed. The MPTEX source is able to produce an array of high brightness x-ray beams with a fast switching speed.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  18. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  19. Radio Wavelength Studies of the Galactic Center Source N3, Spectroscopic Instrumentation For Robotic Telescope Systems, and Developing Active Learning Activities for Astronomy Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic Alesio

    2017-08-01

    The mysterious radio source N3 appears to be located within the vicinity of the Radio Arc region of the Galactic Center. To investigate the nature of this source, we have conducted radio observations with the VLA and the VLBA. Continuum observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is an extremely compact and bright source with a non-thermal spectrum. Molecular line observations with the VLA reveal a compact molecular cloud adjacent to N3 in projection. The properties of this cloud are consistent with other galactic center clouds. We are able to rule out several hypotheses for the nature of N3, though a micro-blazar origin cannot be ruled out. Robotic Telescope systems are now seeing widespread deployment as both teaching and research instruments. While these systems have traditionally been able to produce high quality images, these systems have lacked the capability to conduct spectroscopic observations. To enable spectroscopic observations on the Iowa Robotic Observatory, we have developed a low cost (˜ 500), low resolution (R ˜ 300) spectrometer which mounts inside a modified filter wheel and a moderate cost (˜ 5000), medium resolution (R ˜ 8000) fiber-fed spectrometer. Software has been developed to operate both instruments robotically and calibration pipelines are being developed to automate calibration of the data. The University of Iowa offers several introductory astronomy laboratory courses taken by many hundreds of students each semester. To improve student learning in these laboratory courses, we have worked to integrate active learning into laboratory activities. We present the pedagogical approaches used to develop and update the laboratory activities and present an inventory of the current laboratory exercises. Using the inventory, we make observations of the strengths and weaknesses of the current exercises and provide suggestions for future refinement of the astronomy laboratory curriculum.

  20. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. P.; Ghiorso, W.; Staples, J.; Huang, T. M.; Sannibale, F.; Kramasz, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    A high repetition rate, MHz-class, high-brightness electron source is a key element in future high-repetition-rate x-ray free electron laser-based light sources. The VHF-gun, a novel low frequency radio-frequency gun, is the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) response to that need. The gun design is based on a normal conducting, single cell cavity resonating at 186 MHz in the VHF band and capable of continuous wave operation while still delivering the high accelerating fields at the cathode required for the high brightness performance. The VHF-gun was fabricated and successfully commissioned in the framework of the Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment, an injector built at LBNL to demonstrate the capability of the gun to deliver the required beam quality. The basis for the selection of the VHF-gun technology, novel design features, and fabrication techniques are described.

  1. TH-CD-207B-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Development of High Brightness Multiple-Pixel X-Ray Source Using Oxide Coated Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlakunta, P; Pham, R; Zhang, T [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and characterize a high brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source. Methods: Multiple-pixel x-ray sources allow for designs of novel x-ray imaging techniques, such as fixed gantry CT, digital tomosynthesis, tetrahedron beam computed tomography, etc. We are developing a high-brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source based on oxide coated cathodes. Oxide cathode is chosen as the electron source due to its high emission current density and low operating temperature. A MPTEX prototype has been developed which may contain up to 41 micro-rectangular oxide cathodes in 4 mm pixel spacing. Electronics hardware was developed for source control and switching. The cathode emission current was evaluated and x-ray measurements were performed to estimate the focal spot size. Results: The oxide cathodes were able to produce ∼110 mA cathode current in pulse mode which corresponds to an emission current density of 0.55 A/cm{sup 2}. The maximum kVp of the MPTEX prototype currently is limited to 100 kV due to the rating of high voltage feedthrough. Preliminary x-ray measurements estimated the focal spot size as 1.5 × 1.3 mm{sup 2}. Conclusion: A MPTEX source was developed with thermionic oxide coated cathodes and preliminary source characterization was successfully performed. The MPTEX source is able to produce an array of high brightness x-ray beams with a fast switching speed.

  2. Mid infra-red hyper-spectral imaging with bright super continuum source and fast acousto-optic tuneable filter for cytological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Valle, Stefano; Stephens, Gary; Moselund, Peter; Van der Zanden, Koen; Napier, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to offer an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis. Current development of bright super-continuum sources, narrow band acousto-optic tunable filters and fast cameras have made feasible a system that can be used for fast diagnosis of cancer in vivo at point of care. The performance of a proto system that has been developed under the Minerva project is described. (paper)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Buson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: isabelle.grenier@cea.fr, E-mail: casandjian@cea.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  4. Augmenting the Funding Sources for Space Science and the ASTRO-1 Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The BoldlyGo Institute was formed in 2013 to augment the planned space science portfolio through philanthropically funded robotic space missions, similar to how some U.S. medical institutes and ground-based telescopes are funded. I introduce BoldlyGo's two current projects: the SCIM mission to Mars and the ASTRO-1 space telescope. In particular, ASTRO-1 is a 1.8-meter off-axis (unobscured) ultraviolet-visible space observatory to be located in a Lagrange point or heliocentric orbit with a wide-field panchromatic camera, medium- and high-resolution spectrograph, and high-contrast imaging coronagraph and/or an accompanying starshade/occulter. It is intended for the post-Hubble Space Telescope era in the 2020s, enabling unique measurements of a broad range of celestial targets, while providing vital complementary capabilities to other ground- and space-based facilities such as the JWST, ALMA, WFIRST-AFTA, LSST, TESS, Euclid, and PLATO. The ASTRO-1 architecture simultaneously wields great scientific power while being technically viable and affordable. A wide variety of scientific programs can be accomplished, addressing topics across space astronomy, astrophysics, fundamental physics, and solar system science, as well as being technologically informative to future large-aperture programs. ASTRO-1 is intended to be a new-generation research facility serving a broad national and international community, as well as a vessel for impactful public engagement. Traditional institutional partnerships and consortia, such as are common with private ground-based observatories, may play a role in the support and governance of ASTRO-1; we are currently engaging interested international organizations. In addition to our planned open guest observer program and accessible data archive, we intend to provide a mechanism whereby individual scientists can buy in to a fraction of the gauranteed observing time. Our next step in ASTRO-1 development is to form the ASTRO-1 Requirements Team

  5. A Jet Source of Event Horizon Telescope Correlated Flux in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsly, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz are combined with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations at 86 GHz and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope optical observations in order to constrain the broadband spectrum of the emission from the base of the jet in M87. The recent VLBI observations of Hada et al. provide much stricter limits on the 86 GHz luminosity and component acceleration in the jet base than were available to previous modelers. They reveal an almost hollow jet on sub-mas scales. Thus, tubular models of the jet base emanating from the innermost accretion disk are considered within the region responsible for the EHT correlated flux. There is substantial synchrotron self-absorbed opacity at 86 GHz. A parametric analysis indicates that the jet dimensions and power depend strongly on the 86 GHz flux density and the black hole spin, but depend weakly on other parameters, such as jet speed, 230 GHz flux density, and optical flux. The entire power budget of the M87 jet, ≲ {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, can be accommodated by the tubular jet. No invisible, powerful spine is required. Even though this analysis never employs the resolution of the EHT, the spectral shape implies a dimension transverse to the jet direction of 12-21 μ {as} (˜ 24{--}27 μ {as}) for 0.99> a/M> 0.95 (a/M˜ 0.7), where M is the mass and a is the angular momentum per unit mass of the central black hole.

  6. Spectral flux of the p-7Li(C Q-M neutron source measured by proton recoil telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov S.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron-based fast neutron source at NPI produces mono-energetic neutron fields up to 35 MeV neutron energy using the p + 7Li(carbon backing reactions. To be applied for activation cross-section measurements, not only the intensity of neutron peak, but also the contribution of low-energy continuum in the spectra must be well determined. Simulations of the spectral flux from present source at a position of irradiated samples were performed using CYRIC TOF-data validated in the present work against LA150h by calculations with the transport Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Simulated spectra were tested by absolute measurements using a proton-recoil telescope technique. The recoil-proton spectrometer consisted of a shielded scattering chamber with polyethylene and carbon radiators and the ΔE1-ΔE2-E telescope of silicon-surface detectors located to the neutron beam axis at 45° in the laboratory system. Si-detectors were handled by usual data acquisition system. Dead-time – and pulse-overlap losses of events were determined from the count rate of pulse generator registered during duty cycle of accelerator operation. The proton beam charge and data were taken in the list mode for later replay and analysis. The calculations for 7Li(p,n and 12C(p,n reactions reasonably reproduce CYRIC TOF neutron source spectra. The influence of neutron source set-up (proton beam dimensions, 7Li-foil, carbon stopper, cooling medium, target support/chamber and the geometry-arrangement of irradiated sample on the spectral flux is discussed in details.

  7. Error sources in the retrieval of aerosol information over bright surfaces from satellite measurements in the oxygen A band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; de Graaf, Martin; Sneep, Maarten; de Haan, Johan F.; Stammes, Piet; Sanders, Abram F. J.; Tuinder, Olaf; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height over a bright surface from measured top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum in the oxygen A band is known to be challenging, often resulting in large errors. In certain atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries, a loss of sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness has been reported in the literature. This loss of sensitivity has been attributed to a phenomenon known as critical surface albedo regime, which is a range of surface albedos for which the top-of-atmosphere reflectance has minimal sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness. This paper extends the concept of critical surface albedo for aerosol layer height retrievals in the oxygen A band, and discusses its implications. The underlying physics are introduced by analysing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum as a sum of atmospheric path contribution and surface contribution, obtained using a radiative transfer model. Furthermore, error analysis of an aerosol layer height retrieval algorithm is conducted over dark and bright surfaces to show the dependence on surface reflectance. The analysis shows that the derivative with respect to aerosol layer height of the atmospheric path contribution to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance is opposite in sign to that of the surface contribution - an increase in surface brightness results in a decrease in information content. In the case of aerosol optical thickness, these derivatives are anti-correlated, leading to large retrieval errors in high surface albedo regimes. The consequence of this anti-correlation is demonstrated with measured spectra in the oxygen A band from the GOME-2 instrument on board the Metop-A satellite over the 2010 Russian wildfires incident.

  8. Tianma 65-m telescope detection of new OH maser features towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Yang, Kai; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bin; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Wang, Jin-Qing; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Yung, Bosco H. K.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of the OH maser observation towards the water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 using the newly built Shanghai Tianma 65-m Radio Telescope. We observed the three OH ground state transition lines at frequencies of 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. Comparing with the spectra of previous observations, we find new maser spectral components at velocity channels largely shifted from the systemic velocity: the velocity offsets of the newly found components lie in the range 20-40 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity. Besides maser variability, another possible interpretation for the newly detected maser features is that part of the molecular gas in the circumstellar envelope is accelerated. The acceleration is probably caused by the passage of a high-velocity molecular jet, which has been detected in previous Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations in the H2O maser line.

  9. SATELLITE-MOUNTED LIGHT SOURCES AS PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION STANDARDS FOR GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, J., E-mail: jalbert@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    A significant and growing portion of systematic error on a number of fundamental parameters in astrophysics and cosmology is due to uncertainties from absolute photometric and flux standards. A path toward achieving major reduction in such uncertainties may be provided by satellite-mounted light sources, resulting in improvement in the ability to precisely characterize atmospheric extinction, and thus helping to usher in the coming generation of precision results in astronomy. Using a campaign of observations of the 532 nm pulsed laser aboard the CALIPSO satellite, collected using a portable network of cameras and photodiodes, we obtain initial measurements of atmospheric extinction, which can apparently be greatly improved by further data of this type. For a future satellite-mounted precision light source, a high-altitude balloon platform under development (together with colleagues) can provide testing as well as observational data for calibration of atmospheric uncertainties.

  10. SATELLITE-MOUNTED LIGHT SOURCES AS PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION STANDARDS FOR GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.

    2012-01-01

    A significant and growing portion of systematic error on a number of fundamental parameters in astrophysics and cosmology is due to uncertainties from absolute photometric and flux standards. A path toward achieving major reduction in such uncertainties may be provided by satellite-mounted light sources, resulting in improvement in the ability to precisely characterize atmospheric extinction, and thus helping to usher in the coming generation of precision results in astronomy. Using a campaign of observations of the 532 nm pulsed laser aboard the CALIPSO satellite, collected using a portable network of cameras and photodiodes, we obtain initial measurements of atmospheric extinction, which can apparently be greatly improved by further data of this type. For a future satellite-mounted precision light source, a high-altitude balloon platform under development (together with colleagues) can provide testing as well as observational data for calibration of atmospheric uncertainties.

  11. Transverse emittance-preserving arc compressor for high-brightness electron beam-based light sources and colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Bunch length magnetic compression is used in high-brightness linacs driving free-electron lasers (FELs) and particle colliders to increase the peak current of the injected beam. To date, it is performed in dedicated insertions made of few degrees bending magnets and the compression factor is limited by the degradation of the beam transverse emittance owing to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We reformulate the known concept of CSR-driven optics balance for the general case of varying bunch length and demonstrate, through analytical and numerical results, that a 500 pC charge beam can be time-compressed in a periodic 180 deg arc at 2.4 GeV beam energy and lower, by a factor of up to 45, reaching peak currents of up to 2 kA and with a normalized emittance growth at the 0.1 μ \\text{m} rad level. The proposed solution offers new schemes of beam longitudinal gymnastics; an application to an energy recovery linac driving FEL is discussed.

  12. The optimal on-source region size for detections with counting-type telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2017-01-15

    The on-source region is typically a circular area with radius θ in which the signal is expected to appear with the shape of the instrument point spread function (PSF). This paper addresses the question of what is the θ that maximises the probability of detection for a given PSF width and background event density. In the high count number limit and assuming a Gaussian PSF profile, the optimum is found to be at ζ{sup 2}{sub ∞}∼2.51 times the squared PSF width σ{sup 2}{sub PSF39}. While this number is shown to be a good choice in many cases, a dynamic formula for cases of lower count numbers, which favour larger on-source regions, is given. The recipe to get to this parametrisation can also be applied to cases with a non-Gaussian PSF. This result can standardise and simplify analysis procedures, reduce trials and eliminate the need for experience-based ad hoc cut definitions or expensive case-by-case Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. The optimal on-source region size for detections with counting-type telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The on-source region is typically a circular area with radius θ in which the signal is expected to appear with the shape of the instrument point spread function (PSF). This paper addresses the question of what is the θ that maximises the probability of detection for a given PSF width and background event density. In the high count number limit and assuming a Gaussian PSF profile, the optimum is found to be at ζ"2_∞∼2.51 times the squared PSF width σ"2_P_S_F_3_9. While this number is shown to be a good choice in many cases, a dynamic formula for cases of lower count numbers, which favour larger on-source regions, is given. The recipe to get to this parametrisation can also be applied to cases with a non-Gaussian PSF. This result can standardise and simplify analysis procedures, reduce trials and eliminate the need for experience-based ad hoc cut definitions or expensive case-by-case Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  15. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  16. Beam extraction dynamics at the space-charge-limit of the high brightness E-XFEL electron source at DESY-PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ye; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The physics of the photoemission, as one of the key issues for successful operation of linac based free-electron lasers like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL) and the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), is playing an increasingly important role in the high brightness DESY-PITZ electron source. We study photoemission physics and discuss full three-dimensional numerical modeling of the electron bunch emission. The beam extraction dynamics at the photocathode has been investigated through the 3D fully electromagnetic (EM) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) solver of CST Particle Studio under the assumption of the photoemission source operating at or close to its space charge limit. PIC simulation results have shown good agreements with measurements on total emitted bunch charge for distinct experimental parameters. Further comparisons showed a general failure for the conventional Poisson solver based tracking algorithm to correctly predict the beam dynamics at the space charge limit. It is furthermore found, that fully EM PIC simulations are also consistent with a simple emission model based on the multidimensional Child-Langmuir law.

  17. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E., E-mail: jcohen@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: elizabeth.a.hays@nasa.gov [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-07-10

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  18. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  19. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2017-09-01

    aspect ratio of the tubular baffle length to PM diameter. Additional analysis has been done to examine the stray light implications for the fields near the image of a bright source. This near field stray light is shown to be dependent on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics of the mirrors in the optical train. The near field stray light contribution is dominated by those mirrors closer to the focal plane compared to the contributions from the PM and SM. Hence the near field stray light is independent of the exterior telescope baffle geometry. Contributions from self-emission from the telescope have been compared to natural background for telescopes operating at infrared wavelengths.

  20. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  1. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  2. The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance of 1991 September 28 using the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Alan; Uchida, Yutaka; Tsuneta, Saku; Strong, Keith T.; Acton, Loren W.; Hiei, Eijiro; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Watanabe, Takashi; Shibata, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance on September 28, 1991, observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope, is examined as a possible example of the 'eruption-reconnection' model of filament disappearance. The results suggest, however, that this model may not fit. There is a strong possibility that much of the dark filament mass remains in the heated unwinding axial field.

  3. Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    red). The reflectance of the G-SAM as a function of irradiance (I) can be expressed as: R(I) = exp [ −ξ ( α◦ 1 + ξI/ Isat ) + ξβeffI)2L ] , (31) 58...resonant structures. where I is the on-axis intensity, α◦ is the linear absorption coefficient, Isat is the saturation intensity, βeff is the nonlinear...α(ξI) = α◦ 1 + ξI/ Isat + ξβeffI (32) The nonlinear reflectance of a G-SAM and dependance on the nonlinear components is shown in Figure 43 (a). The

  4. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  5. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the southern sky with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-Martí J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A search for cosmic neutrino point-like sources using the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes over the Southern Hemisphere is presented. The ANTARES data were collected between January 2007 and December 2012, whereas the IceCube data ranges from April 2008 to May 2011. An unbinned maximum likelihood method is used to search for a localized excess of muon events in the southern sky assuming an E−2 neutrino source spectrum. A search over a pre-selected list of candidate sources has also been carried out for different source assumptions: spectral indices of 2.0 and 2.5, and energy cutoffs of 1 PeV, 300 TeV and 100 TeV. No significant excess over the background has been found, and upper limits for the candidate sources are presented compared to the individual experiments.

  7. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouter, S.

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E -2 eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10 -4 m -2 s -1 GeV -1 in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  8. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  9. H2O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W.; Henkel, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Coldwell, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H2O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 (z ˜ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ˜30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ˜1135 L ⊙. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H2O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H2O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.

  10. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  11. Amateur Telescope Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  12. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  13. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  14. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  15. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  16. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  17. Temporal intensity interferometry: photon bunching in three bright stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, W.; Dussaux, A.; Fouché, M.; Labeyrie, G.; Rivet, J.-P.; Vernet, D.; Vakili, F.; Kaiser, R.

    2017-12-01

    We report the first intensity correlation measured with starlight since the historical experiments of Hanbury Brown and Twiss. The photon bunching g(2)(τ, r = 0), obtained in the photon-counting regime, was measured for three bright stars: α Boo, α CMi and β Gem. The light was collected at the focal plane of a 1-m optical telescope, transported by a multi-mode optical fibre, split into two avalanche photodiodes and correlated digitally in real time. For total exposure times of a few hours, we obtained contrast values around 2 × 10-3, in agreement with the expectation for chaotic sources, given the optical and electronic bandwidths of our set-up. Comparing our results with the measurement of Hanbury Brown et al. for α CMi, we argue for the timely opportunity to extend our experiments to measuring the spatial correlation function over existing and/or foreseen arrays of optical telescopes diluted over several kilometres. This would enable microarcsec long-baseline interferometry in the optical, especially in the visible wavelengths, with a limiting magnitude of 10.

  18. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scal...

  19. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  20. Stunningly bright optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  1. A daytime measurement of the lunar contribution to the night sky brightness in LSST's ugrizy bands-initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Stubbs, Christopher; Claver, Chuck

    2016-06-01

    We report measurements from which we determine the spatial structure of the lunar contribution to night sky brightness, taken at the LSST site on Cerro Pachon in Chile. We use an array of six photodiodes with filters that approximate the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's u, g, r, i, z, and y bands. We use the sun as a proxy for the moon, and measure sky brightness as a function of zenith angle of the point on sky, zenith angle of the sun, and angular distance between the sun and the point on sky. We make a correction for the difference between the illumination spectrum of the sun and the moon. Since scattered sunlight totally dominates the daytime sky brightness, this technique allows us to cleanly determine the contribution to the (cloudless) night sky from backscattered moonlight, without contamination from other sources of night sky brightness. We estimate our uncertainty in the relative lunar night sky brightness vs. zenith and lunar angle to be between 0.3-0.7 mags depending on the passband. This information is useful in planning the optimal execution of the LSST survey, and perhaps for other astronomical observations as well. Although our primary objective is to map out the angular structure and spectrum of the scattered light from the atmosphere and particulates, we also make an estimate of the expected number of scattered lunar photons per pixel per second in LSST, and find values that are in overall agreement with previous estimates.

  2. Record productions establish RF-driven sources as the standard for generating high-duty-factor, high-current H- beams for accelerators (Winner of the ICIS 2017 Brightness Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Welton, Robert F.; Han, Baoxi

    2018-05-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source operates reliably at 1.2 MW and will gradually ramp to 1.4 MW. This paper briefly recalls some of the struggles when the unprecedented project was started and ramped to 1 MW over a 3½ year period. This was challenging, especially for the H- ion source and the low-energy beam transport system, which make up the H- injector. It took several more years to push the H- injector to the 1.4 MW requirements, and even longer to reach close to 100% injector availability. An additional breakthrough was the carefully staged, successful extension of the H- source service cycle so that disruptive source changes became rare events. More than 7 A.h of extracted H- ions have been demonstrated with a single source without maintenance, more than twice the single-source quantity of ions produced by any other high-current H- accelerator facility. Achieving the 1.4 MW requirements with close to 100% availability and record-breaking source service cycles were the basis for the 2017 Brightness Award.

  3. Final Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 "High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This project had two major goals. Final Goal: obtain spectrally resolved, absolutely calibrated x-ray emission data from uniquely uniform mm-scale near-critical-density high-Z plasmas not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to benchmark modern detailed atomic physics models. Scientific significance: advance understanding of non-LTE atomic physics. Intermediate Goal: develop new nano-fabrication techniques to make suitable laser targets that form the required highly uniform non-LTE plasmas when illuminated by high-intensity laser light. Scientific significance: advance understanding of nano-science. The new knowledge will allow us to make x-ray sources that are bright at the photon energies of most interest for testing radiation hardening technologies, the spectral energy range where current x-ray sources are weak. All project goals were met.

  4. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  5. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  6. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  7. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  8. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    First Light for the PRIMA instrument The PRIMA instrument [1] of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) recently saw "first light" at its new home atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. When fully operational, PRIMA will boost the capabilities of the VLTI to see sources much fainter than any previous interferometers, and enable astrometric precision unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility. PRIMA will be a unique tool for the detection of exoplanets. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 29a/08 Preparing for PRIMA "PRIMA is specifically designed to see if one star 'wobbles' to and fro because it is has unseen planetary companions", says instrument scientist Gerard van Belle. "This allows us to not only detect exoplanets, but to measure their mass." PRIMA's expected astrometric precision of tens of micro-arcseconds is unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility, whether on the ground or in orbit [2]. In addition to taking astrometric measurements PRIMA will be the key to the imaging of faint sources with the VLTI using the science instruments AMBER and MIDI. Interferometry combines the light received by two or more telescopes, concentrating on tiny differences between the signals to measure angles with exquisite precision. Using this technique PRIMA can pick out details as sharply as a single telescope with a diameter equivalent to the largest distance between the telescopes. For the VLTI, the distance between the two telescope elements is about 200 metres. The PRIMA instrument is unique amongst the VLTI instruments, in that it is effectively two interferometers in one. PRIMA will take data from two sources on the sky simultaneously: the brighter source can be used for tracking, allowing the interferometer to "stare" at the fainter source for longer than is now possible with conventional interferometers. Although there have been earlier pathfinder experiments to test this technique, PRIMA represents the first facility

  9. Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotios, Steve; Atli, Deniz; Cheal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Light sources are available in a variety of spectral power distributions (SPDs) and this affects spatial brightness in a manner not predicted by quantities such as illuminance. Tuning light source SPD to better match the sensitivity of visual perception may allow the same spatial brightness but a...

  10. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  11. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K. [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Egami, E. [Department of Astronomy, Arizona University, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y. [Hawaii Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Honda, C. [Research Center for Advanced Information Science and Technology, Aizu Research Cluster for Space Science, The University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8589 (Japan); Kimura, J. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Nakamoto, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Surace, J., E-mail: tsumura@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 μm even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 μm, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 μm by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  12. The Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies Survey: Constraints on the Bright End of the z ~ 8 Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L. D.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Stiavelli, M.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.

    2012-12-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ~ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin2) with Y 098 (or Y 105), J 125, and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ~ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ~ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098-dropout galaxies have J 125-band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 universe. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11519, 11520, 11524, 11528, 11530, 11533, 11534, 11541, 11700, 11702, 12024, 12025, and 12572.

  13. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visual light of the sky region where the gamma-ray burst was detected, then shipped them off electronically to their Dutch colleagues [3]. Comparing the new photos with earlier ones in the digital sky archive, Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol almost immediately discovered a new, relatively bright visual source in the region of the gamma-ray burst, which they proposed as the optical counterpart of the burst, cf. their dedicated webpage at http://www.astro.uva.nl/~titus/grb990510/. The team then placed a message on the international Gamma-Ray Burster web-noteboard ( GCN Circular 310), thereby alerting their colleagues all over the world. One hour later, the narrow-field instruments on BeppoSax identified a new X-Ray source at the same location ( GCN Circular 311), thus confirming the optical identification. All in all, a remarkable synergy of human and satellite resources! Observations of GRB 990510 at ESO Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol, in collaboration with Nicola Masetti, Eliana Palazzi and Elena Pian of the BeppoSAX GRB optical follow-up team (led by Filippo Frontera ) and the Huntsville optical follow-up team (led by Chryssa Kouveliotou ), also contacted the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Astronomers at this Organization's observatories in Chile were quick to exploit this opportunity and crucial data were soon obtained with several of the main telescopes at La Silla and Paranal, less than 14 hours after the first detection of this event by the satellite. ESO PR Photo 22a/99 ESO PR Photo 22a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 211 x 400 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 422 x 800 pix - 212k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1582 x 3000 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22b/99 ESO PR Photo 22b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 297k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 1.1M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2509 pix - 5.9M] Caption to PR Photo 22a/99 : This wide-field photo was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m

  14. H{sub 2}O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, J. Z. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Coldwell, G. V., E-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn [FCEFyN-UNSJ-CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2017-02-20

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H{sub 2}O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 ( z ∼ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ∼30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ∼1135 L {sub ⊙}. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H{sub 2}O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H{sub 2}O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies.

  15. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  16. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  17. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  18. Hubble Space Telescope, Faint Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Faint Object Camera (FOC). The FOC reflects light down one of two optical pathways. The light enters a detector after passing through filters or through devices that can block out light from bright objects. Light from bright objects is blocked out to enable the FOC to see background images. The detector intensifies the image, then records it much like a television camera. For faint objects, images can be built up over long exposure times. The total image is translated into digital data, transmitted to Earth, and then reconstructed. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  19. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  20. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  1. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented

  2. The bright and choked gamma-ray burst contribution to the IceCube and ANTARES low-energy excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.; Tamborra, Irene

    2018-04-01

    The increasing statistics of the high-energy neutrino flux observed by the IceCube Observatory points towards an excess of events above the atmospheric neutrino background in the 30–400 TeV energy range. Such an excess is compatible with the findings of the ANTARES Telescope and it would naturally imply the possibility that more than one source class contributes to the observed flux. Electromagnetically hidden sources have been invoked to interpret this excess of events at low energies. By adopting a unified model for the electromagnetically bright and choked gamma-ray bursts and taking into account particle acceleration at the internal and collimation shock radii, we discuss whether bright and choked bursts are viable candidates. Our findings suggest that, although producing a copious neutrino flux, choked and bright astrophysical jets cannot be the dominant sources of the excess of neutrino events. A fine tuning of the model parameters or distinct scenarios for choked jets should be invoked in order to explain the low-energy neutrino data of IceCube and ANTARES.

  3. Aerosol Measurements with the FRAM Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebr Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision stellar photometry using a telescope equipped with a CCD camera is an obvious way to measure the total aerosol content of the atmosphere as the apparent brightness of every star is affected by scattering. Achieving high precision in the vertical aerosol optical depth (at the level of 0.01 presents a series of interesting challenges. Using 3.5 years of data taken by the FRAM instrument at the Pierre Auger Observatory, we have developed a set of methods and tools to overcome most of these challenges. We use a wide-field camera and measure stars over a large span in airmass to eliminate the need for absolute calibration of the instrument. The main issues for data processing include camera calibration, source identification in curved field, catalog deficiencies, automated aperture photometry in rich fields with lens distortion and corrections for star color. In the next step, we model the airmass-dependence of the extinction and subtract the Rayleigh component of scattering, using laboratory measurements of spectral sensitivity of the device. In this contribution, we focus on the caveats and solutions found during the development of the methods, as well as several issues yet to be solved. Finally, future outlooks, such as the possibility for precision measurements of wavelength dependence of the extinction are discussed.

  4. FACT — LONGTERM MONITORING OF BRIGHT TeV BLAZARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT, located on the Canary Island of La Palma, has been taking data since October 2011. FACT has been optimized for longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars, to study their variability time scales and flare probability. G-APD photo-sensors allow for observations even under strong moonlight conditions, and the telescope can be operated remotely. The monitoring strategy of FACT is discussed and preliminary results of the flare of Mrk501 in June 2012 are shown.

  5. Detectors for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias Andrew

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) will make measurements of the brightness temperature anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on degree to arcminute angular scales. The ACT observing site is located 5200 m near the top of Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This thesis presents research on the detectors which capture the image of the CMB formed at ACT's focal plane. In the first chapter, the primary brightness temperature fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background are reviewed. In Chapter 2, a calculation shows how the CMB brightness is translated by ACT to an input power to the detectors. Chapter 3 describes the ACT detectors in detail and presents the response and sensitivity of the detectors to the input power computed in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 describes the detector fabrication at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Chapter 5 summarizes experiments which characterize the ACT detector performance.

  6. Kinematics and physical conditions of H I in nearby radio sources. The last survey of the old Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Geréb, K.; Maddox, N.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of neutral hydrogen (H I) in 248 nearby (0.02 30 mJy and for which optical spectroscopy is available. The observations were carried out with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope as the last large project before the

  7. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  8. First-light instrument for the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope: 4Kx4K CCD Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Yadav, Rama Kant Singh; Nanjappa, Nandish; Yadav, Shobhit; Reddy, Bheemireddy Krishna; Sahu, Sanjit; Srinivasan, Ramaiyengar

    2018-04-01

    As a part of in-house instrument developmental activity at ARIES, the 4Kx4K CCD Imager is designed and developed as a first-light instrument for the axial port of the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT). The f/9 beam of the telescope having a plate-scale of 6.4"/mm is utilized to conduct deeper photom-etry within the central 10' field of view. The pixel size of the blue-enhanced liquid nitrogen cooled STA4150 4Kx4K CCD chip is 15 μm, with options to select gain and speed values to utilize the dynamic range. Using the Imager, it is planned to image the central 6.5'x6.5' field of view of the telescope for various science goals by getting deeper images in several broad-band filters for point sources and objects with low surface brightness. The fully assembled Imager along with automated filter wheels having Bessel UBV RI and SDSS ugriz filters was tested in late 2015 at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT. This instrument was finally mounted at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT on 30 March 2016 when the telescope was technically activated jointly by the Prime Ministers of India and Belgium. It is expected to serve as a general purpose multi-band deep imaging instrument for a variety of science goals including studies of cosmic transients, active galaxies, star clusters and optical monitoring of X-ray sources discovered by the newly launched Indian space-mission called ASTROSAT, and follow-up of radio bright objects discovered by the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope.

  9. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  10. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  11. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-12-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. In the geometrical optics limit computations can be performed analytically. Within this limit, we restrict ourselves to the case of the beam size-dominated regime, which is typical for synchrotron radiation facilities in the X-ray wavelength range. We give a direct demonstration of the fact that the apparent horizontal source size is broadened in proportion to the beamline opening angle and to the length of the wiggler. While this effect is well-understood, a direct proof appears not to have been given elsewhere. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in literature.

  12. Quantum Entanglement and High Brightness Laser Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our focus is on demonstrating high precision (sub-micron) laser ranging for Navigation using a unique high-sensitivity optical correlation receiver with both...

  13. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  14. Gamma ray astronomy with atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes: the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krennrich, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes have been key to the recent discoveries in teraelectronvolt (TeV) γ-ray astronomy. The detection of TeV γ rays from more than 90 galactic and extragalactic sources provides a wealth of data for probing physical phenomena that pertain to some of the big questions in astrophysics. These include the understanding of the origin of cosmic rays, unveiling the connection between relativistic jets and black holes, shedding light on dark matter and its relation to supersymmetric particles and estimating the brightness of cosmological diffuse radiation fields in the optical/infrared waveband. While these recent advances were made with instruments designed in the 1990s, the present paper is concerned with a next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) that are currently in the conceptual planning stage. We discuss the basic ideas, the required technology and expected performance of a ≥1 square-kilometer array, which is poised to yield the most dramatic step yet to come in TeV astronomy.

  15. Discovery of a Very Bright Strongly Lensed Galaxy Candidate at z ≈ 7.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Jee, M. J.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.; Frye, B. L.; Infante, L.; Motta, V.; Rosati, P.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2008-05-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer IRAC imaging, we report the discovery of a very bright strongly lensed Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidate at z ~ 7.6 in the field of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689 (z = 0.18). The galaxy candidate, which we refer to as A1689-zD1, shows a strong z850 - J110 break of at least 2.2 mag and is completely undetected (= 25). A1689-zD1 has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.7 AB (8 σ) in the NICMOS H160 band and is ~1.3 mag brighter than the brightest known z850-dropout galaxy. When corrected for the cluster magnification of ~9.3 at z ~ 7.6, the candidate has an intrinsic magnitude of H160 = 27.1 AB, or about an L* galaxy at z ~ 7.6. The source-plane deprojection shows that the star formation is occurring in compact knots of size lesssim300 pc. The best-fit stellar population synthesis models yield a median redshift of 7.6, stellar masses (1.6-3.9) × 109 M⊙, stellar ages 45-320 Myr, star formation rates lesssim7.6 M⊙ yr-1, and low reddening with AV 7.0 galaxy candidate found to date. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  16. Virtual Telescope Alignment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-generation space telescopes require two spacecraft to fly in a coordinated fashion in space forming a virtual telescope. Achieving and maintaining this precise...

  17. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  18. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  19. A free market in telescope time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Jason; Steele, Iain A.; Mottram, Christopher J.

    2004-09-01

    As distributed systems are becoming more and more diverse in application there is a growing need for more intelligent resource scheduling. eSTAR Is a geographically distributed network of Grid-enabled telescopes, using grid middleware to provide telescope users with an authentication and authorisation method, allowing secure, remote access to such resources. The eSTAR paradigm is based upon this secure, single sign-on, giving astronomers or their agent proxies direct access to these telescopes. This concept, however, involves the complex issue of how to schedule observations stored within physically distributed media, on geographically distributed resources. This matter is complicated further by the varying degrees of constraints placed upon observations such as timeliness, atmospheric and meteorological conditions, and sky brightness to name a few. This paper discusses a free market approach to this scheduling problem, where astronomers are given credit, instead of time, from their respective TAGs to spend on telescopes as they see fit. This approach will ultimately provide a community-driven schedule, genuine indicators of the worth of specific telescope time and promote a more efficient use of that time, as well as demonstrating a 'survival of the fittest' type selection.

  20. Relationship of magnetic field strength and brightness of fine-structure elements in the solar temperature minimum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. W.; Ewing, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative relationship was determined between magnetic field strength (or magnetic flux) from photospheric magnetograph observations and the brightness temperature of solar fine-structure elements observed at 1600 A, where the predominant flux source is continuum emission from the solar temperature minimum region. A Kitt Peak magnetogram and spectroheliograph observations at 1600 A taken during a sounding rocket flight of the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph from December 11, 1987 were used. The statistical distributions of brightness temperature in the quiet sun at 1600 A, and absolute value of magnetic field strength in the same area were determined from these observations. Using a technique which obtains the best-fit relationship of a given functional form between these two histogram distributions, a quantitative relationship was determined between absolute value of magnetic field strength B and brightness temperature which is essentially linear from 10 to 150 G. An interpretation is suggested, in which a basal heating occurs generally, while brighter elements are produced in magnetic regions with temperature enhancements proportional to B.

  1. The impact of the in-orbit background and the X-ray source intensity on the centroiding accuracy of the Swift X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, R M; Hill, J; Cheruvu, C; Abbey, A F; Short, A D T

    2002-01-01

    The optical components of the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer X-ray Telescope (XRT), consisting of the JET-X spare flight mirror and a charge coupled device of the type used in the EPIC program, were used in a re-calibration study carried out at the Panter facility, which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The objective of this study was to check the focal length and the off axis performance of the mirrors and to show that the half energy width (HEW) of the on-axis point spread function (PSF) was of the order of 16 arcsec at 1.5 keV (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543; SPIE 4140 (2000) 64) and that a centroiding accuracy better that 1 arcsec could be achieved within the 4 arcmin sampling area designated by the Burst Alert Telescope (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The centroiding accuracy of the Swift XRT's optical components was tested as a function of distance from the focus and off axis position of the PSF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The presence ...

  2. THE NATURE OF THE BRIGHT ULX X-2 IN NGC 3921: A CHANDRA POSITION AND HST CANDIDATE COUNTERPART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, P. G.; Heida, M.; Torres, M. A. P.; Ratti, E. M. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miniutti, G. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Roberts, T. P., E-mail: p.jonker@sron.nl [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-10

    We report on Chandra observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source in NGC 3921. Previous XMM-Newton observations reported in the literature show the presence of a bright ULX at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Our Chandra observation finds the source at a lower luminosity of Almost-Equal-To 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}; furthermore, we provide a Chandra position of the ULX accurate to 0.''7 at 90% confidence. The X-ray variability makes it unlikely that the high luminosity is caused by several separate X-ray sources. In three epochs of archival Hubble Space Telescope observations, we find a candidate counterpart to the ULX. There is direct evidence for variability between the two epochs of WFPC2 F814W observations with the observation obtained in 2000 showing a brighter source. Furthermore, converting the 1994 F336W and 2000 F300W WFPC2 and the 2010 F336W WFC3 observations to the Johnson U-band filter assuming a spectral type of O7I, we find evidence for a brightening of the U-band light in 2000. Using the higher resolution WFC3 observations, we resolve the candidate counterpart into two sources of similar color. We discuss the nature of the ULX and the probable association with the optical counterpart(s). Finally, we investigate a potential new explanation for some (bright) ULXs as the decaying stages of flares caused by the tidal disruption of a star by a recoiled supermassive black hole. However, we find that there should be at most only one of such systems within z = 0.08.

  3. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE BRIGHT END OF THE z ∼ 8 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin 2 ) with Y 098 (or Y 105 ), J 125 , and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ∼ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ∼ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098 -dropout galaxies have J 125 -band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 ∼ * (L/L * ) α e -( L /L * ) , without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive φ * = (4.3 +3.5 –2.1 ) × 10 –4 Mpc –3 , M * = –20.26 +0.29 –0.34 , and a very steep faint-end slope α = –1.98 +0.23 –0.22 . While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between φ * and M * , our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z ∼ 8 compared to the best previous determination at ±0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared to measurements at lower redshift, thereby confirming the key role played by small galaxies in the reionization of the universe.

  4. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  5. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  6. SKY BRIGHTNESS AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE i-BAND AT DOME A, ANTARCTICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Hu; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Hu Jingyao; Ma Jun; Ashley, M. C. B.; Luong-Van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Cui Xiangqun; Feng Longlong; Gong Xuefei; Kulesa, C. A.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu Genrong; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Travouillon, T.; Qin Weijia; Sun Bo; Shang Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    The i-band observing conditions at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau have been investigated using data acquired during 2008 with the Chinese Small Telescope Array. The sky brightness, variations in atmospheric transparency, cloud cover, and the presence of aurorae are obtained from these images. The median sky brightness of moonless clear nights is 20.5 mag arcsec -2 in the SDSS i band at the south celestial pole (which includes a contribution of about 0.06 mag from diffuse Galactic light). The median over all Moon phases in the Antarctic winter is about 19.8 mag arcsec -2 . There were no thick clouds in 2008. We model contributions of the Sun and the Moon to the sky background to obtain the relationship between the sky brightness and transparency. Aurorae are identified by comparing the observed sky brightness to the sky brightness expected from this model. About 2% of the images are affected by relatively strong aurorae.

  7. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Birkinshaw, Mark [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Peter, E-mail: blew@astro.uni.torun.pl, E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: peter.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy

  8. Gamma Rays from the Inner Milky Way: Dark Matter or Point Sources?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Studies of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope have revealed bright gamma-ray emission from the central regions of our galaxy, with a spatial and spectral profile consistent with annihilating dark matter. I will present a new model-independent analysis that suggests that rather than originating from dark matter, the GeV excess may arise from a surprising new population of as-yet-unresolved gamma-ray point sources in the heart of the Milky Way.

  9. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  10. Design and project status of the National Synchrotron Light Source; storage rings (2.5 GeV, 0.7 GeV) for the generation of bright synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Two high intensity storage rings are being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength region (700 MeV ring, lambda/sub c/ = 31.5 A) and in the x-ray wavelength region (2.5 GeV ring, lambda/sub c/ = 2.5 A). A description is given of the facility, the main features of the storage rings are presented and the basic parameters are enumerated. High field superconducting wigglers, to lower the short wavelength cutoff in the x-ray ring, and undulators, for flux enhancement or a free electron laser experiment will be incorporated and parameters are given here. Special design aspects to optimize the electron storage rings as dedicated synchrotron radiation sources will be emphasized and the status of the project will be given

  11. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  12. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  13. Sub-millimeter science with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Michael

    The Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona, is a state-of-the-art single-dish radio telescope for observations in the sub-millimeter wavelength range. It is operated by the Sub-Millimeter Telescope Observatory (SMTO), which is a collaboration between the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn. In this talk I give an overview over the telescope and its instrumentation, and show some examples of forefront research performed by astronomers from both the U.S. and Europe using this instrument. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham, Arizona, at an altitude of 3178 m, which ensures sub-mm weather conditions during a significant amount of available observing time. It has a primary reflector of 10 m diameter, mounted on a carbon fiber backup structure, and is equipped with a corotating enclosure. The surface accuracy of the primary reflector is 12 microns rms, what makes the HHT the most accurate radio telescope ever built. For spectral line observations, SIS receivers covering the frequency range from 200 to 500 GHz are available. Furthermore, a Hot-Electron-Bolometer, developed at the CfA, can be used for spectral line observations above 800 GHz. The continuum receivers are a 4-color bolometer, observing at 1300, 870, 450, and 350 microns, and a 19-channel bolometer array, developed at the MPIfR, which is sensitive around 850 microns. In the last few years, the HHT has been used by several groups to perform astronomical research. The most notable result was the measurement of the CO(9--8) line in Orion at 1.037 THz with the Hot-Electron Bolometer -- the first radioastronomical observation above 1 THz from a ground-based telescope. Several galactic molecular line sources have been mapped in the CO(7--6) line at 806 GHz, and in two fine-structure lines of atomic carbon. A continuum map of the galactic center at 850 microns could be produced using the new 19-channel bolometer array. Even external galaxies, where

  14. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  15. Prospects for γ-ray imaging telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.N.; Dean, A.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from the requirement for a new, high angular-resolution gamma-ray telescope for the more precise location of known COS-B gamma-ray sources, there is also a need for another instrument that can be used in a search for the gamma-ray emission from specific X-ray-emitting objects. If there is to be any hope of relating gamma ray emission to specific candidate X-ray objects, then an angular resolution of typically a few minutes of arc is required to resolve adjacent sources in crowded regions of the sky such as the galactic centre. Efforts to improve the angular resolution of track-chamber telescopes are compared. For energies close to 1 MeV telescopes have either used collimators to restrict the field of view or have made use of the kinematics of the Compton scattering process to determine the direction of the incident photon. The use of coded aperture techniques in high angular resolution X-ray astronomy telescopes is reviewed. A practical telescope for astronomy at high energies described by Carter is mentioned. At low energies an imaging telescope could be constructed by making use of position-sensitive detectors initially developed for use in medical physics. Such a telescope is outlined in general terms and its benefits and uses given. (U.K.)

  16. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  17. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  18. Search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are thought to be sites of hadronic acceleration, thus neutrinos are expected from the decay of charged particles, produced in pγ interactions. The methods and results of a search for muon neutrinos in the data of the ANTARES neutrino telescope from four bright GRBs (GRB 080916C,

  19. A comprehensive radio view of the extremely bright gamma-ray burst 130427A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Paragi, Z.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R.L.C.; Curran, P.A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G.A.; Fender, R.P.; Yang, J.; Strom, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained

  20. A comprehensive radio view of the extremely bright gamma-ray burst 130427A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Paragi, Z.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G. A.; Fender, R. P.; Yang, J.; Strom, R. G.

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained

  1. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: BRIGHT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx} 7 BEHIND A1703

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  2. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  3. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  4. Polarization and brightness of the blazar S5 0716+714 in 1991-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Kiselev, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the blazar S5 0716+714 based on the observations carried out in 1991-2004 at the 125-cm Crimean Astrophysical Observatory telescope (AZT11) with a photopolarimeter that allows simultaneous polarization and brightness measurements to be made in the U BV RI bands. We also provide the U BV photometry for the blazar obtained in 2000-2009 with a 60-cm telescope at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. The pattern of flux variability and the correlation between the brightness, color, and polarization variations have been investigated. In this time interval the blazar showed a significant brightness and polarization variability similar to noise processes.

  5. Ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope with thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2011-01-01

    As important observation tools, telescopes are very useful in remote observations. We report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of ghost telescope scheme and show that, by measuring the intensity correlation of two light fields and only changing the position of the detector in the reference path, ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope can be obtained even if a single-pixel detector is fixed in Fresnel region of the object. Differences between conventional telescope and ghost telescope are also discussed.

  6. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  7. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  8. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  9. Investigating source confusion in PMN J1603-4904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, F.; Kreter, M.; Müller, C.; Markowitz, A.; Böck, M.; Burnett, T.; Dauser, T.; Kadler, M.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.

    2018-02-01

    PMN J1603-4904 is a likely member of the rare class of γ-ray emitting young radio galaxies. Only one other source, PKS 1718-649, has been confirmed so far. These objects, which may transition into larger radio galaxies, are a stepping stone to understanding AGN evolution. It is not completely clear how these young galaxies, seen edge-on, can produce high-energy γ rays. PMN J1603-4904 has been detected by TANAMI Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations and has been followed-up with multiwavelength observations. A Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) γ-ray source has been associated with this young galaxy in the LAT catalogs. We have obtained Chandra observations of the source to consider the possibility of source confusion due to the relatively large positional uncertainty of Fermi-LAT. The goal was to investigate the possibility of other X-ray bright sources in the vicinity of PMN J1603-4904 that could be counterparts to the γ-ray emission. With Chandra/ACIS, we find no other sources in the uncertainty ellipse of Fermi-LAT data, which includes an improved localization analysis of eight years of data. We further study the X-ray fluxes and spectra. We conclude that PMN J1603-4904 is indeed the second confirmed γ-ray bright young radio galaxy.

  10. Featured Image: Bright Dots in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    This image of a sunspot, located in in NOAA AR 12227, was captured in December 2014 by the 0.5-meter Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft. This image was processed by a team of scientists led by Rahul Yadav (Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory Dewali, India) in order to examine the properties of umbral dots: transient, bright features observed in the umbral region (the central, darkest part) of a sunspot. By exploring these dots, Yadav and collaborators learned how their properties relate to the large-scale properties of the sunspots in which they form for instance, how do the number, intensities, or filling factors of dots relate to the size of a sunspots umbra? To find out more about the authors results, check out the article below.Sunspot in NOAA AR 11921. Left: umbralpenumbral boundary. Center: the isolated umbra from the sunspot. Right: The umbra with locations of umbral dots indicated by yellow plus signs. [Adapted from Yadav et al. 2018]CitationRahul Yadav et al 2018 ApJ 855 8. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaaeba

  11. Direct illumination LED calibration for telescope photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, E.; Juramy, C.

    2008-01-01

    A calibration method for telescope photometry, based on the direct illumination of a telescope with a calibrated light source regrouping multiple LEDs, is proposed. Its purpose is to calibrate the instrument response. The main emphasis of the proposed method is the traceability of the calibration process and a continuous monitoring of the instrument in order to maintain a 0.2% accuracy over a period of years. Its specificity is to map finely the response of the telescope and its camera as a function of all light ray parameters. This feature is essential to implement a computer model of the instrument representing the variation of the overall light collection efficiency of each pixel for various filter configurations. We report on hardware developments done for SNDICE, the first application of this direct illumination calibration system which will be installed in Canada France Hawaii telescope (CFHT) for its leading supernova experiment (SNLS)

  12. Prospects for Observing Ultracompact Binaries with Space-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers and Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg(exp 2) and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey.We find, depending on the choice ofGW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.

  13. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Data Characterization and Map Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenner, Rolando; Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A.; Sievers, Jon; Acquaviva, Viviana; Addison, Graeme E.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction and mapmaking pipeline used for the 2008 observing season of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The data presented here at 148 GHz represent 12% or the 90 TB collected by ACT from 2007 to 2010. In 2008 we observed for 136 days, producing a total of 142h of data (11 TB for the 148 GHz band only), with a daily average of 10.5 h of observation. From these, 108.5 h were devoted to 850 sq deg stripe (11.2 h by 9 deg.1) centered on a declination of -52 deg.7, while 175 h were devoted to a 280 square deg stripe (4.5 h by 4 deg.8) centered at the celestial equator. We discuss sources of statistical and systematic noise, calibration, telescope pointing and data selection. Out of 1260 survey hours and 1024 detectors per array, 816 h and 593 effective detectors remain after data selection for this frequency band, yielding a 38 % survey efficiency. The total sensitivity in 2008, determined from the noise level between 5 Hz and 20 Hz in the time-ordered data stream (TOD), is 32 muK square root of s in CMB units. Atmospheric brightness fluctuations constitute the main contaminant in the data and dominate the detector and noise covariance at low frequencies in the TOD. The maps were made by solving the lease squares problem using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method, incorporating the details of the detector and noise correlations. Cross-correlation with WMAP sky maps as well as analysis from simulations reveal the our maps are unbiased at l > 300. This paper accompanies the public release of the 148 GHz southern stripe maps from 2008. The techniques described here will be applied to future maps and data releases.

  14. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DATA CHARACTERIZATION AND MAPMAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenner, Rolando; Aguirre, Paula; Barrientos, L. Felipe [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Hasselfield, Matthew; Amiri, Mandana; Battistelli, Elia S.; Burger, Bryce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Das, Sudeep [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Sievers, Jon; Appel, John William [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Calabrese, Erminia [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ade, Peter A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Brown, Ben [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Chervenak, Jay [Code 553/665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction and mapmaking pipeline used for the 2008 observing season of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The data presented here at 148 GHz represent 12% of the 90 TB collected by ACT from 2007 to 2010. In 2008 we observed for 136 days, producing a total of 1423 hr of data (11 TB for the 148 GHz band only), with a daily average of 10.5 hr of observation. From these, 1085 hr were devoted to an 850 deg{sup 2} stripe (11.2 hr by 9. Degree-Sign 1) centered on a declination of -52. Degree-Sign 7, while 175 hr were devoted to a 280 deg{sup 2} stripe (4.5 hr by 4. Degree-Sign 8) centered at the celestial equator. The remaining 163 hr correspond to calibration runs. We discuss sources of statistical and systematic noise, calibration, telescope pointing, and data selection. For the 148 GHz band, out of 1260 survey hours and 1024 detectors in the array, 816 hr and 593 effective detectors remain after data selection, yielding a 38% survey efficiency. The total sensitivity in 2008, determined from the noise level between 5 Hz and 20 Hz in the time-ordered data stream (TOD), is 32 {mu}K{radical}s in cosmic microwave background units. Atmospheric brightness fluctuations constitute the main contaminant in the data and dominate the detector noise covariance at low frequencies in the TOD. The maps were made by solving the least-squares problem using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method, incorporating the details of the detector and noise correlations. Simulations, as well as cross-correlations with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps on large angular scales, reveal that our maps are unbiased at multipoles l > 300. This paper accompanies the public release of the 148 GHz southern stripe maps from 2008. The techniques described here will be applied to future maps and data releases.

  15. Monitoring of the prompt GRB afterglow with the REM telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covino, S.; Zerbi, F.; Chincarini, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Conconi, P.; Molinari, E.; Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Antonelli, L.A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K) camera and an Optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS) optimized for the monitoring of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts. Covering the NIR domain REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them when they are still bright. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena

  16. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  17. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  18. Science with the ASTRI mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: blazars and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Di Pierro, Federico; Stamerra, Antonio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    ASTRI (“Astronomia a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana”) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), devoted to the realization, operation and scientific validation of an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype is characterized by a dual mirror, Schwarzschild-Couder optical design and a compact camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. It will be sensitive to multi-TeV very high energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV, with a PSF ~ 6’ and a wide (9.6°) unaberrated optical field of view. Right after validation of the design in single-dish observations at the Serra La Nave site (Sicily, Italy) during 2015, the ASTRI collaboration will be able to start deployment, at the final CTA southern site, of the ASTRI mini-array, proposed to constitute the very first CTA precursor. Counting 9 ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will overtake current IACT systems in differential sensitivity above 5 TeV, thus allowing unprecedented observations of known and predicted bright TeV emitters in this band, including some extragalactic sources such as extreme high-peaked BL Lacs with hard spectra. We exploited the ASTRI scientific simulator ASTRIsim in order to understand the feasibility of observations tackling blazar and cosmic ray physics, including discrimination of hadronic and leptonic scenarios for the VHE emission from BL Lac relativistic jets and indirect measurements of the intergalactic magnetic field and of the extragalactic background light. We selected favorable targets, outlining observation modes, exposure times, multi-wavelength coverage needed and the results expected. Moreover, the perspectives for observation of effects due to the existence of axion-like particles or to Lorentz invariance violations have been investigated.

  19. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, J. L.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Broida, J.; Camp, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  20. SEARCHING THE GAMMA-RAY SKY FOR COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITO R AND LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF LVT151012 AND GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racusin, J. L.; Camp, J.; Singer, L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burns, E. [Physics Dept, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Littenberg, T.; Cleveland, W. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Dr. Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Blackburn, L. [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Broida, J.; Christensen, N. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, P. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Veitch, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, G. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Collaboration: Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  1. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  2. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  3. The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roming, Peter; Hunsberger, S.D.; Nousek, John; Mason, Keith

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) provides the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with the capability of quickly detecting and characterizing the optical and ultraviolet properties of gamma ray burst counterparts. The UVOT design is based on the design of the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with microchannel plate intensified charged-coupled devices (MICs) that deliver sub-arcsecond imaging. These MICs are photon-counting devices, capable of detecting low intensity signal levels. When flown above the atmosphere, the UVOT will have the sensitivity of a 4m ground based telescope, attaining a limiting magnitude of 24 for a 1000 second observation in the white light filter. A rotating filter wheel allows sensitive photometry in six bands spanning the UV and visible, which will provide photometric redshifts of objects in the 1-3.5z range. For bright counterparts, such as the 9th magnitude GRB990123, or for fainter objects down to 17th magnitude, two grisms provide low-resolution spectroscopy

  4. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  5. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  6. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  7. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  8. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  9. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  10. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  11. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  12. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  13. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  14. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  15. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  16. Using All-Sky Imaging to Improve Telescope Scheduling (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Automated scheduling makes it possible for a small telescope to observe a large number of targets in a single night. But when used in areas which have less-than-perfect sky conditions such automation can lead to large numbers of observations of clouds and haze. This paper describes the development of a "sky-aware" telescope automation system that integrates the data flow from an SBIG AllSky340c camera with an enhanced dispatch scheduler to make optimum use of the available observing conditions for two highly instrumented backyard telescopes. Using the minute-by-minute time series image stream and a self-maintained reference database, the software maintains a file of sky brightness, transparency, stability, and forecasted visibility at several hundred grid positions. The scheduling software uses this information in real time to exclude targets obscured by clouds and select the best observing task, taking into account the requirements and limits of each instrument.

  17. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  18. Through the Looking Glass: Bright, Highly Magnified Galaxy Candidates at z ~ 7 behind A1703

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Zitrin, A.; Smit, R.; Coe, D.; Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W.; Illingworth, G. D.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z ~ 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26σ) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z 850-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z ~ 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of ~9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H 160 = 26.4 AB, a strong z 850 - J 125 break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z ~ 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H 160-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z ~ 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications μ ~ 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) × 109 M ⊙, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates ~7.8 M ⊙ yr-1, and low reddening with AV Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  19. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  20. LOBSTER: new space x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Sveda, L.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LOBSTER telescopes are based on the optical arrangement of the lobster eye. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics. Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space.

  1. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  2. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  3. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  4. The Falcon Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  5. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  6. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  7. Recent advances in high-brightness electron guns at AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.; Todd, A.M.M.; Cole, M.D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a number of active Advanced Energy Systems projects pertaining to the development of advanced, high-brightness electron guns for various applications. These projects include a fully superconducting, CW RF gun, nearing test, that utilizes the niobium surface as the photocathode material. An integrated 100 mA, low emittance DC/SRF gun, ideal as an injector for ERL-type light sources and intended as the injector for a 100 kW FEL, is in late design stage. A parallel high-power, CW, normal-conducting L-band RF gun project has just begun. The early performance analysis for this gun also shows good promise as an injector for ERL-type light sources. Lastly, a fully axisymmetric RF gun, operating in X-band, is being studied as a source of extremely bright electron bunches

  8. RELICS: A Candidate Galaxy Arc at z~10 and Other Brightly Lensed z>6 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Brett; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Bradac, Marusa; Huang, Kuang-Han; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel; Stark, Daniel P.; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Avila, Roberto J.; Ogaz, Sara; Acebron, Ana; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Carrasco, Daniela; Cerny, Catherine; Cibirka, Nathália; Dawson, William; Frye, Brenda; Hoag, Austin; Jones, Christine; Mainali, Ramesh; Ouchi, Masami; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rodney, Steven; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; RELICS

    2018-01-01

    Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. We present here some of the most brightly lensed z>6 galaxy candidates known from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and the discovery of a particularly fortuitous z~10 galaxy candidate which has been arced by the effects of strong gravitational lensing. The z~10 candidate has a lensed H-band magnitude of 25.8 AB mag and a high lensing magnification (~4-7). The inferred upper limits on the stellar mass (log [M_star /M_Sun]=9.5) and star formation rate (log [SFR/(M_Sun/yr)]=1.5) indicate that this candidate is a typical star-forming galaxy on the z>6 SFR-M_star relation. We rule out the only low-z solution as unphysical based on the required stellar mass, dust attenuation, size, and [OIII] EW needed for a z~2 SED to match the data. Finally, we reconstruct the source-plane image and estimate the candidate's physical size at z~10, finding a half-light radius of r_e 9 candidates. While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect z>10 with ease, this rare candidate offers the potential for unprecedented spatial resolution less than 500 Myr after the Big Bang.

  9. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  10. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE BRIGHT END OF THE z {approx} 8 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Oesch, P. A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Bouwens, R. J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Shull, J. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Holwerda, B. W. [European Space Agency (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, NL-2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z {approx} 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin{sup 2}) with Y {sub 098} (or Y {sub 105}), J {sub 125}, and H {sub 160} band coverage needed to search for z {approx} 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y {sub 105} data (required to select z {approx} 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y {sub 098}-dropout galaxies have J {sub 125}-band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J {sub 125} {approx}< 27.4) z {approx} 8 galaxy candidates presented to date. Combining our data set with the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field data set, we constrain the rest-frame ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function at z {approx} 8 over the widest dynamic range currently available. The combined data sets are well fitted by a Schechter function, i.e., {phi} (L) = {phi}{sub *} (L/L{sub *}){sup {alpha}} e{sup -(}L{sup /L{sub *})}, without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive {phi}{sub *} = (4.3{sup +3.5} {sub -2.1}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}, M {sub *} = -20.26{sup +0.29} {sub -0.34}, and a very steep faint-end slope {alpha} = -1.98{sup +0.23} {sub -0.22}. While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between {phi}{sub *} and M {sub *}, our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z {approx} 8 compared to the best previous determination at {+-}0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared

  11. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes & binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today's market.

  12. Central Structural Parameters of Early-Type Galaxies as Viewed with Nicmos on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Swara; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 33 early-type (E, S0, and S0/a) galaxies observed at 1.6 μm (H band) using the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust absorption has less of an impact on the galaxy morphologies in the near-infrared than found in previous work based on observations at optical wavelengths. When present, dust seems to be most commonly associated with optical line emission. We employ a new technique of two-dimensional fitting to extract quantitative parameters for the bulge light distribution and nuclear point sources, taking into consideration the effects of the point-spread function. By parameterizing the bulge profile with a Nuker law, we confirm that the central surface brightness distributions largely fall into two categories, each of which correlates with the global properties of the galaxies. ``Core'' galaxies tend to be luminous elliptical galaxies with boxy or pure elliptical isophotes, whereas ``power-law'' galaxies are preferentially lower luminosity systems with disky isophotes. The infrared surface brightness profiles are very similar to those in the optical, with notable exceptions being very dusty objects. Similar to the study of Faber et al., based on optical data, we find that galaxy cores obey a set of fundamental plane relations wherein more luminous galaxies with higher central stellar velocity dispersions generally possess larger cores with lower surface brightnesses. Unlike most previous studies, however, we do not find a clear gap in the distribution of inner cusp slopes; several objects have inner cusp slopes (0.3law galaxies. The nature of these intermediate objects is unclear. We draw attention to two objects in the sample that appear to be promising cases of galaxies with isothermal cores that are not the brightest members of a cluster. Unresolved nuclear point sources are found in ~50% of the sample galaxies, roughly independent of profile type, with magnitudes in the range mnucH=12.8 to 17.4 mag

  13. Bright Strongly Lensed Galaxies at Redshift z ~ 6-7 behind the Clusters Abell 1703 and CL0024+16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Bradley, L. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Frye, B.; Infante, L.; Jee, M. J.; Motta, V.; Shu, X. W.; Zitrin, A.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the discovery of three bright, strongly lensed objects behind Abell 1703 and CL0024+16 from a dropout search over 25 arcmin2 of deep NICMOS data, with deep ACS optical coverage. They are undetected in the deep ACS images below 8500 Å and have clear detections in the J and H bands. Fits to the ACS, NICMOS, and IRAC data yield robust photometric redshifts in the range z ~ 6-7 and largely rule out the possibility that they are low-redshift interlopers. All three objects are extended, and resolved into a pair of bright knots. The bright i-band dropout in Abell 1703 has an H-band AB magnitude of 23.9, which makes it one of the brightest known galaxy candidates at z > 5.5. Our model fits suggest a young, massive galaxy only ~60 million years old with a mass of ~1010 M sun. The dropout galaxy candidates behind CL0024+16 are separated by 2farcs5 (~2 kpc in the source plane), and have H-band AB magnitudes of 25.0 and 25.6. Lensing models of CL0024+16 suggest that the objects have comparable intrinsic magnitudes of AB ~27.3, approximately one magnitude fainter than L* at z ~ 6.5. Their similar redshifts, spectral energy distribution, and luminosities, coupled with their very close proximity on the sky, suggest that they are spatially associated, and plausibly are physically bound. Combining this sample with two previously reported, similarly magnified galaxy candidates at z ~ 6-8, we find that complex systems with dual nuclei may be a common feature of high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities of Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle

  14. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  15. Radio telescope control

    CERN Document Server

    Schraml, J

    1972-01-01

    An on-line computer control process developed for the 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn is described. The instrument is the largest fully steerable antenna in the world. Its operation started on May 31st 1972. It is controlled by a Ferranti Argus 500 on-line computer. The first part of the paper deals with the process itself, the radio telescope and its operation, and the demands resulting for the control program. The second part briefly describes the computer and its hardware. The final part introduces the architecture of the executive program in general, which has been tailored to meet the demands of the process and the hardware. The communication between the observer and the system, the format of data on magnetic tape and an on-line reduction of position measurements are considered. (0 refs).

  16. Orientation of coronal bright points and small-scale magnetic bipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINENKO, E.P.; SHERDANOV, CH.T.; SATTAROV, I.; KARACHIK, N.V.

    2014-01-01

    Using the observations from Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the SOHO board and longitudinal full-disk magnetograms (vector spectromagnetograph - VSM) from the Synoptic Optical Long-Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS), we explore the orientation and relationship between the coronal bright points at 195 A o (hereafter CBPs) and magnetic bipoles (only for the central zone of solar disk). The magnetic bipoles are identified as a pair of streams of positive and negative polarities with a shortest distance between them. This paper presents a study of the structure and orientation (angles) of magnetic bipoles to the solar equator and two types of CBPs: 'dim' CBPs in the quiet regions of the Sun and 'bright' CBPs associated with active regions. For these magnetic bipoles associated with 'bright' CBPs, we find that their orientation angles are distributed randomly along the equator. (authors)

  17. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  18. Spectrum of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission derived from first-year Fermi Large Area Telescope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-03-12

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse gamma-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse gamma-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar gamma-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index gamma = 2.41 +/- 0.05 and intensity I(>100 MeV) = (1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Trigonometric Parallax of Polaris B, Companion of the Nearest Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Polaris, the nearest and brightest Cepheid, is a potential anchor point for the Leavitt period–luminosity relation. However, its distance is a matter of contention, with recent advocacy for a parallax of ∼10 mas, in contrast with the Hipparcos measurement of 7.54 ± 0.11 mas. We report an independent trigonometric parallax determination, using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Polaris itself is too bright for FGS, so we measured its eighth-magnitude companion Polaris B, relative to a network of background reference stars. We converted the FGS relative parallax to absolute, using estimated distances to the reference stars from ground-based photometry and spectral classification. Our result, 6.26 ± 0.24 mas, is even smaller than that found by Hipparcos. We note other objects for which Hipparcos appears to have overestimated parallaxes, including the well-established case of the Pleiades. We consider possible sources of systematic error in the FGS parallax, but find no evidence they are significant. If our “long” distance is correct, the high luminosity of Polaris indicates that it is pulsating in the second overtone of its fundamental mode. Our results raise several puzzles, including a long pulsation period for Polaris compared to second-overtone pulsators in the Magellanic Clouds, and a conflict between the isochrone age of Polaris B (∼2.1 Gyr) and the much younger age of Polaris A. We discuss possibilities that B is not a physical companion of A, in spite of the strong evidence that it is, or that one of the stars is a merger remnant. These issues may be resolved when Gaia provides parallaxes for both stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  1. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  2. Liverpool Telescope classification of ATLAS16bdg as a Type Ia supernova near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Smith, R. J.; Childress, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    On 2016 June 15 at approximately 21:03 UT, we performed multicolour optical imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope IO:O camera of galaxy NGC4708 in which a bright optical transient was reported by Tonry et al. ATel #9151 (ATLAS16bdg).

  3. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  4. The ROTSE-IIIa telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Akerlof, C.; Kehoe, R.; McKay, T.; Rykoff, E.; Ashley, M.C.B.; Phillips, M.A.; Casperson, D.; Gisler, G.; McGowan, K.; Vestrand, W.T.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.; Marshall, S.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the current operating status of the ROTSE-IIIa telescope, currently undergoing testing at Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico. It will be shipped to Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in first quarter 2002. ROTSE-IIIa has been in automated observing mode since early October, 2001, after completing several weeks of calibration and check-out observations. Calibrated lists of objects in ROTSE-IIIa sky patrol data are produced routinely in an automated pipeline, and we are currently automating analysis procedures to compile these lists, eliminate false detections, and automatically identify transient and variable objects. The manual application of these procedures has already led to the detection of a nova that rose over six magnitudes in two days to a maximum detected brightness of mR ∼ 13.9 and then faded two magnitudes in two weeks. We also readily identify variable stars, includings those suspected to be variables from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We report on our system to allow public monitoring of the telescope operational status in real time over the WWW

  5. Constraints on observing brightness asymmetries in protoplanetary disks at solar system scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunngräber, Robert; Wolf, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    We have quantified the potential capabilities of detecting local brightness asymmetries in circumstellar disks with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The study is motivated by the need to evaluate theoretical models of planet formation by direct observations of protoplanets at early evolutionary stages, when they are still embedded in their host disk. Up to now, only a few embedded candidate protoplanets have been detected with semi-major axes of 20-50 au. Due to the small angular separation from their central star, only long-baseline interferometry provides the angular resolving power to detect disk asymmetries associated to protoplanets at solar system scales in nearby star-forming regions. In particular, infrared observations are crucial to observe scattered stellar radiation and thermal re-emission in the vicinity of embedded companions directly. For this purpose we performed radiative transfer simulations to calculate the thermal re-emission and scattered stellar flux from a protoplanetary disk hosting an embedded companion. Based on that, visibilities and closure phases are calculated to simulate observations with the future beam combiner MATISSE, operating at the L, M and N bands at the VLTI. We find that the flux ratio of the embedded source to the central star can be as low as 0.5 to 0.6% for a detection at a feasible significance level due to the heated dust in the vicinity of the embedded source. Furthermore, we find that the likelihood for detection is highest for sources at intermediate distances r ≈ 2-5 au and disk masses not higher than ≈10-4 M⊙.

  6. PROMPT: Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichart, D.; Nysewander, M.; Moran, J. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2005-07-15

    Funded by $1.2M in grants and donations, we are now building PROMPT at CTIO. When completed in late 2005, PROMPT will consist of six 0.41-meter diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescopes on rapidly slewing mounts that respond to GRB alerts within seconds, when the afterglow is potentially extremely bright. Each mirror and camera coating is being optimized for a different wavelength range and function, including a NIR imager, two red-optimized imager, a blue-optimized imager, an UV-optimized imager, and an optical polarimeter. PROMPT will be able to identify high-redshift events by dropout and distinguish these events from the similar signatures of extinction. In this way, PROMPT will act a distance-finder scope for spectroscopic follow up on the larger 4.1-meter diameter SOAR telescope, which is also located at CTIO. When not chasing GRBs, PROMPT serves broader educational objectives across the state of north Carolina. Enclosure construction and the first two telescopes are now complete and functioning: PROMPT observed Swift's first GRB in December 2004. We upgrade from two to four telescope in February 2005 and from four to six telescopes in mid-2005.

  7. Hunting for treasures among the Fermi unassociated sources: A multiwavelength approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Ojha, R.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been detecting a wealth of sources where the multiwavelength counterpart is either inconclusive or missing altogether. We present a combination of factors that can be used to identify multiwavelength counterparts to these Fermi unassociated sources. This approach was used to select and investigate seven bright, high-latitude unassociated sources with radio, UV, X-ray, and γ-ray observations. As a result, four of these sources are candidates to be active galactic nuclei, and one to be a pulsar, while two do not fit easily into these known categories of sources. The latter pair of extraordinary sources might reveal a new category subclass or a new type of γ-ray emitter. These results altogether demonstrate the power of a multiwavelength approach to illuminate the nature of unassociated Fermi sources.

  8. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A flat array large telescope concept for use on the moon, earth, and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An astronomical optical telescope concept is described which can provide very large collecting areas, of order 1000 sq m. This is an order of magnitude larger than the new generation of telescopes now being designed and built. Multiple gimballed flat mirrors direct the beams from a celestial source into a single telescope of the same aperture as each flat mirror. Multiple images of the same source are formed at the telescope focal plane. A beam combiner collects these images and superimposes them into a single image, onto a detector or spectrograph aperture. This telescope could be used on the earth, the moon, or in space.

  10. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  11. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  12. Unveiling the Low Surface Brightness Stellar Peripheries of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2018-01-01

    The low surface brightness peripheral regions of galaxies contain a gold mine of information about how minor mergers and accretions have influenced their evolution over cosmic time. Enormous stellar envelopes and copious amounts of faint tidal debris are natural outcomes of the hierarchical assembly process and the search for and study of these features, albeit highly challenging, offers the potential for unrivalled insight into the mechanisms of galaxy growth. Over the last two decades, there has been burgeoning interest in probing galaxy outskirts using resolved stellar populations. Wide-field surveys have uncovered vast tidal debris features and new populations of very remote globular clusters, while deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry has provided exquisite star formation histories back to the earliest epochs. I will highlight some recent results from studies within and beyond the Local Group and conclude by briefly discussing the great potential of future facilities, such as JWST, Euclid, LSST and WFIRST, for major breakthroughs in low surface brightness galaxy periphery science.

  13. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  14. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  15. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  16. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  17. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  18. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  19. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  20. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  1. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  2. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  4. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  5. Status of the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Pierre; Carmona, Emiliano; Schweizer, Thomas; Sitarek, Julian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17-m Cherenkov telescopes located on La Palma (Canary islands),sensitive to gamma-rays above 30 GeV. It has been recently upgraded by a second telescope which strongly improves the sensitivity, particularly at low energy. Here we present the status of the MAGIC telescopes and an overview of the recent results obtained in single or stereoscopic mode. We also discuss the real performance of the new stereoscopic system based on Crab Nebula observations.

  6. The first telescope of the HEGRA air Cherenkov imaging telescope array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, R.; Kankanian, R.; Krennrich, F.; Mueller, N.; Sander, H.; Sawallisch, P.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beglarian, A.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Grewe, W.; Heusler, A.; Konopelko, A.K.; Lorenz, E.; Merck, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.V.; Renker, D.; Samorski, M.; Sauerland, K.; Smarsch, E.; Stamm, W.; Ulrich, M.; Wiedner, C.A.; Wirth, H.

    1994-01-01

    In search of VHE γ ray emission from cosmic point sources a system of imaging Cherenkov telescopes is constructed at present on the Canarian island of La Palma; the first telescope has been operational since 1992. The Cherenkov light from air shower particles is collected by a 5 m 2 reflector. The camera at the focus contains 37 photomultipliers which sample the images of the Cherenkov flashes. The subsequent image analysis allows the discrimination of γ ray induced events from the much more abundant charged cosmic ray induced showers. The telescope has an effective energy threshold for γ showers of about 1.5 TeV. During the first year of operation a signal from the Crab nebula was detected. ((orig.))

  7. On the co-alignment of solar telescopes. A new approach to solar pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staiger, J

    2013-01-01

    Helioseismological measurements require long observing times and thus may be adversely affected by lateral image drifts as caused by pointing instabilities. At the Vacuum Tower Telescope VTT, Tenerife we have recorded drift values of up to 5'' per hour under unstable thermal conditions (dome opening, strong day-to-day thermal gradients). Typically drifts of 0.5'' – 1.0'' per hour may be encountered under more favorable conditions. Past experience has shown that most high-resolution solar telescopes may be affected by this problem to some degree. This inherent shortcoming of solar pointing is caused by the fact that the guiding loop can be closed only within the guiding beam but not within the telescope's main beam. We have developed a new approach to this problem. We correlate continuum brightness patterns observed from within the telescope main beam with patterns originating from a full disk telescope. We show that brightness patterns of sufficient size are unique with respect to solar location at any instant of time and may serve as a location identifier. We make use of the fact that averaged location information of solar structures is invariant with respect to telescope resolution. We have carried out tests at the VTT together with SDO. We have used SDO as a full disk reference. We were able to reduce lateral image drifts by an order of magnitude.

  8. Unidentified point sources in the IRAS minisurvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Clegg, P. E.; Gillett, F. C.; Habing, H. J.; Hauser, M. G.; Low, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nine bright, point-like 60 micron sources have been selected from the sample of 8709 sources in the IRAS minisurvey. These sources have no counterparts in a variety of catalogs of nonstellar objects. Four objects have no visible counterparts, while five have faint stellar objects visible in the error ellipse. These sources do not resemble objects previously known to be bright infrared sources.

  9. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To create large-size optical telescopes, various design concepts have been used. Each concept inevitably faced the challenge to optimize technical characteristics and parameters of the telescope. There was always a question: what concept to choose, how to estimate efficiency of such telescopes and by what criteria and how to estimate expediency of this or that project of the large-size telescope. It is, obviously, insufficient to make a resolution-based estimation. An estimate by the angular field size is inappropriate too. Well, it may be also an estimate by the stellar magnitude. All these criteria are related to each other. Improvement of one of these parameters inevitably leads to deterioration of the others. Obviously, the certain generalized criterion considering all parameters and features of the design concept of the large-size telescope is necessary here. As such can serve the criterion of informational content of the telescope.The article offers a complex criterion allowing not only to estimate efficiency of large-size optical telescopes, but also to compare their conceptual and technological level among themselves in terms of obtaining information.The article suggests a new term, i.e. the informational content invariant to characterize informative capacities of the chosen concept and of the realizing technology. It will allow us to avoid unjustified complications of technical solutions, wrong accents in designing and excess material inputs when developing the project.The informational content criterion-based analysis of the existing projects of large-size telescopes has been convincingly shown that, conceptually, there are three best telescopes, namely: GSMT, CELT, and ACT-25. And, in terms of informational content, the АCТ-25 is 10 times more than GSMT and CELT, and the existing Keck-telescope exceeds by 30 times. Hence, it is hard to escape a conclusion that it is more favourable to implement one ACT-25, than to do 10 GSMT or CELT

  10. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  11. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statton, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  12. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  13. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  14. Completion of the brightness upgrade of the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, C; Madur, A; Bailey, B; Berg, K; Biocca, A; Black, A; Casey, P; Colomb, D; Gunion, B; Li, N; Marks, S; Nishimura, H; Pappas, C; Petermann, K; Portmann, G; Prestemon, S; Rawlins, A; Robin, D; Rossi, S; Scarvie, T

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab remains one of the brightest sources for soft x-rays worldwide. A multiyear upgrade of the ALS is underway, which includes new and replacement x-ray beamlines, a replacement of many of the original insertion devices and many upgrades to the accelerator. The accelerator upgrade that affects the ALS performance most directly is the ALS brightness upgrade [1], which reduces the horizontal emittance from 6.3 to 2.0 nm (2.5 nm effective). Magnets for this upgrade were installed in late 2012 and early 2013 followed by user operation with the reduced emittance.

  15. Pattern recognition trigger electronics for an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, S.M.; Rose, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    For imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, which aim to detect electromagnetic air showers with cameras consisting of several hundred photomultiplier pixels, the single pixel trigger rate is dominated by fluctuations in night sky brightness and by ion feedback in the photomultipliers. Pattern recognition trigger electronics may be used to reject night sky background images, thus reducing the data rate to a manageable level. The trigger system described here detects patterns of 2, 3 or 4 adjacent pixel signals within a 331 pixel camera and gives a positive trigger decision in 65 ns. The candidate pixel pattern is compared with the contents of a pre-programmed memory. With the trigger decision timing controlled by a fixed delay the time-jitter inherent in the use of programmable gate arrays is avoided. This system is now in routine operation at the Whipple 10 m Telescope

  16. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  17. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  18. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  19. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  20. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  1. On the Relation Between Facular Bright Points and the Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Scharmer, Goran

    1994-12-01

    Multi-spectral images of magnetic structures in the solar photosphere are presented. The images were obtained in the summers of 1993 and 1994 at the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma using the tunable birefringent Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP filter), a 10 Angstroms wide interference filter tuned to 4304 Angstroms in the band head of the CH radical (the Fraunhofer G-band), and a 3 Angstroms wide interference filter centered on the Ca II--K absorption line. Three large format CCD cameras with shuttered exposures on the order of 10 msec and frame rates of up to 7 frames per second were used to create time series of both quiet and active region evolution. The full field--of--view is 60times 80 arcseconds (44times 58 Mm). With the best seeing, structures as small as 0.22 arcseconds (160 km) in diameter are clearly resolved. Post--processing of the images results in rigid coalignment of the image sets to an accuracy comparable to the spatial resolution. Facular bright points with mean diameters of 0.35 arcseconds (250 km) and elongated filaments with lengths on the order of arcseconds (10(3) km) are imaged with contrast values of up to 60 % by the G--band filter. Overlay of these images on contemporal Fe I 6302 Angstroms magnetograms and Ca II K images reveals that the bright points occur, without exception, on sites of magnetic flux through the photosphere. However, instances of concentrated and diffuse magnetic flux and Ca II K emission without associated bright points are common, leading to the conclusion that the presence of magnetic flux is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurence of resolvable facular bright points. Comparison of the G--band and continuum images shows a complex relation between structures in the two bandwidths: bright points exceeding 350 km in extent correspond to distinct bright structures in the continuum; smaller bright points show no clear relation to continuum structures. Size and contrast statistical cross

  2. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  3. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  4. Building the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dell, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the design for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is discussed. The HST optical system is described and illustrated. The financial and policy issues related to the development of the HST are considered. The actual construction of the HST optical telescope is examined. Also, consideration is given to the plans for the HST launch

  5. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  6. BrightStat.com: free statistics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Powerful software for statistical analysis is expensive. Here I present BrightStat, a statistical software running on the Internet which is free of charge. BrightStat's goals, its main capabilities and functionalities are outlined. Three different sample runs, a Friedman test, a chi-square test, and a step-wise multiple regression are presented. The results obtained by BrightStat are compared with results computed by SPSS, one of the global leader in providing statistical software, and VassarStats, a collection of scripts for data analysis running on the Internet. Elementary statistics is an inherent part of academic education and BrightStat is an alternative to commercial products.

  7. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  8. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  9. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  10. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  11. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  12. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  13. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  14. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Radio Telescopes Reveal Youngest Stellar Corpse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers using a global combination of radio telescopes to study a stellar explosion some 30 million light-years from Earth have likely discovered either the youngest black hole or the youngest neutron star known in the Universe. Their discovery also marks the first time that a black hole or neutron star has been found associated with a supernova that has been seen to explode since the invention of the telescope nearly 400 years ago. M51 An artist's impression of Supernova 1986J. The newly discovered nebula around the black hole or neutron star in the center is shown in blue, and is in the center of the expanding, fragmented shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion, which is shown in red. CREDIT: Norbert Bartel and Michael F. Bietenholz, York University; Artist: G. Arguner (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Artist's Conception (above image, 836K) Galaxy and Supernova (47K) A VLA image (left) of the galaxy NGC 891, showing the bright supernova explosion below the galaxy's center. At right, a closer view of the supernova, made with a global array of radio telescopes. CREDIT: Miguel A. Perez-Torres, Antxon Alberdi and Lucas Lara, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Spain, Jon Marcaide and Jose C. Guirado, Universidad de Valencia, Spain Franco Mantovani, IRA-CNR, Italy, Eduardo Ros, MPIfR, Germany, and Kurt W. Weiler, Naval Research Laboratory, USA Multi-Frequency Closeup View (201K) Blue and white area shows the nebula surrounding the black hole or neutron star lurking in the center of the supernova. This nebula is apparent at a higher radio frequency (15 GHz). The red and also the contours show the distorted, expanding shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion. This shell is seen at a lower radio frequency (5 GHz). CREDIT: Michael F. Bietenholz and Norbert Bartel, York University, Michael Rupen, NRAO, NRAO/AUI/NSF A supernova is the explosion of a massive star after it exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and

  16. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  17. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  19. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds.

  20. Inversion methods for analysis of neutron brightness measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Gottardi, N.

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining neutron emissivity from neutron brightness measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas is addressed. In the case of two-dimensional measurements with two orthogonal cameras, a complete, tomographic analysis of the data can in principle be performed. The results depend critically on the accuracy of the measurements and alternative solutions can be sought under the assumption of a known emissivity topology (Generalized Abel Inversion). In this work, neutron brightness data from the JET tokamak have been studied with both methods. We find that with the present experimental uncertainty (levels 10-20%) the Abel inversion method works best, while two-dimensional information cannot in general be deduced. This is confirmed by studies of the error propagation in the inversion using artificial data, which are also presented here. An important application of emissivity profile information is the determination of the plasma deuterium temperature profile, T D (R). Results are presented here from the analysis of JET data and the errors in T D (R) are discussed in some detail. It is found that, for typical JET plasma conditions, the dominant source of uncertainty arises from the high plasma impurity level and the fact that it is poorly known; these problems can be expected to be remedied and neutron brightness measurements would be expected to be very effective (especially in high density plasmas) as a T D (R) diagnostics. (author)

  1. Far Sidelobes Measurement of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio; Wollack, Ed; Henriquez, Fernando; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145GHz, 220 GHz and 280 GHz. Its off-axis Gregorian design is intended to minimize and control the off-axis sidelobe response, which is critical for scientific purposes. The expected sidelobe level for this kind of design is less than -50 dB and can be challenging to measure. Here we present a measurement of the 145 GHz far sidelobes of ACT done on the near-field of the telescope. We used a 1 mW microwave source placed 13 meters away from the telescope and a chopper wheel to produce a varying signal that could be detected by the camera for different orientations of the telescope. The source feed was designed to produce a wide beam profile. Given that the coupling is expected to be dominated by diffraction over the telescope shielding structure, when combined with a measurements of the main beam far field response, these measurement can be used to validate elements of optical design and constrain the level of spurious coupling at large angles. Our results show that the diffractive coupling beyond the ground screen is consistently below -75 dB, satisfying the design expectations.

  2. The science case and data processing strategy for the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC): a project for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Marc; Durand, Gilles A.; Rodriguez, Louis R.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ronayette, Samuel; Aussel, Herve; Minier, Vincent; Motte, Frederique; Pantin, Eric J.; Sureau, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The future of far-infrared observations rests on our capacity to reach sub-arc-second angular resolution around 100 μm, in order to achieve a significant advance with respect to our current capabilities. Furthermore, by reaching this angular resolution we can bridge the gap between capacities offered by the JWST in the near infrared and those allowed by ALMA in the submillimeter, and thus benefit from similar resolving capacities over the whole wavelength range where interstellar dust radiates and where key atomic and molecular transitions are found. In an accompanying paper, we present a concept of a deployable annular telescope, named TALC for Thinned Aperture Light Collector, reaching 20 m in diameter. Being annular, this telescope features a main beam width equivalent to that of a 27 m telescope, i.e. an angular resolution of 0.92'' at 100 μm. In this paper we focus on the science case of such a telescope as well on the aspects of unconventional data processing that come with this unconventional optical configuration. The principal science cases of TALC revolve around its imaging capacities, that allow resolving the Kuiper belt in extra-solar planetary systems, or the filamentary scale in star forming clouds all the way to the Galactic Center, or the Narrow Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei of the Local Group, or breaking the confusion limit to resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background. Equipping this telescope with detectors capable of imaging polarimetry offers as well the extremely interesting perspective to study the influence of the magnetic field in structuring the interstellar medium. We will then present simulations of the optical performance of such a telescope. The main feature of an annular telescope is the small amount of energy contained in the main beam, around 30% for the studied configuration, and the presence of bright diffraction rings. Using simulated point spread functions for realistic broad-band filters, we study the observing

  3. Breakout Reconnection Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s-1. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5-4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  4. BREAKOUT RECONNECTION OBSERVED BY THE TESIS EUV TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V., E-mail: reva.antoine@gmail.com [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-10

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R{sub ⊙} from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R{sub ⊙} above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s{sup −1}. At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario.

  5. BREAKOUT RECONNECTION OBSERVED BY THE TESIS EUV TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Shestov, S. V.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental evidence of the coronal mass ejection (CME) breakout reconnection, observed by the TESIS EUV telescope. The telescope could observe solar corona up to 2 R ⊙ from the Sun center in the Fe 171 Å line. Starting from 2009 April 8, TESIS observed an active region (AR) that had a quadrupolar structure with an X-point 0.5 R ⊙ above photosphere. A magnetic field reconstructed from the Michelson Doppler Imager data also has a multipolar structure with an X-point above the AR. At 21:45 UT on April 9, the loops near the X-point started to move away from each other with a velocity of ≈7 km s −1 . At 01:15 UT on April 10, a bright stripe appeared between the loops, and the flux in the GOES 0.5–4 Å channel increased. We interpret the loops’ sideways motion and the bright stripe as evidence of the breakout reconnection. At 01:45 UT, the loops below the X-point started to slowly move up. At 15:10 UT, the CME started to accelerate impulsively, while at the same time a flare arcade formed below the CME. After 15:50 UT, the CME moved with constant velocity. The CME evolution precisely followed the breakout model scenario

  6. A new alignment procedure for the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Booth, John A.; Doss, David; Loubser, Egan; O'Connor, James E.; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-07-01

    Considerable effort has gone into improving the performance and reliability of the SAAO's 74-inch telescope. This included replacing the telescope encoders, refining the pointing model and increasing the telescope throughput. The latter involved re-aluminising the primary and formulating a procedure to ensure optimal alignment of the telescope mirrors. To this end, we developed the necessary hardware and techniques to ensure that such alignment is achieved and maintained, particularly following re-aluminising of the mirrors. In essence, the procedure involves: placing a Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope on the mechanical rotation axis of the 74-inch (which we define to be the optical axis, since the Cassegrain instruments attach to the associated turntable), then adjusting the tip/tilt of the secondary mirror to get it onto that axis and, lastly, adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to eliminate coma. An eyepiece (or wavefront camera) is installed at the Cassegrain port for this final step since comatic star images indicate the need to tip/tilt the primary mirror to align it to the secondary. Tuning out any brightness gradients seen in an out-of-focus image of a bright star may also be used for feedback when adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to null coma.

  7. RESOLVING THE INNER JET STRUCTURE OF 1924-292 WITH THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Weintroub, Jonathan; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Young, Ken H.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Wright, Melvyn; Freund, Robert; Marrone, Daniel P.; Friberg, Per; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Shen Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We present the first 1.3 mm (230 GHz) very long baseline interferometry model image of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet using closure phase techniques with a four-element array. The model image of the quasar 1924-292 was obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy in California in 2009 April. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1924-292 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of –53° at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of ∼80° with respect to the centimeter jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 × 10 11 K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. The successful measurement of closure phase paves the way for imaging and time resolving Sgr A* and nearby AGNs with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  8. RESOLVING THE INNER JET STRUCTURE OF 1924-292 WITH THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Weintroub, Jonathan; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Young, Ken H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Wright, Melvyn [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Freund, Robert; Marrone, Daniel P. [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per; Tilanus, Remo P. J. [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Shen Zhiqiang, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); and others

    2012-09-20

    We present the first 1.3 mm (230 GHz) very long baseline interferometry model image of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet using closure phase techniques with a four-element array. The model image of the quasar 1924-292 was obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy in California in 2009 April. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1924-292 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of -53 Degree-Sign at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of {approx}80 Degree-Sign with respect to the centimeter jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. The successful measurement of closure phase paves the way for imaging and time resolving Sgr A* and nearby AGNs with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  9. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  10. The CCAT-prime Extreme Field-of-View Submillimeter Telescope on Cerro Chajnantor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Fich, Michel; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry L.; Murray, Norman W.; Niemack, Michael D.; Riechers, Dominik; Schilke, Peter; Stacey, Gordon J.; Stutzki, Juergen; CCAT-prime Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CCAT-prime is a six meter aperture off-axis submillimeter telescope that we plan to build at 5600m elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in Chile. The CCAT-prime optics are based on a cross-Dragone design with high throughput and a wide field-of-view optimized to increase the mapping speed of next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. These characteristics make CCAT-prime an excellent platform for a wide range of next generation millimeter and submillimeter science goals, and a potential platform for CMB stage-IV measurements. Here we present the telescope design for CCAT-prime and review the science goals.Taking advantage of the high elevation site, the first generation instrument for CCAT-prime will measure seven different frequency bands from 350um to 3mm. These seven bands will enable precise measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (SZE) by separating contributions from CMB, thermal SZE, kinetic SZE, bright submm galaxies, and radio sources with a goal of extracting the peculiar velocities from a large number of galaxy clusters. Additional science priorities for CCAT-prime include: Galactic Ecology studies of the dynamic intersteller medium by mapping the fine structure lines [CI], [CII] and [NII] as well as high-excitation CO lines at the shortest wavelength bands; high redshift intensity mapping of [CII] emission from star-forming galaxies that likely dominates cosmic reionization at z~5-9 to probe the Epoch of Reionization; and next generation CMB polarization measurements to constrain inflation and cosmological models. The CCAT-prime facility will further our understanding of astrophysical processes from moments after the Big Bang to the present-day evolution of the Milky Way.

  11. First Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectroscopy of early-type stars outside the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartoog, O.E.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-shooter science verification, we obtained the first optical medium-resolution spectrum of a previously identified bright O-type object in NGC 55, a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)-like galaxy at a distance of ∼2.0 Mpc. Based on the stellar and nebular

  12. Science with the solar optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S. D.; Hogan, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to provide the solar physics community with the data necessary for solving several fundamental problems in the energetics and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Among these problems are questions on the origin and evolution of the sun's magnetic field, heating of the outer solar atmosphere, and sources of the solar wind in the lower lying regions of the outer atmosphere. The SOT will be built under the management of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, with science instruments provided by teams led by Principal Investigators. The telescope will be built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, and the science instruments selected for the first flight will be provided by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) and the California Institute of Technology, with actual construction of a combined science instrument taking place at the LPARL. The SOT has a 1.3-meter-diameter primary mirror that will be capable of achieving diffraction-limited viewing in the visible of 0.1 arc-second. This dimension is less than a hydrodynamic scale-height or a mean-free-path of a continuum photon in the solar atmosphere. Image stability will be achieved by a control system in the telescope, which moves both the primary and tertiary mirrors in tandem, and will be further enhanced by a correlation tracker in the combined science instrument. The SOT Facility is currently scheduled for its first flight on Spacelab at the beginning of the 1990's.

  13. The ASTRI mini-array within the future Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercellone Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV, which will yield about an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS. Within this framework, the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics is leading the ASTRI project, whose main goals are the design and installation on Mt. Etna (Sicily of an end-to-end dual-mirror prototype of the CTA small size telescope (SST and the installation at the CTA Southern site of a dual-mirror SST mini-array composed of nine units with a relative distance of about 300 m. The innovative dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical solution adopted for the ASTRI Project allows us to substantially reduce the telescope plate-scale and, therefore, to adopt silicon photo-multipliers as light detectors. The ASTRI mini-array is a wider international effort. The mini-array, sensitive in the energy range 1–100 TeV and beyond with an angular resolution of a few arcmin and an energy resolution of about 10–15%, is well suited to study relatively bright sources (a few × 10−12 erg cm−2 s−1 at 10 TeV at very high energy. Prominent sources such as extreme blazars, nearby well-known BL Lac objects, Galactic pulsar wind nebulae, supernovae remnants, micro-quasars, and the Galactic Center can be observed in a previously unexplored energy range. The ASTRI mini-array will extend the current IACTs sensitivity well above a few tens of TeV and, at the same time, will allow us to compare our results on a few selected targets with those of current (HAWC and future high-altitude extensive air-shower detectors.

  14. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  15. Proxy magnetometry of the photosphere: why are G-band bright points so bright?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Kiselman, Dan; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der; Plez, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formation of G-band bright points in terms of standard uxtube modeling, in particular the 1D LTE models constructed by Solanki and coworkers. Combined with LTE spectral synthesis they explain observed G-band bright point contrasts quite well. The G-band contrast increase over the

  16. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  17. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  18. Advanced Athermal Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed innovative athermal telescope design uses advanced lightweight and high-stiffness material of Beryllium-Aluminum (Be-38Al). Peregrine's expertise with...

  19. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  20. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  1. Variable X-ray sky with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Sveda, L.

    2004-01-01

    The variable X-ray sky requires wide-field monitoring with high sensitivity. We refer on novel X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The results are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, GRBs, X-ray flashes, galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc

  2. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  3. Spectrographic mask for digital registration of bright source spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present schematic diagrams for the construction of a spectrographic mask attachable to a camera objective in order to capture spectra using simple CD or DVD gratings. The mask is made of two parts: an adapter ring and elbow-shaped blockage for suitable registration of spectra in the lab and outdoors. By using a free software, we analyze and discuss the calibration of the wavelength scale of the solar spectrum, which allows us to identify many chemical elements in it. In the conclusion, we further discuss some interesting projects to be carried out by students using the idea.

  4. The JCMT Telescope Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cockayne, Steve

    Established telescopes often face a challenge when trying to incorporate new software standards and utilities into their existing real-time control system. At the JCMT we have successfully added important new features such as a Relational Database (the Telescope Management System---TMS), an online data Archive, and WWW based utilities to an, in part, 10-year old system. The new functionality was added with remarkably few alterations to the existing system. We are still actively expanding and exploring these new capabilities.

  5. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Around M31

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Davies, James E.; Jacoby, George H.

    1998-01-01

    By applying a digital filtering technique to 1550 square degrees of the POSS-II in the vicinity of M31, we found two previously unidentified very low surface brightness dwarf galaxies which we designate And V and VI. Follow-up imaging with the KPNO 4-m telescope resolved these into stars easily. The V- and I- band images of And V indicate a distance similar to that of M31, and approximately -1.5. All evidence strongly supports its classification as a dwarf spheroidal companion to M31. Data f...

  6. On optical spectra of the NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent bright compact object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvaev, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral observations of NGC 6677 galaxy and the adjacent object carried out during six nights on the spectrograph with the image tube of 2.6-m Shain telescope showed, that the bright compact object is a star belonging to our galaxy but not an active galaxy. The NGC 6677 galaxy has sufficiently rich emission spectrum. On the basis of measured values of red shift Z, the inclination and the extent of emission lines, the mass of the galaxy has been estimated (M=7x10 9 M Sun )

  7. A 5-GHz survey of bright southern elliptical and SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Wall, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Parkes 64-m telescope has been used in a 5.0 GHz survey of 181 Southern E and SO galaxies from the Reference catalogue of bright galaxies. Of the 39 detections above the nominal limit of 12 mJy, 15 are new, several have radio spectra indicating membership in the active class, and two have shown intensity variations at centimetre wavelengths. The results of this survey combined with results from earlier surveys of lower sensitivity suggest that only about 40 per cent of the E/SO galaxies in the Reference catalogue have Ssub(5GHz)>1 mJy. (author)

  8. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  9. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  10. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Southern Cross) and YEPUN (UT4; ye-poon ; Sirius), respectively. An audio sequence with these names pronounced by a native speaker is available below: [RealMedia - Audio only - 164k] "First Light" of UT2 Following the installation of the main mirror in its cell and a 20-hour working session to put the complex secondary mirror and its support in place, the UT2, now Kueyen , achieved (technical) first light in the morning of March 1, 1999, when an image was obtained of a bright star. It showed this telescope to be in good optical shape and further adjustments of the optical and mechanical systems are expected soon to result in some "astronomical" images. The announcement of this important event was made by the ESO Director during the opening session of the VLT Symposium that was held in Antofagasta during March 1-4, 1999. This meeting attracted over 250 scientists from all over world. It provided a most useful opportunity to discuss future scientific programmes with the VLT and other large telescopes. The participants were left with the impression of mounting expectations, just four weeks before the first VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), will receive the first visiting astronomers. More images from UT1 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 667 pix - 332k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1334 pix - 1.3M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2108 x 3450 pix - 2.8M] Caption to PR Photo 17c/99 : This colour composite photo of the Chamaeleon I area is based on six 1-min exposures obtained with VLT UT1 + FORS1 in the V, R and I bands. The sky field measures 6.8 x 11.2 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left [1]. Despite the extensive preparations for the Paranal Inguration and the VLT Symposium, excellent progress is being made during the final tuning of Antu (UT1) and its instruments for the "hand-over" to the astronomers on April 1, 1999. This involves exposures in many different modes and of different sky regions. Another impressive photo is shown here that was obtained some nights

  11. The Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Baars, J.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    To exploit the potential of submillimeter astronomy, the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) will be located at an altitude of 3178 meters on Emerald Peak 75 miles northeast of Tucson in Southern Arizona. The instrument is an altazimuth mounted f/13.8 Cassegrain homology telescope with two Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. It will have diffraction limited performance at a wavelength of 300 microns and an operating overall figure accuracy of 15 microns rms. An important feature of the SMT is the construction of the primary and secondary reflectors out of aluminum-core CFRP face sheet sandwich panels, and the reflector backup structure and secondary support out of CFRP structural elements. This modern technology provides both a means for reaching the required precision of the SMT for both night and day operation (basically because of the low coefficient of thermal expansion and high strength-to-weight ratio of CFRP) and a potential route for the realization of lightweight telescopes of even greater accuracy in the future. The SMT will be the highest accuracy radio telescope ever built (at least a factor of 2 more accurate than existing telescopes). In addition, the SMT will be the first 10 m-class submillimeter telescope with a surface designed for efficient measurements at the important 350 microns wavelength atmospheric window. 9 refs

  12. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  13. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  14. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  15. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz

    2014-02-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, brightness and temperature variations of stars brighter than V ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of three pairs of 7 kg nanosats (hence ``Constellation'') from Austria, Canada and Poland carrying optical telescopes (3 cm aperture) and CCDs. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other, a red filter. The first two nanosats (funded by Austria) are UniBRITE, designed and built by UTIAS-SFL (University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies-Space Flight Laboratory) and its twin, BRITE-Austria, built by the Technical University Graz (TUG) with support of UTIAS-SFL. They were launched on 25 February 2013 by the Indian Space Agency, under contract to the Canadian Space Agency. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~ 24 degrees), so up to 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously in 32 × 32 sub-rasters. Photometry (with reduced precision but thorough time sampling) of additional fainter targets will be possible through on-board data processing. A critical technical element of the BRITE mission is the three-axis attitude control system to stabilize a nanosat with very low inertia. The pointing stability is better than 1.5 arcminutes rms, a significant advance by UTIAS-SFL over any previous nanosatellite. BRITE-Constellation will primarily measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology. The BRITE sample of many of the brightest stars in the night sky is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases (cool giants and AGB stars). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for stars brighter than mag V=4 from which the BRITE-Constellation sample

  16. Compact radio and infrared sources near the centre of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.E.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Chavarria-K, C.; Neri, L.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-frequency study of the central region of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud has been made in an attempt to localize and understand its driving source. We have detected a weak (≅ 0.6 mJy) radio continuum source at 6 cm, using the VLA; a bright (≅ 270 Jy) H 2 O maser, using the Haystack Observatory telescope; and near-infrared counterparts to these sources at San Pedro Martir Observatory. Stromgren and JHKL'M photometry of stellar objects in the region was also carried out at this observatory. The star-like object W166, a probable Herbig Be/Ae star, which has strong Hα emission and a near-infrared excess, is located closest to the centroid of the bipolar outflow and is probably its driving source. (author)

  17. Selected results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    ANTARES uses sea water as as a detection medium to observe cosmic neutrinos. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is taking data with its complete configuration since 2008. Its main goal is the detection of cosmic neutrinos from the Southern hemisphere sky, coming from Galactic and extragalactic sources. Recently, the ANTARES collaboration has published many results from data collected from 2007 to 2010 using detector configurations containing between 5 to 12 detection strings. Among those, search of point sources and diffuse flux from high energy cosmic neutrinos, both resulted in stringent and competitive upper limits for the flux of cosmic neutrinos. In addition, ANTARES is involved in multi-messenger projects looking for correlations between neutrinos and gamma rays or gravitational wave emitted by sources like Gamma-Ray bursts. In this paper we report on some recent results published by the ANTARES collaboration

  18. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Human CD56bright NK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Cuapio, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells can be subdivided into various subsets based on the relative expression of CD16 and CD56. In particular, CD56(bright)CD16(-/dim) NK cells are the focus of interest. They are considered efficient cytokine producers endowed with immunoregulatory properties, but they can also become c...... NK cell subsets is not fully defined, nor is their precise hematopoietic origin. In this article, we summarize recent studies about CD56(bright) NK cells in health and disease and briefly discuss the current controversies surrounding them....

  20. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs

  1. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  2. PEPSI-feed: linking PEPSI to the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope using a 450m long fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Gabor, P.

    2016-07-01

    Limited observing time at large telescopes equipped with the most powerful spectrographs makes it almost impossible to gain long and well-sampled time-series observations. Ditto, high-time-resolution observations of bright targets with high signal-to-noise are rare. By pulling an optical fibre of 450m length from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) to connect the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) to the VATT, allows for ultra-high resolution time-series measurements of bright targets. This article presents the fibre-link in detail from the technical point-of-view, demonstrates its performance from first observations, and sketches current applications.

  3. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  4. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  5. The 1.5 meter solar telescope GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Waldmann , T. A.

    2012-11-01

    The 1.5 m telescope GREGOR opens a new window to the understanding of solar small-scale magnetism. The first light instrumentation includes the Gregor Fabry Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), a filter spectro-polarimeter for the visible wavelength range, the GRating Infrared Spectro-polarimeter (GRIS) and the Broad-Band Imager (BBI). The excellent performance of the first two instruments has already been demonstrated at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. GREGOR is Europe's largest solar telescope and number 3 in the world. Its all-reflective Gregory design provides a large wavelength coverage from the near UV up to at least 5 microns. The field of view has a diameter of 150 arcsec. GREGOR is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics system, with a subaperture size of 10 cm, and a deformable mirror with 256 actuators. The science goals are focused on, but not limited to, solar magnetism. GREGOR allows us to measure the emergence and disappearance of magnetic flux at the solar surface at spatial scales well below 100 km. Thanks to its spectro-polarimetric capabilities, GREGOR will measure the interaction between the plasma flows, different kinds of waves, and the magnetic field. This will foster our understanding of the processes that heat the chromosphere and the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Observations of the surface magnetic field at very small spatial scales will shed light on the variability of the solar brightness.

  6. VLBI observations with the Kunming 40-meter radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Longfei; Wang Min; Yang Jun

    2010-01-01

    The Kunming 40-meter radio telescope is situated in the yard of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (Longitude: 102.8 0 East, Latitude: 25.0 0 North) and saw its first light in 2006 May. The Kunming station successfully joined the VLBI tracking of China's first lunar probe 'Chang'E-1 together with the other Chinese telescopes: the Beijing Miyun 50-meter radio telescope, Urumqi Nanshan 25-meter radio telescope, and Shanghai Sheshan 25-meter radio telescope, and received the downlinked scientific data together with the Miyun station from October of 2007 to March of 2009. We give an introduction to the new Chinese VLBI facility and investigate its potential applications. Due to its location, the Kunming station can significantly improve the u - v coverage of the European VLBI Network (EVN), in particular, in long baseline observations. We also report the results of the first EVN fringe-test experiment of N09SX1 with the Kunming station. The first fringes in the European telescopes were successfully detected at 2.3 GHz with the ftp-transferred data on 2009 June 17. From scheduling the observations to performing the post correlations, the Kunming station shows its good compatibility to work with the EVN. The imaging result of the extended source 1156+295 further demonstrates that the Kunming station greatly enhances the EVN performance. (research papers)

  7. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  8. Simulation of Telescope Detectivity for Geo Survey and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, P.

    2014-09-01

    As the number of space debris on Earths Orbit increases steadily, the need to survey, track and catalogue them becomes of key importance. In this context, CNES has been using the TAROT Telescopes (Rapid Telescopes for Transient Objects owned and operated by CNRS) for several years to conduct studies about space surveillance and tracking. Today, two testbeds of services using the TAROT telescopes are running every night: one for GEO situational awareness and the second for debris tracking. Additionally to the CNES research activity on space surveillance and tracking domain, an operational collision avoidance service for LEO and GEO satellites is in place at CNES for several years. This service named CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation: Alerts and Recommendations) is used by CNES as well as by external customers. As the optical debris tracking testbed based on TAROT telescopes is the first step toward an operational provider of GEO measures that could be used by CAESAR, simulations have been done to help choosing the sites and types of telescopes that could be added in the GEO survey and debris tracking telescope network. One of the distinctive characteristics of the optical observation of space debris compared to traditional astronomic observation is the need to observe objects at low elevations. The two mains reasons for this are the need to observe the GEO belt from non-equatorial sites and the need to observe debris at longitudes far from the telescope longitude. This paper presents the results of simulations of the detectivity for GEO debris of various telescopes and sites, based on models of the GEO belt, the atmosphere and the instruments. One of the conclusions is that clever detection of faint streaks and spread sources by image processing is one of the major keys to improve the detection of debris on the GEO belt.

  9. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  10. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  11. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  12. EARLY OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS BY THE TAROT TELESCOPES: PERIOD 2001-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Gendre, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Telescopes a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires telescopes are two robotic observatories designed to observe the prompt optical emission counterpart and the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present data acquired between 2001 and 2008 and discuss the properties of the optical emission of GRBs, noting various interesting results. The optical emission observed during the prompt GRB phase is rarely very bright: we estimate that 5%-20% of GRBs exhibit a bright optical flash (R < 14) during the prompt gamma-ray emission, and that more than 50% of the GRBs have an optical emission fainter than R = 15.5 when the gamma-ray emission is active. We study the apparent optical brightness distribution of GRBs at 1000 s showing that our observations confirm the distribution derived by other groups. The combination of these results with those obtained by other rapid slewing telescopes allows us to better characterize the early optical emission of GRBs and to emphasize the importance of very early multiwavelength GRB studies for the understanding of the physics of the ejecta.

  13. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows....

  14. A synthetic aperture radio telescope for ICME observations as a potential payload of SPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Liu, H.; Xiong, M.; Liu, Y. D.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a potential payload for the Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), a space weather mission proposed by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a synthetic aperture radio imager designed to detect radio emissions from interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which is expected to be an important instrument to monitor the propagation and evolution of ICMEs. The radio telescope applies a synthetic aperture interferometric technique to measure the brightness temperature of ICMEs. Theoretical calculations of the brightness temperature utilizing statistical properties of ICMEs and the background solar wind indicate that ICMEs within 0.35 AU from the Sun are detectable by a radio telescope at a frequency <= 150 MHz with a sensitivity of <=1 K. The telescope employs a time shared double rotation scan (also called a clock scan), where two coplanar antennas revolve around a fixed axis at different radius and speed, to fulfill sampling of the brightness temperature. An array of 4+4 elements with opposite scanning directions are developed for the radio telescope to achieve the required sensitivity (<=1K) within the imaging refreshing time (~30 minutes). This scan scheme is appropriate for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft platform while keeping a good sampling pattern. We also discuss how we select the operating frequency, which involves a trade-off between the engineering feasibility and the scientific goal. Our preliminary results indicate that the central frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, which requires arm lengths of the two groups of 14m and 16m, respectively, gives an angular resolution of 2°, a field of view of ×25° around the Sun, and a time resolution of 30 minutes.

  15. A New Approach to Space Situational Awareness using Small Ground-Based Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Cliff S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report discusses a new SSA approach evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that may lead to highly scalable, small telescope observing stations designed to help manage the growing space surveillance burden. Using the methods and observing tools described in this report, the team was able to acquire and track very faint satellites (near Pluto’s apparent brightness). Photometric data was collected and used to correlate object orbital position as a function of atomic clock-derived time. Object apparent brightness was estimated by image analysis and nearby star calibration. The measurement performance was only limited by weather conditions, object brightness, and the sky glow at the observation site. In the future, these new SSA technologies and techniques may be utilized to protect satellite assets, detect and monitor orbiting debris fields, and support Outer Space Treaty monitoring and transparency.

  16. Optimal networks of future gravitational-wave telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffai, Péter; Gondán, László; Heng, Ik Siong; Kelecsényi, Nándor; Logue, Josh; Márka, Zsuzsa; Márka, Szabolcs

    2013-08-01

    We aim to find the optimal site locations for a hypothetical network of 1-3 triangular gravitational-wave telescopes. We define the following N-telescope figures of merit (FoMs) and construct three corresponding metrics: (a) capability of reconstructing the signal polarization; (b) accuracy in source localization; and (c) accuracy in reconstructing the parameters of a standard binary source. We also define a combined metric that takes into account the three FoMs with practically equal weight. After constructing a geomap of possible telescope sites, we give the optimal 2-telescope networks for the four FoMs separately in example cases where the location of the first telescope has been predetermined. We found that based on the combined metric, placing the first telescope to Australia provides the most options for optimal site selection when extending the network with a second instrument. We suggest geographical regions where a potential second and third telescope could be placed to get optimal network performance in terms of our FoMs. Additionally, we use a similar approach to find the optimal location and orientation for the proposed LIGO-India detector within a five-detector network with Advanced LIGO (Hanford), Advanced LIGO (Livingston), Advanced Virgo, and KAGRA. We found that the FoMs do not change greatly in sites within India, though the network can suffer a significant loss in reconstructing signal polarizations if the orientation angle of an L-shaped LIGO-India is not set to the optimal value of ˜58.2°( + k × 90°) (measured counterclockwise from East to the bisector of the arms).

  17. Optimal networks of future gravitational-wave telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffai, Péter; Márka, Zsuzsa; Márka, Szabolcs; Gondán, László; Kelecsényi, Nándor; Heng, Ik Siong; Logue, Josh

    2013-01-01

    We aim to find the optimal site locations for a hypothetical network of 1–3 triangular gravitational-wave telescopes. We define the following N-telescope figures of merit (FoMs) and construct three corresponding metrics: (a) capability of reconstructing the signal polarization; (b) accuracy in source localization; and (c) accuracy in reconstructing the parameters of a standard binary source. We also define a combined metric that takes into account the three FoMs with practically equal weight. After constructing a geomap of possible telescope sites, we give the optimal 2-telescope networks for the four FoMs separately in example cases where the location of the first telescope has been predetermined. We found that based on the combined metric, placing the first telescope to Australia provides the most options for optimal site selection when extending the network with a second instrument. We suggest geographical regions where a potential second and third telescope could be placed to get optimal network performance in terms of our FoMs. Additionally, we use a similar approach to find the optimal location and orientation for the proposed LIGO-India detector within a five-detector network with Advanced LIGO (Hanford), Advanced LIGO (Livingston), Advanced Virgo, and KAGRA. We found that the FoMs do not change greatly in sites within India, though the network can suffer a significant loss in reconstructing signal polarizations if the orientation angle of an L-shaped LIGO-India is not set to the optimal value of ∼58.2°( + k × 90°) (measured counterclockwise from East to the bisector of the arms). (paper)

  18. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  19. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-05-25

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are

  20. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are mainly based

  1. Trick or Treat and Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Schmude, Richard W.

    2017-10-01

    Based on an activity that DPS member Richard Schmude Jr. has been doing for years, with over 5000 children reached, DPS initiated in 2016 a pilot program entitled “Trick-or-Treat and Telescopes.” DPS encouraged its members to put out their telescopes during trick-or-treat time on Halloween, in their own lawns or in a neighbor’s lawn with better viewing (or more traffic). The program will be continued in 2017. This year should offer good viewing with a waxing gibbous moon and Saturn visible. The program was also advertised though the Night Sky Network, a consortium of astronomy clubs. The following website gives advice and connections to resources.https://dps.aas.org/education/trick-or-treat-and-telescopes acknowledged.

  2. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  3. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  4. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Federico II, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy))" >Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z 850 band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec –2 and a characteristic radius r s = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  5. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the NorthernHemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources.Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and arethus well-suited to detect neutrinos

  6. PG 1553 + 11 - A bright optically selected BL Lacertae object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falomo, R.; Treves, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of the bright optically selected BL Lac object PG 1553 + 11 is presented. UV observations, obtained during a high state of the source, together with simultaneous optical spectrophotometry and near-IR photometry, allow the spectral flux distribution to be examined from 8 x 10 to the 13th to 2.5 x 10 to the 15th Hz. This distribution is compared with that derived from quasi-simultaneous observations obtained when the source was a factor of about 3 fainter. It is found that, in the higher state, the spectrum can be described by two power laws connected by a break at about 10 to the 15th Hz, while in the low state the shape is more complex. The overall spectrum of the object is compared with the average energy distribution of X-ray and radio-selected BL Lac objects, showing that it is closer to the former class. 25 refs

  7. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  8. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  9. LSST telescope and site status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  10. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope images of the reflection nebula NGC 7023 - Derivation of ultraviolet scattering properties of dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Petersohn, Jens K.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope as part of the Astro-1 mission, was used to obtain high-resolution surface brightness distribution data in six ultraviolet wavelength bands for the bright reflection nebula NGC 7023. From the quantitative comparison of the measured surface brightness gradients ratios of nebular to stellar flux, and detail radial surface brightness profiles with corresponding data from the visible, two major conclusions results: (1) the scattering in the near- and far-ultraviolet in this nebula is more strongly forward-directed than in the visible; (2) the dust albedo in the ultraviolet for wavelengths not less than 140 nm is identical to that in the visible, with the exception of the 220 nm bump in the extinction curve. In the wavelengths region of the bump, the albedo is reduced by 25 to 30 percent in comparison with wavelengths regions both shorter and longer. This lower albedo is expected, if the bump is a pure absorption feature.

  11. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  12. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8 was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5, 2 hours (n = 5, 5 hours (n = 4 or 10 hours (n = 4. Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7, 30 minutes (n = 8, 15 minutes (n = 6, 7 minutes (n = 7 or 1 minute (n = 7 periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  14. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  15. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  16. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  17. Atmospheric extinction coefficients and night sky brightness at the Xuyi Observation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui-Hua; Liu Xiao-Wei; Zhang Hua-Wei; Xiang Mao-Sheng; Yuan Hai-Bo; Zhao Hai-Bin; Yao Jin-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the optical broadband atmospheric extinction coefficients and the night sky brightness at the Xuyi Observation Station of Purple Mountain Observatory. The measurements are based on CCD imaging data taken in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's g, r and i bands with the Xuyi 1.04/1.20 m Schmidt Telescope for the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (XSTPS-GAC), the photometric part of the Digital Sky Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (DSS-GAC). The data were collected during more than 140 winter nights from 2009 to 2011. We find that the atmospheric extinction coefficients for the g, r and i bands are 0.69, 0.55 and 0.38 mag/airmass, respectively, based on observations taken on several photometric nights. The night sky brightness determined from images with good quality has median values of 21.7, 20.8 and 20.0 mag arcsec −2 and reaches 22.1, 21.2 and 20.4 mag arcsec −2 under the best observing conditions for the g, r and i bands, respectively. The relatively large extinction coefficients compared with other good astronomical observing sites are mainly due to the relatively low elevation (i.e. 180 m) and high humidity at the station.

  18. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE RADIO BRIGHTNESS OF THE SOLAR POLAR REGIONS AS OBSERVED BY THE NOBEYAMA RADIOHELIOGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; DeRosa, Marc L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Dept/A021S, B/252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Sun, Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have analyzed daily microwave images of the Sun at 17 GHz obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) in order to study the solar cycle variations of the enhanced brightness in the polar regions. Unlike in previous works, the averaged brightness of the polar regions is obtained from individual images rather than from synoptic maps. We confirm that the brightness is anti-correlated with the solar cycle and that it has generally declined since solar cycle 22. Including images up to 2013 October, we find that the 17 GHz brightness temperature of the south polar region has decreased noticeably since 2012. This coincides with a significant decrease in the average magnetic field strength around the south pole, signaling the arrival of solar maximum conditions in the southern hemisphere more than a year after the northern hemisphere. We do not attribute the enhanced brightness of the polar regions at 17 GHz to the bright compact sources that occasionally appear in synthesized NoRH images. This is because they have no correspondence with small-scale bright regions in images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory with a broad temperature coverage. Higher-quality radio images are needed to understand the relationship between microwave brightness and magnetic field strength in the polar regions.

  19. Prospects for Gamma-Ray Burst detection by the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissaldi E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT on the Fermi satellite is expected to publish a catalogue with more than 100 Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs detected above 100 MeV thanks to a new detection algorithm and a new event reconstruction. This work aims at revising the prospects for GRB alerts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA based on the new LAT results. We start considering the simulation of the observations with the full CTA of two extremely bright events, the long GRB 130427A and the short GRB 090510, then we investigate how these GRBs would be observed by a particular configuration of the array with the telescopes pointing to different directions in what is called the “coupled divergent mode”.

  20. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  1. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  2. Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At {approx}TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At {approx}GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  3. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  4. Bright solitons in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpiuk, Tomasz; Brewczyk, Miroslaw; RzaPewski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    We consider the formation of bright solitons in a mixture of Bose and Fermi degenerate gases confined in a three-dimensional elongated harmonic trap. The Bose and Fermi atoms are assumed to effectively attract each other whereas bosonic atoms repel each other. Strong enough attraction between bosonic and fermionic components can change the character of the interaction within the bosonic cloud from repulsive to attractive making thus possible the generation of bright solitons in the mixture. On the other hand, such structures might be in danger due to the collapse phenomenon existing in attractive gases. We show, however, that under some conditions (defined by the strength of the Bose-Fermi components attraction) the structures which neither spread nor collapse can be generated. For elongated enough traps the formation of solitons is possible even at the 'natural' value of the mutual Bose-Fermi ( 87 Rb- 40 K in our case) scattering length

  5. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (GDUPS) (2009), Yangcheng Scholar Funded.

  6. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  7. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its starting phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations

  8. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  9. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  10. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  11. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  12. High-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) devices based on high-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators are an important component of proposed strategic defense systems. The basic rational and R and D program are outlined and examples given of the underlying technology thrusts toward advanced systems. Much of the research accomplished in the past year is applicable to accelerator systems in general; some of these activities are discussed

  13. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  14. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  15. Condensate bright solitons under transverse confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salasnich, L.; Reatto, L.; Parola, A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate bright solitons made of alkali-metal atoms with negative scattering length and under harmonic confinement in the transverse direction. Contrary to the one-dimensional (1D) case, the 3D bright soliton exists only below a critical attractive interaction that depends on the extent of confinement. Such a behavior is also found in multisoliton condensates with box boundary conditions. We obtain numerical and analytical estimates of the critical strength beyond which the solitons do not exist. By using an effective 1D nonpolynomial nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which accurately takes into account the transverse dynamics of cigarlike condensates, we numerically simulate the dynamics of the 'soliton train' reported in a recent experiment [Nature (London) 417, 150 (2002)]. Then, analyzing the macroscopic quantum tunneling of the bright soliton on a Gaussian barrier, we find that its interference in the tunneling region is strongly suppressed with respect to nonsolitonic case; moreover, the tunneling through a barrier breaks the shape invariance of the matter wave. Finally, we show that the collapse of the soliton is induced by the scattering on the barrier or by the collision with another matter wave when the density reaches a critical value, for which we derive an accurate analytical formula

  16. Possible Bright Starspots on TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-04-01

    The M8V star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven roughly Earth-sized planets and is a promising target for exoplanet characterization. Kepler/K2 Campaign 12 observations of TRAPPIST-1 in the optical show an apparent rotational modulation with a 3.3-day period, though that rotational signal is not readily detected in the Spitzer light curve at 4.5 μm. If the rotational modulation is due to starspots, persistent dark spots can be excluded from the lack of photometric variability in the Spitzer light curve. We construct a photometric model for rotational modulation due to photospheric bright spots on TRAPPIST-1 that is consistent with both the Kepler and Spitzer light curves. The maximum-likelihood model with three spots has typical spot sizes of R spot/R ⋆ ≈ 0.004 at temperature T spot ≳ 5300 ± 200 K. We also find that large flares are observed more often when the brightest spot is facing the observer, suggesting a correlation between the position of the bright spots and flare events. In addition, these flares may occur preferentially when the spots are increasing in brightness, which suggests that the 3.3-day periodicity may not be a rotational signal, but rather a characteristic timescale of active regions.

  17. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  18. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  19. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  20. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  1. Record high-average current from a high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Bruce; Barley, John; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan; Cultrera, Luca; Dobbins, John; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Johnson, Brent; Kaplan, Roger; Karkare, Siddharth; Kostroun, Vaclav; Li Yulin; Liepe, Matthias; Liu Xianghong; Loehl, Florian; Maxson, Jared; Quigley, Peter; Reilly, John; Rice, David; Sabol, Daniel [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

    2013-01-21

    High-power, high-brightness electron beams are of interest for many applications, especially as drivers for free electron lasers and energy recovery linac light sources. For these particular applications, photoemission injectors are used in most cases, and the initial beam brightness from the injector sets a limit on the quality of the light generated at the end of the accelerator. At Cornell University, we have built such a high-power injector using a DC photoemission gun followed by a superconducting accelerating module. Recent results will be presented demonstrating record setting performance up to 65 mA average current with beam energies of 4-5 MeV.

  2. LCOGT: A World-Wide Network of Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T.

    2013-05-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is an organization dedicated to time-domain astronomy. To carry out the necessary observations in fields such as supernovae, extrasolar planets, small solar-system bodies, and pulsating stars, we have developed and are now deploying a set of robotic optical telescopes at sites around the globe. In this talk I will concentrate on the core of this network, consisting of up to 15 identical 1m telescopes deployed across multiple sites in both the northern and southern hemispheres. I will summarize the technical and performance aspect of these telescopes, including both their imaging and their anticipated spectroscopic capabilities. But I will also delve into the network organization, including communication among telescopes (to assure that observations are properly carried out), interactions among the institutions and scientists who will use the network (to optimize the scientific returns), and our funding model (which until now has relied entirely on one private donor, but will soon require funding from outside sources, if the full potential of the network is to be achieved).

  3. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  4. Core or Cusps: The Central Dark Matter Profile of a Strong Lensing Cluster with a Bright Central Image at Redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Lin, Huan; Bacon, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Nord, Brian; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Amara, Adam; Birrer, Simon; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; More, Anupreeta; Papovich, Casey; Romer, Kathy K.; Tessore, Nicolas; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Allam, Sahar; Annis, James; Benoit-Lévy, Aurlien; Brooks, David; Burke, David L.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Castander, Francisco Javier J.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W.; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Gruen, Daniel; Gschwend, Julia; Gutierrez, Gaston; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lahav, Ofer; Li, Ting S.; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio A. G.; March, Marisa; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrs A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Schindler, Rafe; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Mathew; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Tucker, Douglas L.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2017-07-10

    We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

  5. Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NICMOS POLARIZATION OBSERVATIONS OF THREE EDGE-ON MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Cotera, Angela S.; Hines, Dean C.; Whitney, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (YSOs), like low-mass YSOs, appear to be surrounded by optically thick envelopes and/or disks and have regions, often bipolar, that are seen in polarized scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We are using the 0.''2 spatial resolution of the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on Hubble Space Telescope to examine the structure of the disks and outflow regions of massive YSOs in star-forming regions within a few kpc of the Sun. Here we report on 2 μm polarimetry of NGC 6334 V and S255 IRS1. NGC 6334 V consists of a double-lobed bright reflection nebula seen against a dark region, probably an optically thick molecular cloud. Our polarization measurements show that the illuminating star lies ∼2'' south of the line connecting the two lobes; we do not detect this star at 2 μm, but there are a small radio source and a mid-infrared source at this location. S255 IRS1 consists of two YSOs (NIRS1 and NIRS3) with overlapping scattered light lobes and luminosities corresponding to early B stars. Included in IRS1 is a cluster of stars from whose polarization we determine the local magnetic field direction. Neither of the YSOs has its scattered light lobes aligned with this magnetic field. The line connecting the scattered light lobes of NIRS1 is twisted symmetrically around the star; the best explanation is that the star is part of a close binary and the outflow axis of NIRS1 is precessing as a result of non-coplanar disk and orbit. The star NIRS3 is also offset from the line connecting its two scattered light lobes. We suggest that all three YSOs show evidence of episodic ejection of material as they accrete from dense, optically thick envelopes.

  7. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blanford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P.S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Lande, J.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Omodei, N.; Panetta, J.H.; Porter, T.A.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than similar to 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of similar to 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming. (authors)

  8. The Dutch Open Telescope: History, Status, Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    After many years of persistent telescope design and telescope construction, R.H. Hammerschlag has installed his Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. I brie y review its history and design. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science

  9. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  10. Investigating a population of infrared-bright gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrimes, Ashley A.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Angus, Charlotte R.; Greis, Stephanie M. L.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and explore the properties of an infrared-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) host population. Candidate hosts are selected by coincidence with sources in WISE, with matching to random coordinates and a false alarm probability analysis showing that the contamination fraction is ˜ 0.5. This methodology has already identified the host galaxy of GRB 080517. We combine survey photometry from Pan-STARRS, SDSS, APASS, 2MASS, GALEX and WISE with our own WHT/ACAM and VLT/X-shooter observations to classify the candidates and identify interlopers. Galaxy SED fitting is performed using MAGPHYS, in addition to stellar template fitting, yielding 13 possible IR-bright hosts. A further 7 candidates are identified from previously published work. We report a candidate host for GRB 061002, previously unidentified as such. The remainder of the galaxies have already been noted as potential hosts. Comparing the IR-bright population properties including redshift z, stellar mass M⋆, star formation rate SFR and V-band attenuation AV to GRB host catalogues in the literature, we find that the infrared-bright population is biased toward low z, high M⋆ and high AV. This naturally arises from their initial selection - local and dusty galaxies are more likely to have the required IR flux to be detected in WISE. We conclude that while IR-bright GRB hosts are not a physically distinct class, they are useful for constraining existing GRB host populations, particularly for long GRBs.

  11. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  13. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  14. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Team

    2010-01-01

    The 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is making detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Cerro Toco in northern Chile. In this talk, I focus on the design and operation of the telescope and its commissioning instrument, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The camera contains three independent sets of optics that operate at 148 GHz, 217 GHz, and 277 GHz with arcminute resolution, each of which couples to a 1024-element array of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. I will report on the camera performance, including the beam patterns, optical efficiencies, and detector sensitivities. Under development for ACT is a new polarimeter based on feedhorn-coupled TES devices that have improved sensitivity and are planned to operate at 0.1 K.

  15. The site conditions of the Guo Shou Jing Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Song; Liu Chao; Zhang Haotong; Deng Licai; Zhang Yueyang; Li Jing; Liu Nian; Zhou Xu; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Chen Li; Hou Jinliang; Christlieb Norbert; Han Zhanwen; Lee, Hsu-Tai; Liu Xiaowei; Pan Kaike; Wang Hongchi

    2012-01-01

    The weather at the Xinglong Observing Station, where the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (GSJT) is located, is strongly affected by the monsoon climate in northeast China. The LAMOST survey strategy is constrained by these weather patterns. We present statistics on observing hours from 2004 to 2007, and the sky brightness, seeing, and sky transparency from 1995 to 2011 at the site. We investigate effects of the site conditions on the survey plan. Operable hours each month show a strong correlation with season: on average there are eight operable hours per night available in December, but only one—two hours in July and August. The seeing and the sky transparency also vary with season. Although the seeing is worse in windy winters, and the atmospheric extinction is worse in the spring and summer, the site is adequate for the proposed scientific program of the LAMOST survey. With a Monte Carlo simulation using historical data on the site condition, we find that the available observation hours constrain the survey footprint from 22 h to 16 h in right ascension; the sky brightness allows LAMOST to obtain a limiting magnitude of V = 19.5 mag with S/N=10.

  16. EXO-ZODI MODELING FOR THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Panić, Olja; Shannon, Andrew [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Rieke, George H.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Su, Katherine Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bryden, Geoffrey; Mennesson, Bertrand; Morales, Farisa; Serabyn, Eugene [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Danchi, William C.; Roberge, Aki; Stapelfeldt, Karl R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Haniff, Chris [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Lebreton, Jérémy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Millan-Gabet, Rafael [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogs around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the solar system's zodiacal cloud, so characterization of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than solar system levels. Here we present a modeling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10{sup –4} the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the solar system level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.

  17. XSPECT telescopes on the SRG: optical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Polny, Josef; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    The XSPECT, thin foil, multiply nested telescope on SRG has been designed to achieve a large effective area at energies between 6 and 15 keV. The design goal for the angular resolution is 2 arcmin (HPD). Results of foil figure error measurements are presented. A ray tracing analysis was performed...... including results of earlier scattering measurements and the foil determination. The results of the analysis are compared with test measurements with X rays and show that there is a larger spread in the PSF than the model can account for. The decrease in effective area due to scattering is estimated...... to be 30% when the photons that scatter more than 6 arcmin are regarded as lost. The vignetting at off-axis angles leads to an effective area at the edge of the FOV which is 15% of that of an on-axis source....

  18. RHCV Telescope System Operations Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    KRISTOFFER A. SMITH-RODRIGUEZ, LTCOL, USAF Chief, Warfighter Interface Division Airman Systems Directorate This report is published in the...other system components via ASCOM protocols. 1. Start the MaxImDL application using the desktop shortcut (a) Start Observatory dialog, (b...the desktop shortcut (a) Select “Connect Telescope” from Startup menu in Telescope tab (b) Select “Look Up” icon on ribbon menu at the top right of

  19. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shruthi, C. S.; Poojya, R.; Ram, Swati; Anupama,

    2017-01-01

    Patient: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Discussion: Con...

  20. Telescopic mine roof-support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, A

    1989-05-17

    A mining roof support which includes a main body consisting of a pair of telescopically associated elongated members and which slide relative to each other to extend the support, engaging one of the members. A locking plate which is movable into engagement with the member by means of a lever operated cam causes tilting of the plate to engage the member and then to raise the member and lock it in the raised position. 1 fig.

  1. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  2. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, C. S.; Poojya, R.; Ram, Swati; Anupama

    2017-01-01

    Patient: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Discussion: Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient. A telescopic denture was chosen as a favourable treatment option since it overcomes many of the problems posed by conventional complete dentures like progressive bone loss, lower stability and retention, loss of periodontal proprioception and low masticatory efficiency. It also provides minimal tissue coverage and better distribution of forces. Evaluation of occlusion, esthetics, phonetics and comfort after 24 hours, 1 week and 1 month of treatment showed that the patient was happy with the prosthesis and was able to speak and chew well. Conclusion: Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to conventional complete dentures. They improve the chewing efficiency, patient comfort and also decrease the alveolar bone resorption. As such they are an excellent alternative to conventional complete denture treatment. PMID:28533736

  3. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  4. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  5. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  6. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, C S; Poojya, R; Ram, Swati; Anupama

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient. A telescopic denture was chosen as a favourable treatment option since it overcomes many of the problems posed by conventional complete dentures like progressive bone loss, lower stability and retention, loss of periodontal proprioception and low masticatory efficiency. It also provides minimal tissue coverage and better distribution of forces. Evaluation of occlusion, esthetics, phonetics and comfort after 24 hours, 1 week and 1 month of treatment showed that the patient was happy with the prosthesis and was able to speak and chew well. Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to conventional complete dentures. They improve the chewing efficiency, patient comfort and also decrease the alveolar bone resorption. As such they are an excellent alternative to conventional complete denture treatment.

  7. Bright emission lines in new Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, V.L.; Denisiuk, E.K.; Lipovetskii, V.A.; Shapovalova, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Observational data are given on bright emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, and forbidden N II, S II, and O III) for 14 recently discovered Seyfert galaxies. The investigated objects can be divided into three groups, which correspond approximately to the first (5 objects), the intermediate (4 objects), and the second (4 objects) Seyfert types. Attention is drawn to the properties of the galaxy Markaryan 1018, which has features of both the first and the second type and is distinguished by the weakness of its emission lines, which is probably due to a gas deficit. 7 references

  8. Stray light characteristics of the diffractive telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dun; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Wei; Wu, Shibin; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Diffractive telescope technology is an innovation solution in construction of large light-weight space telescope. However, the nondesign orders of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) may affect the imaging performance as stray light. To study the stray light characteristics of a diffractive telescope, a prototype was developed and its stray light analysis model was established. The stray light characteristics including ghost, point source transmittance, and veiling glare index (VGI) were analyzed. During the star imaging test of the prototype, the ghost images appeared around the star image as the exposure time of the charge-coupled device improving, consistent with the simulation results. The test result of VGI was 67.11%, slightly higher than the calculated value 57.88%. The study shows that the same order diffraction of the diffractive primary lens and correcting DOE is the main factor that causes ghost images. The stray light sources outside the field of view can illuminate the image plane through nondesign orders diffraction of the primary lens and contributes to more than 90% of the stray light flux on the image plane. In summary, it is expected that these works will provide some guidance for optimizing the imaging performance of diffractive telescopes.

  9. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  10. The Chrysalis Opens? Photometry from the η Carinae Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Project, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, Kris; Koppelman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    During the past decade η Car has brightened markedly, possibly indicating a change of state. Here we summarize photometry gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the HST Treasury Project on this object. Our data include Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) CCD acquisition images, Advanced Camera for Surveys HRC images in four filters, and synthetic photometry in flux-calibrated STIS spectra. The HST's spatial resolution allows us to examine the central star separate from the bright circumstellar ejecta. Its apparent brightness continued to increase briskly during 2002-2006, especially after the mid-2003 spectroscopic event. If this trend continues, the central star will soon become brighter than its ejecta, quite different from the state that existed only a few years ago. One precedent may be the rapid change observed in 1938-1953. We conjecture that the star's mass-loss rate has been decreasing throughout the past century. This research was conducted as part of the η Car Hubble Space Telescope Treasury project via grant GO-9973 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  11. Search for neutrino point sources with an all-sky autocorrelation analysis in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcati, Andrea; Bernhard, Anna; Coenders, Stefan [TU, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope located in the Antarctic ice. Its full-sky field of view gives unique opportunities to study the neutrino emission from the Galactic and extragalactic sky. Recently, IceCube found the first signal of astrophysical neutrinos with energies up to the PeV scale, but the origin of these particles still remains unresolved. Given the observed flux, the absence of observations of bright point-sources is explainable with the presence of numerous weak sources. This scenario can be tested using autocorrelation methods. We present here the sensitivities and discovery potentials of a two-point angular correlation analysis performed on seven years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2015. The test is applied on the northern and southern skies separately, using the neutrino energy information to improve the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  13. Bright point study. [of solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.

  14. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavári, Tamás; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A.; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S. Michael; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160,000 HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the HLA are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavári & Lubow. The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (I.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astrometric accuracy is better than 0''\\hspace{-0.5em}. 1 for most sources, but can be much larger for a fraction of fields that could not be matched to the PanSTARRS, SDSS, or 2MASS reference systems. In this paper we describe the database design with emphasis on those aspects that enable the users to fully exploit the catalog while avoiding common misunderstandings and potential pitfalls. We provide usage examples to illustrate some of the science capabilities and data quality characteristics, and briefly discuss plans for future improvements to the Hubble Source Catalog.

  15. Parsec-Scale Properties of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin Dee

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. The low-synchrotron peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac

  16. The Photometry Pipeline of the Watcher Robotic Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Watcher robotic telescope was developed primarily to perform rapid optical follow-up observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs. Secondary scientific goals include blazar monitoring and variable star studies. An automated photometry pipeline to rapidly analyse data from Watcher has been implemented. Details of the procedures to get image zero-point, source instrumental measurement, and limiting magnitude are presented. Sources of uncertainty are assessed and the performance of the pipeline is tested by comparison with a number of catalogue sources.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies. (1 data file).

  18. Brightness and transparency in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Viljami R; Vanni, Simo

    2013-06-24

    Several psychophysical studies have shown that transparency can have drastic effects on brightness and lightness. However, the neural processes generating these effects have remained unresolved. Several lines of evidence suggest that the early visual cortex is important for brightness perception. While single cell recordings suggest that surface brightness is represented in the primary visual cortex, the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been discrepant. In addition, the location of the neural representation of transparency is not yet known. We investigated whether the fMRI responses in areas V1, V2, and V3 correlate with brightness and transparency. To dissociate the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to brightness from the response to local border contrast and mean luminance, we used variants of White's brightness illusion, both opaque and transparent, in which luminance increments and decrements cancel each other out. The stimuli consisted of a target surface and a surround. The surround luminance was always sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 Hz to induce brightness modulation to the target. The target luminance was constant or modulated in counterphase to null brightness modulation. The mean signal changes were calculated from the voxels in V1, V2, and V3 corresponding to the retinotopic location of the target surface. The BOLD responses were significantly stronger for modulating brightness than for stimuli with constant brightness. In addition, the responses were stronger for transparent than for opaque stimuli, but there was more individual variation. No interaction between brightness and transparency was found. The results show that the early visual areas V1-V3 are sensitive to surface brightness and transparency and suggest that brightness and transparency are represented separately.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  20. The VELA-X-Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, Alice K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2deg × 3deg south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.