Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G; Lee, Suzanne E; Dingus, Thomas A
In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ≤-0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure.
Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Almani, Farideh; Falk, Emily B; Shope, Jean T; Buckley, Lisa; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Albert, Paul S
Serious crashes are more likely when teenage drivers have teenage passengers. One likely source of this increased risk is social influences on driving performance. This driving simulator study experimentally tested the effects of peer influence (i.e., risk-accepting compared to risk-averse peer norms reinforced by pressure) on the driving risk behavior (i.e., risky driving behavior and inattention to hazards) of male teenagers. It was hypothesized that peer presence would result in greater driving risk behavior (i.e., increased driving risk and reduced latent hazard anticipation), and that the effect would be greater when the peer was risk-accepting. Fifty-three 16- and 17-year-old male participants holding a provisional U.S., State of Michigan driver license were randomized to either a risk-accepting or risk-averse condition. Each participant operated a driving simulator while alone and separately with a confederate peer passenger. The simulator world included scenarios designed to elicit variation in driving risk behavior with a teen passenger present in the vehicle. Significant interactions of passenger presence (passenger present vs. alone) by risk condition (risk-accepting vs. risk-averse) were observed for variables measuring: failure to stop at yellow light intersections (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95CI]=1.06, 4.43); higher probability of overtaking (IRR=10.17; 95CI=1.43, 73.35); shorter left turn latency (IRR=0.43; 95CI=0.31,0.60); and, failure to stop at an intersection with an occluded stop sign (IRR=7.90; 95CI=2.06,30.35). In all cases, greater risky driving by participants was more likely with a risk-accepting passenger versus a risk-averse passenger present and a risk-accepting passenger present versus driving alone. Exposure of male teenagers to a risk-accepting confederate peer passenger who applied peer influence increased simulated risky driving behavior compared with exposure to a risk-averse confederate peer
Newcomer, Susan F.; Udry, J. Richard
Examined the influence of mothers' sexual experiences as teenagers on their teenage children's current sexual behaviors (N=495). Results suggested little of the demonstrated relationship is transmitted through the differential attitudes or communication patterns of mothers with differing early sexual experience. (JAC)
Influence of parental guidance on teenage pregnancy among female adolescent secondary school student in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun ... communication, care and support, guidance and counseling and sex education, because parents are the earliest or first socialization agents in children's lives.
The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...
To establish PEF values for teenage boys in a Cape Town suburb and examine factors that possibly influence this measurement. Setting. A high school for boys in the southern suburbs of CapeTown. Methods. Measurements of PEF were taken for 124 boys. Subjects were approximately 16 years old and apparently healthy ...
Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова
Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized
Mastro Naccarato, Irene Del
The main objectives of this research, that took place in Lima between 2012 and 2013, were to analyze: a) the consequences of teenage motherhood in education, labor and family and b) the factors that influence the reconfiguration of the life trajectories of the teenage mothers after the pregnancy period. After interviewing thirteen teenage mothers that come from different socioeconomic backgrounds and whose children age range between 2-5 years old, we find two types of trajectories: a) the tee...
Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.
Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.
Keall, Michael D; Frith, William J; Patterson, Tui L
Breath alcohol measurements and other data collected at randomly selected roadside sites were combined with data on fatally injured drivers in crashes occurring on the same weekdays and times (Friday and Saturday nights) at locations matched by the size of the nearest town. A logistic model was fitted to these data for the years 1995-2000 to estimate the effects of alcohol, driver's age and the influence of passengers carried on the risk of driver fatal injury in New Zealand. The estimated risks increased steeply with increasing blood alcohol concentration (BAC), closely following an exponential curve at levels below about 200mg/dl (i.e. 0.2%) and increasing less than exponentially thereon. The model fitted to data for drivers under 200mg/dl showed that risks at all BAC levels were statistically significantly higher for drivers aged under 20 (over five times) and for drivers aged 20-29 (three times) than for drivers aged 30 and over. Further, controlling for age and BAC level, driving with a single passenger was associated with approximately half the night-time risk of driver fatal injury relative to driving either solo or with two or more passengers. According to a recent travel survey, the types of passengers carried at the times of night and days of week studied appear to differ significantly from the types of passengers carried generally, which may lead to different passenger effects on driver behaviour. The high relative risk of teenage drivers means that they reach high risk levels commonly regarded as unacceptable in the field of road safety even at their current legal limit of 30mg/dl, particularly when more than one passenger is carried in the car.
Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.
Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...
Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart
Because young drivers' vehicles have been found to offer poor occupant protection in many countries, this study sought to identify the most appropriate audience for information and publicity designed to change purchasing preferences to improve these vehicles and resultant injury outcomes. An analysis of New Zealand vehicles crashed by drivers aged 19 years or less linked to data on the owner of the vehicle was undertaken. Details on the crashed vehicles were merged with licensing information to identify the owner's age group. It was presumed that most vehicles driven by teens but owned by someone aged 30 to 59 would be owned by a parent of the teen. Only 14 percent of vehicles crashed by teens were owned by teens. Generally, older vehicles with poor crashworthiness were provided for the teenage driver, whatever the age group of the owner. However, cars crashed by teens but owned by their parents were on average almost 2 years younger and had relatively superior crashworthiness than the teenager-owned and crashed vehicles, although their crashworthiness was still poor compared to vehicles driven by older drivers. Evidently, parents are key people in making vehicle purchasing decisions regarding the cars that teenagers drive and should be the main audience for measures to improve the poor secondary safety performance of teenagers' vehicles.
Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J
Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.
Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi
Motorcycle passengers comprise a considerable proportion of traffic crash victims. During a 5 year period (2006-2010) in Iran, an average of 3.4 pillion passengers are killed daily due to motorcycle crashes. This study investigated the main factors influencing crash severity of this group of road users. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) method was employed to analyze the injury severity of pillion passengers in Iran over a 4 y ear period (2009-2012). The predictive accuracy of the model built with a total of 16 variables was 74%, which showed a considerable improvement compared to previous studies. The results indicate that area type, land use, and injured part of the body (head, neck, etc.) are the most influential factors affecting the fatality of motorcycle passengers. Results also show that helmet usage could reduce the fatality risk among motorcycle passengers by 28%. The findings of this study might help develop more targeted countermeasures to reduce the death rate of motorcycle pillion passengers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The thesis "YouTubers and their influence on the values and development of teenagers in the Czech Republic" aims to determine the influence of people producing and presenting their own videos on the video-sharing website YouTube, the so-called YouTubers, on the social and educational development of teenagers. YouTube is a phenomenon of today's young generation which spends much more time on social networks than in front of television or print media, so the impact of this media on young people...
Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra
Though there have been quite a number of research studies focusing on how Singaporean families promote literacy and instill values of academic excellence inside the home, little has been written about how families nurture the gifts of teenagers talented in the arts in the Singaporean context. This article highlights how the family influences the…
Bert, Shannon Carothers
This project assessed the influence of religiosity and spirituality on the socioemotional and behavioral adjustment of 110 adolescent mothers and their teenage offspring at age 14. Maternal religiosity, measured prenatally and when children were 3, 5, and 8 years of age, was defined as involvement in church as well as contact with and dependence…
Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong
Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.
Full Text Available The presented paper concerns itself with passenger car maintenance companies and their competitiveness. Internal and external influences, change drivers and general changes in the companies and their organisation were identified and analysed. The influence of the development of technology and the diffusion of innovations are highlighted in particular. Under consideration of the competitiveness factors, current and future challenges for the passenger car maintenance companies were worked out. Based on these analyses, future tasks, problem statements and challenges were compiled for passenger car maintenance companies from which other subjects of scientific investigation in area of strategic and economic importance arose.
Ergeshali kyzy A.
Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.
Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.
Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko
The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.
Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate
Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).
Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995
This theme issue of the Bernard van Leer Foundation newsletter focuses on the problem of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood in developing and developed nations, and examines the problems that teenage mothers face in different societies. It explores societal norms and values related to teenage parenting; the effects of teenage parents on…
McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R; Fields, Michele; Braitman, Keli A; Hellinga, Laurie A
The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of the strength of US state graduated driver licensing laws and specific licensing components on the rate of teenage driver fatal crash involvements per 100,000 teenagers during 1996-2007. The strengths of state laws were rated good, fair, marginal, or poor based on a system developed previously by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Analysis was based on quarterly counts of drivers involved in fatal crashes. Associations of overall ratings and individual licensing components with teenage crash rates were evaluated using Poisson regression, with the corresponding fatal crash rate for drivers ages 30-59 controlling for state- or time-dependent influences on crash rates unrelated to graduated licensing laws. Compared with licensing laws rated poor, laws rated good were associated with 30 percent lower fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Laws rated fair yielded fatal crash rates 11 percent lower. The longer the permit age was delayed, or the longer the licensing age was delayed, the lower the estimated fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Stronger nighttime restrictions were associated with larger reductions, and reductions were larger for laws limiting teenage passengers to zero or one than laws allowing two or more teenage passengers or laws without passenger restrictions. After the effects of any related delay in licensure were accounted for, an increase in the minimum learner's permit holding period showed no association with fatal crash rates. An increase in required practice driving hours did not appear to have an independent association with fatal crash rates. Graduated licensing laws that include strong nighttime and passenger restrictions and laws that delay the learner's permit age and licensing age are associated with lower teenage fatal crash rates. States that adopt such laws can expect to achieve substantial reductions in crash deaths.
Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana
The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.
Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.
Seyedeh Samira Mokhlesi
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy in low age has been proposed as one of the important factors causing risks and adverse outcomes. One of these complications is low birth weight (LBW, which is an important health indicator in any countries. In this study, texts related to Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in teenage mothers was reviewed. Methods: In the present study, articles indexed in the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, were used. Results: In the present study, a total of 22 articles related to teenage pregnancy and low birth weight were studied. Also, all factors influencing infants’ low birth weight in teenegers were evaluated in the areas of biological and environmental factors. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that environmental and biological parameters are factors influencing low birth weight in teenage pregnancy. Thus, to reduce social problem of low birth weight and to improve this indicator in both environmental and biological issues, health intervention is necessary.
Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Grunsten, Ryan A; Salihu, Hamisu M
We sought to assess the impact of paternal involvement on adverse birth outcomes in teenage mothers. Using vital records data, we generated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the association between paternal involvement and fetal outcomes in 192,747 teenage mothers. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Data were obtained from vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2007. The study population consisted of 192,747 teenage mothers ≤ 20 years old with live single births in the State of Florida. Low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm birth, very preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and infant death. Risks of SGA (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.10), low birth weight (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.15-1.23), very low birth weight (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.41-1.67), preterm birth (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.17-1.25), and very preterm birth (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) were elevated for mothers in the father-absent group. When results were stratified by race, black teenagers in the father-absent group had the highest risks of adverse birth outcomes when compared to white teenagers in the father-involved group. Lack of paternal involvement is a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes among teenage mothers; risks are most pronounced among African-American teenagers. Our findings suggest that increased paternal involvement can have a positive impact on birth outcomes for teenage mothers, which may be important for decreasing the racial disparities in infant morbidities. More studies assessing the impact of greater paternal involvement on birth outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kapoula, Zoï; Ruiz, Sarah; Spector, Lisa; Mocorovi, Marion; Gaertner, Chrystal; Quilici, Catherine; Vernet, Marine
Are dyslexic children and teenagers more creative than non-dyslexic children and teenagers? Whether creativity is higher in dyslexia, and whether this could be related to neurological development specific to the dyslexic disorder, or to compensatory strategies acquired later in life, remains unclear. Here, we suggest an additional role of differential educational approaches taken in each school that could either enhance or suppress an already higher baseline creativity of dyslexic children and teenagers. Creativity in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children and teenagers from different schools in France and in Belgium, as well as in students from different universities, was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Children and teenagers with dyslexia and/or with other similar dysfunctions showed higher creativity scores than non-dyslexic participants. Moreover, the educational approach could further enhance the creative scores in dyslexia, which could be as high as those measured in students from art universities. We conclude that dyslexic children and teenagers can be highly creative. Yet, expression of creativity can be modulated by educational approach, indicating a probable advantage for personal follow-up compared to normalizing education strategies.
Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel
Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.
Full Text Available Up-today intercity passenger transportation is needed to consider fluctuations in demand for services over time. Designated fluctuations in demand mainly linked to the onset of a period of national or religious celebrations holidays, mass vacation in summer, internal and international sports and cultural activities, ect. Therefore, these demand irregularity of using public intercity transport should be considered when managing transportation. In issue to meet the needs of passengers moving within existing fluctuations in demand can decide to change the parameters of the components of the transport system. These changes include variety in amount or type of vehicles, schedules, changes in traffic patterns routes, introduction of these routes, limiting of the passenger’s purchasing ability fares and so on. It is important to determine the passenger’s place in the social, economic or cultural development of the population overemphasized. Therefore, regulation of activity of the public transport services must satisfy the possibility of these services within acceptable financial, time and physical burden for passengers. So, component optimization efficiency of intercity passengers’ transportation should take place in harmony with the social and economic development of society. The requirements set out not to satisfy the demand of passengers to move through extra large fare, lack of communication between bus transport areas with constant correspondence, failure to comply with increasing comfort haulage transport of tiredness or lack of means of transport are unacceptable phenomena. On the one hand the importance of the social dimension in long-distance traffic route of transport. In accordance with the meaning specified the need for balanced decision-making on the management system of passenger traffic. Invention compromise between technical and economic level to meet the demand and requirements of the conservation of expenditure
B. Ts. Batozhargalova
Full Text Available Comparative epidemiological research on studying prevalence tobacco smoking and respiratory symptoms among rural teenagers with bronchial asthma. Control group have made non-smoking (n = 59, and skilled — smoking teenagers (n = 72. Prevalence of smoking among adolescents with bronchial asthma has made 55% against 44,3% on the average at adolescents (p < 0.05. At smokers sick of a bronchial asthma the presence of respiratory complaints, level of СO in exhaled air and urinary cotinine has been raised. Authentic communication of smoking with a series of symptoms bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis in teenagers, shown is taped by a high and average parity of chances.
George L. Peterson
The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...
In order to measure the effect on the attention of teenagers of thermal discomfort due to high temperature and humidity, two experiments were conducted in two different indoor conditions of temperature and humidity in non-air-conditioned classrooms. The participants were a heterogeneous group of 117 teenagers, aged 12 to 18 years, and the experiments reproduced the actual conditions of teaching in a classroom in the Mediterranean climate. In order to measure the attention index, a standard Toulouse-Pieron psychological test was performed on the 117 teenagers in these two conditions, and the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), the Standard effective Temperature (SET*) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices were calculated to estimate the grade of discomfort using the RayMan Pro model. Conditions of greater discomfort decreased the attention index in the whole group, especially in those aged 12-14, among whom the attention index dropped by around 45 % when compared to comfortable conditions. However, teenage attention at ages 17 and 18 shows little variation in discomfort in respect to thermally comfortable conditions. In addition, the attention index for boys and girls shows the same variation in discomfort conditions. However, girls have a slightly higher attention index than boys in discomfort and thermal comfort experiments.
Knight, Abigail; Chase, Elaine; Aggleton, Peter
Previous research has shown that children and young people who are looked after are vulnerable to poor life outcomes, including early pregnancy. This paper examines how experiences of being looked after may contribute to teenage pregnancy. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 63 young people recently looked after who are aged 15-24…
Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France
Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults.
Maravilla, Joemer C; Betts, Kim S; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa
Existing evidence of predictors of repeated teenage pregnancy has not been assessed rigorously. This systematic review provides a comprehensive evaluation of protective and risk factors that are associated with repeated teenage pregnancy through a metaanalytical consensus. We used PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 1997-2015 and the reference list of other relevant research papers and related reviews. Eligibility criteria included (1) epidemiologic studies that analyzed factors associated with repeated pregnancy or birth among adolescents pregnancy, and (2) experimental studies with an observational component that was adjusted for the intervention. We performed narrative synthesis of study characteristics, participant characteristics, study results, and quality assessment. We also conducted random-effects and quality-effects metaanalyses with meta-regression to obtain pooled odds ratios of identified factors and to determine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-six eligible epidemiologic studies, most from the United States (n=24), showed >47 factors with no evidence of publication bias for each metaanalysis. Use of contraception (pooled odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.02), particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives (pooled odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.45), considerably reduced repeated teenage pregnancy risk. Among studies about contraception, the number of follow-up visits (adjusted coefficient, 0.72; P=.102) and country of study (unadjusted coefficient, 2.57; permuted P=.071) explained between-study heterogeneity. Education-related factors, which included higher level of education (pooled odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.91) and school continuation (pooled odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.84), were found to be protective. Conversely, depression (pooled odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1
Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L
Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.
Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan," which was a cross-sectional survey of 1111 intellectually disabled (ID) teenagers ranging from 12 to 18 years of age. The results showed that the completed hepatitis B vaccination rate was 72.9%, a rate lower than that in the general population of Taiwan considering the same age group. There was no gender difference between each age group in the vaccination rate in this population. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that those ID individuals whose primary caregivers were parents or siblings (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.29-4.64), whose household monthly income was 20,000-59,999 NTD vs. less than 20,000 NTD (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.00-6.12), and who had ever undergone an oral health exam (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.24-4.01) were more likely to receive a complete hepatitis B vaccination than their counterparts. The study highlighted that most teenagers had received complete hepatitis B vaccination. Nonetheless, better public health strategies may be needed to deliver the hepatitis B vaccine to those who do not comply with the vaccination schedule in the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...
Full Text Available Traffic, mostly the air and car traffic is the biggest producer of CO2 (51% at present. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases with more than 50 % of emissions contributing to this major global ecological problem. A rising concetration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to higher global temperatures. The main problem is the rise of CO2 emissions in most developed countries despite international undertakings accepted in 80´s. This is the main reason for finding solutions to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the traffic. One of many solutions is the use of LPG fuel. The purpose of this article is to quantify the efficiency of using LPG in personal passenger cars.
Full Text Available Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ about the experienced satisfaction with the characteristics of this communication. In Bulgaria during July-August 2013, 60 mothers and their children completed the same questionnaires. The results revealed an unexpected finding only for the Greek sample - the quality of relationship between doctor and patient (for both Greek mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with their scores on CES-D (i.e. low level of depression together with low satisfaction derived from the relationship with the doctor, while no differences were found between the participants’ groups (mothers, children, acute or chronic disease. This surprising finding of high depression-high satisfaction was not found in the Bulgarian sample and therefore needs further investigation.
Lara, Diana; Decker, Martha J; Brindis, Claire D
Teenage birth rates among young people aged 15-19 years in California, USA, have declined from 47 births per 1000 in 2000 to 24 per 1000 in 2013. Nevertheless, the US counties with the highest teenage birth rates are predominantly rural and have a high proportion of Latinos/as. We conducted 42 interviews with key stakeholders and 12 focus groups with 107 young people in five rural communities to better understand local migration patterns and their influence on intermediate and proximate variables of pregnancy, such as interaction with role models and barriers to access contraception. The migration patterns identified were: residential mobility due to seasonal jobs, residential mobility due to economic and housing changes and migration from other countries to California. These patterns affect young people and families' interactions with school and health systems and other community members, creating both opportunities and barriers to prevent risky sexual behaviours. In rural areas, residential mobility and migration to the USA interconnect. As a result, young people dually navigate the challenges of residential mobility, while also adapting to the dominant US culture. It is important to promote programmes that support the integration of immigrant youth to reduce their sense of isolation, as well as to assure access to sexual health education and reproductive health services.
McClellan, Mary C.
Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)
Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.
Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…
Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically
... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...
Ouimet, Marie Claude; Morton, Bruce G Simons; Noelcke, Elizabeth A; Williams, Allan F; Leaf, William A; Preusser, David F; Hartos, Jessica L
average of "A," not smoking cigarettes, driving a passenger vehicle, and never receiving a traffic citation or engaging in risky driving behaviors, including driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs and running a red light. While the effect size was small for perceived risk of non-use, it is a modifiable factor and focused intervention contrived to enhance perceived risk could increase teenagers' belt use. Perceived risk is discussed as a target for intervention in relation to the Protection Motivation Theory. This theory appears helpful in guiding future research into the modifiable factors studied here as well as other factors, including perceived rewards and costs associated with non-use.
Rivara, F P; Rivara, M B; Bartol, K
To determine the role of vehicle safety features, particularly vehicle size and weight, compared with other factors in parental decisions about choosing vehicles for teens to drive. Written questionnaire to parents of teenagers attending drivers education training. The response rate to the survey was 62.6%. Two thirds reported that the teen would drive an existing family vehicle, 10.5% would buy an additional vehicle, and 20.3% would buy another vehicle as well as have the teen drive an existing family vehicle. Large size was important to only approximately 40% of families purchasing a car for the teen or families in which the teen would use an existing family vehicle. Gas mileage and other safety features were ranked as more important even in families in which a large car was available in the household. Families did not rank vehicle size and weight as important as other, less effective safety features in choosing cars for their teens. Information about vehicle crash-worthiness should be incorporated into drivers education and other programs reaching new teen drivers and their families.
Bogomolova, E S; Kuzmichev, Yu G; Olushina, E A; Polyashova, A S; Kotova, N V; Badeeva, T V; Ashina, M V; Maksimenko, E O; Kiseleva, A S; Pisareva, A N; Kovalchuk, S N; Shaposhnikova, M V
There was revealed the structure of deteriorations in the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city: the most of students has normal nutritional status, but there was noted the high prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children and teenagers. Risk factors for development of deteriorations of the nutrition state were detected as follows: irrational food regimen, qualitative compartment offood, factors of educational environment, lifestyle. The main role in system of control of the nutritional status in children is referred to the correction of socio-hygienic factors which prove to be the priority ones in the shaping of the nutritional status in students. As the main condition determining the nutrition state of the up-to-date schoolchildren and the quality of their life in the whole the social cultural level of children and adolescents must be regarded as a result of the hygienic education and training in fundamentals of healthy lifestyle. Priority protective factors of the gain in the part of schoolchildren with normal nutritional status (optimalfood regimen, optimal dietary habits, sufficient level of physical activity) laidfrom the child age in conditions of the family, sufficient level of the physical activity and the implementation of the other element of hygienically expedient day regimen served as the base for the elaboration of the system of the control of nutritional status. Algorithm of the control of the nutritional status in the students of educational institutions includes the creation of healthcare educational environment, optimization of nutrition and physical activity, the shaping of the culture of healthy lifestyle, health-improving measures for children with disorders of nutritional status and their psychological pedagogical supports at the stage of the correction of the nutritional status, improvement of the medical service for the early detection of deviations of nutritional status with the estimation of the efficiency of
Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.
Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri
Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...
The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.
Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...
Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults.
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of traffic parameters that ensure the minimum value of the transfer waiting time for passengers. On the basis of experimental studies results, a regression equation to determine the probability of realisation of the planned transfer between a pair of vehicles was proposed. Using the identified regression equation, the transfer waiting time can be assessed for any headway exceeding 7,5 min.
Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Baena-Ariza, María Teresa; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta
To examine the influence of a child or adolescent with intellectual disabilities on the family unit. A systematic review of the literature, following the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Psicodoc databases. Original articles were found, published in the last 5 years, in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian or French, with summary and full text and satisfactory or good methodological quality. Two independent researchers agreed on their decisions. In general, care is provided in the family, mothers assume the greater responsibility, and their wellbeing is lower than that of fathers. Having the support of the husband improves their quality of life. The fraternal subsystem can be affected, with regard to the warmth and the status/power of the relationship, and behavioural problems. Family health may be affected in all its dimensions: family functioning and atmosphere due to increased demands and changes in the organisation and distribution of roles; family resilience and family coping, due to rising costs and dwindling resources; family integrity could be strengthened by strengthened family ties. Quality of family life is enhanced by emotional support. These families may need individualised attention due to the increased demand for care, diminishing resources or other family health problems. Nurses using a family-centred care approach can identify these families and help them to normalise their situation by promoting their family health and the well-being of its members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Derksen-Lubsen, G; Jambroes, M; Essink-Bot, M L
There are about 1.8 million children between 10 and 18 years of age in the Netherlands in 2016. These teenagers account for approximately 10% of the total population. Teenagers are relatively healthy and do not make much use of curative care. However, they are an important group in terms of public health, because a basis for good health in later life is created in the teenage years. Good health in teenagers is also important for education, relationships and employment, and their health has an influence on the health of the next generation. Child and adolescent healthcare plays an important part in preventive care for teenagers. Better cooperation and exchange of information between paediatricians, specialists in child and adolescent healthcare and general practitioners are important in order to optimise care for teenagers.
Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Zador, Paul L; Lerner, Neil D; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D; Wang, Jing
Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15-20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger's age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System provided fatal motor vehicle crash data from 1999 to 2003 and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers' trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16-20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT=7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34-8.69; RR per 10 million VMT=9.94; 95% CI, 9.13-10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21-34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding crash risk
Cooreman, J.; Perdrizet, S.
The influences of home and school environment on teenage smoking were assessed according to sex differences, age differences, influence of adults, socioeconomic status, and coeducation v same sex grouping. (Author/DB)
El Tantawi, Maha; Bakhurji, Eman; Al-Ansari, Asim; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa S; AlSubaie, Abdulelah
The objective of this study is to investigate the association between oral health practices and similar practices adopted by parents, close friends and classmates in a group of Saudi male teenagers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in 2016 including 12-14-year-old intermediate school students (n = 478). A questionnaire assessed socioeconomic background, whether participants, their parents, close friends and classmates brushed twice daily, used tobacco, snacked on sugary foods or sugary drinks and perceiving a supportive classroom environment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association of parents', close friends', classmates' practices and classroom support with participants' four practices, controlling for socioeconomic factors. The response rate was 93.9%. In multivariate regression, close friends' practices had a strong significant association with teenagers' tooth brushing (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.09, 18.12), tobacco use (OR = 5.63; 95%CI = 3.44, 7.88), snacking on sugary foods (OR = 14.42; 95%CI = 7.89, 21.89) and sugary drinks (OR = 7.05; 95%CI = 5.97, 9.20). The percentages of classmates perceived to brush their teeth and use tobacco were significantly associated with the respective practices in teenagers (OR = 1.03 and 1.02). Fathers' snacking on sugary drinks was significantly associated with that of the teenagers (OR = 4.04; 95%CI= 1.03, 15.85). In early adolescence, four oral health practices of Saudi males were associated with those perceived to be adopted by their close friends. Fathers' use of sugary drinks was also significantly associated with that of teenagers.
Japanese prefecture level panel data for the period 1986–2003 was used to analyze and compare the determinants of teenage body mass index (BMI) by sex. Major findings through random effects estimation were as follows: (1) BMI consistently increased during the period in males aged 10–16 and in females aged 10–13 years, but not in 16-year-old females; (2) BMI was not influenced by the degree of population density in males and younger females. However, the BMI of 16-year-old females was markedly...
Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea
"Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…
Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J
The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.
L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)
textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to
Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...
Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the
The aim of this paper is to report a study exploring aspects of teenage pregnant women relationships with the fathers of their unborn children within the context of two contrasting demographic areas of the UK. The perceptions of teenage pregnant women on how they view their relationship with the fathers of their unborn babies has not been fully investigated. Three major categories emerged from the perspectives of 47 teenage pregnant women: (i) age of baby's father; (ii) education and employment status of baby's father; and (iii) ability of baby's father to provide financial support. Teenage pregnant women living in the south-east were more likely to maintain the relationship with fathers of their babies than those living in the north-west. This was found to be statistically significant. The age, employment status and education of the baby's father can influence the continuance of the partnership between the participant and of the father of her baby. The statistical difference in the maintenance of the relationship between the prospective parents may be associated with the continuing demographic and cultural characteristics of the north-west, where teenage pregnancy remains high and the south-east where the rates are low.
2013). For example, rates of automobile crashes are higher among teen drivers with teen passengers than among teenagers driving alone or adults...among youthful offenders than among adult criminals (Zimring & Laqueur, 2015). This group influ- ence on adolescents’ risk taking also has been...extant research on this topic has focused on correlations between parental monitoring and teen misbehavior, and the direction of causal influence has
Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y
This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.
Marino, Justin F.
Teenage parenting and pregnancy is discussed in terms of incidence, health consequences, effect on teenage growth and development, social and economic costs, and existing programs sponsored by DHEW (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare). (SBH)
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Your Teenager At School Page Content Article Body With the ... on the many ways that parents can help teenagers to succeed both scholastically and emotionally. Studies show ...
Ouimet, Marie Claude; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Zador, Paul L.; Lerner, Neil D.; Freedman, Mark; Duncan, Glen D.; Wang, Jing
Motor vehicle crashes are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in teenagers and young adults in the United States. Driving exposure and passenger presence, which can both vary by driver and passenger characteristics, are known to influence crash risk. Some studies have accounted for driving exposure in calculating young driver fatal crash risk in the presence of passengers, but none have estimated crash risk by driver sex and passenger age and sex. One possible reason for this gap is that data collection on driving exposure often precludes appropriate analyses. The purpose of this study was to examine, per 10 million vehicle trips (VT) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), the relative risk of fatal crash involvement in 15–20-year-old male and female drivers as a function of their passenger’s age and sex, using solo driving as the referent. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1999–2003) provided fatal motor vehicle crash data and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2001) provided VT and VMT. The NHTS collects driving exposure for both household and non-household members (e.g., friends, colleagues), but demographic characteristics only on household members. Missing age and sex of non-household passengers were imputed with hot deck using information from household passengers’ trips with non-household drivers, thereby enabling the calculation of crash rate and relative risk estimates based upon driver and passenger characteristics. Using this approach, the highest risk was found for young male drivers with 16–20-year-old passengers (relative risk [RR] per 10 million VT = 7.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.34–8.69; RR per 10 million VMT = 9.94; 95% CI, 9.13–10.81). Relative risk was also high for 21–34-year-old passengers, again particularly when both drivers and passengers were male. These effects warrant further investigation and underscore the importance of considering driving exposure by passenger characteristics in understanding
The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...
Wellings, K; Wadsworth, J; Johnson, A; Field, J; Macdowall, W
Teenage mothers and their children face poorer prospects in life than do women who delay motherhood until later in life. Moreover, patterns of early childbearing tend to be repeated in subsequent generations. Therefore, an understanding of the factors associated with early fertility is important for the prevention of adverse consequences. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles to explore these associations. Early sexual intercourse is an important predictor of early fertility, as is poor educational attainment, although it is not clear to what extent pregnancy acts to thwart academic ambitions, or to what extent poor educational performance leads to a need to seek personal fulfilment in other than academic goals. Thus, interventions designed to influence age at first intercourse and to improve educational performance both have potential in terms of impacting on teenage pregnancy rates. Family background also exerts a powerful influence on teenage fertility. Young people for whom one or both parents are absent are more likely to become parents early in life. However, the most important factor of family life determining the chances of teenage motherhood appear to be the quality of communication about sexual matters with the home. In terms of outcomes, teenage mothers are more likely to live in social housing, are less likely to be in paid employment and have larger than average sized families. Certain areas of the country, notably the older, run-down industrial areas, have higher rates of teenage motherhood than the newer, more prosperous areas. Because most of these effects are independent of one another, there is potential merit in intervening to prevent unintended conception at several points in a young woman's life. Primary preventive efforts are needed to reduce the rates at which teenage pregnancy occurs in this country. Yet, if the cycle of deprivation that means the children of young mothers themselves enter
classical music. Teenagers have issues of self-esteem and image that have to be taken into consideration when managing their skin problems. TEENAGERS (10 - 20 YEARS). The principal challenge during the teenage years is acne, but some other impor- tant dermatoses occur for the first time during this turbulent stage.
African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969
-Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries
Johnson, Dayna A; Meltzer, Lisa J; Zhang, Talan; Lu, Mei; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Stokes-Buzzelli, Stephanie; Duffy, Elizabeth; McKinnon, Brittany; Mahajan, Prashant; Redline, Susan; Joseph, Christine Lm
Insufficient sleep is common among caregivers and is associated with worse health outcomes; however, the contributors to poor sleep among caregivers are unknown. We investigated the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial stressors, and sleep among caregivers. Caregivers (n=98) of teenagers with asthma self-reported sleep duration (hours), sleep quality (very good to very bad), education (sleep, adjusting for possible confounders. Caregivers on average were 45.5 years, female (89%), and African American (90%). Average sleep duration was 5.9 hours (standard deviation: 1.5), 72% reported short sleep (sleep quality. After adjustment for covariates, caregivers with greater social support had a 44% (95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.98) lower odds of short sleep duration and slept 20.0 minutes (3.09, 37) longer on average. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with a 26% (1.11, 1.44) higher odds of short sleep and sleeping on average 6.08 minutes (-8.67, -3.49) less at night. SES and other psychosocial stressors were not associated with sleep. Caregivers had a high prevalence of short and poor quality sleep. Depressive symptoms were associated with shorter sleep, whereas social support was associated with longer sleep. Identifying factors that mitigate the effect of psychosocial stressors on sleep is warranted. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Đurđev Dušanka J.
Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .
The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.
McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Haire, Emily R
To assess parental decision making regarding the timing of teenagers initiating driving and monitoring teenagers' driving after licensure. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, states with varying licensing provisions, while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. States' differences in ages of obtaining learner's permits and licenses reflected different licensing laws, but most teenagers obtained permits and took road tests within the first few months after they became eligible. Common reasons for delaying obtaining permits were fulfilling driver education requirements and lack of readiness/immaturity. Insufficient practice driving most often delayed licensure. Among the parents interviewed, 33-49% believed the minimum licensure age should be 17 or older. Almost all parents planned to supervise teenagers' driving after licensure, and most wanted to know about speeding or distractions. When asked about in-vehicle devices to monitor teenagers' driving, 37-59% of parents had heard of them. Parents were least interested in using video cameras and about equally interested in computer chips and cell-phone-based GPS systems. Disinterest in monitoring devices most often was attributed to trusting teenagers or respecting their privacy. Licensing laws influence ages of initiating driving. Although many parents support licensing at 17 or older - higher than in all but one state - most teenagers initiate driving soon after reaching the minimum age. Parents plan to supervise teenagers' driving, and many say they are open to using in-vehicle monitoring devices. Many parents support a minimum licensing age of 17 or older and would consider in-vehicle devices to extend their supervision of teenager's driving.
Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…
Ronnqvist, Lilian; Sell, Roger D.
Teenage foreign language learners can better benefit from reading target-language literature if the works include real teenage books instead of abridged canonical classics. Teenage pupils like and want to understand these works because they provide access to the colloquial language used by native-speaking teenagers and because they have themes and…
It is important to seek an understanding of teenagers' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of teenagers in Bushbuckridge district in the Limpopo Province, South Africa, towards teenage pregnancy. An explorative qualitative research design was ...
Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Many programs emphasize subsequent pregnancy prevention and high school graduation among teenage mothers; however, less is known about their ability to increase financial earnings from employment opportunities while concurrently enrolled in school. This study evaluates factors influencing employment status among teenage mothers after…
Smyth, Bobby P
Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager\\'s drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children.
The study examined the influence of passengers' attitude, age, and gender on the risky driving behaviour of intercity commercial bus drivers in Osun state. This was with a view to assessing the roles played by the passengers in the overall service delivery of commercial bus drivers. Primary data were used in the study.
M S Richter
Full Text Available It is important to seek an understanding of teenagers’ perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die persepsies van tieners in die Bosbokrand-distrik in die Limpopo Provinsie, Suid-Afrika, te ondersoek en te beskryf. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...
Paranjothy, S; Broughton, H; Adappa, R; Fone, D
In this review, we examine the epidemiology of teenage pregnancy (girls aged 15-17 years) in the UK and consider the evidence for its impact on the health and well-being of the mother, the baby, the father and society. There has been some decrease in the teenage pregnancy rate over the last decade in the UK but rates are still considerably higher than those in other European countries. Pregnancy and childbirth during the teenage years are associated with increased risk of poorer health and well-being for both the mother and the baby, possibly reflecting the socio-economic factors that precede early pregnancy and childbirth. There is little evidence concerning the impact of teenage fatherhood on health and future studies should investigate this. The effect on society is a perpetuation of the widening gap in health and social inequalities. Public health interventions should aim to identify teenagers who are vulnerable and support those who are pregnant with evidence based interventions such as teenage antenatal clinics and access to initiatives that provide support for early parenthood.
Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek
Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.
The head of the Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit at the Department of Health discusses the incidence and causes of the UK's high teenage pregnancy rates and the risk factors. She outlines current Government strategy and progress towards reducing the rate of teenage conceptions. These include initiatives to improve sex and relationship education in schools.
Full Text Available The purpose. To evaluate the work of passenger locomotive protective devices in the test scenarios of collisions adopted in the Russian requirements to the passive safety system. Methodology. Minimization of the effects of incident collisions is done by inclusion of the passive safety devices designed to absorb the kinetic energy of collision in the car bodies bearing constructions. To estimate the maximum accelerations of the train, as well as the compressing longitudinal forces arising in the intercar connection during collisions the discrete mass model of the train is used. Interaction of the train cars was simulated by introducing intercar connections. Findings. At collision of a locomotive at 20 km/h speed (both in separate and in standard train, which does not have a passive safety system, with a vehicle of 10 tones weight the plastic deformations in the locomotive structural elements are observed. At collision of a locomotive with a vehicle, which a mass is comparable to the mass of the loaded car, the plastic deformations in the locomotive structural elements occur at the 10 km/h speed of collision. Originality. It is shown that to decrease the maximum longitudinal force occurring between the locomotive and an obstacle like a freight car of 80 tons mass to the standard value it is necessary to equip the end parts of locomotive with safety devices, which deformation is about 1.5 m. Practical value. To preserve the car structures integrity and passengers, staff and locomotive brigade safety at the incident collisions, a new generation passenger locomotives have to be equipped with the passive safety system devices. On this basis, it is necessary to conduct further researches in the field of passive safety systems for carriages.
Mary Njeri Kamaku; Helen Mberia
Social media use by teenagers in secondary schools is on the increase with more and more students accessing face book, twitter, You-tube, email and other social sites. Whereas students use such social networking positively, the amount of time spent on the sites that consume academic time has resulted to alarming poor performance which research has associated with lack of adequate revision time, inadequate sleep amounting to poor concentration, and truancy in schools. Sexual harassment is on t...
Full Text Available Surveys conducted in the Durban area of Natal showed that 18 per cent of all pregnancies occurred amongst teenagers with the incidence amongst the various population groups varying bëtween Whites 14 per cent, Indians 17 per cent, Coloureds and Blacks 20 per cent. This compares with a world-wide teenage pregnancy rate of 10-15 per cent. Amongst primigravid pregnancies 33 per cent Indians and 53 per cent of Africans were found to be 18 years of age or less.
Sedaghat-Yazdi, Farshad; Koenig, Peter R
Palpitations can result from cardiac awareness (increased conscious perception of the heart beating) or from a fast or irregular cardiac rhythm. Most causes for palpitations in the teenager can be diagnosed with minimal testing. Patients with an abnormal ECG, non-sinus tachycardia, abnormal cardiac examination, concerning family history, or palpitations associated with activity or syncope should be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This article discusses the evaluation, testing, and management of teenagers with palpitations. It also provides a general guideline for referral for subspecialty evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tal, Raanan; Hall, Matthew S; Alex, Byron; Choi, Judy; Mulhall, John P
Peyronie's disease (PD) is commonly seen in middle-aged men, and little is known about this condition in teenagers. To investigate the characteristics of PD in teenagers. The findings were compared between patients with the disease who were teenagers with those over 40 years of age. Statistical analyses were conducted to define differentiating features between these two groups. The demographics, clinical features, and associated comorbidities of patients with PD were reviewed. Thirty-two teenaged males were evaluated for PD in a single institution over a 10-year period. The median age for our cohort was 18 (15-19) years. Forty-five percent of patients had already been seen by another urologist, and 28% had been told they did not have PD. The mean duration of PD before seeking medical care in our cohort was 3 ± 1 months. Sixteen percent of patients reported antecedent penile trauma, half of which happened during coitus or masturbation, and 18% of patients had hemoglobin (Hb) A1c levels > 5%. Dupuytren's contracture was not seen in this population. Twenty-two percent of patients presented with penile pain. Subsequent ED was seen in 37% of patients. Multiple noncontiguous plaques were seen in 37% of patients. Twelve percent were previously treated with vitamin E, while another 12% had previous intralesional verapamil. High distress was reported by 94% of patients. Thirty-four percent sought medical attention for anxiety/mood disorder, and 28% had a negative encounter with a sexual partner related to PD. All of the 32 patients had penile curvature with a mean of 32 ± 12 degrees. Seventy-two percent of the patients had dorsal curvature while 22% had an associated deformity. Using duplex Doppler ultrasound, 12% had a calcified plaque, while none of the patients had abnormal hemodynamics. When compared with PD in adults, teenagers had greater than seven times the prevalence of multiple noncontiguous plaques (37% vs. 5%). Also, the prevalence of HbA1c level > 5% was
Beyene, Assefa; Muhiye, Abiyou; Getachew, Yeneneh; Hiruye, Abiy; Mariam, Damen Haile; Derbew, Millard; Mammo, Dereje; Enquselassie, Fikre
Teenage pregnancy is directly related to high incidence of pregnancy related complications contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality and social problems. There are no enough data on teenage pregnancy and related complications in Ethiopia and in Benishangul Gumuz region in particular. To investigate the magnitude and factors associated with teenage pregnancy among teenage females visiting Assosa general hospital for health care services. Facility-based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out among 783 randomly selected teenage females using structured and pre-tested questionnaire from January to April 2014. Teenage pregnancy is estimated at 20.4% in this study. The median age of subjects at first sexual intercourse and at first marriage being 16 and 17 years respectively. High proportion of (46.8%) teenagers had engaged in premarital sex. Among sexually active teenage females, 46.7% experienced their first sexual encounter by coercion. Being young [AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.67], single [AOR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.03-0.12], housemaid [AOR = 3.93, 95% CI = 1.71-9.04] and use of family planning [AOR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.20-4.75] have statistically significant association with teenage pregnancy. A range offactors including age, marital status, level of education, occupational status, average family income and use of family planning have influence on teenage pregnancy in the study area. Behavioral change communication, strengthening school health program, empowering young women specifically the rural women, and promoting parent-children discussion on sexuality is recommended.
Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A
Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.
along, and enormous emotional distress can result from inadequate treatment. A tendency to anxiety or depressive disorder can be unmasked by a severe skin condition, and conversely skin lesions can be self-inflicted as a cry for help, or as a result of a severe psychosis. Teenagers are generally modest and self-con-.
Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current
Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang
To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.
Ahorlu, Collins K; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit
Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Out of 820 adolescents interviewed, 128 (16%) were pregnant or mothers. Adolescents in both groups (62% never pregnant girls and 68% pregnant/young mothers) have access to social support, especially from their parents. Parents are taking the place of aunts and grandmothers in providing sexual education to their adolescent girls due to changing social structures where extended families no longer reside together in most cases. More (79%) pregnant girls and young mothers compared to never pregnant girls (38%) have access to economic support (P = pregnancy among adolescent girls. Findings showed that adolescent girls, especially those that get pregnant should not be viewed as weak and vulnerable because many of them have developed competencies to cope with pregnancy and childbirth effectively. Thus, focusing on developing the competencies of girls to access social, economic and cultural capitals may be an effective way of tackling the threat of teenage pregnancy than focusing only on their vulnerability and
Loretta I. Winters
Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.
Problems that may bring teenagers to the family physician's office include bizarre behavior such as drug or alcohol intoxication, psychosis, panic or anxiety attacks and stealing; being dangerous to themselves or to others; sexual emergencies including pregnancy, rape and incest; a crisis involving key people such as parents' divorce or illness; school phobia, and anxiety or other reactions to sickness, surgery or death. When evaluating troubled teens and their families, the physician should ...
Goonewardene, I M R; Deeyagaha Waduge, R P K
Recent studies have suggested that teenage pregnancies are not as hazardous as thought to be earlier. To compare the sociodemographic data, obstetric complications and attitudes towards family planning in teenagers and older women. A prospective cohort study at the University Obstetrics Unit, Teaching Hospital, Galle. Sociodemographic data, details of antenatal care and family support, antenatal complications, gestation at delivery, mode of delivery, the proportion of unplanned pregnancies, and the possible effects of contraceptive counselling, in two groups of pregnant teenagers (13-16 years, n = 95 and 17-19 years, n = 250) were compared with a control group of pregnant women (20-24 years, n = 275). The teenagers were from lower socioeconomic strata and the younger teenagers were significantly less educated than the controls. Teenagers had a significantly higher risk of anaemia (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.7-3.3, p teenagers had a significantly higher risk of gestational hypertension (OR = 4.8, 95%CI = 1.8-13.0, p teenagers had a significantly higher risk of delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (OR = 13.6, 95%CI = 1.8-287, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the mode of delivery. The younger teenagers had a much higher proportion (54%) of unplanned pregnancies compared to the controls (16 %). A significantly higher proportion of younger teenagers (48%) and older teenagers (25 %), if counselled, would have delayed their pregnancies compared to the controls (10 %). Teenage pregnancies, especially those below 17 years of age have a significantly higher risk of adverse outcomes. A large proportion of these pregnancies is unplanned and could be prevented by counselling.
Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun
Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586
Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg
Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310
Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major medical and socioeconomic burden in both the developed and developing countries. One third of the abortions performed yearly and 80% of abortion-related complications in Nigeria occur in adolescents. This study was conducted to assess the perception of teenagers in ...
McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R
This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015
Bernard, J-C; Bard, R; Pujol, A; Combey, A; Boussard, D; Begue, C; Salghetti, A M
To describe muscle parameters in healthy teenagers and compare them to teenagers with chronic low back pain. A comparative study of 276 control teenagers and 51 teenagers with chronic low back pain (CLBP), benefiting from a specific treatment, 14.5 years average age. The control group is made up of teenagers without back pain and teenagers who reported some back pain when we asked them, but without specific treatment. The results to four static tests assessing trunk flexors, trunk extensors, hip extensors and quadriceps endurance are statistically compared. In the control group, associations between different clinical measures and possible back pain are looked for. The two groups are homogeneous, concerning age, weight, standing height, sitting height and BMI (p>0,05). Low back pain is more common in girls, either in the control group (n=48; 69% of girls) or in the group with CLBP (n=51; 78%). CLBP is associated with a poor endurance strength of the trunk extensors (median: 2 min 31 s in the control group to 1 min 45 s in the CLBP), with hip extensors weakness (median: 2 min 20s in the control group to 1 min 24s in the CLBP), and with quadriceps weakness (median: 2 min 39 s in the control group to 1 min 20s in the CLBP), (p=0.000). No significant difference was found between trunk flexors endurance in the two groups (median: 2 min 11s in the control group to 2 min 13s in the CLBP). In the control group, 48 teenagers reported back pain "often", "very often" or "all the time"; no links were found between pain and muscle flexibility, measured with finger-floor distance, heel-cheek distance, and popliteal angle. Only the sitting height was found statistically higher (p=0.003) in the control teenagers who reported back pain (87 cm) related to the ones who have no pain (85 cm). Sport influences global strength in lower limbs and changes the ratio of quadriceps to hip extensors, in favour of quadriceps. Neither pain nor the ratio of trunk flexors to trunk extensors are
Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly
Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin
The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…
Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Teenage pregnancy can have a profound impact on a teen's life. Help your child understand the options, health risks and challenges ahead. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pregnancy can be one of the most difficult experiences a teenager faces. Understand how to ...
Gueorguieva, R V; Carter, R L; Ariet, M; Roth, J; Mahan, C S; Resnick, M B
Teenage pregnancies have become a public health issue because of their observed negative effects on perinatal outcomes and long-term morbidity. The association of young maternal age and long-term morbidity is usually confounded, however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, and single marital status among teenage mothers. The authors assess the independent effect of teenage pregnancy on educational disabilities and educational problems in a total population of children who entered kindergarten in Florida in 1992--1994 and investigate how controlling for potentially confounding factors affects the relation between teenage pregnancies and poor outcome. When no other factors are taken into account, children of teenage mothers have significantly higher odds of placement in certain special education classes and significantly higher occurrence of milder education problems, but when maternal education, marital status, poverty level, and race are controlled, the detrimental effects disappear and even some protective effects are observed. Hence, the increased risk for educational problems and disabilities among children of teenage mothers is attributed not to the effect of young age but to the confounding influences of associated sociodemographic factors. In contrast to teen age, older maternal age has an adverse effect on a child's educational outcome regardless of whether other factors are controlled for or not.
Cailliez, Eric; Beauvineau, Gwenael; Baratin, Clément; Le Daheron, Betty; Poiron, Audrey; Coutan, Régis; Penchaud, Anne-Laurence; Huez, Jean-François
The National Nutrition Health Study showed that the objectives of the National Nutrition Health Programme, launched in 2001 to promote the health of all French people, had not been achieved, especially in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to identify teenagers' representations regarding food. It was carried out in order to more effectively tailor prevention messages to this particular population, which is particularly concerned by the "nutritional risk". Qualitative investigations by semi-directive interviews with 46 teenage volunteers,from 5 high schools in 2 departments in the west of France. A content analysis was conducted inductively after full transcript of the interviews. The study showed that nutrition was a means of autonomy and emancipation from the parental influence. Teenagers were suspicious and anxious about the health risks associated with processed food. Fast food restaurants were a "place for teenagers" synonymous with pleasure and freedom. They valued "organic" and "homemade" foods. The sexual representations of food consisted of a "slim" image for girls and a "virile" image for boys. A close relationship between food and living beings was responsible for refusal of certain types of food. Although prevention messages were integrated in various ways, they were effectively recalled by teenagers. The nutritional representations of teenagers are poorly known and sometimes contrary to commonly health beliefs and must be taken into account when preparing nutrition prevention programmes.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...
Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine
This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...
Zhang, Hu; Zhao, Shuzhi; Liu, Huasheng; Liang, Shidong
This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands.
Redcross, Natalie Ryder; Grimes, Tresmaine
Teenage magazine content, after decades, continues to complicate decision making in the communication of the young, impressionable girls who read them. Previous research has indicated that teenagers can be negatively influenced by the media, including teen magazines (e.g., Redcross, 2003; Milkie, 2002; Durham, 2008; Lamb & Brown, 2006). These…
McGrath, M H; Mukerji, S
Over the past year, the media have reported an increase in the number of teenagers undergoing plastic surgery, and with a tone of faint alarm have suggested that this merits some cultural self-scrutiny. This paper presents the statistics on the number and types of plastic surgery operations done in teenagers over the last eight years and discusses these in the context of cultural influences and societal concepts of beauty. The reason to have plastic surgery is psychological and involves body image, which is defined as the subjective perception of the body as it is seen through the mind's eye. To explain why changing the external appearance affects personality and behavior, the complex psychological reactions that occur after an operation that alters the size or shape of a body part are reviewed. Body image development occurs in stages, and puberty stands out as a particularly sensitive time as the teenager undergoes major changes in his or her physical appearance and does this at a time of heightened vulnerability to the opinion of others. Plastic surgery to correct a truly unattractive feature is enormously successful and remarkably free of conflict in this population. Teenagers undergo a rapid reorganization of their self-image after plastic surgery with subsequent positive changes in behavior and interpersonal interactions. The key to achieving success with plastic surgery is patient selection. The core value of the surgery lies not in the objective beauty of the visible result, but in the patient's opinion of and response to the change. Good patient management includes selecting candidates with clear and realistic expectations who are free of psychopathology. There must be true informed consent and attention to psychological issues must continue into the postoperative period. It is the responsibility of the patient's physician and plastic surgeon to recognize a need for psychiatric evaluation and to help the patient get this as needed. The eight operations most
El Sayed, Fouad; Ammoury, Alfred; Nakhle, Fouad; Dhaybi, Rola; Marguery, Marie-Claude
It is very common to apply a 'template photoprotection' without taking into consideration the background of a specific population. In Lebanon, so far, no preliminary survey has been conducted before launching an educational photoprotection campaign, revealing the need of the people according to their background. In April 2004, a specific questionnaire was administered to 940 adolescents, aged from 14 to 18 years. The questionnaire comprised 18 multiple-choice questions that established the approximate phototype of teenagers, awareness of ultraviolet (UV) hazard, presence of sufficient information regarding the risk of sun exposure (school, doctor, media) and the use of measures of photoprotection (clothes, sunscreens). The incidence of sunburn in teenagers was high (85.42%) despite their awareness of the risks of unprotected sun exposure. The information regarding sun damage seems to be insufficiently delivered at school and by doctors. The main source of information was television. It was obvious that our adolescents underestimated the value of clothing to protect themselves. The use of clothing comes at the second place after sunscreens. However, the application of sunscreen seems to be inadequate. While solar protection has become part of routine beach behavior for adolescents, there is room for improvement with better application of sunscreen and more use of clothing, especially wearing hats, and seeking shade. However, it is difficult to appreciate the impact of publicity campaigns on the risks of sun exposure in reducing the incidence of melanoma.
Westman, J C
Divorce is common in the contemporary way of life and deserves objective study. It may have redeeming features, but from the point of view of children, divorce is a stressful experience because of the disruption of the home and its financial, emotional, and social costs. The adverse impact, however, can be minimized by realistic and sensitive attention to its effects on children. Although divorce alters the living arrangements of affected families, it does not end family relationships. For this reason, marriage and divorce counseling should deal with the perspectives of both adults and children. Most teenagers and their parents adjust to divorce and later regard it as having been a constructive action; but one-third do not. In those instances the turbulence of the post-divorce phase plays a crucial role in influencing pathological reactions in affected teenagers. The physician is in a strategic position to act as diagnostician, a clarifier of values, an educator in the facts of family life and divorce, a counselor in working through feelings about and attitudes toward divorce, and a source of support for teenagers.
This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...
Mansor T. TENKU MAZUWANA
Full Text Available Newspaper is by far the most comprehensive printed medium among teenagers. The way newspaper represent the information will be able to generate more inputs to teenagers after they read various issues discussed. The objectives of this study are to identify the types of news which are chosen by teenagers; and to investigate the factors which are associated with the teenagers’ acceptance to the newspaper. A total of 387 teenagers, aged between 16 and 17 years old, who were students from 10 national secondary schools in the Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur were selected to be the respondents of this study. Results shows that entertainment news seem to be the teenagers’ preferred choice. At the same times, the findings indicates that the contents of the newspapers have fulfilled the needs of the teenagers. However, the correlation test shows that the relationship between cognitive are moderate, weak for the affective, personal and escapism and there is no relationship between social needs and acceptance. As a conclusion, entertainment news has become the main choice of news among the teenagers. Meanwhile, the factor which is strongly associated with the teenagers’ acceptance is cognitive. It is hoped that the results of this study will be able to assist the newspaper institutions to publish contents relating to education and knowledge, which are connected to entertainment so that the newspapers could be one of the leading learning references, besides the school textbooks and printed references in order to fulfill various needs of the teenagers.
Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.
Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.
Tabane, Ntswaleng S; Peu, Mmapheko D
Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers' perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers'perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
... should I especially be concerned about? The top killers of teenagers and young adults are car accidents, unintentional injury, homicide, and suicide. Cancer and heart disease are uncommon, but can ...
Cichomski, E.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.M.
Knowledge about the influence of rubber – filler interactions on the wet skid behavior of tire treads is insufficient, in order to quickly develop new compounds with improved wet skid performance. The rubber compound used for a tire tread is in fact a composite material of which the dynamic
Chen, Huiling; Peng, Norman; Hackley, Chris
This paper reports an empirical study into airline consumer purchase behaviour on a major global route, that between the United Kingdom and Taipei. It focuses on the factors influencing airline choice for a sample of 60 Taiwanese students based at UK Universities and travelling on five airlines: British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, China Airlines, EVA Airways and Royal Dutch Airways. Several stages of data-gathering were undertaken and a well-established analytical framework for services ...
Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
their emphasis on passengers to the consideration of transfer maintenance. Clearly, passengers’ travel behaviour is far more complex and multi-faceted and thus several other aspects should be considered, as becoming more and more evident from passenger surveys. The current literature review starts by looking...... at the parameters that railway optimisation/planning studies are focused on and the key performance indicators that impact railway planning. The attention then turns to the parameters influencing passengers’ perceptions and travel experiences. Finally, the review proposes guidelines on how to reduce the gap between...
The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…
media influence or breakdown of our traditional social fabric. A ten-year retrospective study of childhood poisoning in. Warri, South-south Nigeria, noted that intentional poisoning occurred in the adolescent age group and mainly involved female teenagers.8 Shwe et al12 observed that organophosphates were the sole ...
Doubt, Lorna; McColl, Mary Ann
A phenomenological study of seven teenagers with physical disabilities attending a regular secondary school focused on social integration and the factors influencing it. Results showed extrinsic and intrinsic factors that facilitate or limit integration. Occupational therapists can ensure that schools are inclusive and that clients are capable of…
In light of recent statistics showing a marked increase in teenagers who smoke and the influence of siblings and parents, physicians are urged to undertake an early education approach to the smoking problem with parents and children. (CL)
Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.
Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured...
Full Text Available Two hundred consecutive cases up to 19 years of age admitted for confinement at The Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Bombay, were studied. Out of these 200 girls, 6 were unmarried, 51 were anaemic, 20 had toxaemia of pregnancy. Six girls (43% in the age group 15-17 years delivered prematurely as compared to only 26 girls (14% in the age group of 17-19 years. This difference is statistically significant. Also, only, 4 girls (29% in the age group of 15-17 years had full term normal delivery as compared to 113 girls (61% in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the outcome of pregnancy becomes worst in girls below the age of 17 years. Ten babies (71% of mothers in the age group of 15-17 years were LBW as compared to 75 babies (44% of mothers in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the incidence of LBW babies is inversely proportional to maternal age. Teenage pregnant girls needed more attention for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia eclampsia, anaemia, prematurity and LBW.
Salami, Kabiru K; Ayegboyin, Matthew; Adedeji, Isaac A
Consistent high teenage pregnancy rates in South-western Nigeria are characteristically underpinned by the unmet social needs of the teenagers. To elicit intergenerational views on the influence of unmet social needs on teenage pregnancy. Through a descriptive and cross-sectional design, a total of 174 respondents who were either pregnant teenagers, teenage mothers during the survey or had been pregnant as teenagers, were interviewed, using questionnaire supplemented with 12 key informant interviews. With the mean age of 16.5 years, and educational status range of between primary and below (25.8%) and tertiary (9.8%) levels, only 39.7% respondents were married, about half (47.7%) remained single while others were separated (12.6%). Less than half (44.9%) of the respondents were engaged in occupational activities. The unmet material and financial supports expected from parents (43.1%), the lack of free education from government up till secondary school level (51.2%), the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity (53.4%) and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend (66.1%) prone teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers.
Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap
[Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...
Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M
Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.
... Size Email Print Share When To Let Your Teenager Start Dating Page Content Article Body Dating customs ... coasts to a halt. First Heartbreak: Helping Your Teenager Cope The breakup of a romance can be ...
Mitchell, M. Faith
Reviews the medical and social risks of teenage pregnancy and describes two successful programs dealing with pregnancy and parenting: the St. Paul Maternal and Infant Care Project in Minnesota and the Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Project in San Francisco. (SK)
Theriot, Rosemary; Bruce, Becky
Looks at issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and describes different school-based approaches to sex education. Stresses that parental involvement is critical to the success of any effective program for reducing teenage pregnancy. (RWB)
care center, Eastern Cape. ... The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences of teenage mothers attending Nontyatyambo Health Care Centre regarding child care. A quantitative approach using a convenient sample of forty teenage ...
Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert; Shefer, Tamara; Ngabaza, Sisa
South African law forbids excluding pregnant teenagers from school and permits young parents to continue with their schooling. However, the existence of progressive policy and law does not by itself ensure that pregnant teenagers and young parents remain in school or experience as little disruption to their studies as possible. Two of the factors influencing the experiences that pregnant girls and young parents have are the attitudes and practices of teachers. We explore how teachers in diverse South African secondary schools respond to young women's pregnancy and parenting. Teachers' responses are situated within a complex set of meanings invoking sexuality (and sexual censure), gender, class and race. We argue that many teachers view teenage pregnancy and parenting as social problems - a domain of sexual shame with negative effects and disruptive to the academic life of the school (including teachers and other learners). Teachers do not monolithically subscribe to such negativity and, in the context of changing policy and gender equality, there are glimmers of hope. Without much support, training or any formal school-based support, many teachers show care and concern for pregnant women and young parents, providing some hope for better experiences of schooling.
Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar
Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...
Fyodorov V.V.; Mileev I.D.
The paper describes outcomes of a research on motivation in teenage users of virtual communicative spaces, that is, social networking sites. The hypothesis was that there is a correlation between teenagers' online activity in social media and features of their motivation. As it was revealed, types of teenagers' activities in social networking sites and types of motivation follow a certain hierarchy. Also, there are significant differences in motivations and time perspective in teenagers with ...
Full Text Available Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15-49 years who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7.07% were teenage mothers. The association between the background characteristics and institutional delivery was assessed separately for the teenage and non-teenage mothers using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis.After adjusting for background characteristics, teenage mothers were found more likely to deliver at a health facility [AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 4.59] in comparison to the non-teenage mothers. Place of residence, occupation, socioeconomic status, and frequency of ANC visits were associated with institutional delivery in both the teenage and non-teenage mothers. However, educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy had statistically significant association with institutional delivery among the non-teenage mothers only. None of the background characteristics were significantly associated with institutional delivery in teenage mothers only.This study identified a significant difference in institutional delivery service utilization among the teenage and non-teenage mothers. While the association of most of the background characteristics with institutional delivery was uniform for both teenage and non-teenage mothers, the association with educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy was significant only for non-teenage mothers. Considering this difference in the interaction of women's background characteristics with institutional delivery between teenage and non-teenage mothers might help in identifying the pain points and
A qualitative study of teenage pregnancy was conducted over a period of three months in 1996 in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Interviews with teenage mothers and fathers gave reason to explore the various intersections between teenage pregnancy and gender violence. Gender violence is defined as acts of force or coercion ...
Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...
Past research has shown teenagers to be reluctant to read and less likely to visit libraries than younger children. These conclusions are debated and further investigation is needed. Difficulties abound in researching teenagers' opinions. Teenagers can be reluctant to participate in activities and peer support is often very important in…
Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup
AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13......-16-year-olds (n = 93) as well as 26 semistructured interviews with small self-selected friendship groups of 15-16-year-olds (n = 32). FINDINGS: The teenagers participating in the present study were more concerned about social than health risks. The informants monitored their own level of intoxication....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...
Pan, Shuming; Du, Wei; Jiang, Fan; Bilston, Lynne E; Brown, Julie; Shen, Xiaoming
Little is known about child passenger safety practice in China. This study aims to describe child passenger seating and restraint practice in Shanghai. Information on 970 children enrolled in five randomly selected kindergartens in the Songjiang and Pudong districts of Shanghai was collected from a parental survey during 2008-2009. The adjusted rate ratios for optimal (rear-seated alone) versus suboptimal seating position (including front-seated or sitting in adult laps) and restraint use versus non-use of restraints among child passengers were evaluated using multivariate binomial regression. Suboptimal seating position (16.9%) and non-use of restraints (60.8%) was common among child passengers. Younger age (≤4 years) and having parents who are licensed drivers decreased the likelihood of being rear-seated alone; whereas having a tertiary-educated mother increased the likelihood of a child being seated optimally. Compared with unlicensed parents, guardian parents who have a driver's licence were more likely to use restraints for their child passengers. This study suggests restraint non-use and suboptimal seating position are common for child passengers in the Songjiang and Pudong districts of Shanghai, and identifies risk factors influencing restraint use and seating position choice for child passengers. There is an urgent need to improve child passenger safety in China and these findings indicate potential targets for educational interventions in the absence of child restraint laws.
Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon
This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.
Sexton, Steven S.
This article discusses how the friendship circles of 38 schoolboys in New Zealand influence what they consider acceptable language and behaviour. Six focus group sessions were held with heterosexual and self-identified queer students aged between thirteen and eighteen to explore their interpretations, meanings and usage of homosexually themed…
Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid
This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yildiz, Turan; Elmas, Bahri; Yucak, Aysel; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Ilce, Zekeriya
To investigate the risk factors for pilonidal sinus in teenagers. Between January 2013 and September 2015, 55 teenage patients who underwent surgery due to pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Sakarya University Teaching and Research Hospital were included in this study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), number of baths taken per week, time spent sitting per day, family history, and skin color were examined as risk factors. The control group comprised of healthy teenagers without pilonidal sinus disease. Out of the total 42 teenagers, 23 (54.8 %) were girls and 19 (45.2 %) were boys. Patients were classified as obese, overweight, or normal according to their BMI (14.3 %, 31 %, and 54.8 %, respectively). The number of baths taken per week in the PSD group was lower than that in the control group [odds ratio (OR): 3.690; p = 0.004]. The family history of PSD was significantly higher in teenagers with PSD, compared to the control group (OR: 8.652; p = 0.005). No differences were detected between the PSD and control groups with respect to sitting for ≥ 6 h per day (OR: 3.212; p = 0.028). Skin color was not found to be affected by PSD in teenagers (OR: 1.294; p = 0.392). Heredity and the number of baths taken per week were found to significantly affect the incidence of PSD, whereas other variables (gender, age, BMI, skin color, and time spent sitting per day) did not exhibit any significant influence on the rate of incidence.
Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice
The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie
The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm
The influence of the training loads having different directions concerning the teenagers' state of health the ones being educated in sporting inclined boarding schools (according the author's timely observations
Full Text Available A dynamics and structure of pathology of teenagers is considered. In a medical inspection 660 sportsmen took part in the age of 13-16 years. The retrospective analysis of somatopathies and traumatic damages is conducted for long time. Specificity of action of the trainings loadings of different orientation is exposed on the state of health of young sportsmen. The ost high growth of sporting traumatism s marked for the representatives of types of sport speed-power character. More high level of morbidity of overhead respiratory tracts and ear is marked for teenagers - in the types of sport on endurance.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
The problem of teenage pregnancy can be viewed as endemic, a part of American culture not easy to change. Although the number of girls under 15 who are becoming pregnant is not very large (13,000 in 1978), the cost of pregnancy to the girls themselves, their families, and society is very great. Results of data analyses from action research,…
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Levinsohn, Florence; Kelly, G. Lombard
One of a series of illustrated books written by physicians for their patients, this publication, aimed at te teenager, points out some biological and psychological changes which occur in adolescence. The first few chapters deal with sex drives, male anatomy, female anatomy, conception and pregnancy. Sociological and controversial aspects of…
Pieter Swager; Dr. Jos Fransen; dr. Guus Wijngaards
The Internet and computers increasingly determine our daily lives. This goes for almost everyone in the Netherlands. Still, it is mostly teenagers who are well informed on how to use all the possibilities of new technologies. They are building a digital world of their own that parents usually know
NJEA Review, 1982
Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)
Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja
Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.
Olsen, Jonathan R; Cook, Penny A; Forster, Sue; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A
Teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are the highest in Western Europe. Causes of teenage pregnancies are multifaceted with complex interplay of social, lifestyle and wider determinants influencing risk. Improving access to sexual health services through community services is an important factor in attempting to tackle this issue, but few studies have examined factors that influence this. Geospatial analysis was conducted on community sexual health service users and teenage conceptions from local sexual health services were recorded. Univariate and multinomial regression was performed to test associations between service type and socio-economic status. No significant differences in accessibility of services between teenage girls who have conceived and those seeking sexual health services were found. Females aged 17 and under were more likely to use a young people's sexual health service than mainstream services (P health services. The study supports policy for locating young person services within the most deprived areas of a community.
Perdereau-Noël, M; Saliou, P; Vic, P
Teenage sleeping disorders can have short- and long-term consequences such as learning disorders, accidents, depression, and type 2 diabetes. To assess the prevalence of sleeping disorders in high school students in the southwest of Brittany (Finistère), France. To search for family and social factors causing these disorders and drug use. Observational multicenter study that took place in May, 2015, asking high school students to anonymously complete a questionnaire during school time. A variable was created: sleep disorders (TrS+) when teenagers responded "often" or "very often" to at least one of the six questions concerning sleeping disorders. The prevalence of TrS+ was 73 % (4170/5556). These teenagers had difficulty falling asleep (36 %), woke up during the night (33 %), or had nightmares (10 %). Their sleep routine was disrupted (35 %), they did not feel rested the following day (49 %): 9 % were late for class related to their sleeping disorders. TrS+ were more recurrent among females (OR: 2.64; P10 cigarettes per a day) (OR: 2.39; P8h per a day; OR: 2.7; Psleep quality. Ten percent of TrS+ individuals consume medications and 9 % cannabis to help them fall asleep. Technology, drugs, and well-being at school have an impact on sleep quality. Screening of teenagers with sleeping disorders and information programs for teenagers must be provided by the teaching and medical staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid
Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Advertisement creates colossal impact on teenagers and TV create gigantic impacting on eating habits of teenagers and cause obesity in them. So, our study focus on finding the impact of advertisement on psychology, buying behavior, obesity and eating habits of teenagers in Jammu.Methods: The data is collected in the age group of 7 to 18 years. The schedule is developed to examine eating habits of teenagers and its effect on obesity level. The statistical tool and the sampling technique used are regression analysis and convenience sampling.Results: children consume unhealthy and low nutritional product while watching TV. They even insist their parents to buy product for them and those have pocket money (Rs50-100 are influenced by advertisement and opt unhealthy food and suffer from the problem of obesity.Conclusion: Teenagers are influenced by advertisements, but those who have high leverage to buy these products inadvertently face the problem of obesity.
Ntswaleng S. Tabane
Full Text Available Background: Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. Methods: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. Results: The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers’ perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Conclusion: Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers’perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.
Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.
Af Wåhlberg, A E
Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density circumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.
Influence of the glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet in the glycemic control of diabetic children and teenagers Influencia del índice glicémico y la carga glucémica de la dieta en el control glucémico de niños y adolescentes diabéticos
K. C. Queiroz; I. Novato Silva; R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Objective: Evaluate the influence of the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet in the glycemic control of children and teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Methods: A total of 146 subjects, aged 7-19 years, monitored at the Division of Pediatric Endocrinology at the HC/UFMG participated in the study. The consumed diet was evaluated using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire previously validated and tested in a pilotproject. The GI of the participant´s diet wa...
Li, Tian-Tian; Bai, Yu-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Guang-Shan; Li, Jin-Long
This study examined the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, TVOC, TSP, PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1), benzene, toluene and xylene in passenger cars of the Beijing Ground Railway Transit System (Line No. 13). This system connects the northern suburb and downtown, and is equipped with air-conditioned passenger cars. In-train air quality monitoring was performed in both summer (July and August) and winter (December). To obtain representative data, the sampling design considered both rush and regular hours, urban and suburban areas, as well as the number of passengers. Meanwhile, questionnaires were distributed to the passengers. The monitoring results indicated that, overall, the air quality in the passenger cars was acceptable with a few exceptions, which is consistent with the passengers' perception. Concentrations of some air pollutants showed significant seasonal variations and had the significant difference between rush hour and regular hour. Furthermore, the in-train air quality was greatly influenced by the number of passengers. This paper describes the experimental design, and presents the preliminary results.
Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang
IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.
O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Slaven, James E; Talty, Judith L
This study compares child passenger safety (CPS) practices of grandparents versus parents and determines grandparents' opinions on car safety seats (CSS), barriers to use, and ways to transport grandchildren safely. Observational surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than sixteen years at 25 locations by certified child passenger safety technicians observing children in motor vehicles and recorded use of child passenger restraints. The drivers were surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding CPS. Data from drivers identifying themselves as grandparents were analyzed; also, three grandparent focus groups provided opinions on CPS practices. During the study 1758 parents transporting 2713 children and 284 grandparents transporting 391 grandchildren were included. While most drivers were restrained and used child occupant restraints, almost 25% of parents and grandparents chose the incorrect seat to transport the child, and greater than 68% had at least one harness error. Grandparents were more likely to have looser lower anchor straps or seat belts and have children younger than thirteen years in the front seat. The focus group-grandparents had a favorable attitude toward CSS. Grandparents acknowledged the need for CSS but opined that CSS were difficult to use. Physical barriers included arthritis, back pain, mobility, decreased strength, and vision problems. Grandparents and parents were equally likely to use CSS and choose correct seats. Compared to parents, grandparents were more likely to travel with their grandchildren with CSS installed with looser harnesses or an installed CSS with looser seat belt or lower anchors. Additionally, grandparents were more likely to have a child younger than thirteen years in the front seat. The use of community resources such as permanent fitting stations could help grandparents improve a grandchild's travel safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All
To investigate the association between the spatial concentration of deprived households and teenage non-marital childbearing. Associations with area deprivation are tested before and after allowing for levels of personal deprivation. The individual data are derived from the 2% sample of anonymised records (SAR) from the census of 1991 in Great Britain, and are combined with area data from the 278 districts of residence identifiable in the SAR. Sample is restricted to unmarried women living at home (with at least one parent) and aged 16 to 19. The results suggest generally higher risk of teenage childbearing for women who are economically inactive, women from households with no access to a car or households resident in local authority accommodation. Without adjusting for personal circumstances, the risk of teenage pregnancy shows a clear, significant and approximately linear association with social deprivation of area of residence in 1991. Residual analysis shows that many urban areas have much higher levels of teenage childbearing than expected. When adjustment is made for personal disadvantage the simple association with local area deprivation is attenuated. A higher risk of teenage childbearing is still seen in urban areas while the areas having the highest negative differentials are heterogeneous. Both individual and spatial characteristics are important in influencing levels of teenage childbearing. Teenage childbearing shows an association with residence in more deprived areas. The association seems to be largely because residence in more deprived areas is associated with personal disadvantage, which increases the risk of teenage childbearing. Area characteristics are of lesser significance in determining teenage non-marital childbearing than individual and household characteristics.
A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...
Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.
A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298
Kopacz, Marek S
Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent
Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström
The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...
This paper looks back at the findings reported in Destinies of the Disadvantaged: The Politics of Teenage Parenthood, a decade after its publication in light of recent research. Increasingly, the most methodologically sophisticated research has minimized the “causal impact” of early childbearing on later life events consistent with the findings of the Baltimore Study. I argue in the paper that we must see early childbearing primarily as a marker rather than a cause of economic disadvantage. A...
Seetesh; Lopamudra B
Teenage pregnancy is defined as pregnancies which occur in a female below the age of 20 i.e. when the pregnancy ends. A female can become pregnant as early as two weeks before menarche, although rare, but usually occurs after menarche. In healthy, well - nourished girls, menarche normally takes place around the ages 12 or 13. A number of personal and social factors are responsible for the onset of biological fertility in a teenage. Teenage pregnanc y rates ...
By age 16 one in three adolescents have experienced sexual intercourse. Because one-third of these sexually active teens never use contraception, they have a five-times greater risk of pregnancy than teenagers who take contraceptive measures. In 1982, one in 23 Canadian teenage girls became pregnant. Teenagers' reasons for not using contraceptives include fear of parents learning about their sexual activity, lack of knowledge about contraception, and lack of self-esteem. Parents, educators an...
Kudupudi Subba Rao; Kantipudi Sree Ramya; Divya Batchu; M. Pratyusha Reddy
BACKGROUND Teenage pregnancy is upcoming as one of the most important social and public health problem all over the world. In the present study, we have evaluated the maternal and foetal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary teaching hospital over a period of one year. The objective of the study is to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary care teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was undert...
Full Text Available Compared with their forerunners, the modern teenagers experience adolescence and solve age problems in different way, and face other social risks. The representations of situations of social and psychological adjustment and maladjustment also differ in some aspects. The article discusses the factors which influence the adolescence in modern conditions: spread of the Internet, lack of public demand for a certain desired life trajectory of a growing teenager, high social tension and uncertainty, changes in the structure and essence of the family concept; blurred teenagers identity in the context of variety of identification options. These factors affect the development of the resources available to teenagers and their use of them, which social risks they are exposed to, and what forms of deviant behavior they show. Such changes in the social environment of adolescent development and, as a consequence, in the experiencing adolescence, allow to check and revise the existing representations of the teen age problems
Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu
Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.
Woodward, L J; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M
To describe the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy and parenthood, in addition to the psychosocial backgrounds and current circumstances of young parents in a sample of 533 young women studied from bith to 21 years. The data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. This study consists of a cohort of 1265 young people born in the Christchurch urban area during mid 1977 and who have been regularly assessed up to the age of 21 years. Information was collected on all pregnancies and births from ages 14-21 years. By age 21 years, 26% of the sample had been pregnant and 14% had become parents. Most pregnancies occurred between ages 17-21 years. Young women who became pregnant were characterised by higher rates of educational under-achievement, conduct problems, sexual risk taking, family adversity, and were more likely to identify themselves as Maori. Amongst those who became pregnant, there was a tendency for young women with a personal history of family adversity to proceed with their pregnancy and become young mothers. By age 21 years, at least a quarter of all young women studied had been pregnant at least once. The wide range of personal and social factors associated with teenage pregnancy and parenthood suggests that teenage pregnancy does not solely reflect the effects of problematic adolescent sexual practices. Implications for teen pregnancy prevention and the health and development of children born to younger mothers are discussed.
Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.
Barry Joe M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager's drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of of 234 parents who had a teenager aged between 13 and 17 years. Results Six per cent reported that they would be unconcerned if their son or daughter was to binge drink once per month. On the issue of introducing children to alcohol in the home, 27% viewed this as a good idea while 63% disagreed with this practice. Eleven per cent of parents reported that they had given a drink to their teenager at home. Parents who drank regularly themselves, who were from higher socio-demographic groups and who lived in the east of Ireland demonstrated more permissive attitudes to teenage drinking. Conclusions We found no evidence of widespread permissive attitudes and behaviours among Irish parents. Given that parental influences have been demonstrated to exert substantial impact on teenage drinking, it may be possible to harness the concerns of Irish parents more effectively to reverse the trends of escalating alcohol related harm in Ireland.
Background Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager's drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of of 234 parents who had a teenager aged between 13 and 17 years. Results Six per cent reported that they would be unconcerned if their son or daughter was to binge drink once per month. On the issue of introducing children to alcohol in the home, 27% viewed this as a good idea while 63% disagreed with this practice. Eleven per cent of parents reported that they had given a drink to their teenager at home. Parents who drank regularly themselves, who were from higher socio-demographic groups and who lived in the east of Ireland demonstrated more permissive attitudes to teenage drinking. Conclusions We found no evidence of widespread permissive attitudes and behaviours among Irish parents. Given that parental influences have been demonstrated to exert substantial impact on teenage drinking, it may be possible to harness the concerns of Irish parents more effectively to reverse the trends of escalating alcohol related harm in Ireland. PMID:20515492
Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A
We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.
Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun
A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.
Jarvis, D. L.
Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)
Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.
The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year
E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)
textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be
More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance
...-0062, Notice No. 1; 2130-AC33] Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal Railroad...: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness. These proposed... emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to operational (efficiency) tests...
Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.
Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary
To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
Danish 14- and 15-year-olds are at the top of the European list when it comes to drinking and drunkenness. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how the struggle for social recognition–with alcohol as the central marker–transpires in groups of teenagers in Denmark. This article shows how...... alcohol experience and positive attitudes towards drinking are related to popularity and influence in the peer group. The function of alcohol in teenagers’ struggle for recognition is so strong that the participants who drink very little or not at all are put under considerable pressure. With alcohol...... as a central marker of maturity–and the drinking teenagers’ parents described as supporters of this view–non-drinking teenagers come out as the potential losers in the negotiation of status in the groups. The data are drawn from a large qualitative study in which 28 focus group interviews were conducted...
James, Sindiwe; Van Rooyen, Dalena; Strümpher, Juanita
to explore and describe the experiences of teenage pregnancy among Xhosa families, and, depending on the results of the study, to recommend a strategy to assist midwives to enhance pregnancy outcomes. a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, phenomenological and contextual research design. In-depth face-to-face interviews were performed to collect data. 10 pregnant teenagers, eight mothers, two fathers, seven grandmothers and three grandfathers from the same families were interviewed independently and privately. pregnant teenagers experienced emotional turmoil as they strived to cope with their pregnancy, and experienced a change in their relationships with significant others due to expectations that were not met and role confusion which led to crisis. Parents experienced overwhelming emotions due to the unexpected pregnancy of their child, and loss of control as the pregnancy could not be reversed. Grandparents of pregnant teenagers experienced the pregnancy as a family disturbance, and acknowledged that healing should take place in the family. teenage pregnancy was experienced differently by different generations within the same family, but all the experiences culminated in anger that hampered the necessary parental support for the pregnant teenager. Lack of support during pregnancy can easily affected the well-being of the unborn child, as teenagers are not supervised and experience acute emotional stress. Intervention by a midwife could help to relieve the teenager's stress and optimise the pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study is an empirical study into the new literacy practices of five teenage "Twitter" users on Twitter. Qualitative methods were used to describe the most prominent ways of participating on "Twitter." Results indicate that teenagers used "Twitter" for self-expression, communication, friendship maintenance, and…
Aagaard, Morten; Øhrstrøm, Peter
The HANDS project suggests the use of Mobile Persuasion in order to support teenagers with an autism diagnosis and normal or high IQ. The paper offers a description of the HANDS toolset and its potential. The HANDS toolset has been evaluated at four schools for teenagers with autism over a period...
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)
A Danish database with data from 50,000 households, their energy consumption combined with building characteristics and the socio-economic data on their inhabitants documents that one teenager in a household entails a 20% higher electricity consumption than that of an average adult. These data will be presented as an introduction to the paper. There are however also other reasons for being interested in the consumer behaviour of teenagers. On the one hand teenagers are the adult consumers of tomorrow and some of their energy consuming behaviour may follow them throughout their life. On the other hand teenagers as consumers are known from other studies to be a special consumer group in that they are very much aware of and sensitive to the opinions and behaviour of their peer-groups. Departing from these reflections, a qualitative interview investigation with a focus on families with teenagers was carried out. In-depth interviews with nine parents and their teenagers focused on how teenagers use and purchase information and communication technology (ICT) such as televisions, mobile phones, computers etc. The paper reports on the qualitative findings on the dynamics of consumption among teenagers' ICT use. The analyses draw on recent consumer theory and discuss in the conclusion how such findings can give new directions for energy policies.
The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...
Crisp, Arthur; Sedgwick, Philip; Halek, Christine; Joughin, Neil; Humphrey, Heather
Considers evidence for an association between body-weight/shape concerns and smoking in females. Gathers evidence from studies of a female eating-disordered population, teenage females, and middle-aged women in the general population. Teenage female data analysis reveals links between smoking and body-weight/shape concerns. Proposes that…
Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.
Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…
Goodwin, Arthur H; O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D
A majority of states now restrict teenagers from using a mobile communication device while driving. The effect of these restrictions is largely unknown. In a previous study, we found North Carolina's teenage driver cell phone restriction had little influence on young driver behavior four months after the law took effect (Foss et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to examine the longer-term effect of North Carolina's cell phone restriction. It was expected that compliance with the restriction would increase, as awareness of the restriction grew over time. Teenagers were observed at high schools in North Carolina approximately two years after the law was implemented. Observations were also conducted in South Carolina, which did not have a cell phone restriction. In both states, there was a broad decrease in cell phone use. A logistic regression analysis showed the decrease in cell phone use did not significantly differ between the two states. Although hand-held cell phone use decreased, there was an increase in the likelihood that drivers in North Carolina were observed physically manipulating a phone. Finally, a mail survey of teenagers in North Carolina showed awareness for the cell phone restriction now stands at 78% among licensed teens. Overall, the findings suggest North Carolina's cell phone restriction has had no long-term effect on the behavior of teenage drivers. Moreover, it appears many teenage drivers may be shifting from talking on a phone to texting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of teenage pregnancies in the world. In spite of that, there is paucity of empirical research on causes of teenage pregnancies in African countries. This paper investigates the determinants of teenage pregnancies based on a case study of Busia District in Kenya. The data are from a household survey conducted in 1998/1999. Empirical results indicate that girls' education level has significant influence on the probability of teenage birth, with non-schooling adolescents and those with primary school level education being more vulnerable. Among the variables used as proxies for access to sex education, availability of church forums that educate adolescents about sex and family life issues reduce probability of teenage pregnancy. Age is positively related to teenage pregnancies, with older adolescents being more predisposed to pregnancies. Though use of contraceptives is found to have a positive effect, only a small proportion of adolescents were using modern contraceptives and, supply side factors such as quality and availability were not accounted for. Other key factors as outlined by the adolescents themselves include peer pressure and social environment-related factors like inappropriate forms of recreation, which act as rendezvous for pre-marital sex, as well as lack of parental guidance and counselling. Overall, lack of access to education opportunities, sex education and information regarding contraceptives, as well the widespread poverty predispose girls to teenage pregnancies. The problem of teenage pregnancies should be viewed within the broader socio-economic and socio-cultural environment in which the adolescents operate. For instance, lack of parental guidance on issues of sexuality and sex education was reinforced by cultural taboos that inhibit such discussions. Adolescents should be equipped with the relevant knowledge to enable them make informed choices regarding sexual relationships. This should be
Pini, Simon; Gardner, Peter; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan
Engagement with education during treatment is an important and complex issue for practitioners and an important psychosocial need of teenagers with cancer. There is limited research currently available specifically concerning the education of teenagers with cancer. This paper reports the outcomes from a patient and a practitioner questionnaire study which explore prominent issues and experiences in educational engagement for this population. Eighty-eight teenage cancer patients completed a questionnaire about their education experiences since diagnosis. Forty oncology practitioners completed an online questionnaire on experiences of education engagement of teenage patients. Questionnaires were developed from a systematic research review conducted by the authors and included; peer relationships, school attendance, reintegration and long term effects of cancer on attainment. Among teenagers there was a significant relationship between successful maintenance of peer groups, successful reintegration into school and positive ratings of the education support. Teenagers who reported school as their primary source of support had significantly more successfully maintained peer groups. Practitioners rated peer support as the most important factor in education satisfaction for patients and stressed the need for collaborative planning between hospital, school and home. Collaborative education planning should be initiated on diagnosis and aim to include non-academic variables, such as peer groups, which can influence successful maintenance of education. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between education engagement and teenagers' cancer experiences as a whole, as well as gaining a more in depth understanding of how teenagers experience their education after a diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holmström, Inger K; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Bernsten, Cecilia; Röing, Marta; Björkman, Ingeborg
Teenagers in Sweden were given greater access as consumers of OTC drugs in 2009 after the reregulation of the pharmacy market, which allowed for the establishment of private pharmacies and sale of specific over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in retail stores and gas stations. Increased access to OTC drugs could provide new opportunities for self-care but attenuates the opportunity for the traditional expert surveillance of pharmacists, thus increasing the possibility of inappropriate OTC drug use. Views of 16-19 year old Swedish teenagers on OTC drugs, with special regard to analgesic drugs were explored and described, based on the following questions: How and where did they acquire their knowledge and attitudes regarding OTC drugs? What perceptions did they have about the use of OTC drugs? A qualitative approach with a descriptive design was chosen. Data were collected in 2011 with 10 focus group discussions with high school students aged 16-19 years from different parts of Sweden. A total of 77 teenagers participated, 33 males and 44 females. A manifest qualitative content analysis was performed. While most teenagers appeared to have responsible attitudes toward OTC drugs and their use, some teenagers had attitudes that ranged from casual to careless. The focus group discussions also revealed knowledge gaps among teenagers regarding OTC drugs, and the significant influence of parents and peers on their OTC drug use. This study provides insight into how vulnerable some teenagers could be as new consumers of OTC drugs and suggested that educational efforts could be geared toward parents as well as teenagers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.
Herlert, Alexander, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [FAIR GmbH (Germany)
The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.
Byrne, N J
The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.
Wills, Wendy J; Lawton, Julia
As most young teenagers grow up in families, parents might be well situated to facilitate and support their weight management and thereby prevent or manage obesity prior to adulthood. This paper explores parents' perceptions of, and views about, their teenage children's weight and the factors that influence parents' weight management strategies. We conducted two qualitative studies in Scotland, UK, involving in-depth interviews with the parents of overweight/obese and 'normal' weight 13-15 year olds (n = 69). Parents' concerns about their own weight provided useful context for understanding their attitudes or actions with regards to their teenage child. Some parents described their teenager's weight as being of concern to them, although puberty often introduced confusion about a child's weight status. Genetic explanations were very often put forward as a way of making sense of teenage weight or body size. Frustration about advising teenagers about weight management was expressed, and some parents worried about giving their growing child a 'problem' if they directly raised concerns about weight with them. Parents' views about their own weight as well as social and moral norms about labelling a teenager as overweight or as needing help with their weight could usefully inform patient-centred service development. Parent/teenage partnerships and supporting parents to create a healthy home in which teenagers can make healthier choices are suggestions for intervention development. The study highlights the importance of taking parents' perceptions into account when developing family-based interventions to address teenage overweight and obesity. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers
education, women enlightenment and empowerment will be essential in reducing the problems of teenage pregnancy. KEY W ORDS: Abakaliki, outcome, teenage pregnancy, tertiary hospital. INTRODUCTION. Teenage pregnancy dates back to the early centuries and a famous teenage pregnancy in history was Mary,.
Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South-western Nigeria. ... teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Conclusion: Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers. Keywords: Unmet needs, pregnancy resolution, teenagers, ...
Lachance, Laurie L.
This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…
Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.
Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female
Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria
The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character - and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area.
Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.
The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...
... the best way to save lives and reduce injuries. Child passenger restraint laws result in more children being ... booster seat, and seat belt use and reducing child motor vehicle injuries and deaths. Options for effective strategies include: Child ...
Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...
In this paper, we have illustrated a fare pricing strategy for the Acela Express service operated by Amtrak. The RM method proposed is based on passengers preference and products attributes. Using sales data, a MNL model has been calibrated; th...
Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab
Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.
This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...
... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used... passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in a passenger train as required by this section or as... conditions set forth in this section renders the car or vehicle defective whenever discovered in service. [64...
... and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in the...
Gauthier, Pascale; Cardot, Jean-Michel
Pediatric patients exhibit their own needs and problems and are now considered as a real patient group in which downsizing the adult formulation is not the best choice and may result in problems. Adolescence (between 12 and 18 years) is a transitional period of life from puberty to adulthood and, in this pediatric subgroup population, complex problems are observed in compliance with chronic treatments. Heterogeneity exists in this group which follows very different and sometimes short trends and tendencies and where illness can be a problem leading to stigmatization. Influence of social environment as well as friends is complex in this period of life. Teenagers have to take care of themselves and be part of the treatment including all the features of the social code of this group. Particular attention has to be paid to formulation and packaging in order to increase compliance and to suit the specific needs of this pediatric subgroup. Some examples are given for different drug forms. PMID:25562365
Levis, J A
The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.
Tasić Tamara D.
Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.
McLoughlin, A B; Gould, M S; Malone, K M
The object of this article is to review the past decade of research on teenage suicide, with a particular emphasis on epidemiologic trends by age, gender and indigenous ethnicity. As such, a review of research literature from 2003 to 2014 was conducted via a comprehensive search of relevant psychological and medical databases. Wide gaps in our knowledge base exist concerning the true extent of teenage suicide due to lack of data, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a Western bias. The gender paradox of elevated suicidality in females with higher completed suicide rates in males is observed in teenage populations worldwide, with the notable exceptions of China and India. Native and indigenous ethnic minority teens are at significantly increased risk of suicide in comparison to general population peers. Often those with the highest need for mental health care (such as the suicidal adolescent) have least access to therapeutic support.Globally, suicide in teenagers remains a major public health concern. Further focused research concerning completed suicides of youth below the age of 18 is required across countries and cultures to understand more about risk as children progress through adolescence. Gender and ethnic variations in suicidality are embedded within cultural, historical, psychological, relational and socio-economic domains. Worldwide, the absence of child/adolescent-specific mental health policies may delay the development of care and suicide prevention. Overall, it is vital that clinicians adopt a holistic approach that incorporates an awareness of age and gender influences, and that cultural competency informs tailored and evaluated intervention programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D
Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.
Acharya, Pawan; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Neupane, Dipika
Introduction: Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health...... Survey 2011. Methods: The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7.07%) were teenage mothers. The association between the background characteristics and institutional delivery...... was assessed separately for the teenage and non-teenage mothers using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for background characteristics, teenage mothers were found more likely to deliver at a health facility [AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 4.59] in comparison...
Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima
Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Spilková, Jana; Radová, Lucie
Geographies of children and youth are a surprisingly neglected research topic in the transforming (post-communist) countries, where many societal changes are taking place. This article introduces a research project that focused on teenagers and their leisure-time activities, concentrating especially on teenagers who spend the majority of their leisure time in shopping malls. The goal of the article is to reveal how such teenagers use the micro-space of the shopping mall, how they socialise, a...
de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares
The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.
Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.
Full Text Available This paper looks back at the findings reported in Destinies of the Disadvantaged: The Politics of Teenage Parenthood, a decade after its publication in light of recent research. Increasingly, the most methodologically sophisticated research has minimized the “causal impact” of early childbearing on later life events consistent with the findings of the Baltimore Study. I argue in the paper that we must see early childbearing primarily as a marker rather than a cause of economic disadvantage. As such, reducing early childbearing will have a minimal impact on the lives of highly disadvantaged teens unless those teens use the delay in childbearing to improve their education and labor market prospects.
Vladimir A. Fetisov
Full Text Available Modern passenger terminals are characterized by dynamic processes variability, diverse options consideration, taking into account the criteria of safety, reliability analysis and the continuous research of passenger processing. For any modern marine passenger terminal it is necessary to use the tool to simulate passenger flows. In this way it is possible to obtain the analytical information and use it for decision-making when solving the problem of the amount of personnel required for passenger services.in line with the original ship arrival schedule, to solve problems of forecasting groups at the terminal. Of particular relevance is the choice of the mathematical transport model and the practical conditions for the implementation of the model in the real terminal operation. In this article the analysis technique of simulation-based terminal services, provides a mathematical model of passenger movement inside the terminal. Also, the conditions of implementation of the transportation model during the operation of marine passenger terminal are examined. The object of the research is the marine Passenger Port of St. Petersburg "Marine Facade". The paper discusses advantages of using such systems and their introduction in the early stages of operation of the terminal. In addition, the conclusion about the effectiveness of such systems for the analysis of the correctness of internal space of the marine terminal. The study represents an example of analytical information used for the forecast of the terminal operations, the analysis of the workload and efficiency of the organization of the marine terminal.
Dominick, Joseph R.
Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy, particularly pregnancy in school-aged girls below the age of 17 years, is a major community health problem. The incidence of such pregnancies is increasing to what some believe are epidemic proportions.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin
Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory...... Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well......-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...
... this? Submit Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Teenagers (15-17 years of age) Language: English (US) ... as a parent, can do to help your teen during this time: Talk with your teen about ...
Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da
To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.
Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla
BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...
Kudupudi Subba Rao
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Teenage pregnancy is upcoming as one of the most important social and public health problem all over the world. In the present study, we have evaluated the maternal and foetal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary teaching hospital over a period of one year. The objective of the study is to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary care teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken for a period of one year at KIMS, a tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural area, where on an average 3000 deliveries per year take place. Data was retrieved from hospital records. All teenage mothers aged 13-19 years were included in the study. RESULTS In this study, 626 (18.79% cases of teenage mothers were recorded out of 3330 antenatal cases. Majority of teenagers were primigravida (79.23% and multigravida 20.76%. Antenatal care was nil or inadequate in 32% of cases. Majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status. Complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension (11.5%, premature onset of labour (5.75%, anaemia (23.64%, others like gestational diabetes mellitus, etc. (2.56% were noted. 25.88% underwent lower segment caesarean section, the most common indication was cephalopelvic disproportion (45.68%. 5% of babies delivered to teenage mothers had higher risk of low Apgar at 5 minutes. Neonatal morbidities like asphyxia, jaundice, respiratory distress were recorded in 14% of neonates and babies were more prone to neonatal intensive care unit admissions. CONCLUSION Teenage pregnancy was associated with high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, premature onset of labour and foetal deaths. High risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality were also seen. Adequate antenatal care reduces the adverse pregnancy outcome in these mothers.
Halloran, Donna R; Marshall, Nicole E; Kunovich, Robert M; Caughey, Aaron B
Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) for black and white teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n = 38,158) born to black (34%) and white (66%) teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17-26%. White and black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal-weight teenagers; postpartum hemorrhage was increased only in obese black teenagers, and infant complications were increased only in overweight and obese white teenagers. Because the percentage of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in white teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R
To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.
Full Text Available On the basis of International classification of functioning, limitations of vital activity and health, model of estimation of teenagers' health considering these changes from positions of functioning of the organism and context factors was developed. According to this model five groups of health of school-children of secondary schools were distinguished. Teenagers with sufficient level of structure and function of organism, structure of personality and mental functions, activity and participation in general educational processes compose group I A. Teenagers with sufficient level of structure and function of organism, mental functions and disorders of structure of personality, activity and participation in social life compose group I B. Teena¬gers with sufficient level of structure of the organism and personality, activity and participation in social life, disorders of organism functions and psychic functions compose group II. III A group - teenagers with disorders of structure of the organism and personality, functions of the organism and sufficient mental functions, participation in the social life. III B group - teenagers with disorders of structure and functions of the organism, structure of personality and psychic functions, low level of activity and participation in social life. The model, advanced methods and the software made it possible to create information technology of estimation of teenagers' health; this raises quality of diagnostics by 20,3%.
Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T
Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport.Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport.Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport.Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started
Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport. Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport. Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport. Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started
Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.
Zotova, Larisa Ed.; Prjazhnikov, Nikolaj S.; Berezhnaja, Marija S.; Ermakov, Vjacheslav A.; Melamud, Marina R.
The importance of the studied problem is determined by the fact that the influence of the deviant environment on society, the spread of its morality, a psychological "exposure" of a less stable part of the population, that is teenagers and young adults, all this is--a reality of the contemporary social situation. The study of problems…
Plotnick, Robert D.
Studies the influence of self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and its resolution. Results for 1,142 white adolescent girls show that self-esteem and attitudes toward schooling and family roles were…
Alcón Soler, Eva
The study analyses teenagers' e-mail requests during academic cyber-consultation, exploring how the performance of request modifiers is influenced by participants' perceptions of the degree of imposition of the speech act and social distance with the recipient. A total of 295 e-mail requests, 145 produced by British English speakers (BES) and 150…
Melnick, Merrill J.; Jackson, Steven J.
Teenagers responded to a questionnaire about their villains; 917 villains from all walks of life were selected. Nine times more male than female figures were selected. The naming of a villain was unrelated to demographic variables. Reasons for dislike and influence of figures as avoidance role models are discussed. (Author/EMK)
Pearson, V A; Owen, M R; Phillips, D R; Gray, D J; Marshall, M N
A comparative study of 167 pregnant teenagers in Devon attending either antenatal booking clinics or for National Health Service (NHS) termination of pregnancy was carried out to determine differences in their characteristics, use and experience of local family planning services. Teenagers presenting for termination of pregnancy were younger and more likely to say that they had wished to avoid getting pregnant. Whether the teenager was in a stable relationship was strongly associated with the outcome of the pregnancy, with single girls being more likely to choose a termination of pregnancy. The termination of pregnancy group were also more likely to be condom users, and to have learned about their method of contraception from school rather than from health care professionals. Teenagers' frequency of contact with family planning services suggested that teenagers choosing a termination were less likely than antenatal attenders to have attended regularly. This was mainly due to differences in behaviour among teenagers attending their general practitioner (GP) for contraceptive advice: teenagers having a termination were more likely to describe their visit to their GP as embarrassing. These findings have implications for local family planning services attempting to reduce the number of unwanted teenage pregnancies. PMID:7562806
Zuurbier, M.; Hoek, G.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Brunekreef, B.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air
Ben J. Novak
Full Text Available For tens of thousands of years, passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius were a dominant member of eastern North American forest communities, with megaflocks comprising up to several billion individuals. The extinction of passenger pigeons in the early twentieth century undoubtedly influenced associated species and ecosystems as interactions stemming from the pigeons disappeared suddenly. Here, we strive to better understand what was probably one of the most significant of these interactions—that between passenger pigeons and seed bearing trees. Using the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata and the rock dove (Columba livia as physical and ecological proxies, we evaluated passenger pigeon dietary range and potential to disperse seeds. Our findings suggest that the passenger pigeon's dietary range, observed historically to be taxonomically broad, was constrained to certain seed sizes due to bill gape size. In addition, we conclude that the digestive process invariably destroyed consumed seeds but the potential for a nutrition/dispersal mutualism might still have existed via regurgitation and post-mortem release of crop contents. Our results highlight the range of ecological interactions that can be lost with species' extinction and the inherent challenge of understanding the consequences of those interactions.
Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran
The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...
At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)
Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine
At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)
Lewis, Laura; Patel, Harshada; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Cobb, Sue
The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact. The findings of this study have implications for the design of shared spaces. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated personal space in an aircraft environment. The results highlight the factors which affect the perception of personal space invasion in aircraft and can therefore inform the design of aircraft cabin environments to enhance the passenger experience.
Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.
Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.
Yu. S. Barash
Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.
A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...
Urban rail systems are designed to carry large volumes of people into and out of major activity centers. As a result, the stations : at these major activity centers are often crowded with boarding and alighting passengers, resulting in passenger inco...
Ward, R C
Financial incentives could be used in the United States to control population growth, particularly, with regard to teenage pregnancy. If a fund is established for each American woman at age 18 which pays her $5000 (with interest) if she, or her husband, is sterilized before she bears a third child ($10,000, if the sterilization occurs before a second child), the woman would be less likely to succumb to peer pressure to become pregnant. Women who object to sterilization on religious grounds could receive a bonus if they reach the age of 50 with fewer than 3 children. Unlike the Chinese or Indian birth control programs, no coercion would be used. It would be a "humane alternative" to welfare cuts, which hurt innocent children, and the number of abortions would decrease. American society would lose "future" taxpayers; however, in this age of declining job opportunities for persons without special skills, population growth should be slowed. This would also ease resentment in developing countries, where people are asked to reduce their birth rates while the United States shows no inclination to do so.
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to...
Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker
Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...
Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker
Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...
With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...
Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.
An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.
The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...
Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens
This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discus...
Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran
The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...
Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren
patients among the crew. A high number of potential and life-threatening medical conditions, e.g. angina pectoris was seen among the passengers and nine of these were evacuated by helicopter. Sixty-three percent (n=135) of the calls related to pain complaints and more than half of these were severe...
Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...
ends, public transport needs reliable and efficient methods of identifying the determinants of service quality from the customers' perspective. The study is an attempt to identify the factors determining quality in city bus transit, by using a modified SERVPERF approach, and examines passengers' overall satisfaction with ...
Parada Puig, J.E.
Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and
This article contributes to research that seeks to understand experiences of teenage motherhood. Specifically, it focuses on the stigma attached to teenage pregnancy and parenting. Negative stereotypes continue to dominate understandings of teenage pregnancy. Despite research to the contrary, teenage mothering is popularly linked to welfare dependency, promiscuity and irresponsibility. As a result, young mothers report experiences of stigma and discrimination. This paper builds on evidence of...
Kabisch, Maria; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Dünnebier, Thomas
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encodi...
Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.
Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda
Striepe, Susan E.
This article describes a case study that explores the question of how some art museums can appeal to teenagers. The significance of teenagers as the most underrepresented age demographic to visit museums is relevant to current museum practice where visitor studies have assumed increasing importance. As teenagers mature into adults, the long-term…
OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. RESULTS: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: ...
Teenage pregnancy rates remain on the increase in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of teenagers in Makurdi metropolis regarding teenage pregnancy. A total of two hundred and eighty six adolescents (286) participated in this survey ...
Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…
Abstract. Objective. To compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of case records of teenage pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2008. The subjects gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of ...
This is a cross sectional survey research, which provided a quantitative investigation on the perception of teenagers towards physical abuse in Lagos State, Nigeria. Three hundred teenagers from secondary schools in Badagry division of Lagos State were purposively selected for this study. These secondary teenagers are ...
Bonsu, Irene K
The rising incidence of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among teenagers has made teenage sexual health a government priority. Contraceptive nurses can play a key role in advising young people about sexual health issues and contraception. This article discusses the factors affecting teenage sexual activity and how nurses can help young people take responsibility for their sexuality.
Teenage Pregnancy is fast becoming a regular trend today in Nigeria. This is due to the fact that most parents still feel it is absurd to educate their children on sex education. As a result of this most teenagers learn about sex education through their peers, mass media, etc. Due to the low level of knowledge of these teenagers ...
Background: Available evidences seem to suggest increasing trend in sleep deficit among teenagers worldwide, and there is limited information on this among Nigerian teenagers. This study was carried out to determine the basic sleep schedule and sleep duration among schooling teenagers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: ...
Extensive attention has been given to adolescent sexuality and teenage pregnancy in the past 30 years, yet many teenagers still ... interaction of teenage mothers at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital during and after their pregnancy. Seventy ... Few first tell their mothers about the pregnancy, although most talk to someone soon after.
Background/Objective: Teenage pregnancy constitutes a major health and social problem the world over. The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of teenage pregnancy and to compare the socio-demographic characteristics, booking/delivery ratio and pregnancy outcomes of teenagers and the control in ...
Background: There has been increase in the incidence of teenage pregnancy and abortion globally. However, there are limited studies on the hospital prevalence and family characteristics of the affected teenagers' family characteristics. Objective: To determine the hospital prevalence of teenage pregnancy and the family ...
Extensive attention has been given to adolescent sexuality and teenage pregnancy in the past 30 years, yet many teenagers still fall pregnant. A teenager who becomes a parent is at a significant disadvantage in becoming a contributing adult, both psychosocially and economically. The objective of the study was to describe ...
Porter, Susan Eva
Teaching teenagers can be very rewarding; it can also be very challenging. Relating to Adolescents helps adults who work with teenagers to understand what happens in their dynamic with students. From the "Five Things Teens Need from Grown-Ups" to the "Seven Grown-Up Skills," this book covers all aspects of the adult-teenager relationship and…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.
Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…
Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.
Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.
Ambadekar, N N; Khandait, D W; Zodpey, S P; Kasturwar, N B; Vasudeo, N D
Present record based study was undertaken in Medical record section of Government medical college, Nagpur, to assess teenage as a risk factor for pregnancy complications, outcome, and operative or assisted delivery. Five year (January 1993 to December 1997) data was scanned, which gave sample of 1830 teenage pregnancies; while equal number of subsequent partly matched controls (> 20.29 years) were taken. Results showed proportion of low birth weight baby to be significantly greater in teenagers (p pregnancies (p pregnancy, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, accidental haemorrhage though more in adult pregnancies was statistically not significant. There were no differences in cogenital anamoly and twins between cases and controls. But breech deliveries were significantly (p < 0.001) more in adults.
Heilborn, Maria Luiza; Brandão, Elaine Reis; Da Silva Cabral, Cristiane
This paper examines teenage pregnancy as a social-historical construction of increasing concern in Brazil. It presents findings from over five years of empirical research alongside an analysis of a sample of newspaper articles representative of the dominant positions in the Brazilian press concerning teenage pregnancy. In contrast to mainstream arguments and to broader moral panic surrounding teenage pregnancy, we argue that contemporary patterns of sexual behaviour among young people in Brazil do not signal growing permissiveness and are not straightforwardly related to poverty, family dysfunction or lack of life projects on the part of young people themselves. On the contrary, early pregnancy and parenthood retain strong continuities with core Brazilian values and norms of sexual culture.
Redwood, Tracey; Pyer, Michelle; Armstrong-Hallam, Sarah
This article illustrates a methodological approach, which actively engaged 14 to 19 year olds in the research process. This two phase study explored the attitudes and behaviours of young people towards teenage pregnancy in Northamptonshire, UK. The first phase involved training young mothers to lead six focus groups with three specifically targeted 'at-risk' groups; other teenage mothers, young offenders and looked after children (from 14 to 19 years of age). An open question began each focus group but the young women or peer researchers were aware of the topics they wished to explore and provided prompts as necessary. Seven topics are presented under the headings of: alcohol and drugs; planned pregnancy; professionals' treatment; need for love; support by family, friends and partners; labelling and the reality for teenage mothers; and future aspirations. The reasons for pregnancy or consequences of pregnancy are discussed under the implications and recommendations.
Hussain, F.A.; Nisa, L.; Hoque, M.; Jehan, A.H.
Full text: Objective: To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in teenage patients with hyperthyroidism. Method: The medical records of 28 patients (age range 16 -18 years) were purposely selected from a pool of 3637 hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine during the period January 1982 to December 2006. Data for analysis included the age, sex, clinical symptoms, type of hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medications received, doses of radioiodine therapy given and the outcome of the therapy after one and five years. Results: The mean age of the patients treated for hyperthyroidism was 17.60 ± 0.73 years and 82 % were females. The most common type of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease (75%). All patients were pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for variable duration periods (6 months to 2 years). The mean administered dose of radioiodine was 10.69 ± 2.77 mCi. The dose of I-131 was calculated on the basis of gland size and morphology (assessment by palpation and scintigraphy) and percentage of radioactive iodine uptake. Effective control of hyperthyroidism after radioiodine treatment occurred in 60.72% patients with a single dose, 35.71% required a second dose and 3.57% required more than two doses. Frequency of early hypothyroidism within one year was 38.09 % in Graves' disease and 33.33% in toxic multinodular goiter. Most patients (66.66%) in the toxic nodule group remained euthyroid up to one year after I-131 therapy. Overall incidence rates of hypothyroidism after 1 year and 5 years of radioiodine therapy were 32.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism in the teen group of patients was effectively controlled with radioiodine. There were no early side effects. The only long-term effect was hypothyroidism. Appearance of early/late hypothyroidism showed a direct relationship with the type of hyperthyroidism and the dose of radioiodine administered. In general, patients with Graves' disease showed a greater tendency in the evolution of early
Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan ER; Ruiter, Robert AC; van Reeuwijk, Miranda AJ; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo
Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in econ...
Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Dyah Pradnyaparamita DuarsaI
Full Text Available The Balinese culture, mainly the community of Denpasar, is the result of along process of culture assimilation and aculturization. The modern culture whichenters Bali in some aspects includes their teenagers’ way of life and modern lifestyle. This research’s purposes: what are the teenagers’ perceptions aboutpremarital sex themselves? what are the factors that shaped the teenagers’perception?, and what is the effect and significance of the teenagers’ perception ofpremarital sex within their group in social and value systems? This research isconducted by qualitative methods with a hermeneutic and phenomenologicalapproach. The data are obtained by in-depth interview, focused group discussion(FGD and by taking a picture with using in-depth interview, FGD andobservational guide as instruments. The informants are teenagers between 10 – 24years old in Denpasar, and the key informants are teenagers who have done sex.Teenagers are students of high school, universities as well as teens who workedand have earned. In-depth interviews are also carried out on public and religiousfigures, policy-maker in education affair, student advisors, onlooker sexualproblems as well as parents. Informants selected purposively, who have a lot ofinformation related sex among teenagers. Theories are used: The Theory ofPerception, The Theory of Hegemony, The Theory of Lifestyle and Youth Sub-Culture, and The Theory of Power and Knowledge.The result shown teenagers generally still have an ideal perception. On theother hand, there are teens who have committed premarital sex have a realityperception. The determinant factors of the perception are internal and externalfactors. The reality perception of teenagers stimulates premarital sex to becomemore widespread. The perception also influences a socio-cultural phenomenonwhich includes: cultural, social and health dimension. The perception need to beanticipated in a constructive way; that is by increasing the power of
Arceo-Gómez, Eva Olimpia; Campos-Vázquez, Raymundo M.
We analyze the consequences of a teenage pregnancy event in the short- and long-run in Mexico. Using longitudinal and cross-section data, we match females who got pregnant and those that did not based on a propensity score. Several balancing tests and specifications indicate that the main assumptions to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated using a propensity score are satisfied. In the short-run, we find that a teenage pregnancy causes a decrease of 0.6-0.8 years of schooling,...
Chen, Lily Shui-Lien
This present study provides insight into the relationship between personality traits and the subjective well-being for online game teenager players in Taiwan. The questionnaire has been adopted in the cyber cafe shops in Taipei, Taiwan, and 134 usable questionnaires produced to be used for the final data analysis. The results demonstrate that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have significant negative influence and Openness has significant positive influence on subjective well-being.
Crash Energy Management (CEM) systems protect passengers in the event of a train collision. A CEM system distributes crush throughout designated unoccupied crush zones of a passenger rail consist. This paper examines the influence of manufacturing va...
T A Shelepina
Full Text Available Assessment of joint pain in teenagers with juvenile arthritisObjective. To assess mean total pain score in teenagers with juvenile arthritis (JA and its values in groups differing on sex, variant of course, activity measures, degree of functional disturbances. To assess advisability of application of these parameters in real clinical practice. Material and methods. 73 pts with JA (mean age 14,7±1,7 years, mean disease duration7,2±4,4 years were included. 18 from them had systemic, 42 – polyarticular and 13 – olygoarticular variant. 16 pts were examined repeatedly with interval exceeding one year. Total quantity of examinations was 94. 17 pts were examined at admission and at discharge. Pain was measured on visual analog scale (VAS and on McGill Pain Questionnaire (83 examinations including 3 scale: sensor (description of pain, affective (their influence on emotional state and evaluative (verbal assessment of pain intensity. General health assessment on VAS was performed in 59 pts (in 8 from them at admission and at discharge. Summary mean measures and their values in groups differing in sex, course variant, activity measure, functional class at pts admission to and at discharge from the Institute of Rheumatology of RAMS. Statistical treatment was performed with Biomed program(descriptive statistic, χ2, Student’s pared test. Results. Mean pain score on VAS in all teenagers with JA was 31,3±17,3. It was significantlyhigher in boys with systemic variant (in comparison with polyarticular, in pts with ESR elevation above 30, in pts with functional class 3 and higher at admission to the department. Pain score was significantly lower in pts with olygoarticular variant in comparison with mean value and with value in polyarthritis. Pain above 70 mm on VAS was found in pts with polyarticular damage in systemic and polyarticular variants in active phase of the disease and in severe functional disability. Summated (on sensor and affective scales
Full Text Available Pediatric patients exhibit their own needs and problems and are now considered as a real patient group in which downsizing the adult formulation is not the best choice and may result in problems. Adolescence (between 12 and 18 years is a transitional period of life from puberty to adulthood and, in this pediatric subgroup population, complex problems are observed in compliance with chronic treatments. Heterogeneity exists in this group which follows very different and sometimes short trends and tendencies and where illness can be a problem leading to stigmatization. Influence of social environment as well as friends is complex in this period of life. Teenagers have to take care of themselves and be part of the treatment including all the features of the social code of this group. Particular attention has to be paid to formulation and packaging in order to increase compliance and to suit the specific needs of this pediatric subgroup. Some examples are given for different drug forms.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Daughters of teenage mothers have increased risk for teenage childbearing, perpetuating intergenerational cycles. Using Ecological Systems Theory, this study prospectively examined risk factors for teenage childbearing among a national sample of adolescent girls. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Participants (N = 1,430) were recruited in early adolescence and interviewed yearly for 6 years. Survival analysis was used to examine the rate of childbirth across the teenage years by maternal age at first birth. Hierarchical Cox regression was used to identify multivariate predictors of teenage childbearing and to test whether risk factors differed between daughters of teenage versus older mothers. Age at first childbirth was based on cumulative information collected at yearly interviews. Daughters of teenage mothers were 66% more likely to become teenage mothers, after accounting for other risks. Individual (school performance), family (maternal education, marital status, number of children), peer (dating history), and environmental (race, enrichment) factors predicted teenage childbearing. Risks unique to daughters of teenage mothers were deviant peer norms, low parental monitoring, Hispanic race, and poverty. Results support multidimensional approaches to pregnancy prevention, and targeted interventions addressing unique risk factors among daughters of teenage mothers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Sachkova, Marianna E.
Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.
Williams, Allan F
One objective was to determine teenage licensing rates on a national basis, interest in early licensure, and reasons for delay. A second objective was to learn teenagers' opinions about licensing policies, important in states considering ways to upgrade their current licensing systems. One thousand three hundred eighty-three 15- to 18-year-olds completed an online survey in November 2010. They were drawn from a nationally representative panel of US households recruited using probability-based sampling. The panel included cell phone-only households, and Internet access was provided to those without it. Weighting procedures were applied so that the study population represented the national US population of 15- to 18-year-olds. Most teens said that they were interested in getting a license as soon as legally possible, but many had not started the process. At 16, teens were about equally divided among those who had not started, those in the learner stage, and those with a restricted or full license. At 18, 62 percent had full licenses; 22 percent had not started. For those old enough to start, lack of a car, costs, parent availability, ability to get around without a car, and being busy with other activities were leading reasons for delay. The majority of teens were not in favor of higher licensing ages. Forty-six percent thought the minimum learner age should be 16; 30 percent thought the full license age should be 18 or older. The majority approved of night (78%) and passenger (57%) restrictions, and 85 and 93 percent endorsed cell phone and texting bans, respectively. When these policies were packaged together in a single law that included an age 16 start, night, passenger, cell phone and texting bans, and a full license at age 18, 74 percent of teens were in favor. Teenagers are not as supportive of strong licensing policies as parents of teens, but there is evidence that they will support comprehensive policies likely to lead to further reductions in teen crash
Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina
We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…
Sep 2, 2013 ... teenage mothers had a significant risk of delivering low-birth-weight babies. There were no differences in the ... health, lack of access to ways to prevent pregnancy, adolescent sexual behaviour, and even certain .... be relevant to the origins of some child mental health disorders. Our study showed that the ...
Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.
Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…
Background: South African teenage pregnancy rates remain high by international comparison and, in the rural town of Taung, the rate of 13% is twice the national ... the right to motherhood before becoming HIV positive, poor sexual negotiation skills, the need to prove one's fertility, sexual coercion and low self-esteem.
This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...
School policy on teenage pregnancy must take into account a variety legal considerations. Up until recently, the favored way of dealing with pregnant pupils or pupils who are mothers was to exclude them from school. Several law cases involving instances of exclusion and segregation of pregnant pupils are cited. The 14th Amendment's guarantee of…
Stacey, Julia; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted
and dislikes of the children and teenagers. It is the parents who decide what to buy. But it is the children who decide whether it is bought again - and this will only be happening if they like what they are eating. Many wild ideas have been discussed such as vegetable ice cream and frozen peas on a string...
Mookherjee, Harsha N.
Investigated the extent to which alcoholic beverages are consumed by high school teenagers (N=622) in rural communities of middle Tennessee. Results showed that about 63 percent of the subjects do drink alcoholic beverages, and that most of the drinking is done in the company of friends. (LLL)
Dec 27, 2009 ... of alternative entertainment and social infrastructure made shebeens (local bars) a normal part of teenage social life. 3) Peer pressure from boyfriends and the broader social network. 4) Other factors included the right to motherhood before becoming HIV positive, poor sexual negotiation skills, the need to.
For many North Americans, tattoos reflect hopes, values, or beliefs and act as vehicles to communicate those beliefs to others. For some, tattoos offer a means to reclaim a sense of ownership and control over their body. Tattoos are particularly popular with teenagers who explore their identity through experimentation with their outward…
Ladner, Joyce A.
Analyzes the impact of teen pregnancy on the education of Black adolescents. Examines the scope, social context, and consequences of the problem. Notes that many of the successful teenage pregnancy prevention programs have been undertaken by Black organizations as federal support has decreased. (FMW)
Ladner, Joyce A.
Analyzes the impact of teen pregnancy on the education of Black adolescents. Examines the scope of the problem, its social context, and its consequences. Discusses several effective approaches to teenage pregnancy prevention, including sex/family life education, school-based health clinics, life skills instruction, school retention, and…
The negative behaviour of teenage students in Nigeria in recent times has become a source of concern to parents and society. The general observation is that children are often left entirely to the care of maids as parents have abandoned their primary assignment of proper child upbringing in pursuit of material and ...
Aim: To study testicular torsion in teenagers in the Igbo community. Method: A retrospective study was carried out as regards requests for pathological examination of specimens received at a Regional Reference Laboratory based in Enugu. Results: Over a period of 30 years, 28 surgical specimens of testicular torsion in ...
, and their parents. Analysis locates risk factors and the over all exposure of these risk factors among the total birth cohort. Teenagers coming from high-risk groups had an increased risk of early childbearing. First-time teen pregnancies were associated with parental substance abuse, separation, child abuse...
King, Cheryl A.
Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…
Dempsey, P L
The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role
...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.
...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.
Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens
This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discus...... for related problems in the airline world are discussed as well. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....
Samokhvalova, Anna G.
Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.
San Hor Peay
Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine, based on conducted marketing research, the level of passenger satisfaction with public transport services for the purpose of making better marketing decisions in the example of the City of Belgrade. The main task is to test the hypothesis on the existence of significant influence of factors, such as quality service, attitude and behaviour of employees (e.g. driver, adequate informing, quality of vehicles, line routes and timetable, on passenger satisfaction. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for interpreting the obtained results and examining the formulated hypothesis. Empirical research has shown that there is a significant correlation between the aforementioned factors and passenger satisfaction with public transport services. The obtained results provided recommendations and guidelines for improving and increasing the quality of public transport services. The research results also provide the basis for future research that could examine the relationship between passenger satisfaction with services and sub-groups within the analyzed factors.
Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Chávez-Baeza, Carlos
This paper analyzes trends in fuel economy (kilometers per liter) of new passenger vehicles in Mexico over a period of 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Results show that in this period, fuel economy of the new passenger vehicle fleet, including multipurpose vehicles (a category similar to sport utility vehicles, SUVs), increased by only 6.3%. A simple Laspeyres index analysis was developed to evaluate both the impact of changes in vehicle sales structure by category and the changes in fuel economy. Results show that increased sales of heavier, multipurpose vehicles in place of subcompact and compact vehicles, impacted negatively on the fleet average fuel economy. If the structure of sales had continued in the same proportions across all categories as in 1988, fuel economy would have increased by 11.0%, instead of the actual 6.3%. This result coincides with trends in other countries. The paper also presents different scenarios of passenger car fuel economy for the year 2020, and its implications for gasoline consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results may influence the new passenger vehicle fuel economy standard that is currently under discussion in Mexico.
Watson, Victoria; Verschuur, Carl; Lathlean, Judith
Teenage cochlear implant users' perceptions of deafness, surgery, fitting of the device and life as a cochlear implant wearer were explored in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of teenagers' experiences of living with the device. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken and analysed using thematic analysis. Ten teenagers aged 14-16 years with at least one cochlear implant were interviewed. Seven teenagers experienced great pre-operative anxiety and two reported significant post-operative pain. Four of the teenagers described a mismatch between their expectations and the disappointing reality of adjusting to the device. However, all the teenagers reported an enhanced sense of well-being as a result of being able to interact more easily with their world around them. The teenagers differed in the extent to which they identified with the hearing and deaf world. Despite the early challenges, over time the teenagers experienced many functional and psychosocial benefits. Most felt their lives were now easier as a result of the cochlear implant(s). They described complex, flexible identities. By giving prominence to the teenagers' voices this study has added new knowledge concerning their experience of surgery. The findings also more fully revealed the challenges of adjusting to the device and the impact of having a cochlear implant on the teenagers' identities. Clinical recommendations are made to address the gaps in service highlighted by these findings.
Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M
As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.
Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.
Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren
BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... older and more seriously ill than patients among the crew. A high number of potential and life-threatening medical conditions such as angina pectoris was seen among the passengers, and nine of these patients were evacuated by helicopter. Sixty-three percent (n = 135) of the calls related to pain...
... SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS General Requirements § 168.05-5 Application of passenger vessel... applying to passenger vessels in subchapters E (Load Lines), F (Marine Engineering), H (Passenger Vessels), J (Electrical Engineering), K (Small Passenger Vessels Carrying More Than 150 Passengers Or With...
Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.
The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...
R. H. Korobiova
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve
Full Text Available Background: Early marriage and confinement are contributing factors to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the problem of teenage pregnancy and its complications. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was undertaken over 4 months among women admitted to a rural hospital in West Bengal. The study cohort comprised of teenage mothers between 15-19 years old and a control cohort of mothers between 20-24 years old. Data included demographic variables, available medical records, and complications viz. anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level below 10 gm% during the last trimester of pregnancy, preterm delivery was defined as occurring within 37 weeks of gestation, and low birth weight was defined as babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth. Result: Teenage pregnancy comprised 24.17% of total pregnancies occurring in the hospital during the study period. The study group had 58 subjects and the control group had 91 subjects. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher ( P < 0.05 in the women in the teenage group (62.96% than in the women in the control group (43.59%. However, severe anemia with a hemoglobin level below 8 gm% was only found in the control group. Preterm delivery occurred significantly more ( P < 0.001 in the study group (51.72% than in the control group (25.88%. The incidence of low birth weight was significantly higher ( P < 0.0001 among the group of teenagers (65.52% than among the women in the control group (26.37%. Not a single newborn was above 3 kg in the study group, while none were below 1.5 kg in the control group. The mean birth weight was 2.36 kg in the study group and 2.74 kg in the control group; the difference was strongly significant ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study shows that anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight were more prevalent among teenagers than among women who were 20
David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with
Vuttanont, Uraiwan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffin, Mark; Boynton, Petra
In Thailand, rapid increases in economic prosperity have been accompanied by erosion of traditional cultural and religious values and by negative effects on sexual health of young people. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, norms, and values of teenagers, parents, teachers, and policymakers in relation to sex and sex education in Chiang Mai, Thailand, with a view to informing sex education policy. We selected six secondary schools for maximum variation in socioeconomic background, religious background, and location. Methods were: narrative interviews with key stakeholders, and analysis of key policy documents; questionnaire survey of 2301 teenagers; 20 focus groups of teenagers; questionnaire survey of 351 parents; and two focus groups of parents. Qualitative and quantitative data were assessed separately with thematic and statistical analysis, respectively, then combined. We noted five important influences on Thai teenagers' sexual attitudes and behaviour: ambiguous social roles leading to confused identity; heightened sexual awareness and curiosity; key gaps in knowledge and life skills; limited parental input; and impulsivity and risk-taking. Male teenagers aspire to be "smart boys", whose status depends on stories of sexual performance and conquests. Female teenagers, traditionally constrained and protected as "sweet girls", are managing a new concept of dating without their parents' support, and with few life skills to enable them to manage their desires or negotiate in potentially coercive situations. School-based sex education is biologically focused and inconsistently delivered. Results of this large exploratory study suggest five approaches that could be developed to improve sex education: targeted training and support for teachers; peer-led sex education by teenagers; story-based scenarios to promote applied learning; local development of educational materials; and use of trained sexual health professionals to address learning needs of pupils, teachers
Fryer, S; Waller, G; Kroese, B S
This study explored the relationship between stressors and disturbed eating attitudes among adolescent females, assessing the moderating role of coping and the mediating influence of poor self-esteem. Two hundred eighty-six teenage girls were recruited from local schools, and completed standardized measures of stressors, coping, self-esteem, perfectionism, and disturbed eating attitudes. Regression analyses were used to test for moderating and mediating effects. Stressors and emotion-focused coping were found to be associated with low self-esteem, which in turn was strongly associated with disturbed eating attitudes. Stressors were also directly related to disturbed eating attitudes. The findings provide partial support for existing models of the etiology and maintenance of eating psychopathology, but have wider implications for our understanding of the eating disorders and their treatment.
Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao
Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David
transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...
Full Text Available This research aims to explore the dimension of perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. This research is important due to the lack of research that focuses on perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. This research employed quantitative research methodology. Survey was performed in order to gather research data. The respondents are 233 youth public transport passengers in Bogor and Tangerang, Indonesia. Exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis were conducted. The research results show that there are three dimensions of perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. The dimensions are comfort, performance, and assurance.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the plural structures of femininity and of masculinity, and to investigate how sport activities influence the ways in which Japanese teenagers perceive gender, based on a questionnaire survey in junior high schools in Tokyo. By factor analysis of eight items of gender perceptions, these items were divided into three factors. Boys'gender perceptions consist of 'sturdiness', 'discontent with one's own sex', and 'male's superiority on intellectuality'. ...
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis focuses on teenage sexual attitudes and norms as moderated by their preferred music genre. The research questions addressed here are: What are the genre differences in lyrical representations of relationships and male and female characteristics? What are young peoples' perceptions of the impact of these genre differences on their lives? How does genre preference influence...
Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann
To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom. Systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis of controlled trials on interventions for early parenthood and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views on early parenthood of young people living in the UK. 12 electronic bibliographic databases, five key journals, reference lists of relevant studies, study authors, and experts in the field. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies and abstracted data. Ten controlled trials and five qualitative studies were included. Controlled trials evaluated either early childhood interventions or youth development programmes. The overall pooled effect size showed that teenage pregnancy rates were 39% lower among individuals receiving an intervention than in those receiving standard practice or no intervention (relative risk 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.77). Three main themes associated with early parenthood emerged from the qualitative studies: dislike of school; poor material circumstances and unhappy childhood; and low expectations for the future. Comparison of these factors related to teenage pregnancy with the content of the programmes used in the controlled trials indicated that both early childhood interventions and youth development programmes are appropriate strategies for reducing unintended teenage pregnancies. The programmes aim to promote engagement with school through learning support, ameliorate unhappy childhood through guidance and social support, and raise aspirations through career development and work experience. However, none of these approaches directly tackles all the societal, community, and family level factors that influence young people's routes to early parenthood. A small but
Kraft, Joan Marie; Whiteman, Maura K; Carter, Marion W; Snead, M Christine; DiClemente, Ralph J; Murray, Collen Crittenden; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Kottke, Melissa
Black teenagers have relatively high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and recent research suggests the role of contextual factors, as well as risk behaviors. We explore the role of 4 categories of risk and protective factors on having a biologically confirmed STD among black, female teenagers. Black teenage girls (14-19 years old) accessing services at a publicly funded family planning clinic provided a urine specimen for STD testing and completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview that assessed the following: risk behaviors, relationship characteristics, social factors, and psychosocial factors. We examined bivariate associations between each risk and protective factor and having gonorrhea and/or chlamydia, as well as multivariate logistic regression among 339 black female teenagers. More than one-fourth (26.5%) of participants had either gonorrhea and/or chlamydia. In multivariate analyses, having initiated sex before age 15 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.87) and having concurrent sex partners in the past 6 months (aOR, 1.55) were positively associated with having an STD. Living with her father (aOR, 0.44), believing that an STD is the worst thing that could happen (aOR, 0.50), and believing she would feel dirty and embarrassed about an STD (aOR, 0.44) were negatively associated with having an STD. Social factors and attitudes toward STDs and select risk behaviors were associated with the risk for STDs, suggesting the need for interventions that address more distal factors. Future studies should investigate how such factors influence safer sexual behaviors and the risk for STDs among black female teenagers.
Although the determinants of whether a teenage woman has a nonmarital pregnancy and how such a pregnancy is resolved have been widely investigated, little is known about the effect of her partner's characteristics or the joint influence of the two partners' characteristics on nonmarital teenage pregnancy. Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth are used to examine whether the characteristics of teenage women and their partners affect the likelihood of a nonmarital pregnancy and how the pregnancy is resolved. The data are corrected for underreporting of abortions. More than 17% of teenage women are estimated to have become pregnant during their first nonmarital teenage sexual relationship. About 44% of these pregnancies result in a nonmarital birth and about 18% in a marital birth, while 37% end in an abortion. The likelihood of nonmarital pregnancy declines as age at first intercourse rises, but age does not affect how such a pregnancy is resolved. Women who are older than their first partner are more likely to become pregnant than those who are the same age, and their pregnancies are less likely to end in abortion than in a marital birth. Women who are younger than their first partner are no more likely to become pregnant than other women after the effects of other characteristics are taken into account. The male partner's education is negatively associated with the likelihood of nonmarital pregnancy but is positively associated with the likelihood of abortion if a pregnancy occurs. Differences between partners in race or ethnicity do not affect the likelihood of a nonmarital pregnancy but do increase the likelihood that such a pregnancy will end in abortion or a nonmarital birth rather than in a marital birth. The characteristics of teenage women and their partners appear to play a role in nonmarital teenage pregnancy and its outcome. However, the estimated relationships between one partner's characteristics and the probability of a nonmarital
Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...
Panfilov, P. E.; Kabanova, A. V.; Borodin, I. N.; Guo, J.; Zang, Z.
The structure of coronal teenage dentin and the development of cracks in it are studied on microand nanolevels. The material is found to fail according to a ductile mechanism on a microlelvel and according to a ductile-brittle mechanism on a nanoscale. This behavior is similar to the failure of a polyethylene film and rubber, when significant elastic and irreversible deformation precedes crack growth. The viscoelastic behavior can be considered as the reaction of dentin to an applied mechanical load.
Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan
Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.
Adamek, Renata; Zysnarska, Monika; Opasiński, Krystian
The main of the study was to describe psychoactive substances abuse among teenagers from secondary school and recognition the reasons of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and drugs taking. Tobacco smoking was declared by 24% pupils. The main reasons of tobacco smoking, in pupil's opinion, were: addicted influences of nicotine and relaxing effects of smoking. According of the results of the study 16% pupils drank alcohol, on average one teenager of the ninth had or have contact with the drugs. The most famous drugs were: marijuana (66.7%) and amphetamine (33.3%).
Loo, Becky P.Y.; Li, Linna
This paper traces the historical evolution and spatial disparity of CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China. The general trends of CO 2 emissions from four passenger transport modes are estimated by both the distance-based and fuel-based methods. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions from road transport represented the leading source of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China. Moreover, they have continued to grow rapidly. Air transport was the second largest contributor since 1998. Emissions from rail and water transport have remained relatively stable with lower emission intensity. At the provincial level, great regional disparity was noticeable, especially in road transport. Moreover, the decomposition analysis shows that income growth was the principal factor leading to the growth of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China for both the 1949–1979 and 1980–2009 periods. The second most important factor was increased transport intensity and modal shifts for the former and the latter period, respectively. The main factor contributed to emission reduction was the lower emission intensity supported by policies, although the effect was weak. In the future, more policies to encourage modal shifts toward sustainable transport modes and travel reduction should be encouraged. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China were estimated. ► Road transport was the largest contributor to CO 2 emission. Air transport followed. ► Factors influencing CO 2 emissions growth are analyzed by decomposition analysis. ► Income growth, higher travel intensity and modal shift were driving CO 2 emissions up. ► Policies to promote modal shifts and travel demand reduction should be encouraged.
Ayuba, Ibrahim Isa; Gani, Owoeye
Background Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, it occurs in all races, faiths, socioeconomic statuses, and regions. Teenage pregnancy can have serious physical consequences and teenage mothers are likely to be unmarried, poor and remain uneducated. The objective of the study was to evaluate risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and compare the obstetric and fetal outcome to older parturient. Methods This is a retrospective st...
Olukunmi ‘Lanre OLAITAN; Adetayo Ebun TALABI; Charles Olabode OLUMORIN; Kolawole Thomas BRAIMOH (; Olabode Olayinka KAYODE; Ayo Teslim ONIGBINDE
Background: Pregnancy, a way of procreation is associated with many risks. This study determined the risks experience during pregnancy among teenagers in south west Nigeria.Aims and Objectives: To find the relationship between variables and conditions causing the risk of teenage pregnancy.Methods/study Design: 400 subjects were sampled through a multistage sampling technique, 20-items questionnaire was administered to the pregnant teenagers in south west Nigeria. Chi-square and ANOVA statis...
Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D.; Tavares, Patrícia A.; Cruz, Suélen H.; Béhague, Dominique P.
In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people ...
Gwido Vincent; Fekadu Mazengia Alemu
Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational le...
Wellings, Kaye; Wilkinson, Paul; Kane, Ros
The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in England, published in June 1999, is a multifaceted strategy that includes action to both halve the under 18 conception rate by 2010 and provide support to teenage parents to reduce the long term risk of social exclusion by increasing the proportion in education, training and employment. The Strategy has four major components: 1) a national media awareness campaign via independent radio and teenage magazines, 2) joined up action to ensure that ...
Petersen, Line Nybro
This paper argues that American television fiction with supernatural themes offers Danish teenage audiences a playground for exploring different religious imaginations in a continuous process of internal negotiations; thereby transforming their imaginations. This process of the mediatization...... narratives. This essay presents the findings of an empirical qualitative study of seventy-two Danish teenagers and considers two primary parameters for the case-based reception study: the teenagers' levels of fandom and their connection with institutionalized religion. In other words, how are religious...
Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L
The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...
Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C
Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is
Sekhri, Punya; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to use emotions effectively and productively. It is becoming increasingly clear that these skills are one of the primary foundations for better performance of students in classrooms and in the society as well and EI provides the basis for competencies important "in almost every job." So we accessed the EI of teenagers as a guide of their academic score. We analyzed the correlation of academic score to the EI of teenagers in regular schools and part-time unconventional coaching institute using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient questionnaire. The results of our study showed that empathy and self-actualization were highly developed in students of regular conventional school than those attending part-time unconventional coaching institute. The academic score had a significantly positive correlation with empathy, whereas a significantly negative correlation with interpersonal relations. Empathy, interpersonal relation, and impulsive control were significantly higher in females than males. Therefore by inculcating and working toward development of EI in the young generation, we can hope to achieve a more positive environment. Sekhri P, Sandhu M, Sachdev V. Emerging Understanding of Emotional Intelligence of Teenagers. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):289-292.
Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.
The deleterious social and health outcomes of unplanned pregnancy have been recognized internationally for some time. In UK, birth rates among teenagers have not decreased; every year about 90,000 teenagers in England become pregnant. Of these, 7000 are under 16 years old. A report from UK government's Social Exclusion Unit sets out a comprehensive analysis of the problem and offers far-reaching recommendations on how the extent and consequences of the problem can be reduced. The recommendations cited take a determined multisectoral approach. As part of a national campaign, parents will be encouraged to talk with their children about sex, young men are motivated to be more responsible in their sexual behavior, and those who father children of teenage mothers are pursued vigorously to ensure the provision of continuing financial support. At the local level, local authorities and health authorities will have to develop a local strategy involving the wide range of groups that have an interest on the issue. Efforts must also be made to refute the idea that sex education lowers the age at first intercourse. In addition, it is suggested that the sexual health in UK adopt the integrated approach to produce an effective sexual health service.
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users\\' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.
Ben Salem, Hela; Gaigi, Imene; El Fray, Hamouda; Gaigi, Sadok; El Ati, Jalila
The disturbances related to the feeding behavior are increasing in Tunisia. To evaluate the impact of an adapted and personalized therapeutic program, including dietetic advises and practice of yoga in Tunisian teenagers suffering from bulimia or anorexia. Our study was carried out on 31 teenagers, old 16 to 19 years, 10 were anorexics (9 girls and 1 boy) and 21 were bulimics (14 girls and 7 boys). After twelve weeks of program application a clear improvement of the physical and mental state of our subjects was recorded. Indeed, an average fall of 7.3% of the body weight of the compulsive eaters and an increase of 6.6% of that of the anorexics were obtained. On the mental level, the frequency of the subjects which make daily crises passed from 29% to 19%. More half of the subjects (54.8%) paid more not to vomit but occasionally (less than one once out of two crises). These results show that an assumption of responsibility targeted of the teenagers suffering from food behavioral problems can help them to be left there.
The Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 created Amtrak as the nation's intercity passenger railroad. The act, as amended, gave Amtrak a number of goals, including providing modern, efficient intercity passenger rail service; giving Americans an altern...
Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio
Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916
Full Text Available Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses.
Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families.
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.
Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899
Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Klauer, Sheila G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S; Lee, Suzanne E; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K; Dingus, Thomas A
This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families. PMID:28533814
Ogelle, Onyecherellam M; Eke, Ahinzechukwu C; Okafor, Charles I; Mbamara, S U K; Obiechina, Nworah J
To determine the teenage pregnancy rate, associated epidemiological factors, outcome and complications in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. A 5 year retrospective study of women presenting with teenage pregnancies, between 1st of January, 2004 and 31st of December, 2008 was done. The obstetric variables from 72 cases of teenage pregnancies and 89 selected controls aged 20-24 years were compared. Chi-square was used to compare some of the variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p teenage pregnancy was 2.7%. The age range was from 14-19 years with a mean age of 17.8 +/- 1.2 years. 33 (45.8%) women among the study group were single while 39 (54.2%) were married. There was a statistically significant difference in the marital status between the study and control groups (x2 = 41.80, p = 0.001). Interestingly, the teenage group were mainly primiparous women (63.9%) compared to the adults who were mostly nulliparous. Ante-partum complications such as anaemia, mal-presentations and ante-partum haemorrhage were commoner in the teenage pregnancy group. Prolonged labour, preterm labour, intra-uterine growth restriction, premature rupture of fetal membranes and caesarean deliveries were commoner in the teenage group, but not to a significant level. Promoting education of the girl-child and economic empowerment of teenage girls will reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy and the high complication rate associated with it.
Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.
Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.
Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke
Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims the understanding of: (i) the influence of aromatic oil on the dynamics of the individual phases in
Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Raveau, Sebastián
Waiting time at public transport stops is perceived by passengers to be more onerous than in-vehicle time, hence it strongly influences the attractiveness and use of public transport. Transport models traditionally assume that average waiting times are half the service headway by assuming random ...
Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke
Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims at developing the understanding of: (i) the influence of aromatic oil on the dynamics of the individual
Full Text Available in this article, the researchers have considered psychological impact of different musical genres and music clips on teenagers. Nowadays it is a very essential problem. Teenagers listen to music every day and of course, it is interesting for them to watch music videos on these songs. Listening to music and watching music videos can influence the mentality of a teenager. This influence can be both positive, and negative. In this article, the authors will try to examine the possible reasons of teenagers’ choice and study how musical genres, as well as «positive and negative clips» influence them.
Clarke, Jean Elaine
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 14/06/2002. This qualitative research seeks to improve our understanding of the relatively under-researched phenomenon of repeat teenage pregnancies, by exploring the underlying factors and meanings that teenagers ascribe to their pregnancies. The study uses a comparative approach to provide a comprehensive psychosocial and economic understanding of the factors leading to repeat teenage pregn...
Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Reeuwijk, Miranda A J; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo
A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers' position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income
The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)
Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker
Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger fares and charges. 221.30 Section 221.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Manner of Filing Tariffs § 221.30 Passenger fares and charges. (a...
In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...
Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible. Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR. Date Released: 9/29/2016.
...-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and includes... the automobile's manufacturer or with simple tools, such as screwdrivers and wrenches, so as to create... standard equipment, permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-carrying purposes or other nonpassenger...
van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.
Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency
The quality of passenger road transport is characterized by the availability, safety and the level of public satisfaction. ... The designed model is intended for development of methods and means of operative management of a rolling stock on route based on variation of external factors forming passenger traffic. The developed ...
Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.; Nielsen, L.K.
In this paper we describe a real-time rolling stock rescheduling model for disruption management of passenger railways. Large-scale disruptions, e.g., due to malfunctioning infrastructure or rolling stock, usually result in the cancellation of train services. As a consequence, the passenger flows
V. O. Zadoya
Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.
Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang
Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.
Full Text Available Introduction: Justicial proceeding is able to make any stress or anxiety for everyone that through on it, especially if the process happens on teenagers. The stressor which can make stress in justicial proceeding are the justicial proceeding that doesn’t go along with UU RI No. 3 tahun 1997, i. e. children justicial process, fearness of parents and friend lost, worried about his future, and new neighborhood that is not appropriate with the child’s psychology development. The presence of family is very important to give a social support to the arrested teenagers.The objective of this study was to know the correlation between family social support and post judegement stress in teenagers and the factors of stress in teenagers. Method: This study use Cross Sectional design. Population had taken from teenagers from 13 until 17 years old. Sample was comprised in to 12 individuals who fit with the inclusion criteria. The independent variable in this study was family social support and factors of stress in teenagers, and the dependent variable was post judgement stress in teenagers. Data was collected by measurement using Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ for stress, questionnaire of family social support, and interviewed. They were analyzed by Spearman’s test with significance level α<0.05 and content analysis for interview result. Result: The result showed that there is a correlation between family social support and post judgement stress in teenagers with significance level p=0.013. Analysis: It means, Content analysis’ results showed that the factors which related with stress in teenagers are environment, caring type, interfamily member’s relationship, bad event, and characteristic of children. Discussion: Higher family social support makes teenagers have higher self esteem and more optimistic view, so the teenagers will able to face their problem.
Ines G. Harper
Full Text Available Chronic rejection of solid organ allografts remains the major cause of transplant failure. Donor-derived tissue-resident lymphocytes are transferred to the recipient during transplantation, but their impact on alloimmunity is unknown. Using mouse cardiac transplant models, we show that graft-versus-host recognition by passenger donor CD4 T cells markedly augments recipient cellular and humoral alloimmunity, resulting in more severe allograft vasculopathy and early graft failure. This augmentation is enhanced when donors were pre-sensitized to the recipient, is dependent upon avoidance of host NK cell recognition, and is partly due to provision of cognate help for allo-specific B cells from donor CD4 T cells recognizing B cell MHC class II in a peptide-degenerate manner. Passenger donor lymphocytes may therefore influence recipient alloimmune responses and represent a therapeutic target in solid organ transplantation.
Ana Isabel Abad
Full Text Available Television series exert a significant influence on adolescents’ beliefs and opinions, especially in regards to gender, racial and social stereotypes. In this context, this work aims to discern youth involvement with fiction series by finding out what types of series they consume and what motivations they have for doing so. The bonds that are established by teenagers with the characters were also determined. For this purpose and by means of a mixed methodology; surveys and group dynamics were conducted with 236 adolescents from four education centers in Zaragoza. The results have shown that these teenagers consume Spanish sitcoms, such as La que se avecina as they are drawn to its absurd humour and also establish bonds with adult characters who are defined by their comicalness.
This paper explores the key findings of a range of research on teenagers and reading, focusing on the implications for classroom practice and student engagement. There is a particular emphasis on addressing the needs of underachieving and reluctant readers and the ways in which promoting reading for pleasure and enjoyment can contribute to student…
Scott, Joseph W.
Examines mother-daughter relationships and teenage pregnancy prevention in 153 school-aged mothers. The consistent finding is that negative daughter-mother relationships foster earlier first pregnancies, whereas positive relationships resulted in later-age pregnancies. Consistently positive relationships are second in potency for delaying or…
Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M
Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death
Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera
Similar to other countries, also in the Netherlands young male drivers (ages between 18 and 24 years) are overrepresented in crashes during weekend nights, thereby fatally injuring one or more of their passengers. This overrepresentation may be due to two contributing factors: (a) a higher exposure-to-risk because of dangerous trip condition, and (b) a higher tendency to take risks. Studies on these factors, mostly carried out in jurisdictions where youngsters are licensed at an earlier age than in Europe, suggest a strong -often negative- influence from peer-aged passengers. Given that in adolescence susceptibility to peer pressure reduces with age, these findings may not be applicable to late licensing countries, such as in Europe. In the Netherlands -a late licensing country- youngsters are licensed after the age of 18 years, followed by a 5 year probation period with a legal alcohol limit of 0.2g/L. Further, designated driver schemes are in place since 2001, alcohol limits are enforced by random breath testing schemes, and no passenger and night time restrictions are in force. Against this background, we examined the incidence of dangerous trip conditions and risk taking among young male drivers and compared those with a reference group with a low passenger fatality rate. To that end, data on trip conditions and risk behavior were obtained from a data base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers during weekend nights in 2010, between 22:00 and 06:00. This data base held information for each randomly selected on breath alcohol concentration (BAC), license status, driver characteristics (age and gender), number of passengers, time of night, and level of urbanization. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed the overrepresentation of young male drivers in traffic, carrying more frequently passengers than the reference group, especially after midnight. Urbanization level was not a modifying factor, but 'time of night' was, with riskier conditions after midnight in
Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…
From church conversations with teenagers (born between 1974 and 1994), publications in recent times appeared worldwide and the qualitative investigation in the article is utilized. It seems there are problems in the practice of the faith formation of teenagers in the evening service. The aim of an evening service must ...
This study analyses how teenaged instructors paired with older learners make use of scaffolding. Video data were categorised according to 15 types of direct scaffolding tactics, indirect scaffolding, and unused scaffolding opportunities. The results show that a teenager who is unprepared for the role of an instructor of Internet skills for older…
Epithelial ovarian cancers are uncommon among young girls and teenagers compared to germ cell tumors. We report a case of bilateral ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma in a teenage girl with the attendant challenges of diagnosis, management and follow up. HT, 19 year old had presented at a secondary care level with ...
This informed a comparative study of the obstetric performance of primiparous teenagers and nonteenage primiparas within a two-year period (1st January, 2006-31st December, 2007) in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,Ikeja. Fifty six(56) case notes of teenagers who delivered in this hospital were available for ...
This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)
Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy is associated with significant maternal and foetal risks. Adolescent friendly reproductive health services are recommended to prevent these pregnancies, adequate social support as well as the provision of effective antenatal/delivery facilities. Keywords: Teenagers, Mothers, Outcome, Uyo.
Chaitra Ramachandra; Roopa N. K; Rekha N; Shankaregowda; Nirupama Y. S
To study the impact of teenage pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcome. This is a randomized prospective clinical study carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, BGS Global Medical College, over a period of one year from January 2015 to December 2015. In study group (Group A) included a total of 200 primigravid teenage mothers(age
BACKGROUND: Teenage pregnancies are regarded as high risk, because they often occur outside marriage. There is the need to evaluate the outcome of teenage pregnancies in a predominantly Islamic society like Kano where most occur within marriage, and timely prenatal care is usually available to most of them.
A study on the incidence and complication pattern of teenage pregnancy was conducted in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria using six randomly selected hospitals and health institutions between March and September 1999. The analysis covered all teenage pregnancies reported to the selected health institutions. A total of 4868 ...
In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative study in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders ...
Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: ...
The findings included that 93% of parents claimed that a pregnant teenager outside wedlock is a social deviant and 85.8% said teenage pregnancy is a sign of parental failure. Their attitudinal behaviour showed that the affected girl would be sent away from the family (32.7%), parents would stop her education (49.8%) and ...
The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 163(45.4%). Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with age, occupation, no education, early marriage, religion and practice of “Osu” caste system. While 115(70.9%) of the pregnancies ended in live spontaneous vaginal delivery, 27(16.4%) had induced abortion, ...
Davis, Richard A.
Broadly outlines scope of the problem of teenage pregnancy, some of its more obvious causes, and some of the long-term implications of not truly understanding the nature of the problem. Concludes with theoretical critique of social disorganizational, social definitional, and social organizational approaches to the problem of teenage pregnancy.…
Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane
Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…
Patten, Christi A.
Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…
Goldberg, Marvin E.; Gorn, Gerald J.
Results suggest that older teenagers may cut down on their own smoking when they are involved in efforts to change the smoking behavior of younger teens. Concludes that an antismoking campaign within the context of a school curriculum might be effective in changing the smoking behavior of teenagers. (PD)
Enomoto, Carl E.
Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)
Suri, Kul Bhushan
Examines data surrounding issues related to educational attitudes and attainment and teenage pregnancy, nonmarital births, and child poverty. Addresses proximate and root causes of rising U.S. rates of teenage pregnancy, correlations between nonmarital births and educational and occupational expectations, and educational and economic consequences.…
Conclusion: Teenage mothers constitute 5% of our antenatal patients and appear to be disadvantaged both socially and economically, as they are yet to attain their educational potentials. The older teenage status in addition to booking for antenatal care in pregnancy resulted in better foetal and maternal outcome.
Background: Teenage pregnancy is an obstetric risk factor. They are more likely to suffer from complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery with increased morbidity and mortality in both infants and mothers. Objective: To determine the prevalence of teenage births, demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcome in ...
There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...
This study investigated the incidence of teenage pregnancy in Ekiti State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. The research design used for the study was the descriptive research design of the survey type. 120 pregnant teenagers aged between thirteen and nineteen years of age selected through purposive ...
Background: Teenaged women suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. The purpose of this study was to estimate the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services among teenagers (13-19 years) during delivery in Ethiopia. Methodology: Raw data collected from all part of the country on child ...
Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann; Bonell, Chris
Purpose: The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which…
Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie
Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…
Generally, ANC during pregnancy can provide an entry into the health system, and for teenagers in particular such care may be one of the first comprehensive health assessments deemed necessary (2, 4). Most importantly, utilization of ANC provides the opportunity to teach teenaged women on how to recognize and ...
Shaw, Mary; Lawlor, Debbie A; Najman, Jake M
In many industrialised countries teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood have in recent years been identified as social and public health problems that need to be tackled. A number of studies have looked at various outcomes for teenage mothers and their offspring, and many report a strong association with poverty for the mother both before and after having a child. Few studies, however, adequately control for socioeconomic circumstances when examining health and related outcomes. Most studies have focused on perinatal outcomes in the offspring with few looking at later health and development. In Australia, where the rate of teenage pregnancy is relatively high compared to other comparable countries, teenage pregnancy is a not prominent policy concern. As such, Australia offers the opportunity to study the outcomes of teenage parenthood in a country where there may be less stigma than in countries that portray teenage parenthood as a major health and/or social problem. This paper reports findings from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes, a prospective study of women, and their offspring, who received antenatal care at a major public hospital (Mater Misericordiae Hospital) in South Brisbane, Australia, between 1981 and 1984. We have examined the associations of maternal age (18 years (n=4800)) at first antenatal visit with offspring psychological, behavioural and health characteristics when the offspring--the teenage children of teenage mothers--were aged 14 years. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the effect of maternal and family characteristics on associations between maternal age and childhood outcomes at age 14. Results show that the 14 year old offspring of mothers who were aged 18 years and younger compared to those who were offspring of older mothers were more likely to have disturbed psychological behaviour, poorer school performance, poorer reading ability, were more likely to have been in contact with the
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Wahn, Elisabeth Hertfelt; Nissen, Eva
Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continue pregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage mothers can therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at a group level. The aim of this study was to describe and compare teenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adult mothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of health and social support. A descriptive comparative study was conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden, which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15-19, who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same number of adult mothers aged 25-29, matched for parity and birth of a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Both groups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support. Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtained from their maternal health and delivery charts. Teenage mothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation, had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers, and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived less support, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms than adult mothers. Teenage mothers differed from adult mothers regarding family situation and health behavior as well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to cope with parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy to meet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.
This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.
Dupré, Kathryne E; Inness, Michelle; Connelly, Catherine E; Barling, Julian; Hoption, Colette
Among adult employees, interpersonal injustice and abusive supervision predict aggression toward supervisors at work. The aim of this study was to assess whether similar relationships exist among teenage employees and, further, whether teenagers' reasons for working moderate these relationships. Multiple regression analyses on data from 119 teenage employees showed that financial and personal fulfillment reasons for working moderate the impact of interpersonal injustice and abusive supervision on aggression directed at workplace supervisors. These findings contribute to the understanding of workplace aggression by demonstrating that (a) teenagers engage in this workplace behavior, (b) the predictors are similar to those of adult aggression, and (c) reasons for working play a moderating role among this particular cohort. The possible long-term consequences of teenagers' use of aggression at work are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Miklashevich, I M; Kuleshova, E V; Termosesov, S A; Shkolnikova, M A
The Brugada syndrome (BS) belongs to the group of hereditary channelopathies associated with elevated risk of sudden death (SD) in the absence of structural heart diseases. The disorder phenotypically manifests by specific electrocardiographic pattern, associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT). VT can be accompanied by loss of conscience, and after transformation to ventricular fibrillation result in SD. BS is extremely rare among children and adolescents. We present here a clinical case of teenager (age 17 years) with BS manifested by syncopal state at the background of fever.
Singh, Harinder R
Use of medications for attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder and preparticipation sports physical examination has led to an increase in number of electrocardiograms (ECG) performed during adolescence. Interpreting ECGs in children and young adults must take into account the evolutionary changes with age and the benign variants, which are usually not associated with heart disease. It is crucial for primary-care providers to recognize the changes on ECG associated with heart disease and risk of sudden death. In this article, the significance, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic workup of these findings in the asymptomatic teenager are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silveri, Marisa M
The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.
Two-thirds of US teenagers say they are discouraged from pursuing a career in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM), according to a survey released last month. The main barrier, the survey finds, is the lack of encouragement from appropriate tutors. Of the 501 respondents, who were all aged between 12 and 17, 31% say that they are dissuaded from an STEM career because they do not know anyone in the field who might mentor them, while 28% say they do not understand what scientists do on a day-to-day basis.
Silva, Rodrigo Sinnott; Anhanguera; Zanela, Barbara Cordeiro; Anhanguera
The internet is one of the most used media in the world. It became popular among the different social classes and thereby started bringing some concerns for people who were unable to take advantage of this new technology. Thus, this study aimed to examine how teenagers from a state school in Rio Grande are using the internet and how this influence in their lives. For this was used IAT, wich is an instrument created by the researcher to gather more information about the influence that this med...
Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.
Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...... modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...
Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.
V. A. Lakhno
Full Text Available Purpose. This scientific work considers the further development of mathematical models and algorithms for automatic decision support for dispatching management of the city passenger traffic. Methodology. Systems of dispatching management for the city passenger transport are to provide the carrying out of the routes according schedules with minimal deviations from the planned ones through the using of appropriate control actions. The systems’ algorithm focuses on the selection of control actions that compensate the disturbances. It is proposed to use the index of the waiting time minimum for passengers of buses and taxis at stops as a criterion for evaluating of dispatching control systems work. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of traffic flow of vehicles, it was proposed the model for the system of dispatching management for urban passenger moving units considering the effect of the most important stochastic factors on the schedule of buses and taxis movement in large cities. The obtained system of equations that models the parameter of movement on the bus routes allows you to assess quickly the influence of disturbing effects on the service quality indicators of passengers and, if necessary, to draw up the optimal schedule. Originality. The authors propose a new model for decision support of dispatching management for the city passenger transport. They take into account the effect of the most important stochastic factors, such as the overflowing buses and taxis, their descent from the lines, delays, deviations from the speed limit on the route, etc., on indicators of service quality, as well as optimizing the schedule. Practical value. The results allow to improve approaches to building models using in the systems of dispatching management of urban bus routes, as well as to improve the selection of control actions for similar systems in large cities of Ukraine.
Drawing on the Communication Accommodation Theory and Language Expectancy Theory it is argued that teenagers are more likely to view the writer and the teenage variety favourably if they identify with the teenage variety in the print media. In this study two teenage slang versions of the same HIV message were ...
There has been growing concern about the increase in teenage pregnancies in relation to the teenagers’ knowledge of human sexuality and the impact sex education has on these teenagers in both the urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of sex education and the health beliefs of teenagers with regard to teenage pregnancy.
This brief digest discusses teenage pregnancy and various educational strategies that appear to affect pregnancy rates. While pregnancy among white teenagers has increased since the 1970s, the birthrate among black teenagers is still five to eight times higher. Teenage mothers and fathers have lower educational attainment and income than their…
Dodds, Josiah; Chong-de, Lin
Chinese teenagers (n=1,861) rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns about the future; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. Although still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and former Soviet teenagers in earlier studies.…
Full Text Available There has been growing concern about the increase in teenage pregnancies in relation to the teenagers’ knowledge of human sexuality and the impact sex education has on these teenagers in both the urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of sex education and the health beliefs of teenagers with regard to teenage pregnancy.
de Jonge, A
To gain insight into the support teenage mothers received during pregnancy, birth and their child's pre-school years and young women's perceptions of the usefulness of a support group for teenage mothers. Most qualitative studies have focused on teenage mothers around the time of the birth of their first child. For this study, women were recruited several years after the birth (median 8.5 years), so that they would have had time to reflect on the support they had received. The qualitative method of semi-structured interviews was chosen to obtain in-depth information and to allow teenage mothers' own views to be heard. Ten individual interviews and one paired interview were undertaken. Recruitment was difficult because taking part in research was not a priority for many of the women. The study confirmed the strong link between deprivation and teenage pregnancy found in other studies, and suggested that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be more difficult to detect. Teenage women need more information on mental health and on services available to them. The fear, expressed by some of the women in this study, of becoming different from other women in their social network should be considered by health workers when establishing intervention programmes. Professional bodies of health workers should lobby government to provide a minimum standard of living and sufficient child-care to combat deprivation. Former teenage mothers should be involved in the recruitment, planning and implementation stages of research and interventions. Health professionals should be aware that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be particularly difficult to detect. Key community health workers or a support group may provide information on services, mental health and education facilities available that would benefit teenage mothers. A support group may also give emotional support.
Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria
The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character – and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area. PMID:25136329
Leal, Ingrid; Luttges, Carolina; Troncoso, Paulina; Leyton, Carolina; Molina, Temistocles; Eguiguren, Pamela
There are legal regulations about sexual and reproductive rights of adolescents. However, this legal framework (LF) may have contradictory elements: there are laws assuring confidentiality and access to contraception at any age but there are other laws that consider any sexual contact with an adolescent younger than 14 a sexual assault, whose report to the legal authorities in mandatory. To explore the knowledge and clinical practice of primary health care (PHC) providers regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy. Qualitative study collecting data using semi-structured interviews made to midwives and directors of PHC centers. Analysis of the data was based on Grounded Theory. There is a differentiated clinical care for pregnancy prevention among adolescents if they are over 14 years old. This is due to the LF, specifically to the sexual crimes law (19,927) and the law about regulation of the fertility (20,418). The differences affect health care, access and counseling about contraception and confidentiality. Healthcare of teenagers under the age of 14 is perceived as problematic for providers, due to the possible legal implications. The LF causes insecurity on health care providers and derives in a differentiated clinical approach according to the patient´s age. This is a barrier to provide timely and confidential access to counseling and contraception.
Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Chibani, Moncef; Bel Abed, Najet; Dahmen, Hayet; Ouerfelli, Nabil; Taher Maabouj, Mohamed; Hasni, Khadija; Askri, Moncef; Sellami, Lotfi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of smoker adolescents in Zaghouan, to seek for the smoking reasons, the used arguments, recording to them, to stop, and show their knowledge about prevention. A prospective study included 266 teenagers scolarised: 194 boys and 72 girls (aged from 12 to 16 years) from 3 colleges located in Zaghouan during 2006. A questionnaire was drawn up on these adolescents. It contains three parts: tabagic habits of smoking teenagers, the reasons of smoking and information about prevention. Twenty six percents of students are smokers, this percentage increases with the scholar level. They have parents' authorization in 18% of cases and have at least one smoker in their environment in 74% of cases. From whose who have tried tobacco, 65% became smokers. The most invoked causes are calming character of cigarettes and the pleasure to smoke. The first cigarette is smoked just for curiosity. The middle age of smoking initiation is 12 years. Twenty three percents of smoking students have tried to stop. The reasons are the dangerous character for health and the cost of tobacco. Adolescents prefer to use shocking pictures to self-sensitize (66%). Some pupils suggest calling smoker persons who are victims of tobacco to talk about their experiences. Adolescents' smoking is a Public Health priority in Tunisia. The rate of smoking, its cost and its bad health risks encourage us to make preventions, especially the education and information for children and help adolescents to stop smoking.
Zierold, Kristina M; Welsh, Erin C; McGeeney, Teresa J
More than 70 % of teenagers are employed before graduating high school. Every 10 min, in the United States, a young worker is injured on the job. Safety training has been suggested as a way to prevent injuries, yet little is known about the methods of safety training and the effectiveness of training that teens receive at work. This study is the first to assess the attitudes teens hold towards safety training and what they believe would help them stay safe on the job. In 2010, focus groups and interviews were conducted with 42 teens from public high schools in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Participating teens were aged 15-19 years old, 43 % male, 69 % African-American, and 56 % worked either in the restaurant/food industry or in retail jobs. Most teens reported receiving safety training. Although the majority believed that safety training was important, many felt that they personally did not need safety training; that it was "common sense." However, 52 % of teens reported workplace injuries. Many viewed injury lightly and as part of the job, even those that sustained severe injuries. Most teens were trained by methods that seem at best "boring" and at worst, ineffective. Little interaction, action, or repetition is used. Training is not geared towards teens' developmental levels or interest, as in most cases all workers received the same type of training. Safety training may be a powerful way to reduce injury rates among working teenagers, but it is essential that training methods which are geared towards teens are utilized.
In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca
Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.
Kim, Justin Namuk; Choi, Eun Hee; Kim, Soo-Ki
To promote awareness of animal experimentation ethics among teenagers, we created an educational pamphlet and an accompanying questionnaire. One hundred Indian teenage school pupils were given the pamphlet and subsequently surveyed with the questionnaire, to evaluate: a) their perception of animal experimentation ethics; and b) their opinion on the effectiveness of the pamphlet, according to gender and school grade/age. There was a significant correlation between grade/age and support for animal experimentation, i.e. senior students were more inclined to show support for animal experimentation. There was also a significant correlation between gender and perception of the need to learn about animal experimentation ethics, with girls more likely to feel the need to learn about ethics than boys. In addition, the four questions relating to the usefulness of the pamphlet, and student satisfaction with its content, received positive responses from the majority of the students. Even though the pamphlet was concise, it was apparent that three quarters of the students were satisfied with its content. Gender and age did not influence this level of satisfaction. Overall, our study shows that there is a significant correlation between a pupil`s school grade/age and their support for animal experimentation, and that there is also a significant correlation between gender and the perceived need to learn about animal experimentation ethics. This pilot scheme involving an educational pamphlet and questionnaire could be beneficial in helping to formulate basic strategies for educating teenage school pupils about animal ethics. 2017 FRAME.
Yang Lei; Yuan Weihong; Xu Mian; Luo Zhihang; Du Juan; He Qin; Zhu Jiayou
In order to study the difference of thyroid-related hormones between the Teenagers of Jinuo minority and those of Han nationality, 203 teenagers of Jinuo who are students of an ethnic middle school, Jinghong, took as the Jinuo group. This group was divided into three subgroups according to their age: 1)age from 13 to 14, 52 persons 2)age from 14 to 15, 91 persons 3)age from 15 to 16, 60 persons. Meanwhile, 100 teenagers of Han nationality lived in Kunming took as a control group, which also was divided into three subgroups 1)age from 13 to 14, 28 persons; 2)age from 14 to 15, 33 persons; 3)age from 15 to 16, 39 persons. The levels of T 3 T 4 and TSH in both groups were determined. The result showed no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). From this result authors could conclude that though the Jinuo minority lives in the remote area and their nutrition and living conditions are poorer than the Han nationality, that do not contribute influence to their level of thyroid-related hormone
Marcela Medeiros de Almeida Costa
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the experience of pregnancy in adolescence through the reports of teenage mothers and fathers. Methods: A descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature in which interviews were conducted with 11 teenage couples, whose pregnant girls were admitted to a reference maternity hospital. Data collection was conducted in the period between June and August 2010 through a semi-structured interview based on guiding questions for teenage mothers and fathers. The speeches were recorded, fully transcribed, analyzed and grouped into thematic categories. Results: It was evidenced: the initial impact of the news for the teenage couple, the change of attitude towards life because of the unplanned pregnancy and the child’s birth, the immaturity to assume the role of mother and father and the emergence of problems of family and social nature. Conclusion: The pregnancy for a teenage couple is not something planned, but they start to see themselves as mothers and fathers and express feelings related to the triad father-mother-son. However, for teenage mothers, taking care of the child is the most important thing, while for teenage fathers, sustaining the family is essential and worrisome. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p101
MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh
Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.
Karpyuk, V.A.; Obukhov, S.G.
Results of complex psychological and psychopathological survey of 729 teenagers living in various regions of Belarus are considered. The all teenagers were divided into two groups: the first group had 557 teenagers living in region with a level of pollution by 137 Cs less than 1 Ci/sq.km, the second groups - 172 teenagers, constantly living on controllable territories with the 137 Cs contents more than 15 Ci/sq.km. The change of psychological adaptation in the form of strengthening of the situation and individual disturb, emotional lability and psychoasthenia was detected for the teenagers from contaminated regions. It may be a basic for development of various neurotic disorders. The received results show that the radioactive contaminated of constant living regions teenagers leads to disorders of the psychological adaptation at teenagers. These were characterized by lability of mood, increased sensitivity to external irritants, indecision, disturbing hypochondria and uncertainty in own forces. At late effect of small dozes of radiation the initial stimulation transforms to exhaustion of protective mechanisms of a head brain and leads to disorganization of the regulator mechanisms
Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel
This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.
Garanet, Franck; Bogono, Etienne; Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Mésenge, Christian
Objectives: To study the determinants of psychoactive substance use among street teenagers living in Ouagadougou.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with street teenagers living on the Zogona campus in Ouagadougou, in September 2012. A focus group was then formed with eight members of the group.Results: The median age was 16 years (range: 12 to 20 years). The various psychotropic agents were tobacco, alcohol, gasoline, glue sniffing and cannabis. Seventeen of the 31 teenagers had already been admitted to a rehabilitation centre and none of them attended school at the time of data collection. However, 12 street teenagers had previously attended school. The main reasons for the presence of these teenagers in the street were “poverty in the family”, “death of the parents”, “Koranic school”. The main reasons reported by the teenagers for substance use were “to give oneself courage”, “to relieve hunger”, “to be like the others”, “to be accepted by the group”, “to protect oneself from the cold”. The main determinants of substance abuse were social exclusion, group membership, and group identification.Conclusion: Psychoactive substance use is an integral part of the life of street teenagers and is a major obstacle to social integration.
Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Barros, Idna de Carvalho
To analyze the predictive factors of abortion among teenagers with gestational history. Cross-sectional study carried out with 464 teenagers aged between 15 and 19 years, from Teresina, Piauí, who completed a pregnancy in the first quarter of 2006 in six city maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008, at the teenagers' home, after their identification in the hospital records. For the univariate analysis of data, descriptive statistics was used, and for bivariate analysis, Pearson's χ2-test and Z-test were applied. Multivariate analysis was performed by means of the Multiple logistic regression (MLR), with significance level of 5%. Teenagers who had more than one pregnancy were almost nine times more likely to have an abortion when compared to those who had only one pregnancy (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the teenagers who reported being pressured by the partner to have an abortion were four times and a half more likely to do it, when compared to those pressured by relatives and friends (p = 0.007). The teenagers who had two or more pregnancies and were pressured by the partner to have an abortion were more prone to do it. Thus, it is necessary that programs of Family Planning include the teenagers more effectively, aiming at avoiding unwanted pregnancies among this population and, consequently, abortion induced in poor conditions.
Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, R.
The tyre dynamic rolling radius is an extremely important parameter for vehicle dynamics, for operation of safety systems as ESP, ABS, TCS, etc., for road vehicle research and development, as well as for validation or as an input parameter of automotive simulations and models. The paper investigates the dynamic rolling radii of passenger car tyre and the influence of rolling speed and inflation pressure on their magnitude. The measurement of dynamic rolling radii has been performed on a chassis dynamometer test rig. The dynamic rolling radii have been measured indirectly, using longitudinal rolling speed and angular velocity of wheel. Due to the subtle effects that the parameters have on rolling radius magnitude, very accurate equipment has to be used. Two different methods have been chosen for measuring the wheel angular velocity: the stroboscopic lamp and the incremental rotary encoder. The paper shows that the stroboscopic lamp has an insufficient resolution, therefore it was no longer used for experimental investigation. The tyre dynamic rolling radii increase with rolling speed and with tyre inflation pressure, but the effect of pressure is more significant. The paper also makes considerations on the viability of simplified formulae from literature for calculating the tyre dynamic rolling radius.
Full Text Available Air analysis inside vehicles is a problem that can be interpreted from several perspectives. This research is oriented towards the perception of air quality within a car, regarding a situation of cars in stationary traffic. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using a Trotec Data Logger Air Quality CO2 BZ30 machine inside different standing vehicles with up to five occupants, with and without circulating air. The perception of the air quality was measured on a Likert-type scale with seven levels on a sample group of 60 students. The results highlight, on the one hand, the conditions under which the CO2 in the cabin air can reach concentrations which are, according to new data, considered to influence the cognitive capacity of occupants in the car, and on the other hand, they present a global assessment of the air quality in the vehicle when critical values of CO2 have been reached. If the air exchange rates inside a car are low, this degrades the air quality in such a way that it affects the concentration and reactions necessary for safe driving without perceiving any discomfort that would put the drivers or the passengers on alert.
Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.
Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark
Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.
Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto
Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This research program was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development in support of the advancement of improved safety standards for passenger rail vehicles. FRA and the Volpe National Transportation Syst...
Since it began operations in 1971, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation : (Amtrak) has never been profitable and has received about $21 billion in federal : subsidies for operating and capital expenses. In December 1994, at the : direction of ...
Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...