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Sample records for teenage passenger influences

  1. Peer Passenger Norms and Pressure: Experimental Effects on Simulated Driving Among Teenage Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Almani, Farideh; Falk, Emily B; Shope, Jean T; Buckley, Lisa; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Albert, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    Serious crashes are more likely when teenage drivers have teenage passengers. One likely source of this increased risk is social influences on driving performance. This driving simulator study experimentally tested the effects of peer influence (i.e., risk-accepting compared to risk-averse peer norms reinforced by pressure) on the driving risk behavior (i.e., risky driving behavior and inattention to hazards) of male teenagers. It was hypothesized that peer presence would result in greater driving risk behavior (i.e., increased driving risk and reduced latent hazard anticipation), and that the effect would be greater when the peer was risk-accepting. Fifty-three 16- and 17-year-old male participants holding a provisional U.S., State of Michigan driver license were randomized to either a risk-accepting or risk-averse condition. Each participant operated a driving simulator while alone and separately with a confederate peer passenger. The simulator world included scenarios designed to elicit variation in driving risk behavior with a teen passenger present in the vehicle. Significant interactions of passenger presence (passenger present vs. alone) by risk condition (risk-accepting vs. risk-averse) were observed for variables measuring: failure to stop at yellow light intersections (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95CI]=1.06, 4.43); higher probability of overtaking (IRR=10.17; 95CI=1.43, 73.35); shorter left turn latency (IRR=0.43; 95CI=0.31,0.60); and, failure to stop at an intersection with an occluded stop sign (IRR=7.90; 95CI=2.06,30.35). In all cases, greater risky driving by participants was more likely with a risk-accepting passenger versus a risk-averse passenger present and a risk-accepting passenger present versus driving alone. Exposure of male teenagers to a risk-accepting confederate peer passenger who applied peer influence increased simulated risky driving behavior compared with exposure to a risk-averse confederate peer

  2. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  3. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  4. Influence of parental guidance on teenage pregnancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of parental guidance on teenage pregnancy among secondary school female adolescent students in Abeokuta South Local Government Area. The instrument for data collection used for this research was questionnaire and the sampling techniques used for this study was descriptive survey ...

  5. Parental marital status and peer influence as corelates of teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...

  6. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  7. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  8. Peer influence predicts speeding prevalence among teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Chen, Rusan; Klauer, Sheila G; Lee, Suzanne E; Wang, Jing; Dingus, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    Preventing speed-related crashes could reduce costs and improve efficiency in the transportation industry. This research examined the psychosocial and personality predictors of observed speeding among young drivers. Survey and driving data were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers during the first 18months of licensure. Speeding (i.e., driving 10mph over the speed limit; about 16km/h) was assessed by comparing speed data collected with recording systems installed in participants' vehicles with posted speed limits. Speeding was correlated with elevated g-force event rates (r=0.335, pb0.05), increased over time, and predicted by day vs. night trips, higher sensation seeking, substance use, tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and number of risky friends. Perceived risk was a significant mediator of the association between speeding and risky friends. The findings support the contention that social norms may influence teenage speeding behavior and this relationship may operate through perceived risk. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  10. Who can best influence the quality of teenagers' cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Because young drivers' vehicles have been found to offer poor occupant protection in many countries, this study sought to identify the most appropriate audience for information and publicity designed to change purchasing preferences to improve these vehicles and resultant injury outcomes. An analysis of New Zealand vehicles crashed by drivers aged 19 years or less linked to data on the owner of the vehicle was undertaken. Details on the crashed vehicles were merged with licensing information to identify the owner's age group. It was presumed that most vehicles driven by teens but owned by someone aged 30 to 59 would be owned by a parent of the teen. Only 14 percent of vehicles crashed by teens were owned by teens. Generally, older vehicles with poor crashworthiness were provided for the teenage driver, whatever the age group of the owner. However, cars crashed by teens but owned by their parents were on average almost 2 years younger and had relatively superior crashworthiness than the teenager-owned and crashed vehicles, although their crashworthiness was still poor compared to vehicles driven by older drivers. Evidently, parents are key people in making vehicle purchasing decisions regarding the cars that teenagers drive and should be the main audience for measures to improve the poor secondary safety performance of teenagers' vehicles.

  11. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-06-01

    Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.

  12. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  13. YouTubers and their influence on teenager's values in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "YouTubers and their influence on the values and development of teenagers in the Czech Republic" aims to determine the influence of people producing and presenting their own videos on the video-sharing website YouTube, the so-called YouTubers, on the social and educational development of teenagers. YouTube is a phenomenon of today's young generation which spends much more time on social networks than in front of television or print media, so the impact of this media on young people...

  14. Influence of driving style on fuel consumption and Emissions in diesel-powered passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca González, Natalia Elizabeth; Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Espinosa Zapata, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a study on the influence of driving style on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of diesel passenger car in urban traffic. Driving styles (eco, normal or aggressive) patterns were based on the “eco-driving” criteria. The methodology is based on on-board emission measurements in real urban traffic in the city of Madrid. Five diesel passenger cars, have been tested. Through a statistical analysis, a Dynamic Performance Index was defined for die...

  15. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  16. Perceived Family Influences in Talent Development among Artistically Talented Teenagers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2013-01-01

    Though there have been quite a number of research studies focusing on how Singaporean families promote literacy and instill values of academic excellence inside the home, little has been written about how families nurture the gifts of teenagers talented in the arts in the Singaporean context. This article highlights how the family influences the…

  17. A data mining approach to investigate the factors influencing the crash severity of motorcycle pillion passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycle passengers comprise a considerable proportion of traffic crash victims. During a 5 year period (2006-2010) in Iran, an average of 3.4 pillion passengers are killed daily due to motorcycle crashes. This study investigated the main factors influencing crash severity of this group of road users. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) method was employed to analyze the injury severity of pillion passengers in Iran over a 4 y ear period (2009-2012). The predictive accuracy of the model built with a total of 16 variables was 74%, which showed a considerable improvement compared to previous studies. The results indicate that area type, land use, and injured part of the body (head, neck, etc.) are the most influential factors affecting the fatality of motorcycle passengers. Results also show that helmet usage could reduce the fatality risk among motorcycle passengers by 28%. The findings of this study might help develop more targeted countermeasures to reduce the death rate of motorcycle pillion passengers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-functional influence of culture and language during the process of foreign language teaching of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergeshali kyzy A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.

  19. The influence of passenger flow on the topology characteristics of urban rail transit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.

  20. Family Influence on Teenage Participation in School Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Barbara G.; Dager, Edward Z.

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between social participation and family structure. A theory is developed in the framework of George Herbert Mead's analysis on the development of a consistent self in response to a generalized other. According to this theory, the influence of the family is implicated as one of the social-psychological…

  1. Competitive Position of Dependent Passenger Car Maintenance Companies – Influences, Developments and Challenges in the German Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werdich Karl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper concerns itself with passenger car maintenance companies and their competitiveness. Internal and external influences, change drivers and general changes in the companies and their organisation were identified and analysed. The influence of the development of technology and the diffusion of innovations are highlighted in particular. Under consideration of the competitiveness factors, current and future challenges for the passenger car maintenance companies were worked out. Based on these analyses, future tasks, problem statements and challenges were compiled for passenger car maintenance companies from which other subjects of scientific investigation in area of strategic and economic importance arose.

  2. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  3. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  4. Influence of facilities of ski preparation on the bodily condition of teenagers 11-12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona V.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.

  5. Influence of various ecological factors on anthopometrical development of children and teenagers in conditions of Dagestan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Osmanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems on questions of instability social-political situation, falling-off of production, дороговизна goods and services, inflation, unemployment, migration of the population - negativly influence upon антрополитическое development детей and teenager of the Republic Dagestan.

  6. Influence of various ecological factors on anthopometrical development of children and teenagers in conditions of Dagestan Republic

    OpenAIRE

    R. O. Osmanov; Z. G. Musaeva; S. O. Kurbieva; M. V. Musaeva

    2009-01-01

    The problems on questions of instability social-political situation, falling-off of production, дороговизна goods and services, inflation, unemployment, migration of the population - negativly influence upon антрополитическое development детей and teenager of the Republic Dagestan.

  7. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in Teenage Mothers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Mokhlesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy in low age has been proposed as one of the important factors causing risks and adverse outcomes. One of these complications is low birth weight (LBW, which is an important health indicator in any countries. In this study, texts related to Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in teenage mothers was reviewed. Methods: In the present study, articles indexed in the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, were used. Results: In the present study, a total of 22 articles related to teenage pregnancy and low birth weight were studied. Also, all factors influencing infants’ low birth weight in teenegers were evaluated in the areas of biological and environmental factors. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that environmental and biological parameters are factors influencing low birth weight in teenage pregnancy. Thus, to reduce social problem of low birth weight and to improve this indicator in both environmental and biological issues, health intervention is necessary.

  8. Teenage pregnancy and the influence of paternal involvement on fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Grunsten, Ryan A; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-12-01

    We sought to assess the impact of paternal involvement on adverse birth outcomes in teenage mothers. Using vital records data, we generated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the association between paternal involvement and fetal outcomes in 192,747 teenage mothers. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Data were obtained from vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2007. The study population consisted of 192,747 teenage mothers ≤ 20 years old with live single births in the State of Florida. Low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm birth, very preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and infant death. Risks of SGA (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.10), low birth weight (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.15-1.23), very low birth weight (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.41-1.67), preterm birth (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.17-1.25), and very preterm birth (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) were elevated for mothers in the father-absent group. When results were stratified by race, black teenagers in the father-absent group had the highest risks of adverse birth outcomes when compared to white teenagers in the father-involved group. Lack of paternal involvement is a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes among teenage mothers; risks are most pronounced among African-American teenagers. Our findings suggest that increased paternal involvement can have a positive impact on birth outcomes for teenage mothers, which may be important for decreasing the racial disparities in infant morbidities. More studies assessing the impact of greater paternal involvement on birth outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Education Influences Creativity in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children and Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Ruiz, Sarah; Spector, Lisa; Mocorovi, Marion; Gaertner, Chrystal; Quilici, Catherine; Vernet, Marine

    2016-01-01

    Are dyslexic children and teenagers more creative than non-dyslexic children and teenagers? Whether creativity is higher in dyslexia, and whether this could be related to neurological development specific to the dyslexic disorder, or to compensatory strategies acquired later in life, remains unclear. Here, we suggest an additional role of differential educational approaches taken in each school that could either enhance or suppress an already higher baseline creativity of dyslexic children and teenagers. Creativity in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children and teenagers from different schools in France and in Belgium, as well as in students from different universities, was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Children and teenagers with dyslexia and/or with other similar dysfunctions showed higher creativity scores than non-dyslexic participants. Moreover, the educational approach could further enhance the creative scores in dyslexia, which could be as high as those measured in students from art universities. We conclude that dyslexic children and teenagers can be highly creative. Yet, expression of creativity can be modulated by educational approach, indicating a probable advantage for personal follow-up compared to normalizing education strategies.

  10. Influence of European passenger cars weight to exhaust CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Lazarou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration influences climate changes. The road transport sector is one of the main anthropogenic sources of CO 2 emissions in the European Union (EU). One of the main parameters influencing CO 2 emissions from passenger cars (PCs) is their weight, which increases during last years. For the same driving distance, heavier vehicles need more work than lighter ones, because they have to move an extra weight, and thus more fuel is consumed and thus increased CO 2 emissions. The weight control of new PCs could be an efficient way to control their CO 2 emissions. After an analysis of the EU new PCs market, their segment distribution and their weight, some estimations for 2020 are presented. Based on this analysis, 13 base scenarios using several ways for the control of the weight of future European new PCs are used to estimate their CO 2 emissions and the benefit of each scenario. The results show that a significant benefit on CO 2 emissions could be achieved if the weight of each PC does not exceed an upper limit, especially if this limit is quite low. The benefit obtained by limitations of weight is higher than the benefit obtained from the expected decreased future fuel consumption. Similar results are obtained when the weight of new PCs does not exceed an upper limit within each segment, or when the weight of each new PC decreases. (author)

  11. The influence of passenger car front shape on pedestrian injury risk observed from German in-depth accident data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Lyons, Mathew; Wang, Bingyu; Yang, Jikuang; Otte, Dietmar; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-04-01

    Quantified relationships between passenger car front shape and pedestrian injury risk derived from accident data are sparse, especially considering the significant recent changes in car front design. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate the detailed effects of passenger car front shape on injury risk to a pedestrian's head, thorax, pelvis and leg in the event of a vehicle pedestrian impact. Firstly, an accident sample of 594 pedestrian cases captured during 2000-2015 from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database was employed. Multicollinearity diagnostic statistics were then used to detect multicollinearity between the predictors. Following this, logistic regression was applied to quantify the effects of passenger car front shape on injury risks while controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age. Results indicate that the bumper lower depth (BLD), bumper lower height (BLH), bumper upper height (BUH) and normalised bumper lower/upper height (NBLH/NBUH) are statistically significant for AIS2+ leg injury risk. The normalised bonnet leading edge height (NBLEH) has a statistically significant influence on AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury occurrence. The passenger car front shape did not show statistical significance for AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. The impact speed and pedestrian age are generally significant factors influencing AIS2+ leg and pelvis injuries, and AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. However, when head impacts are fixed on the central windscreen region both pedestrian age and impact speed are not statistically significant for AIS3+ head injury. For quantified effects, when controlling for speed, age and BUH, an average 7% and 6% increase in AIS2+ leg injury odds was observed for every 1cm increase in BLD and BLH respectively; 1cm increase in BUH results in a 7% decrease in AIS2+ leg injury odds when the BLD or BLH are fixed respectively (again controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age); the average AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury

  12. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  13. "Someone of Your Own to Love": Experiences of Being Looked after as Influences on Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Abigail; Chase, Elaine; Aggleton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children and young people who are looked after are vulnerable to poor life outcomes, including early pregnancy. This paper examines how experiences of being looked after may contribute to teenage pregnancy. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 63 young people recently looked after who are aged 15-24…

  14. The influence of thermal discomfort on the attention index of teenagers: an experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    In order to measure the effect on the attention of teenagers of thermal discomfort due to high temperature and humidity, two experiments were conducted in two different indoor conditions of temperature and humidity in non-air-conditioned classrooms. The participants were a heterogeneous group of 117 teenagers, aged 12 to 18 years, and the experiments reproduced the actual conditions of teaching in a classroom in the Mediterranean climate. In order to measure the attention index, a standard Toulouse-Pieron psychological test was performed on the 117 teenagers in these two conditions, and the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), the Standard effective Temperature (SET*) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices were calculated to estimate the grade of discomfort using the RayMan Pro model. Conditions of greater discomfort decreased the attention index in the whole group, especially in those aged 12-14, among whom the attention index dropped by around 45 % when compared to comfortable conditions. However, teenage attention at ages 17 and 18 shows little variation in discomfort in respect to thermally comfortable conditions. In addition, the attention index for boys and girls shows the same variation in discomfort conditions. However, girls have a slightly higher attention index than boys in discomfort and thermal comfort experiments.

  15. Recreational preferences of urban teenagers: the influence of cultural and environmental attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson

    1977-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...

  16. Factors influencing repeated teenage pregnancy: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Joemer C; Betts, Kim S; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Existing evidence of predictors of repeated teenage pregnancy has not been assessed rigorously. This systematic review provides a comprehensive evaluation of protective and risk factors that are associated with repeated teenage pregnancy through a metaanalytical consensus. We used PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 1997-2015 and the reference list of other relevant research papers and related reviews. Eligibility criteria included (1) epidemiologic studies that analyzed factors associated with repeated pregnancy or birth among adolescents pregnancy, and (2) experimental studies with an observational component that was adjusted for the intervention. We performed narrative synthesis of study characteristics, participant characteristics, study results, and quality assessment. We also conducted random-effects and quality-effects metaanalyses with meta-regression to obtain pooled odds ratios of identified factors and to determine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-six eligible epidemiologic studies, most from the United States (n=24), showed >47 factors with no evidence of publication bias for each metaanalysis. Use of contraception (pooled odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.02), particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives (pooled odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.45), considerably reduced repeated teenage pregnancy risk. Among studies about contraception, the number of follow-up visits (adjusted coefficient, 0.72; P=.102) and country of study (unadjusted coefficient, 2.57; permuted P=.071) explained between-study heterogeneity. Education-related factors, which included higher level of education (pooled odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.91) and school continuation (pooled odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.84), were found to be protective. Conversely, depression (pooled odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1

  17. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France

    2009-12-01

    Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults.

  18. Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L

    1999-01-01

    Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.

  19. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  20. Factors influencing administration of hepatitis B vaccine to community-dwelling teenagers aged 12-18 with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan," which was a cross-sectional survey of 1111 intellectually disabled (ID) teenagers ranging from 12 to 18 years of age. The results showed that the completed hepatitis B vaccination rate was 72.9%, a rate lower than that in the general population of Taiwan considering the same age group. There was no gender difference between each age group in the vaccination rate in this population. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that those ID individuals whose primary caregivers were parents or siblings (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.29-4.64), whose household monthly income was 20,000-59,999 NTD vs. less than 20,000 NTD (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.00-6.12), and who had ever undergone an oral health exam (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.24-4.01) were more likely to receive a complete hepatitis B vaccination than their counterparts. The study highlighted that most teenagers had received complete hepatitis B vaccination. Nonetheless, better public health strategies may be needed to deliver the hepatitis B vaccine to those who do not comply with the vaccination schedule in the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  2. Influence of the seasonal factor on the long-distance passenger correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dolia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Up-today intercity passenger transportation is needed to consider fluctuations in demand for services over time. Designated fluctuations in demand mainly linked to the onset of a period of national or religious celebrations holidays, mass vacation in summer, internal and international sports and cultural activities, ect. Therefore, these demand irregularity of using public intercity transport should be considered when managing transportation. In issue to meet the needs of passengers moving within existing fluctuations in demand can decide to change the parameters of the components of the transport system. These changes include variety in amount or type of vehicles, schedules, changes in traffic patterns routes, introduction of these routes, limiting of the passenger’s purchasing ability fares and so on. It is important to determine the passenger’s place in the social, economic or cultural development of the population overemphasized. Therefore, regulation of activity of the public transport services must satisfy the possibility of these services within acceptable financial, time and physical burden for passengers. So, component optimization efficiency of intercity passengers’ transportation should take place in harmony with the social and economic development of society. The requirements set out not to satisfy the demand of passengers to move through extra large fare, lack of communication between bus transport areas with constant correspondence, failure to comply with increasing comfort haulage transport of tiredness or lack of means of transport are unacceptable phenomena. On the one hand the importance of the social dimension in long-distance traffic route of transport. In accordance with the meaning specified the need for balanced decision-making on the management system of passenger traffic. Invention compromise between technical and economic level to meet the demand and requirements of the conservation of expenditure

  3. Exploring how residential mobility and migration influences teenage pregnancy in five rural communities in California: youth and adult perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diana; Decker, Martha J; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-09-01

    Teenage birth rates among young people aged 15-19 years in California, USA, have declined from 47 births per 1000 in 2000 to 24 per 1000 in 2013. Nevertheless, the US counties with the highest teenage birth rates are predominantly rural and have a high proportion of Latinos/as. We conducted 42 interviews with key stakeholders and 12 focus groups with 107 young people in five rural communities to better understand local migration patterns and their influence on intermediate and proximate variables of pregnancy, such as interaction with role models and barriers to access contraception. The migration patterns identified were: residential mobility due to seasonal jobs, residential mobility due to economic and housing changes and migration from other countries to California. These patterns affect young people and families' interactions with school and health systems and other community members, creating both opportunities and barriers to prevent risky sexual behaviours. In rural areas, residential mobility and migration to the USA interconnect. As a result, young people dually navigate the challenges of residential mobility, while also adapting to the dominant US culture. It is important to promote programmes that support the integration of immigrant youth to reduce their sense of isolation, as well as to assure access to sexual health education and reproductive health services.

  4. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers’ Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ about the experienced satisfaction with the characteristics of this communication. In Bulgaria during July-August 2013, 60 mothers and their children completed the same questionnaires. The results revealed an unexpected finding only for the Greek sample - the quality of relationship between doctor and patient (for both Greek mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with their scores on CES-D (i.e. low level of depression together with low satisfaction derived from the relationship with the doctor, while no differences were found between the participants’ groups (mothers, children, acute or chronic disease. This surprising finding of high depression-high satisfaction was not found in the Bulgarian sample and therefore needs further investigation.

  5. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  6. The influence of territory planning and social development on strategic decisions in passenger transport development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Griškevičienė

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of space planning and social development which play an important role in making strategic decisions in passenger transportation have been analysed. A number of strategic aims based on major principles of territory transport planning have been formulated. The investigation made has shown that the operation of public transport is not closely connected with the main carcass of urban territories. This decreases the efficiency of public transport, making it less popular and competitive compared to automobiles. The creation of the strategy of public transport development for the period of its integration into the EU system requires the use of methods taking into account territory planning and social and economic development of the country. The integration of new territories into the existing transportation system, optimization of routes and the increase of transport service quality are aimed to provide higher living standards and better social and economic conditions for the inhabitants. The appropriate tactical decisions in planning the development of modern passenger transport may be made only if the harmonized and well-grounded strategic aims are defined.

  7. Perceived risk and other predictors and correlates of teenagers' safety belt use during the first year of licensure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Morton, Bruce G Simons; Noelcke, Elizabeth A; Williams, Allan F; Leaf, William A; Preusser, David F; Hartos, Jessica L

    2008-03-01

    average of "A," not smoking cigarettes, driving a passenger vehicle, and never receiving a traffic citation or engaging in risky driving behaviors, including driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs and running a red light. While the effect size was small for perceived risk of non-use, it is a modifiable factor and focused intervention contrived to enhance perceived risk could increase teenagers' belt use. Perceived risk is discussed as a target for intervention in relation to the Protection Motivation Theory. This theory appears helpful in guiding future research into the modifiable factors studied here as well as other factors, including perceived rewards and costs associated with non-use.

  8. The influence of using LPG device on the CO2 emissions from personal passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Carach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic, mostly the air and car traffic is the biggest producer of CO2 (51% at present. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases with more than 50 % of emissions contributing to this major global ecological problem. A rising concetration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to higher global temperatures. The main problem is the rise of CO2 emissions in most developed countries despite international undertakings accepted in 80´s. This is the main reason for finding solutions to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the traffic. One of many solutions is the use of LPG fuel. The purpose of this article is to quantify the efficiency of using LPG in personal passenger cars.

  9. [Influence of sociohygienic factors on the shaping of the nutritional status in children and teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, E S; Kuzmichev, Yu G; Olushina, E A; Polyashova, A S; Kotova, N V; Badeeva, T V; Ashina, M V; Maksimenko, E O; Kiseleva, A S; Pisareva, A N; Kovalchuk, S N; Shaposhnikova, M V

    There was revealed the structure of deteriorations in the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city: the most of students has normal nutritional status, but there was noted the high prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children and teenagers. Risk factors for development of deteriorations of the nutrition state were detected as follows: irrational food regimen, qualitative compartment offood, factors of educational environment, lifestyle. The main role in system of control of the nutritional status in children is referred to the correction of socio-hygienic factors which prove to be the priority ones in the shaping of the nutritional status in students. As the main condition determining the nutrition state of the up-to-date schoolchildren and the quality of their life in the whole the social cultural level of children and adolescents must be regarded as a result of the hygienic education and training in fundamentals of healthy lifestyle. Priority protective factors of the gain in the part of schoolchildren with normal nutritional status (optimalfood regimen, optimal dietary habits, sufficient level of physical activity) laidfrom the child age in conditions of the family, sufficient level of the physical activity and the implementation of the other element of hygienically expedient day regimen served as the base for the elaboration of the system of the control of nutritional status. Algorithm of the control of the nutritional status in the students of educational institutions includes the creation of healthcare educational environment, optimization of nutrition and physical activity, the shaping of the culture of healthy lifestyle, health-improving measures for children with disorders of nutritional status and their psychological pedagogical supports at the stage of the correction of the nutritional status, improvement of the medical service for the early detection of deviations of nutritional status with the estimation of the efficiency of

  10. Influences of HVO and FAME on the combustion and emissions of modern passenger car diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Benjamin; Sadlowski, Thomas; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of this study engine tests were performed with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) and HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) as straight fuels using a EURO-VI passenger car diesel engine. Standard diesel fuel (EN 590) was used as reference. To analyze the impacts of the biofuels on the combustion process the heat release rates were calculated from in-cylinder pressure measurements using a single-zone model. Furthermore emissions were measured and ECU data was recorded. Results from engine tests showed that both HVO and FAME positively affect the combustion by a decreased ignition delay due to its higher cetane number. Raw exhaust emissions of soot were clearly reduced with HVO while CO and THC emissions showed minor reductions. During FAME operation ECU control settings were shifted due to its lower heating value. FAME showed reductions of soot by 60 % which is caused by the fuel's oxygen content while NO x emissions where slightly increased. However, a fuel adapted ECU calibration could optimize, e.g., the injection timing and EGR to further reduce emissions. Tailpipe emissions were not affected by HVO and FAME as the exhaust aftertreatment systems worked similarly efficient for all three fuels.

  11. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically

  12. Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Factors influencing teenage pregnancy were found to be broad and complex: 1) Socioeconomic factors included poverty, the controversial influence of the child support grant, transgenerational sex and financial support from an older partner to secure income for the teenage girl or her family. 2) Substance abuse ...

  13. Teenagers' experiences of sexual health dialogue in the rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults.

  14. The influence of computer games on positive socialization of delinquent teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Mosteikaitė, Ernesta

    2016-01-01

    Computers and the Internet are rapidly spreading in everyday society. These two components had a strong influence in teenagers’ daily life. If we take a deeper look, the computer can be found in almost every family of minors, in educational institutions and it is the main reason why children use computers almost every day. Due to the mentioned fact, computers gain increasing meaning in teenagers’ daily life, naturally, a question about the impact of the computer for children’s behaviour and s...

  15. The Influence of Various Operation Modes on Diesel Passenger Cars CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.

  16. Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri

    2016-01-01

    Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...

  17. Intellectual disability in children and teenagers: Influence on family and family health. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Baena-Ariza, María Teresa; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    To examine the influence of a child or adolescent with intellectual disabilities on the family unit. A systematic review of the literature, following the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Psicodoc databases. Original articles were found, published in the last 5 years, in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian or French, with summary and full text and satisfactory or good methodological quality. Two independent researchers agreed on their decisions. In general, care is provided in the family, mothers assume the greater responsibility, and their wellbeing is lower than that of fathers. Having the support of the husband improves their quality of life. The fraternal subsystem can be affected, with regard to the warmth and the status/power of the relationship, and behavioural problems. Family health may be affected in all its dimensions: family functioning and atmosphere due to increased demands and changes in the organisation and distribution of roles; family resilience and family coping, due to rising costs and dwindling resources; family integrity could be strengthened by strengthened family ties. Quality of family life is enhanced by emotional support. These families may need individualised attention due to the increased demand for care, diminishing resources or other family health problems. Nurses using a family-centred care approach can identify these families and help them to normalise their situation by promoting their family health and the well-being of its members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  19. Influences of parents, close friends and classmates on four co-existing oral health practices in Saudi male teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, Maha; Bakhurji, Eman; Al-Ansari, Asim; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa S; AlSubaie, Abdulelah

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association between oral health practices and similar practices adopted by parents, close friends and classmates in a group of Saudi male teenagers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in 2016 including 12-14-year-old intermediate school students (n = 478). A questionnaire assessed socioeconomic background, whether participants, their parents, close friends and classmates brushed twice daily, used tobacco, snacked on sugary foods or sugary drinks and perceiving a supportive classroom environment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association of parents', close friends', classmates' practices and classroom support with participants' four practices, controlling for socioeconomic factors. The response rate was 93.9%. In multivariate regression, close friends' practices had a strong significant association with teenagers' tooth brushing (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.09, 18.12), tobacco use (OR = 5.63; 95%CI = 3.44, 7.88), snacking on sugary foods (OR = 14.42; 95%CI = 7.89, 21.89) and sugary drinks (OR = 7.05; 95%CI = 5.97, 9.20). The percentages of classmates perceived to brush their teeth and use tobacco were significantly associated with the respective practices in teenagers (OR = 1.03 and 1.02). Fathers' snacking on sugary drinks was significantly associated with that of the teenagers (OR = 4.04; 95%CI= 1.03, 15.85). In early adolescence, four oral health practices of Saudi males were associated with those perceived to be adopted by their close friends. Fathers' use of sugary drinks was also significantly associated with that of teenagers.

  20. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  1. Twitter city and Facebook village: Teenage girls’ personas and experiences influenced by choice architecture in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Anonymity was once the norm online, but uploading personal information on social networks is now ubiquitous amongst teenagers, leading to new concerns about abandonment of privacy and obsessive self-grooming of online identities. However, researchers have not examined whether different social networks result in differing behaviour or happiness, which should be a key issue for media practitioners involved in social network design.\\ud This research examines whether different SNs affect behaviou...

  2. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  3. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Simalcsik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the

  4. THE REGULARITY OF INFLUENCE OF TRAFFIC PARAMETERS ON THE PROBABILITY OF REALISATION OF PLANNED PASSENGER TRANSFER AT TRANSFER NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Samchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of traffic parameters that ensure the minimum value of the transfer waiting time for passengers. On the basis of experimental studies results, a regression equation to determine the probability of realisation of the planned transfer between a pair of vehicles was proposed. Using the identified regression equation, the transfer waiting time can be assessed for any headway exceeding 7,5 min.

  5. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969

  6. Rescheduling of Railway Rolling Stock with Dynamic Passenger Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to

  7. The influence of the current intensity on the damping characteristics for a magneto-rheological damper of passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, A.; Andreescu, C. N.; Stan, C.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their simplicity and controllability, adaptive dampers became very popular in automotive engineering industry, especially in the passenger cars industry, in spite of technological obstacles inherent and the high cost of the magnetic fluid. “MagneRide” is the first technology which uses smart fluids in the shock absorbers of the vehicles adaptive suspensions. Since the discovery of the magneto-rheological effect there is a consistent progress regarding the control algorithms and hardware part itself. These magneto-rheological devices have a major potential which can be explored in various fields of applications. At present many companies make researches for the improvement of the response time and for obtaining a better response at low frequency and amplitude of the body car oscillations. The main objective of this paper is to determine the damping characteristic of a magnetorheological shock absorber of a passenger car. The authors aim to observe how to modify the damping characteristic by changing the intensity of the electric current. The experimental researches have being carried out on a complex and modern test bench especially built for testing shock absorbers, in order to compare the damping characteristic of the classical damper with the magneto-rheological damper.

  8. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  9. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  10. Age of licensure and monitoring teenagers' driving: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To assess parental decision making regarding the timing of teenagers initiating driving and monitoring teenagers' driving after licensure. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, states with varying licensing provisions, while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. States' differences in ages of obtaining learner's permits and licenses reflected different licensing laws, but most teenagers obtained permits and took road tests within the first few months after they became eligible. Common reasons for delaying obtaining permits were fulfilling driver education requirements and lack of readiness/immaturity. Insufficient practice driving most often delayed licensure. Among the parents interviewed, 33-49% believed the minimum licensure age should be 17 or older. Almost all parents planned to supervise teenagers' driving after licensure, and most wanted to know about speeding or distractions. When asked about in-vehicle devices to monitor teenagers' driving, 37-59% of parents had heard of them. Parents were least interested in using video cameras and about equally interested in computer chips and cell-phone-based GPS systems. Disinterest in monitoring devices most often was attributed to trusting teenagers or respecting their privacy. Licensing laws influence ages of initiating driving. Although many parents support licensing at 17 or older - higher than in all but one state - most teenagers initiate driving soon after reaching the minimum age. Parents plan to supervise teenagers' driving, and many say they are open to using in-vehicle monitoring devices. Many parents support a minimum licensing age of 17 or older and would consider in-vehicle devices to extend their supervision of teenager's driving.

  11. The Developmental Pattern of Resistance to Peer Influence in Adolescence: Will the Teenager Ever Be Able to Resist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…

  12. A telephone survey of parental attitudes and behaviours regarding teenage drinking.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2010-06-01

    Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager\\'s drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children.

  13. Perceptions of rural teenagers on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Richter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to seek an understanding of teenagers’ perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die persepsies van tieners in die Bosbokrand-distrik in die Limpopo Provinsie, Suid-Afrika, te ondersoek en te beskryf. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  15. Parents' experiences of their teenage children's parenthood: An interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described and analyzed parents' experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A qualitative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents' norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage children's parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnancies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  17. Risks in pregnant teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savona-Ventura, C; Grech, E S

    1990-05-01

    The teenage population delivering in Malta during 1983-1986 were identified and the maternal characteristics and obstetric outcome of these patients were statistically compared to those of mothers aged 20-29 years. Teenage mothers were more likely to be primigravida and poor attenders for antenatal care. They were more likely to be cigarette smokers and the pregnancies were more frequently complicated by threatened abortion. The perinatal mortality and morbidity was increased from problems of prematurity.

  18. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  19. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  20. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  1. The teenager with palpitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat-Yazdi, Farshad; Koenig, Peter R

    2014-02-01

    Palpitations can result from cardiac awareness (increased conscious perception of the heart beating) or from a fast or irregular cardiac rhythm. Most causes for palpitations in the teenager can be diagnosed with minimal testing. Patients with an abnormal ECG, non-sinus tachycardia, abnormal cardiac examination, concerning family history, or palpitations associated with activity or syncope should be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This article discusses the evaluation, testing, and management of teenagers with palpitations. It also provides a general guideline for referral for subspecialty evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Social Media on the Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among Teenagers: A Case Study of Secondary Schools in Kandara Sub-County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Njeri Kamaku; Helen Mberia

    2014-01-01

    Social media use by teenagers in secondary schools is on the increase with more and more students accessing face book, twitter, You-tube, email and other social sites. Whereas students use such social networking positively, the amount of time spent on the sites that consume academic time has resulted to alarming poor performance which research has associated with lack of adequate revision time, inadequate sleep amounting to poor concentration, and truancy in schools. Sexual harassment is on t...

  3. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can sometimes discourage undesirable behaviors (e.g., limiting video game time in response to inappropriate behavior), it’s not ... relationship problems. The teenager: ○ Shows extreme anger or aggression with peers ○ Finds family interactions stressful ○ Avoids family ...

  4. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  5. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  6. Parenting as a Teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobe, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Today, many government and private agencies, clinics, foundations, and schools are sponsoring programs and literature for teen-age parents. These range in scope from fetal and maternal nutrition, to family planning counseling, to informal rap sessions on parenthood, to workshops on child care. (Author)

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE MAGNITUDE OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG TEENAGE FEMALES VISITING ASSOSA GENERAL HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Assefa; Muhiye, Abiyou; Getachew, Yeneneh; Hiruye, Abiy; Mariam, Damen Haile; Derbew, Millard; Mammo, Dereje; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2015-07-01

    Teenage pregnancy is directly related to high incidence of pregnancy related complications contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality and social problems. There are no enough data on teenage pregnancy and related complications in Ethiopia and in Benishangul Gumuz region in particular. To investigate the magnitude and factors associated with teenage pregnancy among teenage females visiting Assosa general hospital for health care services. Facility-based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out among 783 randomly selected teenage females using structured and pre-tested questionnaire from January to April 2014. Teenage pregnancy is estimated at 20.4% in this study. The median age of subjects at first sexual intercourse and at first marriage being 16 and 17 years respectively. High proportion of (46.8%) teenagers had engaged in premarital sex. Among sexually active teenage females, 46.7% experienced their first sexual encounter by coercion. Being young [AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.67], single [AOR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.03-0.12], housemaid [AOR = 3.93, 95% CI = 1.71-9.04] and use of family planning [AOR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.20-4.75] have statistically significant association with teenage pregnancy. A range offactors including age, marital status, level of education, occupational status, average family income and use of family planning have influence on teenage pregnancy in the study area. Behavioral change communication, strengthening school health program, empowering young women specifically the rural women, and promoting parent-children discussion on sexuality is recommended.

  8. Life Assets in Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatsanee Soontrapirom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current

  9. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  10. International Passenger and Freight Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The International Passenger and Freight report is a summarization of all passengers and all freight transported between the U.S. and foreign countries combined, with...

  11. Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents' resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahorlu, Collins K; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit

    2015-12-23

    Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Out of 820 adolescents interviewed, 128 (16%) were pregnant or mothers. Adolescents in both groups (62% never pregnant girls and 68% pregnant/young mothers) have access to social support, especially from their parents. Parents are taking the place of aunts and grandmothers in providing sexual education to their adolescent girls due to changing social structures where extended families no longer reside together in most cases. More (79%) pregnant girls and young mothers compared to never pregnant girls (38%) have access to economic support (P = pregnancy among adolescent girls. Findings showed that adolescent girls, especially those that get pregnant should not be viewed as weak and vulnerable because many of them have developed competencies to cope with pregnancy and childbirth effectively. Thus, focusing on developing the competencies of girls to access social, economic and cultural capitals may be an effective way of tackling the threat of teenage pregnancy than focusing only on their vulnerability and

  12. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  13. Aetiology of teenage childbearing: reasons for familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, P O; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S

    2000-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of the genetic and environmental factors to the risk of teenage childbearing, and to study whether life style, socio-economic conditions, and personality traits could explain possible familial effects. We linked two population-based registers: the Swedish Twin Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The study covers female twin pairs born between 1953 and 1958, having their first infant before the age of 30 years (n = 1885). In order to separate familial effects from other environmental influences, and genetic effects from shared environmental effects, only complete twin pairs with known zygosity were included, in all 260 monozygotic and 370 dizygotic twin pairs. We used quantitative genetic analyses to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental effects for liability to teenage childbearing. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of life style, socio-economic situation, and personality on the probability of teenage childbearing, and to study whether psychosocial factors could explain possible familial effects. Fifty-nine percent (0-76%) of the variance in being a teenage mother was attributable to heritable factors; 0% (0-49%) was due to shared environmental factors; and 41% (23-67%) was explained by non-shared environmental factors. Thus, the data were consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation of teenage childbearing is completely explained by genetic factors, although the alternative hypothesis that familial aggregation is entirely explained by shared environmental factors cannot be ruled out. Significant effects of smoking habits, housing conditions, and educational level were found in relation to liability to teenage childbearing. However, the familial effects on risk of teenage childbearing were not mediated through similarities in life style and socio-economic factors. When studying risk factors for teenage childbearing, it is

  14. The Troubled Teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Renshaw, Domeena

    1983-01-01

    Problems that may bring teenagers to the family physician's office include bizarre behavior such as drug or alcohol intoxication, psychosis, panic or anxiety attacks and stealing; being dangerous to themselves or to others; sexual emergencies including pregnancy, rape and incest; a crisis involving key people such as parents' divorce or illness; school phobia, and anxiety or other reactions to sickness, surgery or death. When evaluating troubled teens and their families, the physician should ...

  15. Perception Of In-school Teenagers On Teenage Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major medical and socioeconomic burden in both the developed and developing countries. One third of the abortions performed yearly and 80% of abortion-related complications in Nigeria occur in adolescents. This study was conducted to assess the perception of teenagers in ...

  16. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  17. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  18. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  19. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  20. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  1. [Teenagers' representations of food in the Pays de la Loire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliez, Eric; Beauvineau, Gwenael; Baratin, Clément; Le Daheron, Betty; Poiron, Audrey; Coutan, Régis; Penchaud, Anne-Laurence; Huez, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The National Nutrition Health Study showed that the objectives of the National Nutrition Health Programme, launched in 2001 to promote the health of all French people, had not been achieved, especially in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to identify teenagers' representations regarding food. It was carried out in order to more effectively tailor prevention messages to this particular population, which is particularly concerned by the "nutritional risk". Qualitative investigations by semi-directive interviews with 46 teenage volunteers,from 5 high schools in 2 departments in the west of France. A content analysis was conducted inductively after full transcript of the interviews. The study showed that nutrition was a means of autonomy and emancipation from the parental influence. Teenagers were suspicious and anxious about the health risks associated with processed food. Fast food restaurants were a "place for teenagers" synonymous with pleasure and freedom. They valued "organic" and "homemade" foods. The sexual representations of food consisted of a "slim" image for girls and a "virile" image for boys. A close relationship between food and living beings was responsible for refusal of certain types of food. Although prevention messages were integrated in various ways, they were effectively recalled by teenagers. The nutritional representations of teenagers are poorly known and sometimes contrary to commonly health beliefs and must be taken into account when preparing nutrition prevention programmes.

  2. Photoprotection in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Fouad; Ammoury, Alfred; Nakhle, Fouad; Dhaybi, Rola; Marguery, Marie-Claude

    2006-02-01

    It is very common to apply a 'template photoprotection' without taking into consideration the background of a specific population. In Lebanon, so far, no preliminary survey has been conducted before launching an educational photoprotection campaign, revealing the need of the people according to their background. In April 2004, a specific questionnaire was administered to 940 adolescents, aged from 14 to 18 years. The questionnaire comprised 18 multiple-choice questions that established the approximate phototype of teenagers, awareness of ultraviolet (UV) hazard, presence of sufficient information regarding the risk of sun exposure (school, doctor, media) and the use of measures of photoprotection (clothes, sunscreens). The incidence of sunburn in teenagers was high (85.42%) despite their awareness of the risks of unprotected sun exposure. The information regarding sun damage seems to be insufficiently delivered at school and by doctors. The main source of information was television. It was obvious that our adolescents underestimated the value of clothing to protect themselves. The use of clothing comes at the second place after sunscreens. However, the application of sunscreen seems to be inadequate. While solar protection has become part of routine beach behavior for adolescents, there is room for improvement with better application of sunscreen and more use of clothing, especially wearing hats, and seeking shade. However, it is difficult to appreciate the impact of publicity campaigns on the risks of sun exposure in reducing the incidence of melanoma.

  3. Nutrition in Teenage Pregnancy. A Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Dian

    This package of nutrition lessons was developed for teaching pregnant teenagers and teenaged parents enrolled in School-Aged Maternity (SAM) Programs in Wisconsin about nutrition. This guide provides a set of flexible lessons and resources for the SAM teacher (and for any person involved in teaching pregnant teenagers or teenaged parents) to…

  4. And So It Continues...Teenage Magazines and Their Focus on the Superficial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcross, Natalie Ryder; Grimes, Tresmaine

    2012-01-01

    Teenage magazine content, after decades, continues to complicate decision making in the communication of the young, impressionable girls who read them. Previous research has indicated that teenagers can be negatively influenced by the media, including teen magazines (e.g., Redcross, 2003; Milkie, 2002; Durham, 2008; Lamb & Brown, 2006). These…

  5. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  6. NEWSPAPERS: TEENAGERS AND THEIR NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor T. TENKU MAZUWANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper is by far the most comprehensive printed medium among teenagers. The way newspaper represent the information will be able to generate more inputs to teenagers after they read various issues discussed. The objectives of this study are to identify the types of news which are chosen by teenagers; and to investigate the factors which are associated with the teenagers’ acceptance to the newspaper. A total of 387 teenagers, aged between 16 and 17 years old, who were students from 10 national secondary schools in the Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur were selected to be the respondents of this study. Results shows that entertainment news seem to be the teenagers’ preferred choice. At the same times, the findings indicates that the contents of the newspapers have fulfilled the needs of the teenagers. However, the correlation test shows that the relationship between cognitive are moderate, weak for the affective, personal and escapism and there is no relationship between social needs and acceptance. As a conclusion, entertainment news has become the main choice of news among the teenagers. Meanwhile, the factor which is strongly associated with the teenagers’ acceptance is cognitive. It is hoped that the results of this study will be able to assist the newspaper institutions to publish contents relating to education and knowledge, which are connected to entertainment so that the newspapers could be one of the leading learning references, besides the school textbooks and printed references in order to fulfill various needs of the teenagers.

  7. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...... and neglect, psychiatric disorder, and being in care during childhood. Results show a significant social gradient for teenage pregnancies. The teenage mothers were in a more disadvantaged position than pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion...

  8. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  9. Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabane, Ntswaleng S; Peu, Mmapheko D

    2015-10-22

    Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers' perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers'perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.

  10. Caffeine dependence in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Carroll, Marilyn E; Thuras, Paul D; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Roth, Megan E

    2002-03-01

    This study identifies and characterizes symptoms of caffeine dependence in adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who consumed caffeine daily and had some features of caffeine dependence on telephone screen were scheduled for outpatient evaluation. Evaluation included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV-Youth Version (DISC-IV) and modified DISC-IV questions that assessed caffeine dependence based on DSM-IV substance dependence criteria. Of 36 subjects, 41.7% (n=15) reported tolerance to caffeine, 77.8% (n=28) described withdrawal symptoms after cessation or reduction of caffeine intake, 38.9% (n=14) reported desire or unsuccessful attempts to control use, and 16.7% (n=6) endorsed use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems associated with caffeine. There was no significant difference in the amount of caffeine consumed daily by caffeine dependent versus non-dependent teenagers. These findings are important due to the vast number of adolescents who drink caffeinated beverages.

  11. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  12. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA SUPERVISION AMONG TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nenasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the act test based bronchial asthma supervision evaluation among teenagers and defines the interrelation of the objective and subjective asthma supervision parameters. The researchers examined 214 male teenagers aged from 16 to 18, suffering from the bronchial asthma, who were sent to the allergy department to verify the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma supervision evaluation was assisted by the act test. The research has showed that over a half (56% of teenagers, suffering from mild bronchial asthma, mention its un control course, do not receive any adequate pharmacotherapy and are consequently a risk group in terms of the bronchial asthma exacerbation. Act test results correlate with the functional indices (fev1, as well as with the degree of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which is one of the markers of an allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory passages.Key words: bronchial asthma supervision, act test, teenagers.

  13. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  14. The Role of Libraries in Curbing Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Libraries in Curbing Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria. ... As a result of this most teenagers learn about sex education through their peers, mass media, etc. ... orientation to teenagers on teenage pregnancy and how it can be avoided.

  15. Analyzing Factors Of In-flight Services Of Garuda Indonesia And Batik Air Towards Passengers Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tulandi, Victor Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transportation services play an important role in supporting any activity, of human. Various types of the transportation that we use. Among them, are air transportation or airplane. Talk about the satisfaction of airline passenger, nowadays many airlines competing to provide the best service for the passengers, one of the things that can influence passenger satisfaction is through airline service especially in-flight service. The objective of this research is to identify the factors of in-fli...

  16. Personal Integration Resources of Mentally Handicapped Teenagers into Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…

  17. Outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao A

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred consecutive cases up to 19 years of age admitted for confinement at The Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Bombay, were studied. Out of these 200 girls, 6 were unmarried, 51 were anaemic, 20 had toxaemia of pregnancy. Six girls (43% in the age group 15-17 years delivered prematurely as compared to only 26 girls (14% in the age group of 17-19 years. This difference is statistically significant. Also, only, 4 girls (29% in the age group of 15-17 years had full term normal delivery as compared to 113 girls (61% in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the outcome of pregnancy becomes worst in girls below the age of 17 years. Ten babies (71% of mothers in the age group of 15-17 years were LBW as compared to 75 babies (44% of mothers in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the incidence of LBW babies is inversely proportional to maternal age. Teenage pregnant girls needed more attention for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia eclampsia, anaemia, prematurity and LBW.

  18. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...

  19. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands. PMID:29505585

  20. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhao, Shuzhi; Liu, Huasheng; Liang, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands.

  1. Reducing the Risks of Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. Faith

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the medical and social risks of teenage pregnancy and describes two successful programs dealing with pregnancy and parenting: the St. Paul Maternal and Infant Care Project in Minnesota and the Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Project in San Francisco. (SK)

  2. Teenage Pregnancy: A Family Life Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Rosemary; Bruce, Becky

    1988-01-01

    Looks at issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and describes different school-based approaches to sex education. Stresses that parental involvement is critical to the success of any effective program for reducing teenage pregnancy. (RWB)

  3. Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Kabiru K; Ayegboyin, Matthew; Adedeji, Isaac A

    2014-12-01

    Consistent high teenage pregnancy rates in South-western Nigeria are characteristically underpinned by the unmet social needs of the teenagers. To elicit intergenerational views on the influence of unmet social needs on teenage pregnancy. Through a descriptive and cross-sectional design, a total of 174 respondents who were either pregnant teenagers, teenage mothers during the survey or had been pregnant as teenagers, were interviewed, using questionnaire supplemented with 12 key informant interviews. With the mean age of 16.5 years, and educational status range of between primary and below (25.8%) and tertiary (9.8%) levels, only 39.7% respondents were married, about half (47.7%) remained single while others were separated (12.6%). Less than half (44.9%) of the respondents were engaged in occupational activities. The unmet material and financial supports expected from parents (43.1%), the lack of free education from government up till secondary school level (51.2%), the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity (53.4%) and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend (66.1%) prone teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers.

  4. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516

  5. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers.

  6. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Intersections between Teenage Pregnancy and Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of teenage pregnancy was conducted over a period of three months in 1996 in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Interviews with teenage mothers and fathers gave reason to explore the various intersections between teenage pregnancy and gender violence. Gender violence is defined as acts of force or coercion ...

  8. Teenage Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...

  9. The problem of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, M C; Shore, W B

    1991-01-01

    In this question and answer dialogue along with a case study, the psychosocial issues and medical aspects of teenage pregnancy are discussed. Suggestions for improving the situation included 1) developing a community based approach which utilizes school sex education integrated with parent, church, and community groups, 2) increasing teenage knowledge of contraception, and 3) providing counseling and medical and psychological health, education, and nutrition of the mother and father in order to reduce low birth weight babies and the school dropout rates. Advice to providers is to involved in supporting community based adolescent pregnancy and childbearing programs, and serving the needs of of teenagers by providing contraceptive information in confidence, and providing nonjudgmental information to parents and teenagers on sexuality, pregnancy and birth control. The cost of teenage childbearing is estimated at 16.6 billion for 1985, with the U.S. fertility rate, birth and abortion rates higher than Canada, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Sweden. Within 1 month of 1st initial intercourse, 20% result in teenage pregnancy. 50% will give birth to a second child. The health risk to the mother and child due to poor nutrition, toxemia conditions, while psychosocial effect is the cycle of failure and low self-esteem. For disadvantaged youth, a baby appears as a reachable achievement, and for those with an additional child, the goal of security and financial independence is less likely. Financial and emotional support from family or social services and family planning practices can lead to completion of H.S., limitation in family size, and independence. Of those receiving public assistance in 1969, 66% were independent, and only 12% receiving assistance between 1969 and 1974 were still receiving assistance. Teen fatherhood has not been adequately addressed, and findings suggest that parenting and contraceptive education, job training, support to stay in school are

  10. [Teenagers' drawings in transcultural consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  12. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  13. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  14. [Teenager counselling in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Teresa; Morera, Iván; Vargas, Nelson A

    2007-04-01

    Teenager counseling to recognize risks and reinforce strengths is carried out in a primary care outpatient clinic since 2003. To describe the epidemiology and causes for consultation in this teenage counseling program. Retrospective review of the records of 116 teenagers (median age 13 years, 67% females) that received teenager counseling. Seventy percent of women and 50% of men came from nuclear families. More than two thirds were primogenital. Most adolescents were accompanied by their mother, that were the main adult raw model. Fifty percent had dysfunctional families. All were attending school regularly and 21% of women and 29% of men had repeated a school level. Sixty eight percent of women and 62% of men declared to have a life project. Twenty percent were worried about their physical appearance. Seventy seven percent of women and 62% of men considered themselves as happy. Thirty six percent of women and 14% of men smoked. The figures for alcohol consumption were 21% and 14%, respectively. The causes for consultation were obesity, overweight, unspecific symptoms, behavioral problems, bad school achievement, communication problems or pregnancy. Reasons for counseling were family dysfunction, low self esteem, bad school achievement and information about sexuality. The information obtained could help to improve the interdisciplinary work and to coordinate counseling with the family and schools.

  15. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  16. Teenagers: How to Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... just one bad sunburn as a child or teenager increases your risk of getting skin cancer as an adult. Don’t listen to loud music. This can damage your hearing for the rest of your life. Mental health – Taking care of your mind Learn ways to manage stress. You can’t avoid stress, so you need ...

  17. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  18. Influence of physical and chemical polymer-filler bonds on wet skid resistance and related properties of passenger car tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichomski, E.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of rubber – filler interactions on the wet skid behavior of tire treads is insufficient, in order to quickly develop new compounds with improved wet skid performance. The rubber compound used for a tire tread is in fact a composite material of which the dynamic

  19. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  20. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    likely to reject the abortion alternative. Vital statistics suggest that, for the most part, it is abortion rather than contraception that exerts an ameliorating effect on the birthrate of the younger mothers. The most disturbing aspect of these statistics is the magnitude of the very real problems associated with children bearing children. 2/3 of all women who have their 1st baby before the age of 20 will be below the poverty level. A correlation exists between poor marital adjustment and early childbearing. The divorce rate is 3 times higher when 1 spouse is younger than age 20. There are also problems for the infant of the teenage mother, including an increase in stillbirths and prematurity, and increase in small for date infants, and physical, psychological and social disadvantages over time for children born to mothers in their early teens.

  1. The influence of the training loads having different directions concerning the teenagers' state of health the ones being educated in sporting inclined boarding schools (according the author's timely observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoroshukha M.F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamics and structure of pathology of teenagers is considered. In a medical inspection 660 sportsmen took part in the age of 13-16 years. The retrospective analysis of somatopathies and traumatic damages is conducted for long time. Specificity of action of the trainings loadings of different orientation is exposed on the state of health of young sportsmen. The ost high growth of sporting traumatism s marked for the representatives of types of sport speed-power character. More high level of morbidity of overhead respiratory tracts and ear is marked for teenagers - in the types of sport on endurance.

  2. The Influence of Motivational Factors on the Romanian Passenger Car Consumer Behavior after the Start of the Current Economic Crisis – an Explorative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina ARITON (BALAU)

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  3. DUE TO TELEVISION COMMERCIAL, CHANGE IN EATING HABITS AND ITS DIRECT IMPACT ON OBESITY OF TEENAGER OF JAMMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot SINGH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisement creates colossal impact on teenagers and TV create gigantic impacting on eating habits of teenagers and cause obesity in them. So, our study focus on finding the impact of advertisement on psychology, buying behavior, obesity and eating habits of teenagers in Jammu.Methods: The data is collected in the age group of 7 to 18 years. The schedule is developed to examine eating habits of teenagers and its effect on obesity level. The statistical tool and the sampling technique used are regression analysis and convenience sampling.Results: children consume unhealthy and low nutritional product while watching TV. They even insist their parents to buy product for them and those have pocket money (Rs50-100 are influenced by advertisement and opt unhealthy food and suffer from the problem of obesity.Conclusion: Teenagers are influenced by advertisements, but those who have high leverage to buy these products inadvertently face the problem of obesity.

  4. Dynamic Passenger Assignment during Disruptions in Railway Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passenger-oriented rescheduling problems receive increasing attention. However, the passenger assignment models used for evaluating the rescheduling solutions are usually simplified by many assumptions. To estimate passenger inconvenience more accurately, this paper establishes a dynamic passenger

  5. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwal, A

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.

  6. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  7. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from noncontiguous... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties...

  8. Teenage employment and career readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents recent nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study suggesting that limited hours of paid work do not crowd out developmentally appropriate after-school activities. A review of the literature also supports the idea that employment for limited hours in good jobs can promote career readiness and positive development. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of youth work for practitioners and policymakers who are delivering career-related programming. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  9. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  10. Association of the relative change in weight and body mass index with lung function in teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis: Influence of gender and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; González Albarrán, Olga; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor in cystic fibrosis. Prevention of nutritional impairment and weigh loss are major clinical objectives because they are associated with worsening of lung function and increased mortality. To identify a potential relationship of clinical nutrition parameters, and their relative changes, with lung function (FEV1%) in a cohort of adolescent and adult patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of 64 patients older than 14years. Weight, height, BMI, and lung function data were collected at a period of disease stability, both in the year of the first abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in the previous year. Relative changes in weight and BMI, and their relationship with FEV1%, were determined by linear regression and ANOVA tests; influence of gender and diabetes was also assessed. Mean age of the series (28 females and 36 males) was 26.8years. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was found in 26.7%, while 18.3% had diabetes without impaired fasting glucose (CFRD without FPG). Mean BMI was 20.32, with a mean weight of 53.53kg; 32.8% had BMI<18.5, and only 4.7% were overweight. Overall, a positive relative change in weight (≥6%) was associated with an increase in FEV1% (9.31%), as compared to those with a greater weight loss (at least 2%), who had a 12.09% fall in FEV1. Patients with CFRD without FPG had poorer lung function if they had a negative relative change in weight by at least 2% as compared to NGT. In patients with CF, a relative weight gain is positively associated to FEV1%, while a relative weight loss of at least 2% has a significant negative impact on lung function. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  12. Teenage pregnancy and family characteristics as seen among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the hospital prevalence of teenage pregnancy and the family ... characteristics of the teenagers and their family as well as sexual history. ... 115 (44.2%) of the teenagers' mothers had SSEsenior secondary education, ...

  13. Preventing Teenage Pregnancy: A Team Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    By age 16 one in three adolescents have experienced sexual intercourse. Because one-third of these sexually active teens never use contraception, they have a five-times greater risk of pregnancy than teenagers who take contraceptive measures. In 1982, one in 23 Canadian teenage girls became pregnant. Teenagers' reasons for not using contraceptives include fear of parents learning about their sexual activity, lack of knowledge about contraception, and lack of self-esteem. Parents, educators an...

  14. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  15. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  16. Sexual development and behaviour issues in Polish teenage magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent

  17. Building Self-Sufficiency among Welfare-Dependent Teenage Parents: Lessons from the Teenage Parent Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Rebecca, Ed.

    This report synthesizes first-phase evaluation results of the Teenage Parent Demonstration program. This program, whose cornerstone is case management, responded to three concerns: (1) rising welfare caseloads; (2) persistently high rates of teenage pregnancies and births; and (3) the high probability that teenage parents will go onto welfare and…

  18. Preventing Illegitimate Teenage Pregnancy Through Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)

  19. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  20. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... ferries was analysed retrospectively. Results: Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember patients were analysed. Passenger patients were generally older and more serious ill than...

  1. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A telephone survey of parental attitudes and behaviours regarding teenage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager's drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of of 234 parents who had a teenager aged between 13 and 17 years. Results Six per cent reported that they would be unconcerned if their son or daughter was to binge drink once per month. On the issue of introducing children to alcohol in the home, 27% viewed this as a good idea while 63% disagreed with this practice. Eleven per cent of parents reported that they had given a drink to their teenager at home. Parents who drank regularly themselves, who were from higher socio-demographic groups and who lived in the east of Ireland demonstrated more permissive attitudes to teenage drinking. Conclusions We found no evidence of widespread permissive attitudes and behaviours among Irish parents. Given that parental influences have been demonstrated to exert substantial impact on teenage drinking, it may be possible to harness the concerns of Irish parents more effectively to reverse the trends of escalating alcohol related harm in Ireland. PMID:20515492

  3. A telephone survey of parental attitudes and behaviours regarding teenage drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Joe M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irish teenagers demonstrate high rates of drunkenness and there has been a progressive fall in age of first drinking in recent decades. International research indicates that parents exert substantial influence over their teenager's drinking. We sought to determine the attitudes and behaviours of Irish parents towards drinking by their adolescent children. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of of 234 parents who had a teenager aged between 13 and 17 years. Results Six per cent reported that they would be unconcerned if their son or daughter was to binge drink once per month. On the issue of introducing children to alcohol in the home, 27% viewed this as a good idea while 63% disagreed with this practice. Eleven per cent of parents reported that they had given a drink to their teenager at home. Parents who drank regularly themselves, who were from higher socio-demographic groups and who lived in the east of Ireland demonstrated more permissive attitudes to teenage drinking. Conclusions We found no evidence of widespread permissive attitudes and behaviours among Irish parents. Given that parental influences have been demonstrated to exert substantial impact on teenage drinking, it may be possible to harness the concerns of Irish parents more effectively to reverse the trends of escalating alcohol related harm in Ireland.

  4. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  5. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-04-01

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaginal microbicides and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Richard E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2003-10-01

    Sexually active teens are at significant risk from sexually transmitted infections and girls and women bear the greatest burden of these infections. New methods, such as vaginal microbicides, would provide female controlled options. Microbicides are currently in development and thus it is timely to discuss the progress made and factors that may influence acceptability for teens. Microbicide development presents many challenges, and several different potential mechanisms of action are being explored. There is interest in these products from women and men, and specific preferences are being investigated. Adolescents, due to reproductive system immaturity, developing cognitive abilities and the psychosocial context of their relationships, present a special set of challenges in efforts to foster microbicide use. Vaginal microbicides are on the horizon. Further study into teen issues is required to develop successful strategies for marketing and encouraging adolescent use of microbicides.

  7. Contraception knowledge and attitudes: truths and myths among African Australian teenage mothers in Greater Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary

    2014-08-01

    To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  9. Teenage Suicide in Oregon 1983-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.

    During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…

  10. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...

  11. New Literacies Practices of Teenage "Twitter" Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This study is an empirical study into the new literacy practices of five teenage "Twitter" users on Twitter. Qualitative methods were used to describe the most prominent ways of participating on "Twitter." Results indicate that teenagers used "Twitter" for self-expression, communication, friendship maintenance, and…

  12. The Shopping Mall: A Teenager Hangout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kathryn H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)

  13. Teenage consumption of information and communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A Danish database with data from 50,000 households, their energy consumption combined with building characteristics and the socio-economic data on their inhabitants documents that one teenager in a household entails a 20% higher electricity consumption than that of an average adult. These data will be presented as an introduction to the paper. There are however also other reasons for being interested in the consumer behaviour of teenagers. On the one hand teenagers are the adult consumers of tomorrow and some of their energy consuming behaviour may follow them throughout their life. On the other hand teenagers as consumers are known from other studies to be a special consumer group in that they are very much aware of and sensitive to the opinions and behaviour of their peer-groups. Departing from these reflections, a qualitative interview investigation with a focus on families with teenagers was carried out. In-depth interviews with nine parents and their teenagers focused on how teenagers use and purchase information and communication technology (ICT) such as televisions, mobile phones, computers etc. The paper reports on the qualitative findings on the dynamics of consumption among teenagers' ICT use. The analyses draw on recent consumer theory and discuss in the conclusion how such findings can give new directions for energy policies.

  14. Developing Persuasive Technology for ASD Challenged Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The HANDS project suggests the use of Mobile Persuasion in order to support teenagers with an autism diagnosis and normal or high IQ. The paper offers a description of the HANDS toolset and its potential. The HANDS toolset has been evaluated at four schools for teenagers with autism over a period...

  15. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  16. Teenage constipation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Bonnie L

    2002-01-01

    Constipation is a problem of significant magnitude. It can have a devastating impact on a patient's personal life. There are many causes of constipation. Among them are dietary factors such as decreased fiber and low fluid intake, decreased activity, lack of privacy for defecation, pharmacologic agents, physiologic problems such as bowel obstruction or metabolic disorders, and psychosocial distress. A young teenage boy is followed through a series of emergency room visits, office visits, and a hospitalization related to his experiences with constipation. A bowel program was identified and instituted with successful outcomes.

  17. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlert, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.herlert@fair-center.eu [FAIR GmbH (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  18. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  19. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  20. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  1. Effect of North Carolina's restriction on teenage driver cell phone use two years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Arthur H; O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    A majority of states now restrict teenagers from using a mobile communication device while driving. The effect of these restrictions is largely unknown. In a previous study, we found North Carolina's teenage driver cell phone restriction had little influence on young driver behavior four months after the law took effect (Foss et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to examine the longer-term effect of North Carolina's cell phone restriction. It was expected that compliance with the restriction would increase, as awareness of the restriction grew over time. Teenagers were observed at high schools in North Carolina approximately two years after the law was implemented. Observations were also conducted in South Carolina, which did not have a cell phone restriction. In both states, there was a broad decrease in cell phone use. A logistic regression analysis showed the decrease in cell phone use did not significantly differ between the two states. Although hand-held cell phone use decreased, there was an increase in the likelihood that drivers in North Carolina were observed physically manipulating a phone. Finally, a mail survey of teenagers in North Carolina showed awareness for the cell phone restriction now stands at 78% among licensed teens. Overall, the findings suggest North Carolina's cell phone restriction has had no long-term effect on the behavior of teenage drivers. Moreover, it appears many teenage drivers may be shifting from talking on a phone to texting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  3. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  4. Determinants of teenage pregnancies: the case of Busia District in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Maureen

    2007-07-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of teenage pregnancies in the world. In spite of that, there is paucity of empirical research on causes of teenage pregnancies in African countries. This paper investigates the determinants of teenage pregnancies based on a case study of Busia District in Kenya. The data are from a household survey conducted in 1998/1999. Empirical results indicate that girls' education level has significant influence on the probability of teenage birth, with non-schooling adolescents and those with primary school level education being more vulnerable. Among the variables used as proxies for access to sex education, availability of church forums that educate adolescents about sex and family life issues reduce probability of teenage pregnancy. Age is positively related to teenage pregnancies, with older adolescents being more predisposed to pregnancies. Though use of contraceptives is found to have a positive effect, only a small proportion of adolescents were using modern contraceptives and, supply side factors such as quality and availability were not accounted for. Other key factors as outlined by the adolescents themselves include peer pressure and social environment-related factors like inappropriate forms of recreation, which act as rendezvous for pre-marital sex, as well as lack of parental guidance and counselling. Overall, lack of access to education opportunities, sex education and information regarding contraceptives, as well the widespread poverty predispose girls to teenage pregnancies. The problem of teenage pregnancies should be viewed within the broader socio-economic and socio-cultural environment in which the adolescents operate. For instance, lack of parental guidance on issues of sexuality and sex education was reinforced by cultural taboos that inhibit such discussions. Adolescents should be equipped with the relevant knowledge to enable them make informed choices regarding sexual relationships. This should be

  5. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  7. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character - and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area.

  8. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  9. Teenage Pregnancy. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…

  10. Attitudes to weight and weight management in the early teenage years: a qualitative study of parental perceptions and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Lawton, Julia

    2015-10-01

    As most young teenagers grow up in families, parents might be well situated to facilitate and support their weight management and thereby prevent or manage obesity prior to adulthood. This paper explores parents' perceptions of, and views about, their teenage children's weight and the factors that influence parents' weight management strategies. We conducted two qualitative studies in Scotland, UK, involving in-depth interviews with the parents of overweight/obese and 'normal' weight 13-15 year olds (n = 69). Parents' concerns about their own weight provided useful context for understanding their attitudes or actions with regards to their teenage child. Some parents described their teenager's weight as being of concern to them, although puberty often introduced confusion about a child's weight status. Genetic explanations were very often put forward as a way of making sense of teenage weight or body size. Frustration about advising teenagers about weight management was expressed, and some parents worried about giving their growing child a 'problem' if they directly raised concerns about weight with them. Parents' views about their own weight as well as social and moral norms about labelling a teenager as overweight or as needing help with their weight could usefully inform patient-centred service development. Parent/teenage partnerships and supporting parents to create a healthy home in which teenagers can make healthier choices are suggestions for intervention development. The study highlights the importance of taking parents' perceptions into account when developing family-based interventions to address teenage overweight and obesity. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2007-01-01

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density circumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  12. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  13. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  14. Correlates of institutional deliveries among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Neupane, Dipika

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health...... Survey 2011. Methods: The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7.07%) were teenage mothers. The association between the background characteristics and institutional delivery...... was assessed separately for the teenage and non-teenage mothers using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for background characteristics, teenage mothers were found more likely to deliver at a health facility [AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 4.59] in comparison...

  15. Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, A B; Gould, M S; Malone, K M

    2015-10-01

    The object of this article is to review the past decade of research on teenage suicide, with a particular emphasis on epidemiologic trends by age, gender and indigenous ethnicity. As such, a review of research literature from 2003 to 2014 was conducted via a comprehensive search of relevant psychological and medical databases. Wide gaps in our knowledge base exist concerning the true extent of teenage suicide due to lack of data, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a Western bias. The gender paradox of elevated suicidality in females with higher completed suicide rates in males is observed in teenage populations worldwide, with the notable exceptions of China and India. Native and indigenous ethnic minority teens are at significantly increased risk of suicide in comparison to general population peers. Often those with the highest need for mental health care (such as the suicidal adolescent) have least access to therapeutic support.Globally, suicide in teenagers remains a major public health concern. Further focused research concerning completed suicides of youth below the age of 18 is required across countries and cultures to understand more about risk as children progress through adolescence. Gender and ethnic variations in suicidality are embedded within cultural, historical, psychological, relational and socio-economic domains. Worldwide, the absence of child/adolescent-specific mental health policies may delay the development of care and suicide prevention. Overall, it is vital that clinicians adopt a holistic approach that incorporates an awareness of age and gender influences, and that cultural competency informs tailored and evaluated intervention programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  17. Teenage births to ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, R

    2001-01-01

    This article analyses British age-specific fertility rates by ethnic group, with a special interest in child-bearing by women below the age of 20. Birth statistics are not analysed by ethnic group, and teenage birth rates have been estimated from the dates of birth of mothers and children in the Labour Force Survey. The method appears to be robust. Caribbean, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi women were much more likely to have been teenage mothers than white women, but Indian women were below the national average. Teenage birth rates have been falling in all three South Asian communities.

  18. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  19. The Formation of Identity in Teenage Mall Microculture: A Case Study of Teenagers in Czech Malls

    OpenAIRE

    Spilková, Jana; Radová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Geographies of children and youth are a surprisingly neglected research topic in the transforming (post-communist) countries, where many societal changes are taking place. This article introduces a research project that focused on teenagers and their leisure-time activities, concentrating especially on teenagers who spend the majority of their leisure time in shopping malls. The goal of the article is to reveal how such teenagers use the micro-space of the shopping mall, how they socialise, a...

  20. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  1. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.

  2. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  4. Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2011-12-01

    The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.

  5. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  6. Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

  7. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  8. Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-27

    Dec 27, 2009 ... Understanding of contraceptives and reproductive health was poor, condoms were the contraceptive method most known by teenagers and ... Liberal attitudes towards casual sex, alcohol consumption, .... releasing stress.

  9. Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-27

    Dec 27, 2009 ... Original Research: Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ... Methods: The qualitative study entailed 13 in-depth interviews with pregnant ...... different types of recreational or instructive activities for.

  10. Teenage Pregnancy: A contemporary problem of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Acres

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy, particularly pregnancy in school-aged girls below the age of 17 years, is a major community health problem. The incidence of such pregnancies is increasing to what some believe are epidemic proportions.

  11. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  12. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  13. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  14. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  15. TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND ITS OBSTETRIC OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudupudi Subba Rao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Teenage pregnancy is upcoming as one of the most important social and public health problem all over the world. In the present study, we have evaluated the maternal and foetal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary teaching hospital over a period of one year. The objective of the study is to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary care teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken for a period of one year at KIMS, a tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural area, where on an average 3000 deliveries per year take place. Data was retrieved from hospital records. All teenage mothers aged 13-19 years were included in the study. RESULTS In this study, 626 (18.79% cases of teenage mothers were recorded out of 3330 antenatal cases. Majority of teenagers were primigravida (79.23% and multigravida 20.76%. Antenatal care was nil or inadequate in 32% of cases. Majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status. Complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension (11.5%, premature onset of labour (5.75%, anaemia (23.64%, others like gestational diabetes mellitus, etc. (2.56% were noted. 25.88% underwent lower segment caesarean section, the most common indication was cephalopelvic disproportion (45.68%. 5% of babies delivered to teenage mothers had higher risk of low Apgar at 5 minutes. Neonatal morbidities like asphyxia, jaundice, respiratory distress were recorded in 14% of neonates and babies were more prone to neonatal intensive care unit admissions. CONCLUSION Teenage pregnancy was associated with high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, premature onset of labour and foetal deaths. High risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality were also seen. Adequate antenatal care reduces the adverse pregnancy outcome in these mothers.

  16. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  17. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  19. “Good passengers and not good passengers:” Adolescent drivers’ perceptions about inattention and peer passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. Design & Methods We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. Results The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (sd 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7 days (sd 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) “Good and not good” passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. Conclusions While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. Practical Implications An understanding of teens’ perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. PMID:27496828

  20. Teenage pregnancy: a comparative study of teenagers choosing termination of pregnancy or antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V A; Owen, M R; Phillips, D R; Gray, D J; Marshall, M N

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of 167 pregnant teenagers in Devon attending either antenatal booking clinics or for National Health Service (NHS) termination of pregnancy was carried out to determine differences in their characteristics, use and experience of local family planning services. Teenagers presenting for termination of pregnancy were younger and more likely to say that they had wished to avoid getting pregnant. Whether the teenager was in a stable relationship was strongly associated with the outcome of the pregnancy, with single girls being more likely to choose a termination of pregnancy. The termination of pregnancy group were also more likely to be condom users, and to have learned about their method of contraception from school rather than from health care professionals. Teenagers' frequency of contact with family planning services suggested that teenagers choosing a termination were less likely than antenatal attenders to have attended regularly. This was mainly due to differences in behaviour among teenagers attending their general practitioner (GP) for contraceptive advice: teenagers having a termination were more likely to describe their visit to their GP as embarrassing. These findings have implications for local family planning services attempting to reduce the number of unwanted teenage pregnancies. PMID:7562806

  1. General factors that affects the increase of population mobility and principles of optimization of high-speed passenger transportations

    OpenAIRE

    Momot, A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Analyze the main factors that influence the increased mobility of the population in the transport market of Ukraine. Methods. The article uses an improved method of determining the optimal areas of high-speed passenger trains and determines the value of rational transportation of passengers in different directions of speed traffic, as well as the method of marginal income. Results. In this article we analyzed seven major factors that influence the increased mobility of the population...

  2. Specific Features of Life Situations in Teenagers and Young People, Predisposed to Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, Larisa Ed.; Prjazhnikov, Nikolaj S.; Berezhnaja, Marija S.; Ermakov, Vjacheslav A.; Melamud, Marina R.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the studied problem is determined by the fact that the influence of the deviant environment on society, the spread of its morality, a psychological "exposure" of a less stable part of the population, that is teenagers and young adults, all this is--a reality of the contemporary social situation. The study of problems…

  3. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  4. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  5. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  6. Teenage pregnancy, taxes, and overpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R C

    1997-01-01

    Financial incentives could be used in the United States to control population growth, particularly, with regard to teenage pregnancy. If a fund is established for each American woman at age 18 which pays her $5000 (with interest) if she, or her husband, is sterilized before she bears a third child ($10,000, if the sterilization occurs before a second child), the woman would be less likely to succumb to peer pressure to become pregnant. Women who object to sterilization on religious grounds could receive a bonus if they reach the age of 50 with fewer than 3 children. Unlike the Chinese or Indian birth control programs, no coercion would be used. It would be a "humane alternative" to welfare cuts, which hurt innocent children, and the number of abortions would decrease. American society would lose "future" taxpayers; however, in this age of declining job opportunities for persons without special skills, population growth should be slowed. This would also ease resentment in developing countries, where people are asked to reduce their birth rates while the United States shows no inclination to do so.

  7. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  8. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  9. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  10. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy in Rural Communities of Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate the determinants of teenage pregnancies in a rural ... demographic status, age of sexual debut, use of condoms, pregnancy and its ... Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with age, occupation, no education, ...

  12. Coventry University and Teenage Cancer Trust eLearning Webapp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Created by Coventry University in association with the Teenage Cancer Trust, this free e-learning web app aims to help those new to working with teenagers and young adults with cancer to understand their unique needs.

  13. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  14. Teenage Mothers, Stigma and Their 'Presentations of Self'

    OpenAIRE

    Kyla Ellis-Sloan

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to research that seeks to understand experiences of teenage motherhood. Specifically, it focuses on the stigma attached to teenage pregnancy and parenting. Negative stereotypes continue to dominate understandings of teenage pregnancy. Despite research to the contrary, teenage mothering is popularly linked to welfare dependency, promiscuity and irresponsibility. As a result, young mothers report experiences of stigma and discrimination. This paper builds on evidence of...

  15. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  16. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in the...

  17. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  18. Intercity Passenger Parametric Analysis: Overview: Maglev Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    This document provides information intended to clarify consideration of some of the technically-based questions which arise in connection with intercity passenger transportation, and to provide insight into the characteristics and potential roles o...

  19. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  20. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  1. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  2. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  3. Teenage hyperthyroidism and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.A.; Nisa, L.; Hoque, M.; Jehan, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To assess the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in teenage patients with hyperthyroidism. Method: The medical records of 28 patients (age range 16 -18 years) were purposely selected from a pool of 3637 hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine during the period January 1982 to December 2006. Data for analysis included the age, sex, clinical symptoms, type of hyperthyroidism, antithyroid medications received, doses of radioiodine therapy given and the outcome of the therapy after one and five years. Results: The mean age of the patients treated for hyperthyroidism was 17.60 ± 0.73 years and 82 % were females. The most common type of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease (75%). All patients were pre-treated with antithyroid drugs for variable duration periods (6 months to 2 years). The mean administered dose of radioiodine was 10.69 ± 2.77 mCi. The dose of I-131 was calculated on the basis of gland size and morphology (assessment by palpation and scintigraphy) and percentage of radioactive iodine uptake. Effective control of hyperthyroidism after radioiodine treatment occurred in 60.72% patients with a single dose, 35.71% required a second dose and 3.57% required more than two doses. Frequency of early hypothyroidism within one year was 38.09 % in Graves' disease and 33.33% in toxic multinodular goiter. Most patients (66.66%) in the toxic nodule group remained euthyroid up to one year after I-131 therapy. Overall incidence rates of hypothyroidism after 1 year and 5 years of radioiodine therapy were 32.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism in the teen group of patients was effectively controlled with radioiodine. There were no early side effects. The only long-term effect was hypothyroidism. Appearance of early/late hypothyroidism showed a direct relationship with the type of hyperthyroidism and the dose of radioiodine administered. In general, patients with Graves' disease showed a greater tendency in the evolution of early

  4. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  5. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  6. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  7. Self-reported sleep parameters among secondary school teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Available evidences seem to suggest increasing trend in sleep deficit among teenagers worldwide, and there is limited information on this among Nigerian teenagers. This study was carried out to determine the basic sleep schedule and sleep duration among schooling teenagers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: ...

  8. Social interaction of teenage mothers during and after their pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extensive attention has been given to adolescent sexuality and teenage pregnancy in the past 30 years, yet many teenagers still fall pregnant. A teenager who becomes a parent is at a significant disadvantage in becoming a contributing adult, both psychosocially and economically. The objective of the study was to describe ...

  9. Extreme Economics: Teaching Children and Teenagers about Money. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbage, Keen J.

    2009-01-01

    What Financial future awaits the current generation of children and teenagers in the United States? Our children and teenagers did not cause the financial problems that confront the nation and impacts their families, but they will pay part of the price for these financial problems. What should children and teenagers know about personal finance?…

  10. Skateboarding Alone? Making Social Capital Discourse Relevant to Teenagers' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susie

    2006-01-01

    Bound to the notion of teenage apathy is the concern that young people are increasingly disengaged from political and community issues and lacking in social capital. Voting is often regarded as the ultimate form of civic engagement, which implicitly excludes young teenagers from consideration through their status as non-voters. Teenagers'…

  11. Attitude and Perception of Adolescents towards Teenage Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenage pregnancy rates remain on the increase in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of teenagers in Makurdi metropolis regarding teenage pregnancy. A total of two hundred and eighty six adolescents (286) participated in this survey ...

  12. Using Erikson To Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…

  13. How Some Art Museums Can Appeal to Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepe, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study that explores the question of how some art museums can appeal to teenagers. The significance of teenagers as the most underrepresented age demographic to visit museums is relevant to current museum practice where visitor studies have assumed increasing importance. As teenagers mature into adults, the long-term…

  14. Relating to Adolescents: Educators in a Teenage World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Susan Eva

    2009-01-01

    Teaching teenagers can be very rewarding; it can also be very challenging. Relating to Adolescents helps adults who work with teenagers to understand what happens in their dynamic with students. From the "Five Things Teens Need from Grown-Ups" to the "Seven Grown-Up Skills," this book covers all aspects of the adult-teenager relationship and…

  15. Facilitating parent-teenager communication through interactive photo cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golsteijn, C.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Because most teenagers strive for freedom and try to live autonomously, communication with their parents could be improved. It appeared from a literature review and a diary study that parent-teenager communication primarily addresses teenager-oriented everyday activities. However, it also showed

  16. Exploring attitudes and behaviour towards teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Tracey; Pyer, Michelle; Armstrong-Hallam, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    This article illustrates a methodological approach, which actively engaged 14 to 19 year olds in the research process. This two phase study explored the attitudes and behaviours of young people towards teenage pregnancy in Northamptonshire, UK. The first phase involved training young mothers to lead six focus groups with three specifically targeted 'at-risk' groups; other teenage mothers, young offenders and looked after children (from 14 to 19 years of age). An open question began each focus group but the young women or peer researchers were aware of the topics they wished to explore and provided prompts as necessary. Seven topics are presented under the headings of: alcohol and drugs; planned pregnancy; professionals' treatment; need for love; support by family, friends and partners; labelling and the reality for teenage mothers; and future aspirations. The reasons for pregnancy or consequences of pregnancy are discussed under the implications and recommendations.

  17. Children and teenagers as judges of taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2001-01-01

    , especially with enclosed toys. It is not always easy to develop new and exiting foods that catch on with both children, teenagers and their parents. But a number of Danish companies and researchers have taken up the challenge and are well underway developing tasty frozen foods for children and teenagers...... seeds for organic farming. Then seeds were sowed on organic fields and Nutana has started developing children-friendly frozen products. There are many considerations to make when one wishes to develop healthy and new frozen foods for children and teenagers. It has to be something that both groups want...... to eat - and it also has to live up to the parents' ideas about healthy eating. The parents' attach great importance to healthy food that is easy to prepare and that the whole family likes. Moreover, it is important that the children eat vegetables - preferably fresh ones as many believe...

  18. Electronic folklore among teenagers: SMS messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.

  19. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vital

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them.\\ud \\ud Design: 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analys...

  20. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Mao, B. H.; Bai, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial domain. Ten cluster groups were identified, indicating a hierarchical urban polycentric structure composed of large concentrated flows at urban activity centers. These empirical findings provide insights regarding urban human mobility patterns within a large subway network.

  1. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  2. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  4. Teenagers as a Moving Target: How Can Teenagers Be Encouraged to Accept Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Cardot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients exhibit their own needs and problems and are now considered as a real patient group in which downsizing the adult formulation is not the best choice and may result in problems. Adolescence (between 12 and 18 years is a transitional period of life from puberty to adulthood and, in this pediatric subgroup population, complex problems are observed in compliance with chronic treatments. Heterogeneity exists in this group which follows very different and sometimes short trends and tendencies and where illness can be a problem leading to stigmatization. Influence of social environment as well as friends is complex in this period of life. Teenagers have to take care of themselves and be part of the treatment including all the features of the social code of this group. Particular attention has to be paid to formulation and packaging in order to increase compliance and to suit the specific needs of this pediatric subgroup. Some examples are given for different drug forms.

  5. Recommendations to improve physical activity among teenagers- A qualitative study with ethnic minority and European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Sopna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the key challenges and explore recommendations from teenagers to promote physical activity with a focus on ethnic minority children. Methods Focus groups with teenagers aged 16-18 of Bangladeshi, Somali or Welsh descent attending a participating school in South Wales, UK. There were seventy four participants (18 Somali, 24 Bangladeshi and 32 Welsh children divided into 12 focus groups. Results The boys were more positive about the benefits of exercise than the girls and felt there were not enough facilities or enough opportunity for unsupervised activity. The girls felt there was a lack of support to exercise from their family. All the children felt that attitudes to activity for teenagers needed to change, so that there was more family and community support for girls to be active and for boys to have freedom to do activities they wanted without formal supervision. It was felt that older children from all ethnic backgrounds should be involved more in delivering activities and schools needs to provide more frequent and a wider range of activities. Conclusions This study takes a child-focused approach to explore how interventions should be designed to promote physical activity in youth. Interventions need to improve access to facilities but also counteract attitudes that teenagers should be studying or working and not 'hanging about' playing with friends. Thus, the value of activity for teenagers needs to be promoted not just among the teenagers but with their teachers, parents and members of the community.

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Khomenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Existing mathematicalmodelsofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercardonotsatisfytheneedofthedifferentconstructivedecisionsofthelifesupportsystemefficiencyestimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreoverquite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisionsof the lifesupportsystemthe need of a new mathematical instrument that would satisfy the mentioned features and their influence on the unsteadyheatexchangeprocesses during the whole time of the road appeared. The purpose of this work is creation of the mathematicalmodel ofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarthatcan satisfythe above-listed requirements. Methodology. Fortheassigned task realizationsystemofdifferentialequationsthatcharacterizesunsteadyheatexchangeprocessesinapassengercarwascomposed; forthesystemof equationssolution elementary balance method was used. Findings. Computational algorithm was developed andcomputer program for modeling transitional heat processes in the car was designed. It allows comparing different life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditionsand unsteady heat exchange processes can be studied at every car motion stage. Originality.Mathematicalmodelofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwasimproved. That is why it can be used for the heat engineering studying of the inner car state under various conditions and for the operation of the different life support systems of passenger cars comparison. Mathematicalmodelingofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwas made by the elementary balance method. Practical value. Created mathematical model gives the possibility to simulate temperature changes in passenger car on unsteady thermal conditions with enough accuracy and to introduce and remove additional elements to the designed model. Thus different

  7. Undergraduates Perspectives on Sex Education and Teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...

  8. Teenagers as Victims in the Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gunvor; Lundstrom, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    Research into press reporting on young people has tended to concentrate on young people as offenders. In contrast, this article focuses on press coverage of teenagers as victims. Reports in two Swedish newspapers (a morning broadsheet and an evening tabloid) were studied over a period of four months and subjected to a qualitative analysis of…

  9. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    -established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...

  10. Teenage testicular torsion. | Onuigbo | International Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study testicular torsion in teenagers in the Igbo community. Method: A retrospective study was carried out as regards requests for pathological examination of specimens received at a Regional Reference Laboratory based in Enugu. Results: Over a period of 30 years, 28 surgical specimens of testicular torsion in ...

  11. Factors Associated with Teenage Ecstasy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article was to investigate the factors associated with ecstasy use in school-aged teenagers. Methods: This was a longitudinal study of adolescent drug use, which was undertaken in three towns in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was administered annually to participants. In this article ecstasy use patterns amongst a cohort…

  12. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  13. Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-27

    Dec 27, 2009 ... of alternative entertainment and social infrastructure made shebeens (local bars) a normal part of teenage social life. 3) Peer pressure from boyfriends and the broader social network. 4) Other factors included the right to motherhood before becoming HIV positive, poor sexual negotiation skills, the need to.

  14. Tattoos & Teenagers: An Art Educator's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Lorrie

    2007-01-01

    For many North Americans, tattoos reflect hopes, values, or beliefs and act as vehicles to communicate those beliefs to others. For some, tattoos offer a means to reclaim a sense of ownership and control over their body. Tattoos are particularly popular with teenagers who explore their identity through experimentation with their outward…

  15. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  16. Gender aspects of status in teenage student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachkova, Marianna E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.

  17. Dealing with teen-age pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, P L

    1991-01-01

    The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role

  18. Passenger choice attributes in choosing a secondary airport: A study of passenger attributes in using Lanseria International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kriel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport. Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport. Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport. Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started

  19. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  20. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  1. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  2. Influences of HVO and FAME on the combustion and emissions of modern passenger car diesel engines; Einfluesse von HVO und FAME auf die Verbrennung und Emissionen moderner PKW-Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Benjamin [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Sadlowski, Thomas; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst

    2014-08-01

    In the framework of this study engine tests were performed with FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) and HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) as straight fuels using a EURO-VI passenger car diesel engine. Standard diesel fuel (EN 590) was used as reference. To analyze the impacts of the biofuels on the combustion process the heat release rates were calculated from in-cylinder pressure measurements using a single-zone model. Furthermore emissions were measured and ECU data was recorded. Results from engine tests showed that both HVO and FAME positively affect the combustion by a decreased ignition delay due to its higher cetane number. Raw exhaust emissions of soot were clearly reduced with HVO while CO and THC emissions showed minor reductions. During FAME operation ECU control settings were shifted due to its lower heating value. FAME showed reductions of soot by 60 % which is caused by the fuel's oxygen content while NO{sub x} emissions where slightly increased. However, a fuel adapted ECU calibration could optimize, e.g., the injection timing and EGR to further reduce emissions. Tailpipe emissions were not affected by HVO and FAME as the exhaust aftertreatment systems worked similarly efficient for all three fuels.

  3. Teenagers' licensing decisions and their views of licensing policies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2011-08-01

    One objective was to determine teenage licensing rates on a national basis, interest in early licensure, and reasons for delay. A second objective was to learn teenagers' opinions about licensing policies, important in states considering ways to upgrade their current licensing systems. One thousand three hundred eighty-three 15- to 18-year-olds completed an online survey in November 2010. They were drawn from a nationally representative panel of US households recruited using probability-based sampling. The panel included cell phone-only households, and Internet access was provided to those without it. Weighting procedures were applied so that the study population represented the national US population of 15- to 18-year-olds. Most teens said that they were interested in getting a license as soon as legally possible, but many had not started the process. At 16, teens were about equally divided among those who had not started, those in the learner stage, and those with a restricted or full license. At 18, 62 percent had full licenses; 22 percent had not started. For those old enough to start, lack of a car, costs, parent availability, ability to get around without a car, and being busy with other activities were leading reasons for delay. The majority of teens were not in favor of higher licensing ages. Forty-six percent thought the minimum learner age should be 16; 30 percent thought the full license age should be 18 or older. The majority approved of night (78%) and passenger (57%) restrictions, and 85 and 93 percent endorsed cell phone and texting bans, respectively. When these policies were packaged together in a single law that included an age 16 start, night, passenger, cell phone and texting bans, and a full license at age 18, 74 percent of teens were in favor. Teenagers are not as supportive of strong licensing policies as parents of teens, but there is evidence that they will support comprehensive policies likely to lead to further reductions in teen crash

  4. Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.; Hoek, G.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Brunekreef, B.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air

  5. Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskanich, Diane; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Frazier, A Lindsay; Willett, Walter C

    2014-01-01

    Milk consumption during adolescence is recommended to promote peak bone mass and thereby reduce fracture risk in later life. However, its role in hip fracture prevention is not established and high consumption may adversely influence risk by increasing height. To determine whether milk consumption during teenage years influences risk of hip fracture in older adults and to investigate the role of attained height in this association. Prospective cohort study over 22 years of follow-up in more than 96,000 white postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study and men aged 50 years and older from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States. Frequency of consumption of milk and other foods during ages 13 to 18 years and attained height were reported at baseline. Current diet, weight, smoking, physical activity, medication use, and other risk factors for hip fractures were reported on biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) of first incidence of hip fracture from low-trauma events per glass (8 fl oz or 240 mL) of milk consumed per day during teenage years. During follow-up, 1226 hip fractures were identified in women and 490 in men. After controlling for known risk factors and current milk consumption, each additional glass of milk per day during teenage years was associated with a significant 9% higher risk of hip fracture in men (RR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17). The association was attenuated when height was added to the model (RR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.14). Teenage milk consumption was not associated with hip fractures in women (RR = 1.00 per glass per day; 95% CI, 0.95-1.05). Greater milk consumption during teenage years was not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in older adults. The positive association observed in men was partially mediated through attained height.

  6. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Exploring the experiences of teenagers with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria; Verschuur, Carl; Lathlean, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Teenage cochlear implant users' perceptions of deafness, surgery, fitting of the device and life as a cochlear implant wearer were explored in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of teenagers' experiences of living with the device. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken and analysed using thematic analysis. Ten teenagers aged 14-16 years with at least one cochlear implant were interviewed. Seven teenagers experienced great pre-operative anxiety and two reported significant post-operative pain. Four of the teenagers described a mismatch between their expectations and the disappointing reality of adjusting to the device. However, all the teenagers reported an enhanced sense of well-being as a result of being able to interact more easily with their world around them. The teenagers differed in the extent to which they identified with the hearing and deaf world. Despite the early challenges, over time the teenagers experienced many functional and psychosocial benefits. Most felt their lives were now easier as a result of the cochlear implant(s). They described complex, flexible identities. By giving prominence to the teenagers' voices this study has added new knowledge concerning their experience of surgery. The findings also more fully revealed the challenges of adjusting to the device and the impact of having a cochlear implant on the teenagers' identities. Clinical recommendations are made to address the gaps in service highlighted by these findings.

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Dietary Ecology of the Extinct Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Novak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For tens of thousands of years, passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius were a dominant member of eastern North American forest communities, with megaflocks comprising up to several billion individuals. The extinction of passenger pigeons in the early twentieth century undoubtedly influenced associated species and ecosystems as interactions stemming from the pigeons disappeared suddenly. Here, we strive to better understand what was probably one of the most significant of these interactions—that between passenger pigeons and seed bearing trees. Using the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata and the rock dove (Columba livia as physical and ecological proxies, we evaluated passenger pigeon dietary range and potential to disperse seeds. Our findings suggest that the passenger pigeon's dietary range, observed historically to be taxonomically broad, was constrained to certain seed sizes due to bill gape size. In addition, we conclude that the digestive process invariably destroyed consumed seeds but the potential for a nutrition/dispersal mutualism might still have existed via regurgitation and post-mortem release of crop contents. Our results highlight the range of ecological interactions that can be lost with species' extinction and the inherent challenge of understanding the consequences of those interactions.

  9. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  10. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  11. What makes a space invader? Passenger perceptions of personal space invasion in aircraft travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura; Patel, Harshada; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Cobb, Sue

    2017-11-01

    The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact. The findings of this study have implications for the design of shared spaces. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated personal space in an aircraft environment. The results highlight the factors which affect the perception of personal space invasion in aircraft and can therefore inform the design of aircraft cabin environments to enhance the passenger experience.

  12. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  13. Predicting Passenger Survival Rates on the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Chanda

    2017-01-01

    The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most infamous shipwrecks in history. On April 15, 1912, during her maiden voyage, the Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, killing 1502 out of 2224 passengers and crew. This sensational tragedy shocked the international community and led to better safety regulations for ships. One of the reasons that the shipwreck led to such loss of life was that there were not enough lifeboats for the passengers and crew. Although there was some el...

  14. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  15. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  16. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  17. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  18. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  19. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  20. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  1. Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted health hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Bratati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early marriage and confinement are contributing factors to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the problem of teenage pregnancy and its complications. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was undertaken over 4 months among women admitted to a rural hospital in West Bengal. The study cohort comprised of teenage mothers between 15-19 years old and a control cohort of mothers between 20-24 years old. Data included demographic variables, available medical records, and complications viz. anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level below 10 gm% during the last trimester of pregnancy, preterm delivery was defined as occurring within 37 weeks of gestation, and low birth weight was defined as babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth. Result: Teenage pregnancy comprised 24.17% of total pregnancies occurring in the hospital during the study period. The study group had 58 subjects and the control group had 91 subjects. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher ( P < 0.05 in the women in the teenage group (62.96% than in the women in the control group (43.59%. However, severe anemia with a hemoglobin level below 8 gm% was only found in the control group. Preterm delivery occurred significantly more ( P < 0.001 in the study group (51.72% than in the control group (25.88%. The incidence of low birth weight was significantly higher ( P < 0.0001 among the group of teenagers (65.52% than among the women in the control group (26.37%. Not a single newborn was above 3 kg in the study group, while none were below 1.5 kg in the control group. The mean birth weight was 2.36 kg in the study group and 2.74 kg in the control group; the difference was strongly significant ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study shows that anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight were more prevalent among teenagers than among women who were 20

  2. Stress, coping, and disturbed eating attitudes in teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, S; Waller, G; Kroese, B S

    1997-12-01

    This study explored the relationship between stressors and disturbed eating attitudes among adolescent females, assessing the moderating role of coping and the mediating influence of poor self-esteem. Two hundred eighty-six teenage girls were recruited from local schools, and completed standardized measures of stressors, coping, self-esteem, perfectionism, and disturbed eating attitudes. Regression analyses were used to test for moderating and mediating effects. Stressors and emotion-focused coping were found to be associated with low self-esteem, which in turn was strongly associated with disturbed eating attitudes. Stressors were also directly related to disturbed eating attitudes. The findings provide partial support for existing models of the etiology and maintenance of eating psychopathology, but have wider implications for our understanding of the eating disorders and their treatment.

  3. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  4. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  5. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    /or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...

  6. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  7. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  8. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kabisch (Maria); J.L. Bermejo (Justo Lorenzo); T. Dun̈nebier (Thomas); S. Ying (Shibo); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); M. Shah (Mitul); B. Perkins (Barbara); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); D. Lambrechts (Diether); P. Neven (Patrick); S.T.H. Peeters (Stephanie); C. Weltens (Caroline); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); X. Wang (Xianshu); K. Purrington (Kristen); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); O. Fletcher (Olivia); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Cornelissen (Sten); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Bugert (Peter); A. González-Neira (Anna); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); B.E. Henderson (Brian); L. Le Marchand (Loic); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); M. Kriege (Mieke); L.B. Koppert (Lisa); J. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); S. Slettedahl (Seth); A.E. Toland (Amanda); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M. Ruebner (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); S. Fortuzzi (S.); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.M. Tollenaar (Robert A.M.); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); W. Zheng (Wei); M. Shrubsole (Martha); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); D. Torres (Diana); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); V. Kristensen (Vessela); F. Bacot (Francois); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); J. Simard (Jacques); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Hall (Per); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); D.F. Easton (Douglas); U. Hamann (Ute)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in

  9. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  10. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  11. Fracture mechanism of coronal teenage dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, P. E.; Kabanova, A. V.; Borodin, I. N.; Guo, J.; Zang, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The structure of coronal teenage dentin and the development of cracks in it are studied on microand nanolevels. The material is found to fail according to a ductile mechanism on a microlelvel and according to a ductile-brittle mechanism on a nanoscale. This behavior is similar to the failure of a polyethylene film and rubber, when significant elastic and irreversible deformation precedes crack growth. The viscoelastic behavior can be considered as the reaction of dentin to an applied mechanical load.

  12. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  13. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  14. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  15. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  16. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.M. Lentink (Ramon); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms

  17. Evaluation of the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: final synthesis report

    OpenAIRE

    Wellings, Kaye; Wilkinson, Paul; Kane, Ros

    2005-01-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in England, published in June 1999, is a multifaceted strategy that includes action to both halve the under 18 conception rate by 2010 and provide support to teenage parents to reduce the long term risk of social exclusion by increasing the proportion in education, training and employment. The Strategy has four major components: 1) a national media awareness campaign via independent radio and teenage magazines, 2) joined up action to ensure that ...

  18. American television fiction transforming Danish teenagers' religious imaginations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that American television fiction with supernatural themes offers Danish teenage audiences a playground for exploring different religious imaginations in a continuous process of internal negotiations; thereby transforming their imaginations. This process of the mediatization...... narratives. This essay presents the findings of an empirical qualitative study of seventy-two Danish teenagers and considers two primary parameters for the case-based reception study: the teenagers' levels of fandom and their connection with institutionalized religion. In other words, how are religious...

  19. Subcultural grounding of teenage smoking, drinking and use of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Rijt, G.A.J. van der; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Straten, P. van

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to establish whether subcultures play a part in shaping the smoking behavior and other substance use among teenagers. Written questionnaires were administered among teenagers from 30 school classes aged 12 to 16 (N 780). Four hypotheses are tested: we expect (1) that teenagers affiliated with counter-cultural styles will have a more positive attitude towards the use of recreational substances, (2) that they are more likely to smoke, drink alcohol, and use soft drugs than m...

  20. Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E

    2012-05-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.

  1. [Bulimia and anorexia among the teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hela; Gaigi, Imene; El Fray, Hamouda; Gaigi, Sadok; El Ati, Jalila

    2011-11-01

    The disturbances related to the feeding behavior are increasing in Tunisia. To evaluate the impact of an adapted and personalized therapeutic program, including dietetic advises and practice of yoga in Tunisian teenagers suffering from bulimia or anorexia. Our study was carried out on 31 teenagers, old 16 to 19 years, 10 were anorexics (9 girls and 1 boy) and 21 were bulimics (14 girls and 7 boys). After twelve weeks of program application a clear improvement of the physical and mental state of our subjects was recorded. Indeed, an average fall of 7.3% of the body weight of the compulsive eaters and an increase of 6.6% of that of the anorexics were obtained. On the mental level, the frequency of the subjects which make daily crises passed from 29% to 19%. More half of the subjects (54.8%) paid more not to vomit but occasionally (less than one once out of two crises). These results show that an assumption of responsibility targeted of the teenagers suffering from food behavioral problems can help them to be left there.

  2. Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Machold, C

    2012-05-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users\\' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.

  3. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  4. Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann

    2009-11-12

    To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom. Systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis of controlled trials on interventions for early parenthood and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views on early parenthood of young people living in the UK. 12 electronic bibliographic databases, five key journals, reference lists of relevant studies, study authors, and experts in the field. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies and abstracted data. Ten controlled trials and five qualitative studies were included. Controlled trials evaluated either early childhood interventions or youth development programmes. The overall pooled effect size showed that teenage pregnancy rates were 39% lower among individuals receiving an intervention than in those receiving standard practice or no intervention (relative risk 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.77). Three main themes associated with early parenthood emerged from the qualitative studies: dislike of school; poor material circumstances and unhappy childhood; and low expectations for the future. Comparison of these factors related to teenage pregnancy with the content of the programmes used in the controlled trials indicated that both early childhood interventions and youth development programmes are appropriate strategies for reducing unintended teenage pregnancies. The programmes aim to promote engagement with school through learning support, ameliorate unhappy childhood through guidance and social support, and raise aspirations through career development and work experience. However, none of these approaches directly tackles all the societal, community, and family level factors that influence young people's routes to early parenthood. A small but

  5. Teenage sexual attitudes, norms, desires and intentions: The impact of preferred musical genres

    OpenAIRE

    Agbo-Quaye, Sena

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis focuses on teenage sexual attitudes and norms as moderated by their preferred music genre. The research questions addressed here are: What are the genre differences in lyrical representations of relationships and male and female characteristics? What are young peoples' perceptions of the impact of these genre differences on their lives? How does genre preference influence...

  6. Teenage Mothers Today: What We Know and How It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families. PMID:28533814

  7. Teenage pregnancies: a lingering obstetric problem in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelle, Onyecherellam M; Eke, Ahinzechukwu C; Okafor, Charles I; Mbamara, S U K; Obiechina, Nworah J

    2011-01-01

    To determine the teenage pregnancy rate, associated epidemiological factors, outcome and complications in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. A 5 year retrospective study of women presenting with teenage pregnancies, between 1st of January, 2004 and 31st of December, 2008 was done. The obstetric variables from 72 cases of teenage pregnancies and 89 selected controls aged 20-24 years were compared. Chi-square was used to compare some of the variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p teenage pregnancy was 2.7%. The age range was from 14-19 years with a mean age of 17.8 +/- 1.2 years. 33 (45.8%) women among the study group were single while 39 (54.2%) were married. There was a statistically significant difference in the marital status between the study and control groups (x2 = 41.80, p = 0.001). Interestingly, the teenage group were mainly primiparous women (63.9%) compared to the adults who were mostly nulliparous. Ante-partum complications such as anaemia, mal-presentations and ante-partum haemorrhage were commoner in the teenage pregnancy group. Prolonged labour, preterm labour, intra-uterine growth restriction, premature rupture of fetal membranes and caesarean deliveries were commoner in the teenage group, but not to a significant level. Promoting education of the girl-child and economic empowerment of teenage girls will reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy and the high complication rate associated with it.

  8. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  9. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Reeuwijk, Miranda A J; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-09-08

    A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers' position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income

  10. The Influence of Manufacturing Variations on a Crash Energy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    Crash Energy Management (CEM) systems protect passengers in the event of a train collision. A CEM system distributes crush throughout designated unoccupied crush zones of a passenger rail consist. This paper examines the influence of manufacturing va...

  11. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, S

    1994-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.

  12. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  13. Air quality inside passenger cars

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Faber; Krzysztof Brodzik

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ). Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human hea...

  14. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  15. Interventions Addressing the Social Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann; Bonell, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which…

  16. Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity (53.4%) and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend (66.1%) prone teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Conclusion: Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers.

  17. Empowering teenagers to prevent pregnancy: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Christofides, Nicola

    2009-10-01

    Reducing rates of teenage pregnancy is an important part of the agenda of action for meeting most of the Millenium Development Goals. South Africa has important lessons for other countries in this regard as the rate of teenage pregnancy is high but has declined very substantially over the last twenty years. The country experiences waves of moral panic about teenage pregnancy, with assertions that current problems are rooted in accepting or even encouraging the sexual appetites of young people rather than sternly disciplining them. In this paper, we argue that the key to success in teenage pregnancy reduction has been an empowering social policy agenda that has sought to work with young people, making them aware of their rights and the risks of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, family responses and education policy have greatly reduced the potential negative impact of teenage pregnancy on the lives of teenage girls. There is tremendous scope for further progress in reducing teenage pregnancy and we argue that this lies in paying more attention to issues of gender and sexuality, including the terms and conditions under which teenagers have sex. There needs to be critical reflection and engagement with men and boys on issues of masculinity, including their role in child rearing, as well as examination within families of their engagement with supporting pregnancy prevention and responses to pregnancies.

  18. Teenage pregnancy in Jos, North-Central Nigeria | Mutihir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is an obstetric risk factor. They are more likely to suffer from complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery with increased morbidity and mortality in both infants and mothers. Objective: To determine the prevalence of teenage births, demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcome in ...

  19. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  20. Utilization of antenatal care services among teenagers in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenaged women suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. The purpose of this study was to estimate the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services among teenagers (13-19 years) during delivery in Ethiopia. Methodology: Raw data collected from all part of the country on child ...

  1. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  2. Males and Morals: Teenage Contraceptive Behavior Amid the Double Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Peter

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)

  3. Bilateral ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma in a teenager: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epithelial ovarian cancers are uncommon among young girls and teenagers compared to germ cell tumors. We report a case of bilateral ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma in a teenage girl with the attendant challenges of diagnosis, management and follow up. HT, 19 year old had presented at a secondary care level with ...

  4. Classroom Activities in Nutrition in Teenage Pregnancy. Bulletin No. 91140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Gian; Hetzel, Barbara A.

    The lessons developed in this guide were designed for pregnant teenagers and teenage parents enrolled in the Wisconsin School-Age Parent (SAPAR) Program. The lessons can also be adapted for use in non-SAPAR courses such as family and consumer education, health, and language arts. The guide has eight chapters: Introduction (a preliminary lesson…

  5. social interaction of teenage mothers during and after their pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children will increasingly risk disease and early death”, wrote Rollo May, a psychiatrist, who continued, “the. Victorian nice man or woman was guilty if he or she did experience sex; now we ... wished to get married. In conclusion, the majority of teenagers who fall pregnant do so while still at school. Teenagers are at risk of.

  6. The Problem of Teenage Pregnancy: An Educational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Kul Bhushan

    1994-01-01

    Examines data surrounding issues related to educational attitudes and attainment and teenage pregnancy, nonmarital births, and child poverty. Addresses proximate and root causes of rising U.S. rates of teenage pregnancy, correlations between nonmarital births and educational and occupational expectations, and educational and economic consequences.…

  7. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  8. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  9. Poor parenting: Teenagers' views on adolescent pregnancies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative study in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders ...

  10. Perception and attitudes of parents towards teenage pregnancy in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenage pregnancy is a social menace and common public health problem. It is detrimental to both mother and child because teenage mother is not physically, psychologically and economically ready to bear a child. This phenomenon has multiple adverse consequences on maternal health, child health and overall ...

  11. The Unacceptable "Flaneur": The Shopping Mall as a Teenage Hangout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hugh; Taylor, Mark; Percy-Smith, Barry; Limb, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward the role of the shopping mall as a place for congregating. Notes that adult attitudes reflect a discomfort with teenagers being in a place where they have no clear role, while teenagers transgress and question the spatial hegemony of adulthood, creating a "thirdspace" reflecting their place between adulthood and…

  12. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  13. Teenaged Internet Tutors' Use of Scaffolding with Older Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambaum, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses how teenaged instructors paired with older learners make use of scaffolding. Video data were categorised according to 15 types of direct scaffolding tactics, indirect scaffolding, and unused scaffolding opportunities. The results show that a teenager who is unprepared for the role of an instructor of Internet skills for older…

  14. Comparative Study of Teenage Pregnancy in Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a comparative study of the obstetric performance of primiparous teenagers and ... 2006-31st December, 2007) in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital,Ikeja. ... The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study population was 1.01% with ...

  15. Faith Development of the Teenager during the Sunday Evening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From church conversations with teenagers (born between 1974 and 1994), publications in recent times appeared worldwide and the qualitative investigation in the article is utilized. It seems there are problems in the practice of the faith formation of teenagers in the evening service. The aim of an evening service must ...

  16. Acceptance of and Engagement in Risky Driving Behaviors by Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…

  17. [Healthy eating according to teenagers: perceptions, barriers, and expected characteristics of teaching materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, Natacha; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Slater, Betzabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perceptions, barriers, and characteristics of teaching materials to promote healthy eating, as described by teenagers. Four focus groups were conducted with 25 adolescents, including questions on: perceptions regarding diet and motivations to change; concepts of (and barriers to) healthy eating; and characteristics needed for teaching materials to promote healthy eating. The teens were often undecided when attempting to classify a diet as healthy. They generally reported feeling insecure about making dietary changes, but showed adequate notions of healthy eating. The main barriers involved personal and social characteristics: temptation, food flavors, parental influence, and lack of time and options for healthy snacks at school. According to these teenagers, educational materials for promotion of healthy eating should emphasize the immediate benefits and emphasize high-impact messages on the health risks of unhealthy diet.

  18. Teenage consumption of television series. The case of “La que se avecina”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Abad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Television series exert a significant influence on adolescents’ beliefs and opinions, especially in regards to gender, racial and social stereotypes. In this context, this work aims to discern youth involvement with fiction series by finding out what types of series they consume and what motivations they have for doing so. The bonds that are established by teenagers with the characters were also determined. For this purpose and by means of a mixed methodology; surveys and group dynamics were conducted with 236 adolescents from four education centers in Zaragoza. The results have shown that these teenagers consume Spanish sitcoms, such as La que se avecina as they are drawn to its absurd humour and also establish bonds with adult characters who are defined by their comicalness.

  19. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  20. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.

  1. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.

  2. The asymptomatic teenager with an abnormal electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder R

    2014-02-01

    Use of medications for attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder and preparticipation sports physical examination has led to an increase in number of electrocardiograms (ECG) performed during adolescence. Interpreting ECGs in children and young adults must take into account the evolutionary changes with age and the benign variants, which are usually not associated with heart disease. It is crucial for primary-care providers to recognize the changes on ECG associated with heart disease and risk of sudden death. In this article, the significance, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic workup of these findings in the asymptomatic teenager are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The Brugada Syndrome in a Teenager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklashevich, I M; Kuleshova, E V; Termosesov, S A; Shkolnikova, M A

    2017-02-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BS) belongs to the group of hereditary channelopathies associated with elevated risk of sudden death (SD) in the absence of structural heart diseases. The disorder phenotypically manifests by specific electrocardiographic pattern, associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT). VT can be accompanied by loss of conscience, and after transformation to ventricular fibrillation result in SD. BS is extremely rare among children and adolescents. We present here a clinical case of teenager (age 17 years) with BS manifested by syncopal state at the background of fever.

  4. Workplace aggression in teenage part-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Inness, Michelle; Connelly, Catherine E; Barling, Julian; Hoption, Colette

    2006-09-01

    Among adult employees, interpersonal injustice and abusive supervision predict aggression toward supervisors at work. The aim of this study was to assess whether similar relationships exist among teenage employees and, further, whether teenagers' reasons for working moderate these relationships. Multiple regression analyses on data from 119 teenage employees showed that financial and personal fulfillment reasons for working moderate the impact of interpersonal injustice and abusive supervision on aggression directed at workplace supervisors. These findings contribute to the understanding of workplace aggression by demonstrating that (a) teenagers engage in this workplace behavior, (b) the predictors are similar to those of adult aggression, and (c) reasons for working play a moderating role among this particular cohort. The possible long-term consequences of teenagers' use of aggression at work are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwido Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.

  6. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  7. Influence of modern music on young generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babtrakinova O.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available in this article, the researchers have considered psychological impact of different musical genres and music clips on teenagers. Nowadays it is a very essential problem. Teenagers listen to music every day and of course, it is interesting for them to watch music videos on these songs. Listening to music and watching music videos can influence the mentality of a teenager. This influence can be both positive, and negative. In this article, the authors will try to examine the possible reasons of teenagers’ choice and study how musical genres, as well as «positive and negative clips» influence them.

  8. Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and psychosocial conditions of Swedish teenage mothers and their perception of health and social support during pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahn, Elisabeth Hertfelt; Nissen, Eva

    2008-06-01

    Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continue pregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage mothers can therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at a group level. The aim of this study was to describe and compare teenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adult mothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of health and social support. A descriptive comparative study was conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden, which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15-19, who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same number of adult mothers aged 25-29, matched for parity and birth of a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Both groups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support. Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtained from their maternal health and delivery charts. Teenage mothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation, had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers, and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived less support, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms than adult mothers. Teenage mothers differed from adult mothers regarding family situation and health behavior as well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to cope with parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy to meet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.

  9. General principles of control method of passenger car bodies bending vibration parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, A. N.; Samoshkin, S. L.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kobishchanov, V. V.; Antipin, D. Ya

    2018-03-01

    Weight reduction of passenger cars is a promising direction of reducing the cost of their production and increasing transportation profitability. One way to reduce the weight of passenger cars is the lightweight metal body design by means of using of high-strength aluminum alloys, low-alloy and stainless steels. However, it has been found that the limit of the lightweight metal body design is not determined by the total mode of deformation, but its flexural rigidity, as the latter influences natural frequencies of body bending vibrations. With the introduction of mandatory certification for compliance with the Customs Union technical regulations, the following index was confirmed: “first natural frequency of body bending vibrations in the vertical plane”. This is due to the fact that vibration, noise and car motion depend on this index. To define the required indexes, the principles of the control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies are proposed in this paper. This method covers all stages of car design – development of design documentation, manufacturing and testing experimental and pilot models, launching the production. The authors also developed evaluation criteria and the procedure of using the results for introduction of control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies.

  10. Fuel economy of new passenger cars in Mexico: Trends from 1988 to 2008 and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Chávez-Baeza, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in fuel economy (kilometers per liter) of new passenger vehicles in Mexico over a period of 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Results show that in this period, fuel economy of the new passenger vehicle fleet, including multipurpose vehicles (a category similar to sport utility vehicles, SUVs), increased by only 6.3%. A simple Laspeyres index analysis was developed to evaluate both the impact of changes in vehicle sales structure by category and the changes in fuel economy. Results show that increased sales of heavier, multipurpose vehicles in place of subcompact and compact vehicles, impacted negatively on the fleet average fuel economy. If the structure of sales had continued in the same proportions across all categories as in 1988, fuel economy would have increased by 11.0%, instead of the actual 6.3%. This result coincides with trends in other countries. The paper also presents different scenarios of passenger car fuel economy for the year 2020, and its implications for gasoline consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results may influence the new passenger vehicle fuel economy standard that is currently under discussion in Mexico.

  11. Marketing Research on Passenger Satisfaction With Public Transport Service in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radnović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine, based on conducted marketing research, the level of passenger satisfaction with public transport services for the purpose of making better marketing decisions in the example of the City of Belgrade. The main task is to test the hypothesis on the existence of significant influence of factors, such as quality service, attitude and behaviour of employees (e.g. driver, adequate informing, quality of vehicles, line routes and timetable, on passenger satisfaction. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for interpreting the obtained results and examining the formulated hypothesis. Empirical research has shown that there is a significant correlation between the aforementioned factors and passenger satisfaction with public transport services. The obtained results provided recommendations and guidelines for improving and increasing the quality of public transport services. The research results also provide the basis for future research that could examine the relationship between passenger satisfaction with services and sub-groups within the analyzed factors.

  12. Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M; Chaloupka, F

    2000-06-01

    which this is undermined by the tobacco industry and other competitors for funding. Despite the different strengths and combinations of programme messages and strategies used in these comprehensive programmes, there is evidence that they lead to change in factors that influence teenage smoking, and to reductions in teenage smoking.

  13. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  14. Body perception of teenagers in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gavídia Catalan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess body perception of teenagers in school environments. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in a secondary public school from the city of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with students from the ninth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, independent of sex, from March to June, 2009. The first phase consisted of the selection of ten students, using a schematic drawing of the human body. In the second phase, there was a focal group with guiding questions about body awareness and desire for change. Results: For the students, the idea of good posture would be a person who had good education and to be straightwhen walking and sitting. We perceived dissatisfaction and important misunderstanding in relation to their body and posture, and there was unanimity concerning the desire of achieving changes. Conclusion: There are mixed feelings related to the body, by teenage students, when you inquire about their image and desire to change. If, on one hand, they refer to perceive themselves with proper and correct posture, on the other hand, they are eager for change, easily identified with present standard body reported in the media and worshiped as “ideal body”. It is urgent and necessary to consolidate the culture of health promotion in schools as well as build healthy educational environment.

  15. The Sleepy Teenager – Diagnostic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character – and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area. PMID:25136329

  16. Attitudes of teenagers towards workplace safety training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M; Welsh, Erin C; McGeeney, Teresa J

    2012-12-01

    More than 70 % of teenagers are employed before graduating high school. Every 10 min, in the United States, a young worker is injured on the job. Safety training has been suggested as a way to prevent injuries, yet little is known about the methods of safety training and the effectiveness of training that teens receive at work. This study is the first to assess the attitudes teens hold towards safety training and what they believe would help them stay safe on the job. In 2010, focus groups and interviews were conducted with 42 teens from public high schools in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Participating teens were aged 15-19 years old, 43 % male, 69 % African-American, and 56 % worked either in the restaurant/food industry or in retail jobs. Most teens reported receiving safety training. Although the majority believed that safety training was important, many felt that they personally did not need safety training; that it was "common sense." However, 52 % of teens reported workplace injuries. Many viewed injury lightly and as part of the job, even those that sustained severe injuries. Most teens were trained by methods that seem at best "boring" and at worst, ineffective. Little interaction, action, or repetition is used. Training is not geared towards teens' developmental levels or interest, as in most cases all workers received the same type of training. Safety training may be a powerful way to reduce injury rates among working teenagers, but it is essential that training methods which are geared towards teens are utilized.

  17. Chinese Teenagers' Concerns about the Future: A Cross-National Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Josiah; Chong-de, Lin

    1992-01-01

    Chinese teenagers (n=1,861) rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns about the future; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. Although still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and former Soviet teenagers in earlier studies.…

  18. Interference of internet at social and emocional life of school teenagers on RS

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rodrigo Sinnott; Anhanguera; Zanela, Barbara Cordeiro; Anhanguera

    2015-01-01

    The internet is one of the most used media in the world. It became popular among the different social classes and thereby started bringing some concerns for people who were unable to take advantage of this new technology. Thus, this study aimed to examine how teenagers from a state school in Rio Grande are using the internet and how this influence in their lives. For this was used IAT, wich is an instrument created by the researcher to gather more information about the influence that this med...

  19. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  20. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  1. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  2. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  3. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  4. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  5. Disorders of psychic adaptation of teenagers from radionuclides contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, V.A.; Obukhov, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Results of complex psychological and psychopathological survey of 729 teenagers living in various regions of Belarus are considered. The all teenagers were divided into two groups: the first group had 557 teenagers living in region with a level of pollution by 137 Cs less than 1 Ci/sq.km, the second groups - 172 teenagers, constantly living on controllable territories with the 137 Cs contents more than 15 Ci/sq.km. The change of psychological adaptation in the form of strengthening of the situation and individual disturb, emotional lability and psychoasthenia was detected for the teenagers from contaminated regions. It may be a basic for development of various neurotic disorders. The received results show that the radioactive contaminated of constant living regions teenagers leads to disorders of the psychological adaptation at teenagers. These were characterized by lability of mood, increased sensitivity to external irritants, indecision, disturbing hypochondria and uncertainty in own forces. At late effect of small dozes of radiation the initial stimulation transforms to exhaustion of protective mechanisms of a head brain and leads to disorganization of the regulator mechanisms

  6. Teenagers' experiences of living with food hypersensitivity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-06-01

    Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.

  7. Maternity and paternity: the view of the teenage couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Medeiros de Almeida Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the experience of pregnancy in adolescence through the reports of teenage mothers and fathers. Methods: A descriptive exploratory study of qualitative nature in which interviews were conducted with 11 teenage couples, whose pregnant girls were admitted to a reference maternity hospital. Data collection was conducted in the period between June and August 2010 through a semi-structured interview based on guiding questions for teenage mothers and fathers. The speeches were recorded, fully transcribed, analyzed and grouped into thematic categories. Results: It was evidenced: the initial impact of the news for the teenage couple, the change of attitude towards life because of the unplanned pregnancy and the child’s birth, the immaturity to assume the role of mother and father and the emergence of problems of family and social nature. Conclusion: The pregnancy for a teenage couple is not something planned, but they start to see themselves as mothers and fathers and express feelings related to the triad father-mother-son. However, for teenage mothers, taking care of the child is the most important thing, while for teenage fathers, sustaining the family is essential and worrisome. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p101

  8. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  9. The perception of animal experimentation ethics among Indian teenage school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Justin Namuk; Choi, Eun Hee; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2017-03-01

    To promote awareness of animal experimentation ethics among teenagers, we created an educational pamphlet and an accompanying questionnaire. One hundred Indian teenage school pupils were given the pamphlet and subsequently surveyed with the questionnaire, to evaluate: a) their perception of animal experimentation ethics; and b) their opinion on the effectiveness of the pamphlet, according to gender and school grade/age. There was a significant correlation between grade/age and support for animal experimentation, i.e. senior students were more inclined to show support for animal experimentation. There was also a significant correlation between gender and perception of the need to learn about animal experimentation ethics, with girls more likely to feel the need to learn about ethics than boys. In addition, the four questions relating to the usefulness of the pamphlet, and student satisfaction with its content, received positive responses from the majority of the students. Even though the pamphlet was concise, it was apparent that three quarters of the students were satisfied with its content. Gender and age did not influence this level of satisfaction. Overall, our study shows that there is a significant correlation between a pupil`s school grade/age and their support for animal experimentation, and that there is also a significant correlation between gender and the perceived need to learn about animal experimentation ethics. This pilot scheme involving an educational pamphlet and questionnaire could be beneficial in helping to formulate basic strategies for educating teenage school pupils about animal ethics. 2017 FRAME.

  10. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The study of thyroid-related hormones in Jinuo minority teenagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lei; Yuan Weihong; Xu Mian; Luo Zhihang; Du Juan; He Qin; Zhu Jiayou

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the difference of thyroid-related hormones between the Teenagers of Jinuo minority and those of Han nationality, 203 teenagers of Jinuo who are students of an ethnic middle school, Jinghong, took as the Jinuo group. This group was divided into three subgroups according to their age: 1)age from 13 to 14, 52 persons 2)age from 14 to 15, 91 persons 3)age from 15 to 16, 60 persons. Meanwhile, 100 teenagers of Han nationality lived in Kunming took as a control group, which also was divided into three subgroups 1)age from 13 to 14, 28 persons; 2)age from 14 to 15, 33 persons; 3)age from 15 to 16, 39 persons. The levels of T 3 T 4 and TSH in both groups were determined. The result showed no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). From this result authors could conclude that though the Jinuo minority lives in the remote area and their nutrition and living conditions are poorer than the Han nationality, that do not contribute influence to their level of thyroid-related hormone

  12. Teens and blogs network An online community emerging from a teenage gang

    OpenAIRE

    Fluckiger, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; New communication tools at disposal of teenagers renew the forms of the progressive emancipation towards family that results in the adhesion to youth culture and the appearance of teenage forms of sociability (DE SINGLY, 2006 ; PASQUIER, 2005). For some years, French teenagers massively adopted blogs as a social media. Indeed, for teenagers, blogs provided by the Skyblog platform take the form of a massive generational phenomenon. Through blogs, teenagers aim at stayin...

  13. Environmental factors and teenagers' personalities: The role of personal and familial Socio-Cultural Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-05-15

    Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions from passenger transport in China since 1949: Implications for developing sustainable transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, Becky P.Y.; Li, Linna

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the historical evolution and spatial disparity of CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China. The general trends of CO 2 emissions from four passenger transport modes are estimated by both the distance-based and fuel-based methods. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions from road transport represented the leading source of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China. Moreover, they have continued to grow rapidly. Air transport was the second largest contributor since 1998. Emissions from rail and water transport have remained relatively stable with lower emission intensity. At the provincial level, great regional disparity was noticeable, especially in road transport. Moreover, the decomposition analysis shows that income growth was the principal factor leading to the growth of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China for both the 1949–1979 and 1980–2009 periods. The second most important factor was increased transport intensity and modal shifts for the former and the latter period, respectively. The main factor contributed to emission reduction was the lower emission intensity supported by policies, although the effect was weak. In the future, more policies to encourage modal shifts toward sustainable transport modes and travel reduction should be encouraged. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China were estimated. ► Road transport was the largest contributor to CO 2 emission. Air transport followed. ► Factors influencing CO 2 emissions growth are analyzed by decomposition analysis. ► Income growth, higher travel intensity and modal shift were driving CO 2 emissions up. ► Policies to promote modal shifts and travel demand reduction should be encouraged.

  15. The effects of teenage fatherhood on young adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Wolfe, Barbara L

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses national longitudinal data and several new empirical strategies to examine the consequences of teenage fatherhood. The key contribution is to compare economic outcomes of young fathers to young men whose partners experienced a miscarriage rather than a live birth. The results suggest that teenage fatherhood decreases years of schooling and the likelihood of receiving a high school diploma and increases general educational development receipt. Teenage fatherhood also appears to increase early marriage and cohabitation, and has mixed short-term effects on several labor market outcomes.

  16. Leisure time activities in teenagers in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Andrzej; Nieradko, Barbara; Gnasś, Bogumiła; Sieklucka-Dziuba, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The work aimed to determine the leisure time activities in teenagers on weekdays, weekends, during winter and summer holidays. Vast majority of teenagers spend their leisure time resting in a passive way, i.e. watching TV or playing computer games irrespectively of the season. As a result of this, the number of kids with posture defects increase. On weekdays the country teenagers spend much more time doing outdoor sports and games than town children. They also more often help their parents and less frequently travel away from their homes than children living in towns.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER OF PASSENGER CAR WITH HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Biloshytskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The existing mathematical models of unsteady heat processes in a passenger car do not fully reflect the thermal processes, occurring in the car wits a heating system. In addition, unsteady heat processes are often studied in steady regime, when the heat fluxes and the parameters of the thermal circuit are constant and do not depend on time. In connection with the emergence of more effective technical solutions to the life support system there is a need for creating a new mathematical apparatus, which would allow taking into account these features and their influence on the course of unsteady heat processes throughout the travel time. The purpose of this work is to create a mathematical model of the heat regime of a passenger car with a heating system that takes into account the unsteady heat processes. Methodology. To achieve this task the author composed a system of differential equations, describing unsteady heat processes during the heating of a passenger car. For the solution of the composed system of equations, the author used the method of elementary balances. Findings. The paper presents the developed numerical algorithm and computer program for simulation of transitional heat processes in a locomotive traction passenger car, which allows taking into account the various constructive solutions of the life support system of passenger cars and to simulate unsteady heat processes at any stage of the trip. Originality. For the first time the author developed a mathematical model of heat processes in a car with a heating system, that unlike existing models, allows to investigate the unsteady heat engineering performance in the cabin of the car under different operating conditions and compare the work of various life support systems from the point of view their constructive solutions. Practical value. The work presented the developed mathematical model of the unsteady heat regime of the passenger car with a heating system to estimate

  18. Defense Transportation Regulation. Part I: Passenger Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    indicates apart action and the "N" in the special handling block identifies the passenger as a no-show. NAME RIC CHANL MSN- NBR /TVL-PD STS...will be retained and annotated with the origin, destination, ticket or token number(s) (when issued), and date issued to traveler. A rubber stamp...J. D. Pierce, TO. The use of a rubber stamp signature of the person authorized to sign GTRs is strictly prohibited. b. Other person(s) (acting TOs

  19. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well...

  20. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  1. Effect of Aromatic Oil on Phase Dynamics of S-SBR/BR Blends fro Passenger Car Tire Treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims at developing the understanding of: (i) the influence of aromatic oil on the dynamics of the individual

  2. Services and programmes for teenage pregnancy and support for teenage mothers: Rural areas of Limpopo Province of South Africa and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Mmasetjana Lekganyane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to juxtapose the current services and programmes that deal with the prevention of teenage pregnancies and the teenage motherhood notion in South Africa and Slovenia. The paper looks at the situation in both countries and tries to detect the main problems in the two cases and therefore proposes changes on the basis of what is known about the two countries. In other words, we describe the situation, identify problems and suggest solutions. Teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood are always viewed as inseparable and as a discourse that exists due to a variety of social and sociological variables. The notion of teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood is assessed against related theories and scholastic (secondary evidence. Finally, it is argued that intervention services and programmes that are linked with the life perspective of teenagers and teenage mothers yield positive results.

  3. Engaging teenagers productively in service design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Simon; Sustar, Helena; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Dearden, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Engaging young people in participatory design can be challenging, particularly in health-related projects. In a study co-designing diabetes support and information services with teenagers, we found framing activities using popular culture was a useful strategy. Various cultural references helped us stage activities that were productive for the design process, and were engaging for our young participants (e.g. exploring practical implications through discussions in a 'Dragons' Den'). Some activities were more effective than others and the idea of language-games , which has been widely explored in participatory design, explains why our strategy was successful when there was a clear 'family resemblance' between the popular cultural references and certain essential stages of designing. However, attention is required in selecting appropriate cultural references if this strategy is adopted elsewhere, and design facilitators should focus first on devising accessible language-games, rather than expecting popular cultural references to provide complete solutions to the challenge of staging participatory design.

  4. Gender differences in the structural connectome of the teenage brain revealed by generalized q-sampling MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Sheng Tyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides a non-invasive method to investigate brain microstructure and the integrity of anatomical connectivity. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI has been proposed to characterize complicated fiber patterns and distinguish fiber orientations, providing an opportunity for more accurate, higher-order descriptions through the water diffusion process. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differences in the brain's structural network between teenage males and females using GQI. This study included 59 (i.e., 33 males and 26 females age- and education-matched subjects (age range: 13 to 14 years. The structural connectome was obtained by graph theoretical and network-based statistical (NBS analyses. Our findings show that teenage male brains exhibit better intrahemispheric communication, and teenage female brains exhibit better interhemispheric communication. Our results also suggest that the network organization of teenage male brains is more local, more segregated, and more similar to small-world networks than teenage female brains. We conclude that the use of an MRI study with a GQI-based structural connectomic approach like ours presents novel insights into network-based systems of the brain and provides a new piece of the puzzle regarding gender differences.

  5. Gender differences in the structural connectome of the teenage brain revealed by generalized q-sampling MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Liao, Jan-Ray; Shen, Chao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides a non-invasive method to investigate brain microstructure and the integrity of anatomical connectivity. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) has been proposed to characterize complicated fiber patterns and distinguish fiber orientations, providing an opportunity for more accurate, higher-order descriptions through the water diffusion process. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differences in the brain's structural network between teenage males and females using GQI. This study included 59 (i.e., 33 males and 26 females) age- and education-matched subjects (age range: 13 to 14 years). The structural connectome was obtained by graph theoretical and network-based statistical (NBS) analyses. Our findings show that teenage male brains exhibit better intrahemispheric communication, and teenage female brains exhibit better interhemispheric communication. Our results also suggest that the network organization of teenage male brains is more local, more segregated, and more similar to small-world networks than teenage female brains. We conclude that the use of an MRI study with a GQI-based structural connectomic approach like ours presents novel insights into network-based systems of the brain and provides a new piece of the puzzle regarding gender differences.

  6. Enteroclysis in older children and teenagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Korman, Ugur; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Selcuk, Dogan

    2007-01-01

    Enteroclysis (EC) has been widely and successfully used for evaluation of the small bowel in adults for about 30 years. However, despite recently improved intubation and examination techniques, in many paediatric radiology centres it is still not the preferred conventional barium study for the evaluation of small bowel pathology in children. To share our 10 years of experience and review the feasibility of EC in 83 older children and teenagers, in terms of both technique and pathological findings. Between 1996 and 2006, EC was performed by the standard technique described by Herlinger to 83 children between 7 and 18 years of age. The indication for the study was jointly decided by the paediatric radiologist and the clinician. None of the examinations was converted to follow-through studies because of patient refusal or technical failure. Morphological changes, mucosal abnormalities, luminal abnormalities, perienteric structures, the location of the disease, indirect findings regarding the bowel wall and functional information were evaluated. All the children tolerated the procedure without difficulty. Out of 83 patients, 63 had abnormal findings. The spectrum of diagnoses were Crohn disease (n = 23), nonspecific enteritis (n 10), malabsorption (n = 8), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 6), intestinal lymphoma (n = 5), Peutz-Jegher syndrome (n = 3), adhesions (n = 2), Behcet disease (n 2), back-wash ileitis due to ulcerative colitis (n = 2), common-variable immune deficiency (n = 1) and lymphangiectasis (n = 1). EC can easily be performed in children over 7 years of age and when performed using a correct technique it shows high diagnostic performance without any complications in the evaluation of small bowel diseases in older children and teenagers. (orig.)

  7. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  8. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  9. Teenage conceptions, abortions, and births in England, 1994-2003, and the national teenage pregnancy strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul; French, Rebecca; Kane, Ros; Lachowycz, Kate; Stephenson, Judith; Grundy, Chris; Jacklin, Paul; Kingori, Patricia; Stevens, Maryjane; Wellings, Kaye

    2006-11-25

    The aim of this study was to quantify the change in the number of conceptions and abortions among women younger than 18 years in England in relation to the government's national teenage pregnancy strategy. We undertook geographic analysis of data for 148 top-tier local authority areas. The main outcomes were changes in under-18 conceptions, abortions, and births between the 5-year period before implementation of the strategy (1994-98) and the period immediately after implementation (1999-2003). The number of teenage conceptions peaked in 1998, then declined after the implementation in 1999 of the teenage pregnancy strategy. Under-18 conception rates fell by an average of 2.0% (95% CI 1.8 to 2.2) per year between 1998 and 2003, below the rate needed to achieve the target of 50% reduction by 2010. The net change between 1994-98 and 1999-2003 was a fall in conceptions of 3.2% (2.6 to 3.9) or 1.4 per 1000 women aged 15-17 years, a rise in abortions of 7.5% (6.5 to 8.6) or 1.4 per 1000, and a fall in births of 10.6% (9.9 to 11.3) or 2.8 per 1000. The change in the number of conceptions was greater in deprived and more rural areas, and in those with lower educational attainment. The change was greater in areas where services and access to them were poorer, but greater where more strategy-related resources had been targeted. The decline in under-18 conception and birth rates since 1998 and evidence that the declines have been greatest in areas receiving higher amounts of strategy-related funding provides limited evidence of the effect of England's national teenage pregnancy strategy. The full effect of local prevention will be clear only with longer observation, and substantial further progress is needed to remedy England's historically poor international position in teenage conceptions.

  10. THE IMPACT OF SEX EDUCATION ON TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BASIC SCHOOLS OF BAWKU MUNICIPAL DISTRICT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kudjo Donkor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of teenage pregnancy has been on the rise in Ghana, especially in the Bawku-East Municipality. In Ghana adults rarely discussed sexual matters with the youth. Thus, the youth have little or no information about the biological changes that take place in their bodies during the transitional period from youth to adulthood. This has resulted in unplanned pregnancies for the vast majority of teenagers, which have serious developmental and socioeconomic implications. The study was to explore how sex education could mitigate teenage pregnancy in the Bawku-East Municipality. A total sample size of one hundred and twenty-five (125 respondents was used for the study. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation were used to collect data for the study. The study revealed that poor parenting, poverty and peer influence were the major causes of teenage pregnancy in the study area. In addition, concealing sex education and sex-knowledge from the youth made them more curious and vulnerable. There is the need for parents and schools to empower the youth through sex education to equip them with knowledge in order to overcome the potentially corrupt information through the social media and friends. The study will be useful to students, parents, teachers and vulnerable group (girl-child advocates in communities.

  11. Beyond love: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with teenage pregnancy among young women with pregnancy experience in Bolgatanga, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugu, John Kingsley; Mevissen, Fraukje; Münkel, Meret; Ruiter, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Globally, an estimated 16 million young women aged 15 to 19 years give birth every year. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended and being pregnant or delivering a baby as a teenager can have serious adverse consequences. Knowledge of the environmental factors and social cognitive determinants influencing young women's failure to protect against unintended pregnancy is necessary to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 young women, who had experience of pregnancy, in Bolgatanga, Ghana. The interview protocol included themes (relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning) and determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behaviour. Findings show that young women's motivations for sexual relationships are mostly 'beyond love' and seem to focus on economic factors. The main means of sexual protection seems to be condom use. Other forms of contraception were believed to be linked to infertility. Sexuality remains a largely taboo topic for open discussion and sex education in schools seems limited to abstinence-only messages. The need for more open communication on matters of sexuality with young people and the provision of a more comprehensive sexuality education in school to address teenage pregnancies in Ghana, is discussed.

  12. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, M.

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  13. Siim Nestor soovitab : Teenage Kicks. Bassikultuur / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Rockmuusikaüritusest "Teenage Kicks" 11. märtsil Von Krahlis. Üritusest "Bassikultuur" 12. märtsil Von Krahlis (oma esimest heliplaati "Occam's Razor" esitleb soome plaadifirma Nine2Five artist Infekto)

  14. Teenage Childbearing and its Health Consequences on the Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childbearing raise fundamental concerns about the ... on the mother and child in Eritrea, and the social and demographic context in which it occurs. ... A descriptive bivariate analysis is used to estimate the proportion of teenage women ...

  15. Teenagers' perceptions of SMS Afrikaans in print advertisements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenagers' perceptions of SMS Afrikaans in print advertisements. ... whether SMS Afrikaans could be employed as language of advertising in the print media. ... With regard to the perception of the writer, statistical effects were only found in the ...

  16. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano, Nigeria. ... of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school ... Seventy of the students had systolic blood pressure140mmHg and/or diastolic ...

  18. Wee Care: Reaching Teenage Mothers and Changing Their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen

    1989-01-01

    Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)

  19. Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer players. ... The result confirmed a significant composite effect of the dependent variable on the independent variables (0.87637, 74.49548, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Teenage pregnancies: Consequences of poverty, ethnic background, and social conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....... childbearing. A discrete-time proportional hazard model is applied to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering 1981-2003 for girls born in 1981, and their parents. Results show a significant economic and social gradient for first-time teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who had...

  1. Becoming a mother: teenage mothers’ experiences of first pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of teenage mothers of first pregnancy. Secondly, to develop guidelines of a support programme that is contextual and relevant to the needs of teenage mothers. The guidelines are aimed at assisting midwives in meeting the needs of teenage mothers. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used. The phenomenological approach was implemented to collect and analyze data from a purposively selected sample of fourteen (14 teenage mothers who were pregnant for the first time. The model of Guba and Lincoln (1985: 301-318 was implemented to ensure trustworthiness in this qualitative study. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Guidelines and recommendations for support programme were developed.

  2. Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy at a Tertiary Hospital in Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a high risk pregnancy associated with obstetric ... These complications are worsened by poverty, ignorance and lack of special ... higher risk of anemia in pregnancy, HIV in pregnancy, malaria in pregnancy, ...

  3. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  4. Delay Management with Re-Routing of Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe question of delay management is whether trains should wait for a delayed feeder train or should depart on time. In classical delay management models passengers always take their originally planned route. In this paper, we propose a model where re-routing of passengers is

  5. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  6. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  7. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  8. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  9. Ocean passenger vessels : migrating south for the winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...

  10. Deduction of passengers' route choice from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hurk, Evelien; Kroon, Leo; Maroti, Gabor; Vervest, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choice from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate passenger service. Especially in case of disruptions when route choice models may not be valid this is an advantage. This paper proposes a method for deducing the chosen route of

  11. Deduction of passengers' route choices from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.; Vervest, P.

    2015-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choices from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate and improve their passenger service. Particularly in the case of disruptions, when traditional route choice models may not be valid, this is an advantage. This paper proposes a

  12. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  13. 75 FR 78063 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... for determining the maximum passenger capacity of small passenger pontoon vessels either by: Dividing.... 176.110 explicitly calling attention to the OCMI's prerogative to consider a vessel's suitability for... factors to which vessel masters should give special attention in both sections, and a requirement in Sec...

  14. Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotion Contagion in Stranded Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.

    2017-01-01

    Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency

  15. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.

  16. Autonomy and infant feeding decision-making among teenage mothers in a rural and urban setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Ngcwalisa Amanda; Wilford, Aurene; Haskins, Lyn; Coutsoudis, Anna; Spies, Lenore; Horwood, Christiane

    2018-02-17

    The nutritional status of infants born to teenage mothers can be sub-optimal compared to those born to older mothers. One contributing factor is inappropriate feeding practices adopted by teenage mothers. Little is known about how infant feeding decisions are made among teenage mothers, particularly in under resourced settings. In this study we prospectively explored autonomy and infant feeding decision-making among teenage mothers in a rural and urban setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This study adopted a qualitative longitudinal design. Thirty pregnant participants were recruited to the study cohort, from the catchment area of two hospitals (one urban and one rural). Participants were purposively selected to include teenagers, HIV positive, and working pregnant women. We report findings from ten teenage mothers, aged between 15 and 19 years, who participated in the larger cohort (n = 5 rural; n = 5 urban). Monthly in-depth interviews were conducted with participating mothers for 6 months starting 2 weeks after delivery. All interviews were conducted in the local language, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Data was coded using NVivo v10 and framework analysis was used. Findings from this study showed that teenage mothers had knowledge about recommended feeding practices. However, our findings suggest that these mothers were not involved in infant feeding decisions once they were at home, because infant feeding decision-making was a role largely assumed by older mothers in the family. Further, the age of the mother and financial dependency diminished her autonomy and ability to influence feeding practices or challenge incorrect advice given at home. Most feeding advice shared by family members was inappropriate, leading to poor infant feeding practices among teenage mothers. Returning to school and fear of breastfeeding in public were also barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Teenage mothers had a limited role in the infant feeding

  17. Perceived Influence of Non-Formal Educational Programmes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined perceived influence of non-formal education programmes on the basic academic attainment of teenage mothers in Enugu state Nigeria. The total population for the study was 8,143 teenage mothers from which a study sample of 814 was raised. Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses ...

  18. Reklama v životě teenagerů

    OpenAIRE

    Koubová, Martina

    2007-01-01

    My master thesis looks at the role of advertising as a specific type of media texts in everyday life of teenagers. I perceive adolescence as an unusually dynamic stage of cognitive and social development, so it seems inappropriate to assume that adolescents' cognitive processes, believes and attitudes are the same as either adults or younger children. I tried to prove my hypothesis that teenagers behave as an active audience of advertising media texts and so that they are not pure victims of ...

  19. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...

  20. Youth Friendly Health Services for Rural Thai Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sridawruang

    2016-01-01

    Young people today has sexual activities differing from those of earlier generations, in that teenagers are likely to have multiple partners, and are frequently in short-term relationships or with partners that are not well known to them. The proportion of teenage mothers in Thailand has increased. Young people were not specifically addressed during the overall very successful HIV-prevention campaigns. Because of this missed opportunity, they are still unaware of the risk of unsafe sexual beh...

  1. [The physical impact of pregnancy on a teenager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audinet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in a teenager may be an expression of her angst. From a lack of contraception or its failure, to the desire to be pregnant, she may be expressing her wish to acquire the status of an adult or to offset depression and anxiety resulting from abandonment. The situation is further compounded by the physical changes she undergoes. Providing the teenager with global support is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  3. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  4. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  5. Methods to estimate railway capacity and passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    that an evaluation of passenger delays obtained with simulation software (in this case RailSys) and the passenger delay model is comparable with the daily operation of the Copenhagen suburban railway network. Using a microscopic simulation model, the thesis demonstrates that it is possible to compare travel times...... of additional travel time. The differences between the different kinds of delay (train delays, passenger delays and scheduled waiting time) are illustrated through simple, but representative, case examples in CHAPTER 10. The examples demonstrate that 3rd generation passenger delay models are more realistic than...... depend on the given infrastructure and timetable and can result in longer travel times for trains and passengers. Furthermore, the thesis shows that the network effects can result in reduced capacity as some trains or train services can make it impossible to operate other planned/desired trains or train...

  6. Identifying spatial values in the opinions of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Verovšek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the attitude towards cultural and natural spatial values in the population who have completed elementary schooling. Identifying spatial values can be considered a fundamental skill of the active population, which are necessary for the deliberate activities in the existential and functional environment of every individual. An insight into the potential investors’ environmental value system is also useful for spatial disciplines. The results presented represent the conceptualisation of spatial values in a sample population (N=188 taken from four elementary schools. In relation to other research, the principal recognition of spatial values by teenagers is assessed, together with the limited possibilities of this knowledge into their local living environment. Conclusions can be drawn about their deficient knowledge of the cause-and-effect in the relationship in individual processes in both natural and constructed spaces. The reasons for such deficient knowledge on a local, living environment level are predominantly attributed to the influences of their domestic social environment. The superficial awareness of the values and aspects of space vulnerability also hints at the insufficient and incoherent teaching curriculum in the process of comprehensive education. Solutions might be found in upgrading existing teaching methods and techniques. Furthermore, by carefully setting specific teaching goals the comments mentioned above could be synthesised into a more palpable, logical whole.

  7. Contraceptive medicalisation, fear of infertility and teenage pregnancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D; Tavares, Patrícia A; Cruz, Suélen H; Béhague, Dominique P

    2011-02-01

    In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people over the course of 10 years, our study found that young women who became teenage parents did not lack medical knowledge but were, rather, highly medicalised. Not only were they intensely concerned with the ill-effects of oral contraceptives on possible future fertility, they also engaged in intricate routines of contraceptive-use as a way of testing and safeguarding their fecundity. Our analysis attends to the way these practices are shaped by the problematisation of the economics of teenage pregnancy, as well as by the gendering of cultural norms relating to the transition to adulthood. We theorise the results by considering how contraceptive medicalisation enabled some women to engage with the authority of normative society, while developing a potent off-stage critique of this authority and of what they considered to be discriminatory messages imbedded in scientific discourses on teenage pregnancy.

  8. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  9. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Vanderhoven

    Full Text Available The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18 to investigate (1 what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2 to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3 how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Driver injury in near- and far-side impacts: Update on the effect of front passenger belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C

    2018-04-03

    This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury, and identifies the sources for severe driver head injury. 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4 + F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat. Side impacts were identified with GAD1 = L or R without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front-outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4 + F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0 + F. Standard errors were determined. Overall, belted drivers had greater risks for severe injury in near-side than far-side impacts. As a sole driver, the risk was 0.969 ± 0.212% for near-side and 0.313 ± 0.069% for far-side impacts (P impacts. The risk was 2.17 times greater with an unbelted passenger (NS). The driver's risk was 0.782 ± 0.431% with an unbelted passenger and 0.361% ± 0.114% with a belted passenger in far-side impacts. The risk was 1.57 times greater with an unbelted passenger (P impacts, the leading sources for AIS 4+ head injury were the left B-pillar, roof, and other vehicle. For far-side impacts, the leading sources were the other occupant, right interior, and roof (8.5%). Seat belt use by a passenger lowered the risk of severe driver injury in side impacts. The reduction was 54% in near-side impacts and 36% in far-side impacts. Belted drivers experienced mostly head and thoracic AIS 4+ injuries. Head injuries in the belted drivers were from contact with the side interior and the other occupant, even with a belted passenger.

  11. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  12. Chinese teenagers' concerns about the future: a cross-national comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, J.; Lin, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Teenagers in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and New Zealand have consistently rated death of a parent and nuclear war as their greatest concerns about the future. In the present study, however, Chinese teenagers rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. While still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and U.S.S.R. teenagers and therefore more survivable. Speculation is offered as to how teenagers' concerns reflect those of a country's general population

  13. factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoked. Regression analysis suggested peak flow differenct.s ... Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department ... J leasure of lung function and a tool for asthma management.'.2 ... by the subjects were assigned a numerical value based on how .... Our data differ marginally from data.

  14. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  15. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a useful measure of pulmonary health status and is frequently utilised in asthm, management. Reduction in PEF is usually indicative of onset (of asthma symptoms. However, use can be made of PEF values only if normal values are known. The definition of normal range is always ...

  16. The biopsychosocial characteristics proceding the pregnancy in the teenages from two level one medical centers in Popayán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yamile Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To identify biopsychosocial characteristics preceding the pregnancy in teenagers that went to see the doctor in two level one medical centers in Popayán. Method: Descriptive study, gathering and analysing qualitative and quantitative information. Results: 38 teenagers with an average age of 16.37 years at conception. 90% (34 were first-time mothers. 73% (28 were attending high school and 68% (26 were from a low socioeconomic background. 36.8% (14 were planning a future involving study and work. 46% (17 had dropped out from school. The young girls average age and of commencing sexual activities are 12.89 and 15.32 respectively. 71% 27 had a sexual partner and mentioned that the main reasons for getting pregnant were falling in love and loneliness. Dysfunctional families were a notable feature with 32% (12 coming from broken nuclear families. In order of frequency, social activities in their free time 22/38; 34.2% (13 spend time with their boyfriends. 55%( 21 did not use any contraceptive. 50% (19 heard negative comments against teenage motherhood before their pregnancy. 63% (24 did not plan to get pregnant. 71% 27 had their mother, cousins or a friend with a history of teenage pregnancy. Conclusions: In this population, pregnancy is perhaps a way to establish the sexual identity. It is probable that there is an influence of the repetitive generational pattern of pregnancy at an early age. Teenagers find it viable to adopt adult roles to establish their identity creating a false identity, in addition the limited support from their parents lead them to a marriage or pregnancy as a way to reaffirm their role.

  17. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  18. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  19. Building Airline Passenger Loyalty Through an Understanding of Customer Value: A Relationship Segmentation of Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores means of restoring profitability to the airline industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated brand loyalty between passengers and airlines in today’s fragile environment. The air transport industry is caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies. Airlines rely on archaic frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to maintain loyalty which deter customers from choosing alternative airlines by increasing the cost associated with switching. In contrast, oth...

  20. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  1. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  2. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  3. Agreement between teenager and caregiver responses to questions about teenager's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Christine L M; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine C; Vinuya, Rick; Ownby, Dennis R

    2006-03-01

    It is unknown if teenagers and caregivers give similar responses when interviewed about the teen's asthma. We analyzed data for 63 urban African-American teen-caregiver pairs. Caregivers underestimated teen smoking by 30%, gave lower estimates for teen exposure to passive smoke, and disagreed with teens on controller medication usage. Teen-caregiver responses were not significantly different for estimates of symptom-days, activity limitations, or nights awakened; nor were they significantly different for report of emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Agreement was weak for perceived asthma control and severity. Teen-caregiver agreement on asthma depends on the type of information being sought.

  4. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pirani Gaioso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior.METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads.RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months.CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.

  5. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.

  6. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635

  7. [Drug use and sexual practices of teenagers in the city of Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Pérez, Guillermo A; Arango Tobon, Eduardo; Morales Mesa, Santiago; Rodríguez Bustamante, Alexander; Montoya Montoya, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to study the relationship between drug consumption and sexual practices in teenagers in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A transversal studied was designed in order to identify the variables related to having had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs or alcohol. The sample was made up of 955 teenagers between 14 and 17, who were in 9th, 10th and 11th grades in public and private schools in the city of Medellin. The results show that the prevalence of drug and alcohol influence in sexual intercourse is 43,67%. The most common drugs used for sexual practices are alcohol, marihuana, popper, cocaine and ecstasy. Consuming alcohol or drugs and having sexual practices shows an associated meaningful statistic (p= .001). The more common sexual practices under psychoactive substances are the exploratory ones (caresses and touching) (71%), vaginal penetration (63.67%), oral sex (45.30%) and masturbation (19.59%). Regarding the protection methods during sexual intercourse under drug or alcohol influence 55,9% always use a condom, 37,3% sometimes use it, and 6,8% never do it. This study proves what had been previously established by other research projects that show a high statistic association between drug consumption and sexual practices, but realizes that there is no statistically significant association between sexual practices under the influence of alcohol or drugs and the use or non-use of protective methods, which is the most important finding.

  8. EDUCATING THE TEEN-AGER IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES, PAPERS FROM THE ANNUAL MEETING (56TH, ATLANTIC CITY, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    THE GROWING NUMBERS OF TEENAGERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMY BOTH AS EARNERS AND SPENDERS FORCE EDUCATORS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS TO EXAMINE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO THIS GROUP. HOME ECONOMISTS' CONCERN FOR PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN MANAGING RESOURCES AND IN HUMAN RELATIONS LED TO PLANNING PROGRAMS IN THESE AREAS AT THEIR ANNUAL MEETING.…

  9. Preventive social activities with teenages from incomplete families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Chubuk

    2018-01-01

    parental family, teenagers, social and preventive activities, professional influence.

  10. The prevalence of pathological gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, V; Onaca, E; Lupu, D

    2002-10-01

    The liberalization of teenagers' way of life strikingly increased in Romania after 1989; this includes gambling. The goal of our study is to analyze the different aspects of gambling in some teenager communities in Romania. The study included 500 school-teenagers from 3 different Romanian districts (Cluj, Salaj and Bacau). Of these 217 (43.40%) were males and 283 (56.60%) females. Median age was 16 years old (range 14-19). A structural questionnaire was applied to the teenagers consisting in "The 20 questions of the American Anonymous Gambling Association". Other 20 questions about their age, gender, family, income, school, toxic abuse, gambling preferences, the frequency and the amount of money they use in gambling were also proposed. The results of the study were as it follows: 34 (6.8%) of the tested teenagers were pathological gamblers, 28 (82.36%) males and 6 (17.64%) females, with a ratio F:M of 1:4.6. The average age of starting gambling was 13.25 1.51 years old. The majority (82.35%) prefers group gambling and only 17.64% prefer individual gambling. Of these, 47.5% of them gamble very often (almost every day) and 38.2% gamble often (once a week). The most frequent gambling was: pool (55.88%), poker (35.29%), bingo (32.35%), and basketball on a bet (5.88%), black-jack, roulette and craps (2.94% each). Gambling was the reason for school absenteeism and modest results at school in 64.70% and 52.94% of all the teenagers respectively. The results of the study revealed very concerning aspects of the increased incidence of gambling among Romanian teenagers, compared to the UK (6% of them are gambling).

  11. The Obstetrics and Neonatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnancy in Naresuan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukhutrpichai, Piriya; Khrutmuang, Dithawut; Chattrapiban, Thanin

    2016-04-01

    It is evident that the incidence of teenage pregnancy has been increasing in the past decades and consequently poses significant problems on maternal and child health. The present study was aimed to compare obstetric and neonatal outcomes between teenage and non-teenage pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate 957 singleton pregnant women attending labor rooms in Naresuan University Hospital between October 2006 and September 2013 by comparing the pregnancy outcomes of 268 teenage pregnancy (woman age less than 20 years at the first time of antenatal care visit) with 689 non-teenage pregnancy (woman age 20 to 34 years). The obstetrics and neonatal complication was the main outcome of interest. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 15.24% during seven years of study. As opposed to non-teenage mothers, complete attending antenatal care visit was less likely to be found among teenage mothers, 66.5% vs. 90.5% respectively (p teenage mothers (59.7% vs. 36.4%). The occurrence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion (CPD) seemed to be lower in teenage group as compared to non-teenage group, 14.5% vs. 26.4% (p teenage group, 3.8% vs. 8.4% (p = 0.016). The proportion of preterm birth was found to be higher in teenage pregnancy compared to non-teenage pregnancy (16.2% vs. 5.5%, p teenage pregnancy, 7.1% vs. 3.1% (p = 0.01). Even though obstetric complications were less likely to occur among teenage pregnancies, most of the neonatal untoward consequences were observed in mothers with younger ages. The finding suggests the need of appropriate health care services for teenage mothers as to monitor harmful complications to both mother and her child.

  12. Teenage pregnancy in an urban hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J K; Fink, R; Yesupria, A; Rajegowda, B; Lala, R

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adverse consequences of teenage pregnancy are largely a function of social background factors and adequacy of prenatal care. This study examines the situation of young mothers with new babies in a low income, urban environment. The study explores the relationship between age and ethnicity and various life circumstance and life style differences which might effect long term developmental outcome. 475 Hispanic and black mothers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The majority are poorly educated, single parents. Educational attainment is higher for blacks than for Hispanics and for older mothers than for younger. Older mothers are more likely to be living with the father, to be married, and to have received adequate prenatal care. Hispanic parents are more likely than Blacks to be planning to live together. Hispanic mothers are more likely than blacks to be planning to be the primary caretaker for their babies. Adequacy of prenatal care is related to both prematurity and low birth weight. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to pregnancy prevention and parenting education programs.

  13. Hyponatremia in a Teenager: A Rare Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Filipa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Mota, Teresa C; Garcia, Milagros; Castro-Correia, Cíntia; Fontoura, Manuel; Ribeiro, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte alteration which has the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Endocrine disorders, such as primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are uncommon causes of hyponatremia. We present the case of a teenager with symptomatic hyponatremia caused by a rare disorder. A 17-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, asthenia, and weight loss. He was in poor general condition, hypotensive, and he had dry mucous membranes and skin as well as mucosa hyperpigmentation. The laboratory findings showed severe hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and renal dysfunction. The patient started inotropic support and antibiotics. Plasma cortisol and corticotropin levels allowed the diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency. He began replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, with gradual symptom resolution. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed adrenal hypoplasia. Findings for antiadrenal and antithyroid antibodies were positive, allowing the diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II. Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, especially in children, and its clinical manifestations are due to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In most of the cases, symptoms are nonspecific, requiring a high index of clinical suspicion. If the diagnosis and treatment are delayed, acute adrenal insufficiency carries a high morbidity and mortality.

  14. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.

  15. THE AUTOMATIC SYSTEM’S MODEL OF DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT FOR DISPATCHING CONTROL OF THE CITY PASSENGER TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lakhno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This scientific work considers the further development of mathematical models and algorithms for automatic decision support for dispatching management of the city passenger traffic. Methodology. Systems of dispatching management for the city passenger transport are to provide the carrying out of the routes according schedules with minimal deviations from the planned ones through the using of appropriate control actions. The systems’ algorithm focuses on the selection of control actions that compensate the disturbances. It is proposed to use the index of the waiting time minimum for passengers of buses and taxis at stops as a criterion for evaluating of dispatching control systems work. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of traffic flow of vehicles, it was proposed the model for the system of dispatching management for urban passenger moving units considering the effect of the most important stochastic factors on the schedule of buses and taxis movement in large cities. The obtained system of equations that models the parameter of movement on the bus routes allows you to assess quickly the influence of disturbing effects on the service quality indicators of passengers and, if necessary, to draw up the optimal schedule. Originality. The authors propose a new model for decision support of dispatching management for the city passenger transport. They take into account the effect of the most important stochastic factors, such as the overflowing buses and taxis, their descent from the lines, delays, deviations from the speed limit on the route, etc., on indicators of service quality, as well as optimizing the schedule. Practical value. The results allow to improve approaches to building models using in the systems of dispatching management of urban bus routes, as well as to improve the selection of control actions for similar systems in large cities of Ukraine.

  16. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  17. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  18. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  19. A study of the attitude and knowledge of teenagers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Preventing teenage pregnancy is an important means of improving adolescent health and reducing perinatal mortality. Objectives. To improve our understanding of teenagers' attitudes towards and knowledge about contraception, access to contraception and sexual activity in our health district. Methods.

  20. Realistic teenage fiction with a sexrelated theme: Readers’ responses to Slinger-slinger by Francois Bloemhof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Wiggill

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Francois Bloemhof submitted his novel for teenagers, “Slinger-slinger” for the Sanlam competition for youth fiction in 1996. Eventually this prizewinner in the beginners’ category was published in 1997. The main theme of “Slinger-slinger” is the sexual awakening and identity of teenagers. A study was undertaken to obtain the opinions of teenage readers about the success of “Slinger-slinger” as a whole, as well as to gauge the success of integrating sexual aspects in this novel. The study also served to obtain information about the reading needs of teenage readers with regard to realistic teenage fiction and teenage fiction with a sex-related theme. The findings of the study underlying this article indicated that the participating teenage readers regarded “Slinger-slinger” as successful and interesting, and that they would like to read more realistic Afrikaans teenage fiction such as “Slinger-slinger”.

  1. [Characteristics of violence during teenage pregnancy in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy D; Yancachajlla-Apaza, Maribel; Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Chacón-Torrico, Horacio

    2013-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of violence seen in pregnant teenagers who were treated at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out by INMP between January and March, 2010 using a probabilistic and systematic sampling. The study unit comprises every hospitalized teenager who had just given birth and who lived in Lima. A semi-structured interview was conducted. History of violence was operationalized into: verbal violence (insults, ridicule, and humiliation), physical violence (arm pulling, hair pulling, pushes), direct aggression (slaps, kicking, burns) and sexual violence (sexual intercourse without consent). 292 teenage mothers aged 16,5 ± 1 in average took part in the study. 47.9% lived with their partners and 51.4% were single. In 97.3% of the cases, they got pregnant as a result of a conserted sexual relationship, while 2.7% got pregnant as a result of rape. 90.1% of teenage mothers reported not having planned the pregnancy. Conserning history of violence: 48.1% had had verbal violence, 17.1% physical violence, 8.2% direct aggression and 6.8% sexual violence. Violence during teenage pregnancy is not an isolated event; actually, it is rather common in any of its forms.

  2. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  3. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF FLU VACCINE PREVENTION FOR CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Belousov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinicalaeconomical analysis includes all possible treatament expenditures and possible profit from vaccinating chiladren and teenagers versus flue. It shoes that mass vaccination of children and teenagers will lead to lower disease incidence and mortality during epidemical rising of the disease and proavide significant economical effect both because of direct medaical expenses and because of collateral expenses. Collateral expenses are the main source of loss for the state of Russia from child and teenager flue and sars. Vaccination brings sick leaves and lost time payments down by 57%, expenses for treataing flue and sars together with their complications by 52%. In the Russian society total child and teenager vaccination appears as more profitable, for insurance companies as well. in this case insurance companies will be able to benefit from indirect medaical profit and, most probably, won't be needing state subsidizing for conducting total vaccination against flue of all citizens aged under 14. Antiaflue vaccination is feasible both in terms of clinical results and economic feasibility.Key words: pharmaeconomics, flue, sars, children, teenagers, vaccine prevention.

  4. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Ulla; Norrelgen, Fritjof; Westerlund, Joakim; Dahlman, Andrea; Hultby, Elizabeth; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25) with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers. Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation. Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems. A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the criteria for developmental diagnoses other than speech and language impairment at their follow-up as teenagers. Language impairment in young children is a marker for several developmental disorders, particularly intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

  5. The Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on Maternal and Perinatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the impact of teenage pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcome. This is a randomized prospective clinical study carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, BGS Global Medical College, over a period of one year from January 2015 to December 2015. In study group (Group A included a total of 200 primigravid teenage mothers(age <20 years and the control group included 200 primigavid adult mothers (20- 30years of age . The maternal status, labour progress, delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes were reviewed and analysed. Proportion of mothers in the study group who delivered vaginally was 61.5% compared to 80.5% in the control group. Instrumental delivery rate, emergency LSCS and elective LSCS rates were higher in the study group (teenage pregnancy compared to the control group. (9.5% Vs 5%, 17% Vs 9.5%, 12% Vs 5% respectively. Anaemia, Premature Rupture of Membranes, Oligohydraminos, Post partum Haemorrhage was found to be higher among teenage mothers when compared to adult mothers. PIH, polyhydraminos were found to be higher in control group than in the study group. In regard to adverse perinatal outcomes, higher risks of intra uterine growth restriction, preterm births, stillbirths, low APGAR scores, NICU admission were higher were higher in the study group compared to the control group. In this study, we found that women with teenage pregnancies were at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in regard to maternal, foetal and neonatal complications as compared with adult control mothers.

  6. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  7. The measurement of dynamic radii for passenger car tyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, R.

    2017-10-01

    The tyre dynamic rolling radius is an extremely important parameter for vehicle dynamics, for operation of safety systems as ESP, ABS, TCS, etc., for road vehicle research and development, as well as for validation or as an input parameter of automotive simulations and models. The paper investigates the dynamic rolling radii of passenger car tyre and the influence of rolling speed and inflation pressure on their magnitude. The measurement of dynamic rolling radii has been performed on a chassis dynamometer test rig. The dynamic rolling radii have been measured indirectly, using longitudinal rolling speed and angular velocity of wheel. Due to the subtle effects that the parameters have on rolling radius magnitude, very accurate equipment has to be used. Two different methods have been chosen for measuring the wheel angular velocity: the stroboscopic lamp and the incremental rotary encoder. The paper shows that the stroboscopic lamp has an insufficient resolution, therefore it was no longer used for experimental investigation. The tyre dynamic rolling radii increase with rolling speed and with tyre inflation pressure, but the effect of pressure is more significant. The paper also makes considerations on the viability of simplified formulae from literature for calculating the tyre dynamic rolling radius.

  8. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  9. Characteristics of Sexually Active Teenage Girls Who Would Be Pleased with Becoming Pregnant

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15–18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they...

  10. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  11. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  12. Intercity passenger rail : financial performance of Amtrak's routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-14

    Since it began operations in 1971, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation : (Amtrak) has never been profitable and has received about $21 billion in federal : subsidies for operating and capital expenses. In December 1994, at the : direction of ...

  13. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  15. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...

  16. Crippling test of a Budd Pioneer passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    This research program was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development in support of the advancement of improved safety standards for passenger rail vehicles. FRA and the Volpe National Transportation Syst...

  17. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  18. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  19. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...... the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution which in each step is transformed to an actual schedule by use of a greedy heuristic. Local search is performed on the abstract representation using advanced neighborhoods which modify large parts...

  20. The role of empathic positive emotions in the social behavior of Argentinean teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noely Gisela de la Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze if the empathic po- sitive emotions, sympathy and gratitude influence teenager’s social behavior. The sample was composed of 255 participants of both sexes (109 women and 146 men, aged 14-18 (M =15.97, DE = 1.18, who attended different schools in Buenos Aires province. In order to get the information, it was used: a the Index of Empathy for children and teenagers (Frías, Mestre, Perez and Samper, 1999; b the gratitude scale corresponding to the Questionnaire of Positive Emotions for teenagers (Schmidt, 2005 and c the Assertive Behavior scale (Michelson, Sugay, Wood and Kasdin, 1987. The results from MANO-VAs (Multivariate analysis of variance show that both sympathy and gratitude influence signifi- cantly teenager’s social behavior. Participants with high sympathy and gratitude show more assertive behaviors and less aggressive strategies in their social re- lationships. It corroborates the hypothesis that empathic emotion can enhance the development and performance of socially skilled behavior. Nevertheless, is important to note that this relation may not be unidirectional, but those positive emotions can enhance assertive behavior and this, in turn, provide feedback for positive emotional experience as it is expressed by the model of rising spiral by Fredrickson (Fredrickson, 2002.