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Sample records for teds base station

  1. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...... experimentally with a 9.6-dB peak-to-average 50-kHz 16 quadrature amplitude modulation TEDS carrier, the setup providing 44-dBm (25 W) average RF output power at 400 MHz with 44% dc-to-RF efficiency state-of-the-art ACPR of less than ${-}$67 dBc, switching noise artifacts around ${-}$ 85 dBc, and an overall rms...

  2. Expressing epistemic stance in University lectures and TED talks: a contrastive corpu-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This study explores the web-mediated genre of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, speech events whereby experts in their field disseminate knowledge from different domains (e.g. science, technology, design, global issues addressing an audience of both co-present participants and web-users all over the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the way academics convey epistemic stance (Conrad, Biber 2000 and build up their image as experts on the TED stage. To this purpose, a contrastive analysis was carried out comparing two corpora of spoken discourse, i.e. a corpus of TED talks and a corpus of MICASE university lectures from different disciplines. Although in both genres the speaker is an academic, both the communicative purpose and audience expectations differ substantially in the two contexts under scrutiny. This comparison highlights some distinguishing traits of TED talks and provides a better insight into this genre. Adopting a corpus-based approach, attention is first paid to the most recurrent epistemic lexical verbs (ELVs and to the use of first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. The qualitative analysis then focuses on similarities and differences in the discourse functions of the four most frequent ELVs (see, show, know, think and of their clusters when they combine with first and second person pronouns in the two corpora. Previous studies in the field of English for Academic Purposes (Rounds 1987; Fortanet 2004; Walsh 2004; Artiga León 2006; Bamford 2009 are referred to as a starting point to investigate a novel, unexplored pragmatic space (i.e. that of TED wherein academics accomplish purposes other than merely disseminating knowledge and training students, such as promoting their research and building up their image as experts. Keywords: Languages for Special Purposes, popularization, web-mediated genres, evidentiality, epistemic stance  Abstract – I generi mediati dalla rete svolgono un

  3. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  4. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  5. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  6. TED Talks as an Emergent Genre

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In her article "TED Talks as an Emergent Genre" Julia Ludewig analyzes TED talks—short, informational, and entertaining presentations that are given during TED conferences in North America and abroad—as a hybrid and emerging genre. Based on a qualitative interpretation of 14 such talks, she offers a list of recurring thematic, argumentative, and rhetorical features, which she aligns with three parent genres—the sales pitch, the memoir, and the academic lecture. Comparing recent versions of TE...

  7. Working with Ted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The author never worked "with" a boss before working with Ted at Brown University. She had always known of Ted--he was Dean at Harvard Graduate School of Education when she was a student there, just beginning her teaching career. Ted arrived at Brown University in September 1984. She was working at Brown in President Howard Swearer's…

  8. A Fuzzy Control Course on the TED Server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, Mariagrazia; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    , an educational server that serves as a learning central for students and professionals working with fuzzy logic. Through the server, TED offers an online course on fuzzy control. The course concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, with a focus on rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball......The Training and Education Committee (TED) is a committee under ERUDIT, a Network of Excellence for fuzzy technology and uncertainty in Europe. The main objective of TED is to improve the training and educational possibilities for the nodes of ERUDIT. Since early 1999, TED has set up the TED server...

  9. OnlineTED.com--a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbeck, Felizian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Audience response (AR) systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed. "OnlineTED" was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM) based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL)-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. "OnlineTED" enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops). A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC) for participation in web-based AR technologies. "OnlineTED" is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences.

  10. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  11. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-01-01

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies

  12. Ted, Expecting Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    In a roomful of people, Ted Sizer always went right to the kids. With merry eyes and delighted smile, he would adjust his tall frame so he could speak directly with the young one. Then he would ask just the right question about what this interesting person was thinking and doing. One could tell that the conversation engaged Sizer completely. He…

  13. Data, Metadata, and Ted

    OpenAIRE

    Borgman, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Ted Nelson coined the term “hypertext” and developed Xanadu in a universe parallel to the one in which librarians, archivists, and documentalists were creating metadata to establish cross-connections among the myriad topics of this world. When these universes collided, comets exploded as ontologies proliferated. Black holes were formed as data disappeared through lack of description. Today these universes coexist, each informing the other, if not always happily: the formal rules of metadata, ...

  14. UniTed

    OpenAIRE

    Harma, Eero

    2010-01-01

    UniTed on Teddy boy- tyylistä inspiroitunut kevät/kesä mallisto naisille.Mallistossa yhdistyy perinteinen teddy boy- vaatetus ja klassinen feminiinisyys, sekä menneisyys ja nykyisyys. Suunnittelun lähtökohtia olivat naisellisuus, tyylikkyys ja pyrkimys luoda nykyaikaista suunnittelua menneisyydestä lainaillen. United is a teddy boy- style inspired spring/summer collection for women. The collection combines traditional Teddy boy style with classical feminity and past with the present. The b...

  15. Scientists Popularizing Science: Characteristics and Impact of TED Talk Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069

  16. Scientists popularizing science: characteristics and impact of TED talk presenters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.

  17. Scientists popularizing science: characteristics and impact of TED talk presenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.

  18. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  19. OnlineTED.com − a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbeck, Felizian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Audience response (AR) systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed. Methods and results: “OnlineTED” was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM) based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL)-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. “OnlineTED” enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops). A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC) for participation in web-based AR technologies. Summary and Conclusion: “OnlineTED” is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences. PMID:24575156

  20. OnlineTED.com − a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühbeck, Felizian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background and aim: Audience response (AR systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed.Methods and results: “OnlineTED” was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. “OnlineTED” enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops. A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC for participation in web-based AR technologies.Summary and Conclusion: “OnlineTED” is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences.

  1. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  2. Communication Base Station Log Analysis Based on Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication base stations generate massive data every day, these base station logs play an important value in mining of the business circles. This paper use data mining technology and hierarchical clustering algorithm to group the scope of business circle for the base station by recording the data of these base stations.Through analyzing the data of different business circle based on feature extraction and comparing different business circle category characteristics, which can choose a suitable area for operators of commercial marketing.

  3. Adaptive downtilt for cellular base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Coenen, T.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency, reconfigurability, and power consumption are paramount for future communication systems in applications such as cellular handsets, base stations and home networking systems. We present our work in the European PANAMA project which addresses the associated challenges. Our work focuses on

  4. Understanding Public Perceptions of TED Talks: Influence and Impact of a Multi-Platform, Multi-Venue Non-Profit Organization as a Communicative Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tarsha

    2017-01-01

    TED Talks has become a worldwide phenomenon attended by many at its conferences, TEDx community-based events, TED.com, and YouTube videos. Previous studies have delved into TED Talks' impact in the educational sector, as it has been used by many educators and students alike in the classroom. Utilizing a qualitative exploratory approach, this study…

  5. Evaluation of thyroid eye disease: quality-of-life questionnaire (TED-QOL) in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong Jae; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2014-04-01

    To assess impaired quality of life (QOL) of Korean patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) using the TED-QOL questionnaire, to evaluate the adaptability of the questionnaire, and to assess the correlation between TED-QOL and scales of disease severity. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Total of 90 consecutive adult patients with TED and Graves' disease were included in this study. TED-QOL was translated into Korean and administered to the patients. The results were compared with clinical severity scores (clinical activity score, VISA (vision loss (optic neuropathy); inflammation; strabismus/motility; appearance/exposure) classification, modified NOSPECS (no signs or symptoms; only signs; soft tissue; proptosis; extraocular muscle; cornea; sight loss) score, Gorman diplopia scale, and European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy Classification). Clinical scores indicating inflammation and strabismus in patients with TED were positively correlated with overall and visual function-related QOL (Spearman coefficient 0.21-0.38, p < 0.05). Clinical scores associated with appearance were positively correlated with appearance-related QOL (Spearman coefficient 0.26-0.27, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, age, soft-tissue inflammation, motility disorder of modified NOSPECS, and motility disorder of VISA classification had positive correlation with overall and function-related QOL. Sex, soft-tissue inflammation, proptosis of modified NOSPECS, and appearance of VISA classification had correlation with appearance-related QOL. In addition, validity of TED-QOL was proved sufficient based on the outcomes of patient interviews and correlation between the subscales of TED-QOL. TED-QOL showed significant correlations with various objective clinical parameters of TED. TED-QOL was a simple and useful tool for rapid evaluation of QOL in daily outpatient clinics, which could be readily translated into different languages to be widely applicable to various populations. Copyright © 2014

  6. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  7. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks: Ni2(BODC)2(TED) and Ni2(BDC)2(TED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamida, Youcef; Danilovic, Dusan; Lin, Chyan; Yuen, Tan; Li, Kunhao; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Li, Jing

    2010-03-01

    Results of χ(T), M(H), and heat capacity C(T) measurements on two Ni dimer based porous materials Ni2(BODC)2(TED) and Ni2(BDC)2(TED) are reported. These materials form a tetragonal crystal structure of space group P4/ncc with a=b = 14.9 å and c = 19.4 å and Ni-Ni separation of 2.61å within the dimer. Magnetic data of Ni2(BODC)2(TED) revealed a ferromagnetic-like transition at about 17 K with θ = 8 K, and a coercivity field of 1700 G was observed in the hysteresis curve. Though isostructural to Ni2(BODC)2(TED), χ(T) and M(H) results of Ni2(BDC)2(TED) showed an antiferromagnetic transition at 10 K with θ = - 132 K, and no hysteresis was observed. Although specific heat data C(T) showed no clear transition in both compounds, nonlinear behavior is clearly seen in C/T vs. T plots, and a fit to the electron and phonon contributions to C(T) gives a large heavy-fermion-like γ in both cases. A model for the magnetic interactions is proposed and a comparison to the Cu and Co analogues is also made.

  9. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Punnek, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  10. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  11. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  12. User Context Aware Base Station Power Flow Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  13. Dosimetry and LET spectrometry in C 290 MeV/n and Ne 400 MeV/n HIMAC ion beam by different TLD's, TED based LET spectrometers, and Si energy-deposition spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Brabcova, K.; Jadrnickova, I.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Yasuda, N.; Molokanov, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    The sets of track etched detectors based (TED) spectrometer's of the linear energy transfer (LET) have been, together with two types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD)and MDU- Liulin energy deposition spectrometer exposed in the C 290 MeV/n and Ne 400 MeV/n ion beams at the HlMAC installation at NIRS, Chiba, Japan. The experiment has been performed in the frame of NPI project 20P241 agreed by HlMAC P AC at the beginning of 2008 year. Up to now, moxstle only results obtained in C-ion beam have been treated and analyzed. Sets of TED spectrometer's and TLD detectors have been exposed in 19 depths in the C-ion beam with expected LET values of primary particles from 13 keV/μm in water, through the Bragg peak area up to two depth behind the Bragg peak. The contribution of fragments to total number of events, and to the energy absorbed in Si has been determined, when possible separately for different fragments. In all cases also total contribution of fragments (and other secondary particles) to the total number of energy deposition events and to the absorbed dose has been estimated. LET and energy deposition spectra obtained will be compared together , a good agreement of data has bee stated. Some of results have been also compared with those obtained by calculation by means of PHITS code. (authors)

  14. Exploring TED Talks as Linked Data for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Davide; Chawla, Saniya; Dietze, Stefan; Marenzi, Ivana; Fetahu, Besnik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the TED Talks dataset which exposes all metadata and the actual transcripts of available TED talks as structured Linked Data. The TED talks collection is composed of more than 1800 talks, along with 35?000 transcripts in over 30 languages, related to a wide range of topics. In this regard, TED talks metadata available in…

  15. Measurement of job motivation in TEDS-M: testing for invariance across countries and cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Laschke, Christin; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents the challenges of cross-country and cross-cultural research on the motivation to become a mathematics teacher based on data from the “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)”. Referring to studies from cross-cultural psychology, measurement invariance (MI) of constructs representing different motivations to become a teacher was examined in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) across the countries that participated in TEDS-M. The data supported...

  16. TED-Ed lessons & TED-Ed clubs: Educational activities to amplify students' voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villias, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    TED-Ed lessons and TED-Ed clubs are two powerful educational tools that can be used in today's school classrooms in order to create an educational environment that is engaging for the students and favors their active participation, created and fostered by TED-Ed. TED-Ed is TED's educational initiative, committed to create lessons worth sharing and amplify the voices and ideas of teachers and students around the world. TED-Ed animated lessons are fully organized lessons structured around an animated video that introduces new topics to learners in an exciting, thought-provoking way. These lessons have been created as a result of the cooperation between expert educators and animators and have been uploaded at the TED-Ed platform (http://ed.ted.com). On the other hand, TED-Ed Clubs are also an interesting way to offer students the chance, the voice and the opportunity to express their thoughts, engage actively on these matters and connect with each other, both at a local, as well as at an international level (http://ed.ted.com/clubs). By developing new TED-Ed lessons or by customizing appropriately existing animated TED-Ed lessons (translating, modifying the questions asked, introducing new discussion topics), I have created and implemented in my student-centered, didactic approach, a series of TED-ED animated lessons directly connected with the Greek national science syllabus that were used to spark students curiosity and initiate a further analytical discussion or introduce other relevant educational activities (http://gvillias.wixsite.com/education). Furthermore, at my school, we established Varvakeio TED-Ed Club, an environment that supports and empowers our students to research, develop and disseminate their own personal ideas that worth spreading. During the year, our members were inspired by watching TED talks presented by experts on their field on various different areas, including social, economical, environmental and technological-scientific issues. Our aim

  17. Radiation of Base Stations of Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnjak, G.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of new, technological sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, microwave ovens, various antennas, transmitters, new ultrasound devices. The category of non-ionizing radiation includes electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 3 000 000 GHz or at ultrasound frequencies below 500 MHz which in interaction with substances do not generate ions. In view of this trend concerns have been raised about the impact of these new (radiation) sources on human health. An increasing amount of scientific research points to the fact that NIR causes various adverse effects to human health: eyes injuries, irritability, insomnia, temporary changes in the metabolism, hazardous heat stress and even carcinoma. The manufacturers and users of radio wave equipment pay great attention to the influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health. This issue has been taken into serious consideration, which is confirmed by a number of studies carried out either by mobile phone manufacturers or by many independent organizations. The limits of electromagnetic radiation exposure are defined in numerous standards and international rule books, and if these limits are complied with, then, according to present knowledge, there is no risk. Considering the concerns of the employees of Ericsson Nikola Tesla the levels of radiation from various types of base stations on company premises were examined. It was found out that there is no hazard to the health of employees. Still, further research is required and it is initiated both by the users and manufacturers of the mobile telephony equipment. (author)

  18. Combination TLD/TED dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    During the early 1980s, an appraisal of dosimetry programs at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities identified a significant weakness in dose assessment in fast neutron environments. Basing neutron dose equivalent on thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDS) was not entirely satisfactory for environments that had not been well characterized. In most operational situations, the dosimeters overrespond to neutrons, and this overresponse could be further exaggerated with changes in the neutron quality factor (Q). Because TLDs are energy dependent with an excellent response to thermal and low-energy neutrons but a weak response to fast neutrons, calibrating the dosimetry system to account for mixed and moderated neutron energy fields is a difficult and seldom satisfactory exercise. To increase the detection of fast neutrons and help improve the accuracy of dose equivalent determinations, a combination dosimeter was developed using TLDs to detect thermal and low-energy neutrons and a track-etch detector (TED) to detect fast neutrons. By combining the albedo energy response function of the TLDs with the track detector elements, the dosimeter can nearly match the fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion curve. The polymer CR-39 has neutron detection characteristics superior to other materials tested. The CR-39 track detector is beta and gamma insensitive and does not require backscatter (albedo) from the body to detect the exposure. As part of DOE's Personnel Neutron and Upgrade Program, we have been developing a R-39 track detector over the past decade to address detection and measurement of fast neutrons. Using CR-39 TEDs in combination with TLDs will now allow us to detect the wide spectrum of occupational neutron energies and assign dose equivalents much more confidently

  19. Extended architecture for home base stations with multimedia services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, A.; Jarnikov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of mobile access points (home node base stations, femtocells) for providing TV streaming to mobile devices inside the home. The research is focused on finding commonalities between architectures of the home node base station for different technologies. The result is a

  20. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  1. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  2. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  3. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  4. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two

  5. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  6. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  7. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  8. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  2. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  3. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  4. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  5. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  6. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. 78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations... communications base stations and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Telefonaktiebolaget LM...

  18. Scientists Popularizing Science: Characteristics and Impact of TED Talk Presenters

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivi?re, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data o...

  19. Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario

    2006-01-01

    localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...

  20. TED Talks and Leadership Education: Ideas Worth Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Deana M.

    2016-01-01

    TED Talks are short videos of experts talking about a variety of topics. This paper outlines six TED Talks that connect with the leadership literature and topics commonly taught with an explanation of how they enhance teaching about a corresponding leadership topic. The researcher shares how introducing TED talks related to leadership can…

  1. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  2. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the TEDS-M Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) International Database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the TEDS-M study. These consisted of questionnaires administered to future teachers, educators, and institutions with teacher preparation programs. This supplement contains the international version of the TEDS-M…

  3. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of the TEDS-M Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement contains all adaptations made by countries to the international version of the TEDS-M questionnaires under careful supervision of and approval by the TEDS-M International Study Center at Michigan State University. This information provides users of the TEDS-M International Database with a guide to evaluate the availability of…

  4. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  5. Development of Base Transceiver Station Selection Algorithm for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEMS) equipment was carried out on the existing BTSs, and a linear algorithm optimization program based on the spectral link efficiency of each BTS was developed, the output of this site optimization gives the selected number of base station sites ...

  6. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  7. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  8. Prospect and problems of gas based power stations of NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayana, A.

    1993-01-01

    The policy of the Government of India concerning utilisation of natural gas resources of the country has undergone changes over the last few years. The government decided in 1985 to allocate natural gas for power generation and in the year 1986 approved the setting up of the first series of three gas based combined cycle power projects of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The problems of gas power stations of NTPC are discussed. These are high cost of generation, completion of transmission line works to match with the commissioning of gas power stations, high price of natural gas, and fixation of tariff for sale of power from gas based power stations. (N.B.)

  9. New high power CW klystrons at TED

    CERN Document Server

    Beunas, A; Marchesin, R

    2003-01-01

    Thales Electron Devices (TED) has been awarded a contract by CERN to develop and produce 20 units of the klystrons needed to feed the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). Each of these delivers 300 kW of CW RF power at 400 MHz. Three klystrons have been delivered to CERN up to now.

  10. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  11. 50 CFR 223.207 - Approved TEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved TEDs. 223.207 Section 223.207 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Specie...

  12. Using TED Talks to Inspire Thoughtful Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa DaVia

    2012-01-01

    How can teacher educators provide relevant and important content in an educational environment that is rapidly evolving? TED.com is a website that provides content that meets these criteria in its mission of promoting "ideas that are worth spreading." Rather than ignoring the incredible access to the world's most innovative and dynamic speakers,…

  13. Robustness of a TETRA base station receiver against intentional EMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) is a digital radio standard that was developed to meet the needs of professional mobile radio systems. TETRA is vulnerable to intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) because of the wireless link. The EMI can easily be front door coupled to the base station

  14. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  15. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  16. Radiation safety assessment of mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Anuar Majid; Mohd Amirul Nizam

    2002-01-01

    Mobile telephone is fast getting popular among users and in fact it has become one of the fastest selling electronic products in the world. More base stations are expected to be built to meet such high demands and this has caused great concerned among members of the public, especially those living close to the stations, about the potential harmful health effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by such facilities. A project was initiated by MINT in early 2000 with aims to assess the radiation levels present in the areas around the base stations and to establish baseline data on the pattern and trend of the radiation emission from each different set up of the facilities. This paper highlights some basics facts about mobile telephones and preliminary findings of the project. The assessment has been carried out at 16 base station sites and the results indicate that the radiation levels present around these sites are very low. Their broadband readings vary between below the detection limit of 0.3μWatts/cm 2 to 11 μWatts/cm 2 and they are comparable to normal background radiation present in places away from any base stations. The highest level observed was 1.5% of the exposure limit recommended for members of the public. However, locations at close distance in front of the the antenna can be very serious in term of radiation exposure since the radiation level here can easily exceed the permissible exposure limit for public. Safety precaution needs to be taken when entering these areas and they should be out of bound for members of the public. (Author)

  17. Exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.M.; Cooper, T.G.; Allen, S.G.; Blackwell, R.P.; Lowe, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The

  18. 47 CFR 90.1331 - Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-3700 MHz Band § 90.1331 Restrictions on the operation of base and fixed stations. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, base and fixed stations may not be located within 150 km of... these stations are available at http://www.fcc.gov/ib/sd/3650/. (2) Base and fixed stations may be...

  19. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  20. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  1. TED Study of Si(113) Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Minoda, H.; Tanishiro, Y.; Yagi, K.

    A TED study of Si(113) surfaces was carried out. Reflections from the 3 × 2 reconstruction were seen at room temperature, while half-order reflections were very faint. The surface showed the phase transition between the 3 × 1 and the disordered (rough) structures at about 930°C. The (113) surface structure at room temperature was analyzed using TED intensity. Four kinds of structure models proposed previously, including both the 3 × 1 and the 3 × 2 reconstructed structures, were examined. The R-factors calculated using the energy-optimized atomic coordinates are not sufficiently small. After minimization of the R-factors, Dabrowski's 3 × 2 structure model is most agreeable, while Ranke's 3 × 1 and 3 × 2 structure models are not to be excluded. STM observation showed that the surface is composed of small domains of the 3 × 2 structure.

  2. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  3. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  4. Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio Satellite Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Sims, Herb

    2015-01-01

    With the explosion of the CubeSat, small sat, and nanosat markets, the need for a robust, highly capable, yet affordable satellite base station, capable of telemetry capture and relay, is significant. The Programmable Ultra-Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) is NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) software-defined digital radio, developed with previous Technology Investment Programs and Technology Transfer Office resources. The current PULSAR will have achieved a Technology Readiness Level-6 by the end of FY 2014. The extensibility of the PULSAR will allow it to be adapted to perform the tasks of a mobile base station capable of commanding, receiving, and processing satellite, rover, or planetary probe data streams with an appropriate antenna.

  5. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  6. Enhancing base station connectivity with directional information of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-performance smartphones with various sensor capabilities, including the inertial measurement unit, allow us to have higher freedom to localize our movements and utilize them for other applications. In this paper, we present a simple method to estimate the heading of a user using only a digital compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope. Several experiments were conducted using an Apple iPhone. In addition, we also present an algorithm to reduce the number of handover attempts in a dense base station environment. A series of simulations were conducted on OPNET in various emulated environments to present the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm effectively reduces the ping-pong effect in a dense base station environment.

  7. Measurement of Job Motivation in TEDS-M: Testing for Invariance across Countries and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschke, Christin; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the challenges of cross-country and cross-cultural research on the motivation to become a mathematics teacher based on data from the "Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics" ("TEDS-M"). Referring to studies from cross-cultural psychology, measurement invariance (MI) of constructs representing…

  8. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  9. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  10. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  11. Ted Wilson passes on the torch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Laboratory's outreach programme, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) brings together students and experienced physicists from all over the world with the aim of promoting the understanding of accelerator physics. As head of the School for 11 years, Ted Wilson became a CERN ambassador to the outside community. He retired in March, handing over the reigns of the CAS to Daniel Brandt. Ted Wilson and his assistant, Suzanne von Wartburg, during an EPAC meeting in 1994.The accelerator schools allowed some time for relaxation in the local surrounding for students as well as for the director of CAS.As a boy, Ted Wilson could have embarked on a career in pop music rather than physics, rubbing shoulders at secondary school in Liverpool with two of the future Beatles. But prefering classical music and answering the call of science, he took the more serious of the two paths, studying physics first at Oxford University then at the Rutherford Laboratory. After a year at CERN and four years at the Rutherford La...

  12. EME assessments using telstra's mobile base station field intensity plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.; Hurren, S.; Vinnal, E.; Armstrong, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public interest in the potential health issues arising from mobile phone base stations has highlighted the importance of having accessible and easy to understand information on electromagnetic energy (EME) emission levels. A range of groups including residents, community groups, businesses, schools, site owners and local governments are often interested in knowing what EME levels a particular base station is capable of producing and how these compare to safety standards regulated by the Australian Communications Authority (ACA). Performing the complex mathematical calculations to predict these levels requires significant expertise, is time consuming and relatively costly. A new software tool, born out of Telstra's EME Research and Development Program, is set to revolutionise EME assessments by facilitating the provision of this information in a more timely, standardised and cost effective manner. Telstra has taken the decision to commercialise the software, which is a world first, because of expressions of interest from other carriers, EME assessment specialists, government agencies and regulatory organisations both in Australia and overseas. Significantly, the software should improve the flow of easy to understand and accurate information on emission levels from base stations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  14. Ted Madden's Network Methods: Applications to the Earth's Schumann Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Yu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ted Madden made clever use of electrical circuit concepts throughout his long career in geophysical research: induced polarization, DC resistivity, magnetotellurics, Schumann resonances, the transport properties of rocks and even elasticity and the brittle failure of stressed rocks. The general methods on network analogies were presented in a terse monograph (Madden, 1972) which came to be called "The Grey Peril" by his students, named more for the challenge of deciphering the material as for the color of its cover. This talk will focus on Ted's first major use of the transmission line analogy in treating the Earth's Schumann resonances. This approach in Madden and Thompson (1965) provided a greatly simplified two-dimensional treatment of an electromagnetic problem with a notable three-dimensional structure. This skillful treatment that included the role of the Earth's magnetic field also led to predictions that the Schumann resonance energy would leak into space, predictions that have been verified nearly 50 years later in satellite observations. An extension of the network analogy by Nelson (1967) using Green's function methods provides a means to treat the inverse problem for the background Schumann resonances for the global lightning activity. The development of Madden's methods will be discussed along with concrete results based on them for the monitoring of global lightning.

  15. 78 FR 13895 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations... United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components thereof... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-871] Certain Wireless Communications Base...

  16. Electromagnetic fields from base stations for cellular mobile telephones. Measurements around base stations in the Oslo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannevik, Merete

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of radio frequent radiation from base station antennas for cellular mobile telephony have been performed. Measurements were performed inside the buildings in the area just behind or below antennas mounted on the wall or rooftop on buildings and on the ground below tower-mounted antennas. Except from the area 2-3 meters just in front of the antennas the electrical field levels were well below the international guidelines. (Author)

  17. Analysis of Synchronization Impairments for Cooperative Base Stations Using OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Manolakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation is envisioned as a key technology for future cellular networks, as it has the potential to eliminate intercell interference and to enhance spectral efficiency. To date, there is still lack of understanding of how imperfect carrier and sampling frequency synchronization between transmitters and receivers limit the potential gains and what the actual system requirements are. In this paper, OFDM signal model is established for multiuser multicellular networks, describing the joint effect of multiple carrier and sampling frequency offsets. It is shown that the impact of sampling offsets is much smaller than the impact of carrier frequency offsets. The model is extended to the downlink of base-coordinated networks and closed-form expressions are derived for the mean power of users’ self-signal, interuser, and intercarrier interference, whereas it is shown that interuser interference is the main source of degradation. The SIR is inverse to the base stations’ carrier frequency variance and to the square of time since the last precoder update, whereas it grows with the number of base stations and drops with the number of users. Through user selection, the derived SIR upper bound can be approached. Finally, system design recommendations for meeting synchronization requirements are provided.

  18. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  19. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  20. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  1. Honing EAP Learners' Public Speaking Skills by Analyzing TED Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of public speaking skills for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students' academic and professional success, few EAP textbooks incorporate authentic, professional speech models. Thus, many EAP instructors have turned to TED talks for dynamic speech models. Yet a single TED talk may be too long for viewing in class and may…

  2. Lexical Coverage of TED Talks: Implications for Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…

  3. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED EC01JY91.056 [5...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 223—Matagorda TED EC01JY91.047 [52...

  5. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of base station licensees of... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a) The licensees of base stations that provide Specialized Mobile Radio service on a commercial basis of the use of...

  6. To Speak Like a TED Speaker--A Case Study of TED Motivated English Public Speaking Study in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…

  7. Environmental reduction of mobile telephone base station produced radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Testagrossa, B.; Sansotta, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the authors discuss about their own proposal about a model to modify how the Wireless Telephone Base Stations (W.T.B.S.) works. The proposal, which was made having in mind the GSM technology, can be applied to all other kind of similar technologies and was pointed out as a different way of working of the W.T.B.S. without any modifications on their distribution over the territory. After a short review of the state of the art about the technology and the basis of wireless telephone base stations, the baselines and the principles of the proposed model are discussed, facing out the most significant parameters obtained from the way W.T.B.S. are working at present towards the proposed one. Then the authors illustrate the possible advantages o f the proposed model in terms of environmental, socials and energy savings aspects. It is the authors opinion that such model can be a simple and no -cost solution to apply to the existing infrastructures; more over it can be of interest either for mobile phone companies or for environmental and/or customers associations. (authors)

  8. [Study on atmospheric VOCs in Gongga Mountain base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the atmosphere as precursors of secondary air pollutants. The regional background concentrations and variation characteristics of VOCs in the atmosphere of southwestern China were studied. Meanwhile, a receptor model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the major sources of VOCs. Weekly samples were collected in 2007 in the Gongga Mountain base station and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. The annual mean concentration of TVOCs and NMHCs were 9.40 x 10(-9) +/- 4.55 x 10(-9) and 7.73 x 10(-9) +/- 4.43 x 10(-9), respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (37.3%), follow by alkanes (30.0%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (19.8%), the smallest contribution was from alkenes (12.9%). Three major sources were resolved by the receptor model, traffic sources, biogenic sources and combustion sources. The seasonal variation of TVOCs in this area was obviously, and the order was autumn > winter > spring > summer. TVOCs concentration in autumn was very significantly higher than that in summer (P station emission characteristic.

  9. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  10. Patterns of clusivity in TED Talks: When ‘ you ’ and ‘I’ become ‘ we’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative and quantitative corpus-based study analysing the correlation of clusivity, tense, and modality patterns in TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, which are popularising speeches aiming at knowledge dissemination among laypersons. Using a corpus composed of the TED Talks presented in 2012, the study investigates the ways in which TED speakers use first-person plural and singular pronouns when interacting with their audiences. The patterns of clusivity used in the corpus confirm one of the main characteristics of TED Talks, that is to say, the abolition of the ‘scientistmediator-audience’ triangulation, typical of canonical popularising genres. The inclusive pronouns used in the corpus construct positive politeness, making the audience feel part of the knowledge-spreading experience. The analysis also reveals how TED Talks are actually an ‘innovative’ means of popularisation, in which there is no longer a distinction between ‘I’, the speaker, and ‘you’, the audience. ‘I’ and ‘you’ become ‘we’, in a common project which invites the audience to take on specific attitudes and behaviours and concretely participate in changes.

  11. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  12. Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from GSM and UMTS base station antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Carpinteiro, G.; Correia, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses processes for measurement of GSM and UMTS signal strength on different scenarios, regarding base stations compliance evaluation with radiation exposure limits. Recommendations to minimize exposure from base station antennas' radiation are also established. Propagation models application and their importance to base stations security evaluation are analysed. An application example of the use of these models in a software tool development is given. A measurement campaign to collect real data from base stations in Lisbon is described, and propagation models applicability is discussed. Radiation reference levels were never exceeded on the analysed base stations. The worst-case detected was about five time (in terms of electric field strength) below security limits adopted by the European Union Council. Nevertheless, in general, the measured stations were at least thirteen times below limits. Scenarios where differences between measurements and limits are lower and exposure on buildings' rooftops with base stations and indoors. (author)

  13. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  14. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  15. Gsm 1900Umts Printed Monopole Antenna For Mobile Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyi Nyi Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper printed rectangular monopole antenna which is basically printed microstrip patch antenna with partial ground plane is designed for mobile base station. The substrate FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.8 is used in design. In addition the printed monopole antenna is of low profile in appearance and suitable for most application. The proposed antenna can cover GSM1900 1850-1990 MHz and UMTS 1920-2170 MHz bands. Design and simulation processes are carried out with the aid of FEKO software which is used for the analysis of electromagnetic problems. Simulation results of the return loss gain and radiation patterns are presented.

  16. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  17. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  18. Uses and Misuses of Ted Kaczynski's MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2018-05-22

    Although case studies can be a helpful didactic aid when teaching personality assessment and illustrating use of a test, they can, of course, not be used as "evidence" that a test "works" or does not work. This article, however, reviews and discusses the far more problematic uses instantiated in a case study of Ted Kaczynski's Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A series of errors of omission and commission are identified in Butcher, Hass, Greene, and Nelson's ( 2015 ) effort to criticize the MMPI-2-RF. These include not disclosing that Butcher's interpretive Minnesota Report for Forensic Settings indicates that the protocol is invalid, not including most of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF scores that contradict the authors' assertions, and mischaracterizing the MMPI-2-RF findings. Proper use of a case study is then illustrated by a discussion of diagnostic considerations indicated by the MMPI-2-RF findings.

  19. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  20. Dr. Ted Trimble: Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a video, Dr. Ted Trimble talks about the importance of cancer research. World Cancer Research Day commemorates the important role research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer.

  1. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  2. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  3. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  4. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  5. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 223—Georgia TED EC01JY91.048 [52 FR...

  6. Ted Geballe: A lifetime of contributions to superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.

    2015-07-01

    The editors have dedicated this special issue on superconducting materials "to Ted Geballe in honor of his numerous seminal contributions to the field of superconducting materials over more than 60 years, on the year of his 95th birthday." Here, as an executive summary, are just a few highlights of his research in superconductivity, leavened with some anecdotes, and ending with some of Ted's general insights and words of wisdom.

  7. The Pathophysiology of Thyroid Eye Disease (TED): Implications for Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shivani; Douglas, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a poorly understood autoimmune manifestation most commonly associated with Graves’ disease. Current nonspecific treatment paradigms offer symptomatic improvement but fail to target the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and thus, do not significantly alter the long-term disease outcome. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding of the immunopathogenesis of TED and explore these implications for targeted immunotherapy. Recent Findings Orbital fibroblasts are integral to the pathogenesis of TED and may modulate immune responses by production of cytokines and hyaluronan in response to activation of shared autoantigens including thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-R1). Fibrocytes share many of these phenotypic and functional features, suggesting a link between systemic and site-specific disease. Use of targeted immunotherapies in TED is limited, though data from the use Rituximab (RTX), a B cell depleting agent, are encouraging. Sustained clinical response has been seen with RTX in several reports, despite return of peripheral B cell levels to pretreatment levels. Additionally, this response appears to be independent to cytokine and antibody production, suggesting possible modulation of antigen presentation as a mechanism of its effect. Summary Progressive advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of TED continue to spur clinical trials utilizing targeted immune therapies. Continued understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease will expand potential treatments for TED patients and obviate the need for reconstructive surgical therapies. PMID:21730841

  8. Measurement of job motivation in TEDS-M: testing for invariance across countries and cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Laschke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents the challenges of cross-country and cross-cultural research on the motivation to become a mathematics teacher based on data from the “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M”. Referring to studies from cross-cultural psychology, measurement invariance (MI of constructs representing different motivations to become a teacher was examined in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA across the countries that participated in TEDS-M. The data supported metric invariance which means that comparing relationships between motivation and other constructs across countries is permitted, with the exception of extrinsic motivation in Taiwan. Scalar invariance was not supported by the data across countries but across cultures: Scale means can be compared between Germany, Switzerland and (with regard to intrinsic motivation Norway and Poland as well as between Singapore and Taiwan (with regard to the intrinsic motivation and Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand (again regarding intrinsic motivation.

  9. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  10. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  11. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.)

  12. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author)

  13. Sustainable Power Supply Solutions for Off-Grid Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mohamad Aris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication sector plays a significant role in shaping the global economy and the way people share information and knowledge. At present, the telecommunication sector is liable for its energy consumption and the amount of emissions it emits in the environment. In the context of off-grid telecommunication applications, off-grid base stations (BSs are commonly used due to their ability to provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. However, in the past, the off-grid BSs usually relied on emission-intensive power supply solutions such as diesel generators. In this review paper, various types of solutions (including, in particular, the sustainable solutions for powering BSs are discussed. The key aspects in designing an ideal power supply solution are reviewed, and these mainly include the pre-feasibility study and the thermal management of BSs, which comprise heating and cooling of the BS shelter/cabinets and BS electronic equipment and power supply components. The sizing and optimization approaches used to design the BSs’ power supply systems as well as the operational and control strategies adopted to manage the power supply systems are also reviewed in this paper.

  14. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  15. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1988-01-01

    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  16. Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations and cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, J E; Foster, K R; Erdreich, L S; McNamee, J P

    2005-03-01

    There have been reports in the media and claims in the courts that radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones are a cause of cancer, and there have been numerous public objections to the siting of mobile phone base antennas because of a fear of cancer. This review summarizes the current state of evidence concerning whether the RF energy used for wireless communication might be carcinogenic. Relevant studies were identified by searching MedLine with a combination of exposure and endpoint terms. This was supplemented by a review of the over 1700 citations assembled by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety as part of their updating of the IEEE C95.1 RF energy safety guidelines. Where there were multiple studies, preference was given to recent reports, to positive reports of effects and to attempts to confirm such positive reports. Biophysical considerations indicate that there is little theoretical basis for anticipating that RF energy would have significant biological effects at the power levels used by modern mobile phones and their base station antennas. The epidemiological evidence for a causal association between cancer and RF energy is weak and limited. Animal studies have provided no consistent evidence that exposure to RF energy at non-thermal intensities causes or promotes cancer. Extensive in vitro studies have found no consistent evidence of genotoxic potential, but in vitro studies assessing the epigenetic potential of RF energy are limited. Overall, a weight-of-evidence evaluation shows that the current evidence for a causal association between cancer and exposure to RF energy is weak and unconvincing. However, the existing epidemiology is limited and the possibility of epigenetic effects has not been thoroughly evaluated, so that additional research in those areas will be required for a more thorough assessment of the possibility of a causal connection between cancer and the

  17. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  18. Optimalisasi Kinerja (Internet Protocol) Ip Clock Pada Jaringan Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Saputra, Apipi

    2016-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi GSM (Global System for Mobile), BTS (Base Transceiver Station) merupakan jantung dari sebuah cell site layanan telekomunikasi. BTS merupakan perangkat pemancar dan penerima yang menangani akses radio dan berinteraksi langsung dengan Mobile Station (MS) melalui air interface. Sebuah optimasi kinerja ip clock pada base transceiver station (BTS) metode untuk sinkronisasi jaringan untuk jam global yang berasal dari jam GPS diakuisisi oleh sejumlah BTS. IP clock didistribusi...

  19. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  20. Direct imaging of ER calcium with targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-05-07

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca(2+) indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca(2+) indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca(2+) indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca(2+) complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0.

  1. Stance in TED talks: Strategic use of subjective adjectives in online popularisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses “stance” in TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design talks, which are popularising speeches aiming at knowledge dissemination. Based on a corpus of the TED talks presented between 2006 and 2012, this study focuses on how the speakers express judgments and take up positions through subjective adjectives. Drawing upon Kerbat-Orecchioni (1980 and Felices Lago’s (1997 adjective classifications, the quantitative and qualitative study attempts to analyse the use of axiological evaluative adjectives, which are fully subjective, as they imply a qualitative evaluation adding a judgement to the modified noun. It has been noticed that TEDsters use vivid, descriptive subjective adjectives to establish a connection with the audience, which perceives a sense of similarity with the speaker. Like traditional scientific presentations, TED talks use adjectives conveying the relevance of their findings, while they distinguish themselves for the role given to aesthetic and emotional adjectives, practicality and veracity, also including the moral, political, and economic aspects involved in science. The work suggests that maybe TEDsters’ approach to science might possibly contribute to breach the expert/non expert barrier, considering science not as something distant, but as a human experience for both laypersons and professionals.

  2. The Medical Gopher — A Microcomputer Based Physician Work Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Clement J.

    1984-01-01

    We've developed a microcomputer medical work station intended to reduce the physician's “gopher” work of fetching, reviewing, organizing and writing that consumes his day. The system requires extensive physician interaction; so we have developed a fast and consistent menu-oriented user interface. It provides facilities for entering prescriptions, orders, problems and other medical record information and for generating flowsheets, executing reminder rules, providing ad hoc retrievals and reporting facts about drugs, tests and differential diagnoses. Each work station is connected to a central server (currently a VAX 117/80) in a network configuration, but carries all of its own programs, tables and medical records for a few hundred patients, locally. This system is tested but not yet tried. Questions remain about physician's acceptance and the true usefullness of such a work station.

  3. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  4. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-14

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  5. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.S.M.; Hacking, D.

    1978-01-01

    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  6. Ted Irving's early contributions to paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927 - 2014) was one of the most deeply and widely respected paleomagnetists, making significant contributions to the field throughout his career which spanned six decades. Restricting attention to the first decade of his career, the 1950s, he discovered from work on the Torridonian (1951-1953) that fine-grained red sandstones were generally suitable for paleomagnetic work (1951-1952). He rediscovered (1951) that paleomagnetism could be used to test continental drift, and initiated (1951) the first paleomagnetic test of whether India had drifted northward relative to Asia and argued (1954) that it had. He also made significant contributions to the first APW path for Great Britain (Creer, Irving, and Runcorn, 1954). He was the first to draw two APW paths to explain results from Great Britain and North America (1956) and to use paleomagnetism and paleoclimatology together to argue for continental drift (1954, 1956). With Ron Green, his first student, he first APW path for Australia (1958). He was the first to invoke axial rotations to explain away an apparent anomaly with an APW path (1959). His work on the Torridonian led to the first description of stratigraphically sequential reversals in sedimentary rocks. Moreover, his 1959 superb review of the paleomagnetic support for continental drift was instrumental in Hess's becoming a continental drifter before he came up with the idea of seafloor spreading.

  7. System of wireless base stations employing shadow prices for power load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    In one aspect, a system is provided. In one embodiment, the system includes a plurality of wireless base stations that are located in a contiguous spatial coverage region of a cellular communication system. Each wireless base station that is configured to generate a coverage pilot beam to enable

  8. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  9. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  10. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Hardell, Lennart; Everaert, Joris; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  11. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  13. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m 2 ) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  14. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  15. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. Site selection model for new metro stations based on land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    Since the construction of metro system generally lags behind the development of urban land use, sites of metro stations should adapt to their surrounding situations, which was rarely discussed by previous research on station layout. This paper proposes a new site selection model to find the best location for a metro station, establishing the indicator system based on land use and combining AHP with entropy weight method to obtain the schemes' ranking. The feasibility and efficiency of this model has been validated by evaluating Nanjing Shengtai Road station and other potential sites.

  17. Professor Adler-Nissen om TED-Talks i Kristeligt Dagblad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Professor Rebecca Adler-Nissen var den 10. juni 2017 i Kristeligt Dagblad i forbindelse med hendes TED Talk på TED konferencen i Danmark. Her talte Adler-Nissen om international diplomati. Adler-Nissen ser TED formatet som en måde at øge kendskabet til emnet international diplomati, da formatet...

  18. Teaching Note--Using TED Talks in the Social Work Classroom: Encouraging Student Engagement and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Melody Aye; Klemm, Terri

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on TED Talks (online videos) as a resource for social work educators, this teaching note shares our ideas regarding the use of the online videos as an avenue for reaching students and encouraging discussions in the social work classroom. The article first explores the TED platform and then discusses using TED as a teaching tool. Finally,…

  19. TED analysis of the Si(113) surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Minoda, H.; Tanishiro, Y.; Yagi, K.

    1999-09-01

    We carried out a TED (transmission electron diffraction) analysis of the Si(113) surface structure. The TED patterns taken at room temperature showed reflections due to the 3×2 reconstructed structure. The TED pattern indicated that a glide plane parallel to the direction suggested in some models is excluded. We calculated the R-factors (reliability factors) for six surface structure models proposed previously. All structure models with energy-optimized atomic positions have large R-factors. After revision of the atomic positions, the R-factors of all the structure models decreased below 0.3, and the revised version of Dabrowski's 3×2 model has the smallest R-factor of 0.17.

  20. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  1. Design, Integration, and Quality. Teacher Education from the perspective of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Magne Vestøl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i utviklingsarbeid i ProTed, Senter for fremragende lærer­utdanning, og bidrar til å belyse tre begreper av sentral betydning for utforming, utvikling og evaluering av lærerutdanning. Basert på teoriseminarer, strukturerte rapporter og annet empirisk materiale fra ProTeds utviklings­prosjekter presenterer artikkelen tre hovedbegrep: design, integrasjon og kvalitet. Design presenteres som en virksomhet, en dynamisk kompe­tanse­utvikling hvor undervisning transformeres til læring. Kunnskapsintegrasjon forstås som et kjerne-element i et slikt design, og artikkelen utforsker ulike former for integrasjon. Artikkelen presenterer også et perspektiv på kvalitetsvurdering som legger vekt på performa­tive og transformative aspekt ved den kompetanse­utviklingen som genereres gjennom design-virksomheten.Nøkkelord: lærerutdanning, design, integrasjon, kvalitet, ProTedAbstractDrawing on the developmental work of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Edu­cation, this article contributes to the understanding of three concepts of central importance for the construction, development and evaluation of teacher education. Based on material from theory seminars, structured reports and other data from ProTed’s development projects, the article presents an understanding of the concepts design, integration and quality. Design is presented as an activity, a dynamic competence development where teaching is transformed into learning. Knowledge integration is understood as a core element of this design, and different forms and aspects of integration are explored. An understanding of quality evalu­ation is presented that emphasises performative and transformative aspects of the competence development that is generated through the design activity.Keywords: teacher education, design, integration, quality, ProTed

  2. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  3. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  4. Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Distribution around Mobile Base Stations in Makurdi, Benue State

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Iortile; E.H. Agba

    2014-01-01

    The radiofrequency field levels of selected MTN and ZAIN base stations in Makurdi were measured using electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827, Lutron). Measurements were done at distances of approximately 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 metres for each base station at the North, South, West, and East directions. Results shows that the average magnetic field levels of MTN and ZAIN base station ranged between 0.09 μT to 0.15 μT. The mean electric field values for eye, brain and muscles ranged betwee...

  5. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  6. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  7. Automatic Classification of Station Quality by Image Based Pattern Recognition of Ppsd Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Herrnkind, S.

    2017-12-01

    The number of seismic stations is growing and it became common practice to share station waveform data in real-time with the main data centers as IRIS, GEOFON, ORFEUS and RESIF. This made analyzing station performance of increasing importance for automatic real-time processing and station selection. The value of a station depends on different factors as quality and quantity of the data, location of the site and general station density in the surrounding area and finally the type of application it can be used for. The approach described by McNamara and Boaz (2006) became standard in the last decade. It incorporates a probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD). The low noise model (LNM) and high noise model (HNM) introduced by Peterson (1993) are also displayed in the PPSD plots introduced by McNamara and Boaz allowing an estimation of the station quality. Here we describe how we established an automatic station quality classification module using image based pattern recognition on PPSD plots. The plots were split into 4 bands: short-period characteristics (0.1-0.8 s), body wave characteristics (0.8-5 s), microseismic characteristics (5-12 s) and long-period characteristics (12-100 s). The module sqeval connects to a SeedLink server, checks available stations, requests PPSD plots through the Mustang service from IRIS or PQLX/SQLX or from GIS (gempa Image Server), a module to generate different kind of images as trace plots, map plots, helicorder plots or PPSD plots. It compares the image based quality patterns for the different period bands with the retrieved PPSD plot. The quality of a station is divided into 5 classes for each of the 4 bands. Classes A, B, C, D define regular quality between LNM and HNM while the fifth class represents out of order stations with gain problems, missing data etc. Over all period bands about 100 different patterns are required to classify most of the stations available on the

  8. Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S I; Bangay, M J

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit.

  9. Initial Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System BX Service Station, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This initial remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the BX Service Station at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  10. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  11. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  12. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  13. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus, Raimondas; Struk?inskien?, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; ?idlauskien?, Aurelija; ?erkauskien?, Rimant?; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity p...

  14. Assesment of Carbon Credits for Power Generation Systems at GSM Base Station Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu; Ani, Emmanuel Onyeka

    2016-01-01

    Electricity production is often a source of CO2 emissions, for instance when fossil fuel is combusted in power plants. Therefore the root cause of pollution coming from telecommunication industry is the source of energy (diesel genset) the network operators used in running their Base station sites. Energy consumption of using diesel to power base station by telecom networks is a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper presents the comparative carbon credits of hybrid ...

  15. Radiation Measurement from Mobile Base Stations at a University Campus in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md. R. Islam; Othman O. Khalifa; Liakot Ali; Amir Azli; Mohd Zulkarnain

    2006-01-01

    The tremendous growth of telecommunication industry results the number of hand phone users increases everyday. In order to support the growing number of users, the mobile base stations can be seen in almost everywhere. This scenario has created uncomfortable feelings to the people that they may be affected by the radiations from antennas. A measurement was done at student hostels and office premises near to base stations in International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak campus. Measured va...

  16. Ted Hughes: The Development of a Children's Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at how Ted Hughes' poetry for children developed over more than 30 years of publication. It traces the movement from his earlier, more conventional rhyming poems, such as "Meet My Folks!" (1961) and "Nessie the Mannerless Monster" (1964), to the mature, free verse "animal poems" for older readers of "Season Songs" (1976c),…

  17. A tribute to Ted Henty (1915-2002)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, W.R.; Conn, B.J.; Croft, J.R.; Gideon, O.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ted Henty, noted for his work in the Papua New Guinea National Herbarium (LAE), died aged 86 at East Keilor, near Melbourne on 23 February 2002 after an illness of 6-8 months. Those dealing with New Guinea plants will know of his extensive collections in the NGF and subsequent LAE series from all

  18. Slovenian diasporic literature in Canada and Ted Kramolc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the work and especially the novels by the Canadian writer of Slovenian descent, Ted Kramolc. It places him within the context of other diasporic literary authors in Canada as well as the Slovenian cultural space and discusses the critical response to his work, particularly in the period after Slovenian independence.

  19. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Study in Mathematics or TEDS-M is a study conducted under the aegis of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The lead research center for the study is the International Study Center at Michigan State University (ISC/MSU). The ISC/MSU worked from 2006 to 2011 with the International…

  20. "Being TED": The University Intellectual as Globalised Neoliberal Consumer Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that modern American universities are engaged in the process of articulating new producing and consuming subjects. It argues that the image of the engaged "media celebrity" intellectual, as presented in the TED Talk model, has become a cultural ideal that reconciles a deeper contradiction in the academy.…

  1. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  2. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  3. TED: A Tolerant Edit Distance for segmentation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Klein, Jonas; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Cardona, Albert; Cook, Matthew

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we present a novel error measure to compare a computer-generated segmentation of images or volumes against ground truth. This measure, which we call Tolerant Edit Distance (TED), is motivated by two observations that we usually encounter in biomedical image processing: (1) Some errors, like small boundary shifts, are tolerable in practice. Which errors are tolerable is application dependent and should be explicitly expressible in the measure. (2) Non-tolerable errors have to be corrected manually. The effort needed to do so should be reflected by the error measure. Our measure is the minimal weighted sum of split and merge operations to apply to one segmentation such that it resembles another segmentation within specified tolerance bounds. This is in contrast to other commonly used measures like Rand index or variation of information, which integrate small, but tolerable, differences. Additionally, the TED provides intuitive numbers and allows the localization and classification of errors in images or volumes. We demonstrate the applicability of the TED on 3D segmentations of neurons in electron microscopy images where topological correctness is arguable more important than exact boundary locations. Furthermore, we show that the TED is not just limited to evaluation tasks. We use it as the loss function in a max-margin learning framework to find parameters of an automatic neuron segmentation algorithm. We show that training to minimize the TED, i.e., to minimize crucial errors, leads to higher segmentation accuracy compared to other learning methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Pseudorange Measurement Scheme Based on Snapshot for Base Station Positioning Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun; Deng, Zhongliang; Jia, Buyun; Bian, Xinmei

    2017-12-01

    Digital multimedia broadcasting signal is promised to be a wireless positioning signal. This paper mainly studies a multimedia broadcasting technology, named China mobile multimedia broadcasting (CMMB), in the context of positioning. Theoretical and practical analysis on the CMMB signal suggests that the existing CMMB signal does not have the meter positioning capability. So, the CMMB system has been modified to achieve meter positioning capability by multiplexing the CMMB signal and pseudo codes in the same frequency band. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation method is used in base station positioning receivers. Due to the influence of a complex fading channel and the limited bandwidth of receivers, the regular tracking method based on pseudo code ranging is difficult to provide continuous and accurate TDOA estimations. A pseudorange measurement scheme based on snapshot is proposed to solve the problem. This algorithm extracts the TDOA estimation from the stored signal fragments, and utilizes the Taylor expansion of the autocorrelation function to improve the TDOA estimation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the TDOA estimation error for base station positioning receivers, and then the modified CMMB system achieves meter positioning accuracy.

  5. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet; Fidan, Baris; Dasgupta, Soura; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Shames, Iman

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  6. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet

    2016-10-26

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  7. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  8. Predictors of suicide and suicide attempt in subway stations: a population-based ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Sonneck, Gernot; Dervic, Kanita; Nader, Ingo W; Voracek, Martin; Kapusta, Nestor D; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Suicidal behavior on the subway often involves young people and has a considerable impact on public life, but little is known about factors associated with suicides and suicide attempts in specific subway stations. Between 1979 and 2009, 185 suicides and 107 suicide attempts occurred on the subway in Vienna, Austria. Station-specific suicide and suicide attempt rates (defined as the frequency of suicidal incidents per time period) were modeled as the outcome variables in bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Structural station characteristics (presence of a surveillance unit, train types used, and construction on street level versus other construction), contextual station characteristics (neighborhood to historical sites, size of the catchment area, and in operation during time period of extensive media reporting on subway suicides), and passenger-based characteristics (number of passengers getting on the trains per day, use as meeting point by drug users, and socioeconomic status of the population in the catchment area) were used as the explanatory variables. In the multivariate analyses, subway suicides increased when stations were served by the faster train type. Subway suicide attempts increased with the daily number of passengers getting on the trains and with the stations' use as meeting points by drug users. The findings indicate that there are some differences between subway suicides and suicide attempts. Completed suicides seem to vary most with train type used. Suicide attempts seem to depend mostly on passenger-based characteristics, specifically on the station's crowdedness and on its use as meeting point by drug users. Suicide-preventive interventions should concentrate on crowded stations and on stations frequented by risk groups.

  9. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Gook Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  10. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2014-05-08

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  11. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  12. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  13. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the real values of microwave level distribution and propagation in the locality around samples of mobile phone base station, and to compare the results with the exposure restriction limits recommenced by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Measurements were performed using special meters for microwaves; the first (Narda SRM-3000) is used for electromagnetic waves frequency spectrum scanning and the second (NARDA) emr 300) determine the level of electric and magnetic fields and the power density of these waves nearby any sort of transmitters. Samples of different kinds of mobile phone base station were chosen to cover important zones of Damascus, and the region around each base station was also scanned in the emission direction and according to accessibility into the studies positions. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the ICNIRP restriction level, but for few points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. To realize these kind of field studies in the best way and obtain the maximum profits for all people, the properties and operating system of transmitters used in mobile phone base station must be known, and therefore, it is very important to achieve a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone company. (author)

  14. [The electromagnetic fields of the base stations of mobile radio communication and ecology. The estimation of danger of the base station EMF for population and for bioecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, K A

    2005-01-01

    The estimation of the danger for the population and for the bioecosistems of the electromagnetic conditions around of the base stations was given. The insufficiency of the scientific knowledge does not allow to guarantee the safety of the population and of the bioecosystems in the conditions of a round-the-clock long-term influence of EMF RF. WHO recommends to use "Precautionary principle".

  15. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  16. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  17. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, D.; Thors, B.; Persson, T.; Wirén, N.; Larsson, L.-E.; Törnevik, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  18. PC-based control of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, J [and others

    1996-12-31

    A PC-based control system of the internal target at the Nuclotron is described. The system is based on CAMAC-control of the step motor of the station and screen representation of information about needed beam parameters and space-time position of targets relative to a beam. 6 refs.; 4 figs.

  19. Utilizing a Rapid Prototyping Approach in the Building of a Hypermedia-Based Reference Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Dan

    This paper discusses the building of a hypermedia-based reference station at the Wright Laboratory Technical Library, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Following this, the paper focuses on an electronic user survey from which data is collected and analysis is made. The survey data is used in a rapid prototyping approach, which is defined as…

  20. Ted Geballe: A lifetime of contributions to superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    The editors have dedicated this special issue on superconducting materials “to Ted Geballe in honor of his numerous seminal contributions to the field of superconducting materials over more than 60 years, on the year of his 95th birthday.” Here, as an executive summary, are just a few highlights of his research in superconductivity, leavened with some anecdotes, and ending with some of Ted’s general insights and words of wisdom

  1. An update on TED gunshot detection system development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidhar, Gil A.; Aphek, Ori; Gurovich, Martin

    2009-05-01

    In recent years the TED system has been under development, starting from new SWIR sensor technology, optics and real-time sensor technologies and following with complete system architecture as a soldier mounted optical gun shot detection system with high precision and imaging means. For the first time, the modules and the concept of operation of the system will be explained, with emphasis on new sensor-to-shooter capabilities. Actual field trial results will be shown.

  2. Ted Geballe: A lifetime of contributions to superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.R.

    2015-07-15

    The editors have dedicated this special issue on superconducting materials “to Ted Geballe in honor of his numerous seminal contributions to the field of superconducting materials over more than 60 years, on the year of his 95th birthday.” Here, as an executive summary, are just a few highlights of his research in superconductivity, leavened with some anecdotes, and ending with some of Ted’s general insights and words of wisdom.

  3. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Buckus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN. The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm2. The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP.

  4. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-03-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm². The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP).

  5. Computer-based systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, P.J.; Welbourne, D.; Belcher, G.

    1995-01-01

    The published intentions of vendors are for extensive touch-screen control and computer-based protection. The software features needed for acceptance in the UK are indicated. The defence in depth needed is analyzed. Current practice in aircraft flight control systems and the software methods available are discussed. Software partitioning and mathematically formal methods are appropriate for the structures and simple logic needed for nuclear power applications. The potential for claims of diversity and independence between two computer-based subsystems of a protection system is discussed. Features needed to meet a single failure criterion applied to software are discussed. Conclusions are given on the main factors which a design should allow for. The work reported was done for the Health and Safety Executive of the UK (HSE), and acknowledgement is given to them, to NNC Ltd and to GEC-Marconi Avionics Ltd for permission to publish. The opinions and recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of HSE. (Author)

  6. Novel Base Station MIMO Antennas with Enhanced Spectral Efficiencies Using Angular Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The true polarization diversity (TPD technique is combined with the spatial diversity technique in novel MIMO antenna array geometries with a large number of elements. The use of a large number of elements requires some angular reuse within the array for polarization diversity. With designs compatible with existing base station antenna array configurations, the novel geometries with combining diversity schemes are shown to be able to achieve near the maximum spectral efficiencies. True polarization diversity (TPD schemes are found to be an excellent complement to more conventional spatial diversity schemes for obtaining optimum MIMO array performance in base station antennas.

  7. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Obituary: Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, 1919-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, William M.; Arny, Thomas T.; Trimble, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    Cosmologist Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, emeritus Distinguished University Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, died on 29 January 2007 in his retirement city of Tucson, Arizona, where he was adjunct professor at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. The cause of death was colon cancer. He is survived by a sister, brother, and daughter. (A son died in 2000.) Perhaps best known for his work on the growth of fluctuations in the expanding universe and his books on cosmology for the dedicated layperson, Ted had extremely broad interests, and he published more than 200 papers in space sciences, plasma physics, high-energy physics, physical chemistry, and, principally, many aspects of astrophysics. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Institute of Physics (UK). Ted Harrison was born 8 January 1919 in London, England. His parents were Robert Harrison and Daisy Harrison (nee White). His education at Sir John Cass College, London University, was interrupted by the Second World War, during which he served for six years with the British Army in various campaigns, ultimately acting as Radar Adviser to the Northern Area of the Egyptian Army. It was during the latter service that he met his wife Photeni (nee Marangas). Following the War, Ted became a British Civil Servant, at first with the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell and then at the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory. During this period he acquired the equivalent of university degrees, becoming a graduate, then an Associate, and finally a Fellow of the Institute of Physics. His somewhat unorthodox education may have contributed to his broad interests and his very intuitive and physical approach to scientific problems. The latter became the bane of generations of graduate students, who might find themselves asked on their physics qualifying exams to

  9. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Data base for man-rem management at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswambharan, K.R.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ramamirtham, B.; Varadhan, R.S.; Chudalayandi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the observed steady increase in the collective dose to the radiation workers at MAPP, a sound data base is essential to ensure an effective exposure control programme. A new system of data collection and analysis of the exposure to the station workers is discussed in the paper. (author). 3 tabs

  11. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  12. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  13. Applicability of an exposure model for the determination of emissions from mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Neitzke, H P; Bornkessel, C

    2008-01-01

    Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an epidemiologi......Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed...... in an epidemiological study. Estimated exposure and exposure measured with dosemeters in 1322 participating households were compared. For that purpose, the upper 10th percentiles of both outcomes were defined as the 'higher exposed' groups. To assess the agreement of the defined 'higher' exposed groups, kappa...... coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The present results show only a weak agreement of calculations and measurements (kappa values between -0.03 and 0.28, sensitivity between 7.1 and 34.6). Only in some of the sub-analyses, a higher agreement was found, e.g. when measured instead...

  14. On a User-Centric Base Station Cooperation Scheme for Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe CoMP2flex, a user-centric base station (BS) cooperation scheme that provides improvements in reliability of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) communications of wireless cellular networks. CoMP2flex supports not only cooperation of two BSs with same direction of traffic...

  15. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  17. Performance Testing of Massive MIMO Base Station with Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Ji, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The utilization of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) antenna arrays at the base station (BS) side has been identified as an enabling technique for 5G communication systems. To evaluate the true end-to-end performance of BS's, an over-the-air (OTA) radiated method is required...

  18. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  19. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Weng, Dongdong; Li, Dong; Xun, Hang

    2017-10-22

    In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  20. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of base stations (BS) with large aperture antenna arrays, enabled partially by the utilization of cmWave and mmWave frequency bands, will require radiated testing in fading conditions. In this paper, the objective is to investigate the suitable measurement distances and physical...

  1. Comparative study of the base activity levels of the Spanish continental nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorides de los Santos y Perez-Minguez, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this work the pre-operational activity levels of the sites of some Spanish nuclear power stations are discussed. These power stations are located near the Tagus and Ebro river basins. A report of the communities investigated is made. The total alpha and beta activity as well as the long half life activity has been researched there. The importance of this question is obvious for it gives a regional average of the base activity in the basins of these two big Spanish rivers [fr

  2. Polycapillary based μXRF station for 3D colour tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.; Capitolo, E.; Iannarelli, M.; Azzutti, C.; Gladkikh, Yu. P.; Marcelli, A.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    The "Rainbow X-Ray" (RXR) experimental station at XLab Frascati of the Frascati's National Laboratories (LNF) INFN is a dedicated station for X-ray fluorescence studies based on the use of polycapillary lenses in a confocal geometry. The flexible RXR layout allows investigating specimens of the dimensions ranging from several millimeters up to half meter and weighting up to several tens of kilograms. Compared to similar existing XRF stations, apart of the possibility for investigating large samples, the main advantage of this equipment is the detection system with two spectrometers optimized to work separately at high and at low X-ray energies. The confocal geometry combined with a 3-axes fine motion system makes possible 3D μXRF elemental tomographic acquisitions (colour tomography). At present this station in operation at high XRF energies is used for cultural heritage and geological applications. We present and discuss here the analytical performances of this experimental station pointing out the advantages in different application areas.

  3. Transient Simulations in Hydropower Stations Based on a Novel Turbine Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accidents in hydropower stations happened during transient processes; thus, simulation of these processes is important for station design and safety operation. This study establishes a mathematical model of the transient process in hydropower stations and presents a new method to calculate the hydraulic turbine boundary based on an error function of the rotational speed. The mathematical derivation shows that the error function along the equal-opening characteristic curve is monotonic and has opposite signs at the two sides, which means that a unique solution exists to make the error function null. Thus, iteration of the transient simulation is unique and monotonous, which avoids iterative convergence or false solution and improves the solution efficiency compared with traditional methods. Simulation of an engineering case illustrates that the results obtained by the error function are reasonable. Then, the accuracy and feasibility of the mathematical model using the proposed solution are verified by comparison with model and field tests.

  4. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  5. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  6. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somekh O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing. Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp. are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and then transmitted cooperatively to the base stations, is capacity achieving for sufficiently large conferencing capacity. In case of intercell conferencing, this strategy performs convolutional pre-equalization of the signal encoding the common messages in the spatial domain, where the number of taps of the finite-impulse response equalizer depends on the number of conferencing rounds. Analysis in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime and numerical results validate the advantages of conferencing as a complementary technology to multicell processing.

  7. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  8. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)-A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function.

  9. Task-Related Edge Density (TED-A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lohmann

    Full Text Available The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED. TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function.

  10. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)—A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach “Task-related Edge Density” (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function. PMID:27341204

  11. Objective structured clinical examination "Death Certificate" station - Computer-based versus conventional exam format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolik, A; Heide, S; Lessig, R; Hachmann, V; Stoevesandt, D; Kellner, J; Jäschke, C; Watzke, S

    2018-04-01

    One option for improving the quality of medical post mortem examinations is through intensified training of medical students, especially in countries where such a requirement exists regardless of the area of specialisation. For this reason, new teaching and learning methods on this topic have recently been introduced. These new approaches include e-learning modules or SkillsLab stations; one way to objectify the resultant learning outcomes is by means of the OSCE process. However, despite offering several advantages, this examination format also requires considerable resources, in particular in regards to medical examiners. For this reason, many clinical disciplines have already implemented computer-based OSCE examination formats. This study investigates whether the conventional exam format for the OSCE forensic "Death Certificate" station could be replaced with a computer-based approach in future. For this study, 123 students completed the OSCE "Death Certificate" station, using both a computer-based and conventional format, half starting with the Computer the other starting with the conventional approach in their OSCE rotation. Assignment of examination cases was random. The examination results for the two stations were compared and both overall results and the individual items of the exam checklist were analysed by means of inferential statistics. Following statistical analysis of examination cases of varying difficulty levels and correction of the repeated measures effect, the results of both examination formats appear to be comparable. Thus, in the descriptive item analysis, while there were some significant differences between the computer-based and conventional OSCE stations, these differences were not reflected in the overall results after a correction factor was applied (e.g. point deductions for assistance from the medical examiner was possible only at the conventional station). Thus, we demonstrate that the computer-based OSCE "Death Certificate" station

  12. Optimal Base Station Density of Dense Network: From the Viewpoint of Interference and Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyuan; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-11

    Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain. They reveal the rules of deployment. Based on these results, we obtain the throughput of the network and indicate the optimal deployment density under different network conditions. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate our analysis and show the substantial performance gain obtained by the proposed deployment scheme. These results can provide guidance for the network densification.

  13. 78 FR 37217 - Ted P. Sorenson; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14519-000] Ted P. Sorenson; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On May 1, 2013, Ted P. Sorenson filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 223—TED...

  15. R. E. (Ted) Munn — Founding editor; a mini-biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Thomas, Morley; Truhlar, Ed; Whelpdale, Doug

    1996-02-01

    Ted Munn founded Boundary-Layer Meteorology in 1970 and served as Editor for 75 volumes over a 25 year period. This short article briefly reviews Ted's scientific career with the Atmospheric Environment Service (of Canada), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria and with the Institute of Environmental Studies at the University of Toronto, and as editor of this journal.

  16. A Pharmacy Elective Course on Creative Thinking, Innovation, and TED Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To implement and assess an elective course designed to enhance student creative thinking and presentation skills. Design. A two-credit elective course was developed that incorporated creative-thinking exercises, article discussions pertaining to creativity, TED Talk (TED Conferences, New York, NY) analyses, and presentation design and delivery exercises. Assessment. Assessment instruments included pre- and post-course Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). A scoring rubric was developed and used to evaluate a final mock TED Talk presented to faculty and students. Course evaluations were also used to assess student experiences in the course. Students’ TTCT verbal creativity scores increased significantly (p<0.05) during the course and their mock TED Talk mean scores (135±6.4) out of 150 were rated highly. Conclusion. The outcomes from this elective course confirmed that pharmacy students could develop and present an original “idea worth sharing” using the TED Talk format. PMID:28179719

  17. A Pharmacy Elective Course on Creative Thinking, Innovation, and TED Talks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff

    2016-12-25

    Objective. To implement and assess an elective course designed to enhance student creative thinking and presentation skills. Design. A two-credit elective course was developed that incorporated creative-thinking exercises, article discussions pertaining to creativity, TED Talk (TED Conferences, New York, NY) analyses, and presentation design and delivery exercises. Assessment. Assessment instruments included pre- and post-course Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). A scoring rubric was developed and used to evaluate a final mock TED Talk presented to faculty and students. Course evaluations were also used to assess student experiences in the course. Students' TTCT verbal creativity scores increased significantly ( p <0.05) during the course and their mock TED Talk mean scores (135±6.4) out of 150 were rated highly. Conclusion. The outcomes from this elective course confirmed that pharmacy students could develop and present an original "idea worth sharing" using the TED Talk format.

  18. Ted Irving and the Arc of APW Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Ted Irving's last two published papers neatly encapsulate his seminal contributions to the delineation of ever-important apparent polar wander (APW) paths. His final (210th) paper [Creer & Irving, 2012 Earth Sciences History] describes in detail how Ken Creer and he when still graduate students at Cambridge started to generate and assemble paleomagnetic data for the first APW path, for then only the UK; the paper was published 60 years ago and happened to be Ted's first [Creer, Irving & Runcorn, 1954 JGE]. Only 10 years later, there was already a lengthy reference list of paleomagnetic results available from most continents that had been compiled in pole lists he published in GJRAS from 1960 to 1965 and included in an appendix in his landmark book "Paleomagnetism" [Irving, 1964 Wiley] in support of wide ranging discussions of continental drift and related topics in chapters like 'Paleolatitudes and paleomeridians.' A subsequent innovation was calculating running means of poles indexed to a numerical geologic time scale [Irving, 1977 Nature], which with independent tectonic reconstructions as already for Gondwana allowed constructions of more detailed composite APW paths. His 1977 paper also coined Pangea B for an earlier albeit contentious configuration for the supercontinent that refuses to go away. Gliding over much work on APW tracks and hairpins in the Precambrian, we come to Ted's penultimate (209th) paper [Kent & Irving, 2010 JGR] in which individual poles from short-lived large igneous provinces were grouped and most sedimentary poles, many rather venerable, excluded as likely to be biased by variable degrees of inclination error. The leaner composite APW path helped to resurrect the Baja BC scenario of Cordilleran terrane motions virtually stopped in the 1980s by APW path techniques that relied on a few key but alas often badly skewed poles. The new composite APW path also revealed several major features, such as a huge polar shift of 30° in 15 Myr in the

  19. Practicioner Profile: An Interview with Ted Klontz, Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Ted Klontz is generally considered to be one the leading pioneers in the field of financial therapy. He defines his role as a consultant, but this simple term masks the important role he has played in changing the attitudes and behaviors of clients worldwide. His innovative work has been cited in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, and ABC’s 20/20 to name a few. Dr. Klontz currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Financial Therapy Association. In this interview the editors of the Journal of Financial Therapy ask questions related to what drives Dr. Klontz as a consultant/therapist.

  20. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H

    2003-04-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  1. Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Narlikar, G.J.; Samuel, L.G.; Yagati, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated base stations and a method of transmitting data units in a communications system for mobile devices. In one embodiment, an integrated base station includes a communications processor having a protocol stack configured with a media access control layer and a physical layer.

  2. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  3. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keow, M. A.; Radiman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)

  4. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  5. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, M.; Neskovic, N.; Neskovic, A.; Paunovic, G.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m -1 , which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were -1 , respectively. (authors)

  6. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  7. Study on Evaluation Indicators System of Crowd Management for Transfer Stations Based on Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and convenience of transfer is one of the most vital tasks in subway system planning, design and operation management. Because of complicated space layout and crowded pedestrian, crowd control is a big challenge for management of transfer stations. Thus, a quantitative evaluation should be done before improvement measures are carried out. Literature review showed that present evaluation indicators about crowd management in subway system were all based on fixed value or experience. Dynamic effect caused by pedestrian congestion and various facility combination cannot be represented based on these indicators. Thus, in this paper, based on the pedestrian simulation tool, dynamic evaluation indicators system of crowd management was established from the point of safety, cost-effectiveness and comfort. In order to aid decision makers to identify the most appropriate scenario to improve the effectiveness of crowd management, Matter-Element Analysis (MEA was used to rate different scenarios. A pedestrian simulation model of a designing intermodal transfer station was built and four different scenarios were tested to demonstrate how to use this indicators system. Simulation results were evaluated based on the dynamic indicators system and MEA. The application results show that the dynamic evaluation indicators system is operational and can reflect level of the crowd management in transfer station comprehensively and precisely.

  8. A Potential Transmitter Architecture for Future Generation Green Wireless Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Faulkner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current radio frequency power amplifiers in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. The all-digital transmitter architecture uses a combination of envelope elimination and restoration (EER and pulse width modulation (PWM/pulse position modulation (PPM modulation. The performance of this architecture is predicted from the measured output power and efficiency curves of a GaN amplifier. 57% efficiency is obtained for an OFDM signal limited to 8 dB peak to average power ratio. The PWM/PPM drive signal is generated using the improved Cartesian sigma delta techniques. It is shown that an RF oversampling by a factor of four meets the WLAN spectral mask, and WCDMA specification is met by an RF oversampling of sixteen.

  9. Exposure to radiation from base stations of mobile communication systems on top of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems related with the safety of people exposed to radiation coming from base stations of mobile communication systems installed on the top of buildings in urban environments. After introducing the problem, the approach taken in the paper is presented: the issue is not to know if exposure to radiation is hazardous but to know what are the exposure limits that may constitute danger. Afterwards, the maximum values recommended by several international bodies are shown for the specific absorption range in the frequency range of mobile communications and, in particular, for GSM. Measurements done in a building in Lisbon, Portugal, with antennas on its top show that the signal is circa 50,000 times below the maximum values, hence perfectly within the safety margins. One can say that, in the large majority of cases, there is no danger for people working or living in buildings with base station antennas installed on their top (author)

  10. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding of different samples of mobile phone base station were investigated in order to cover residential zones of Damascus and her environs. Measurements were achieved according to the emission direction and to the studied positions environment. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) restriction level, but for few measurement points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. This study showed the importance of achieving a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone companies in order to improve the protection level.(author)

  11. A Potential Transmitter Architecture for Future Generation Green Wireless Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cijvat Ellie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current radio frequency power amplifiers in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. The all-digital transmitter architecture uses a combination of envelope elimination and restoration (EER and pulse width modulation (PWM/pulse position modulation (PPM modulation. The performance of this architecture is predicted from the measured output power and efficiency curves of a GaN amplifier. 57% efficiency is obtained for an OFDM signal limited to 8 dB peak to average power ratio. The PWM/PPM drive signal is generated using the improved Cartesian sigma delta techniques. It is shown that an RF oversampling by a factor of four meets the WLAN spectral mask, and WCDMA specification is met by an RF oversampling of sixteen.

  12. The Precautionary Principle in the Context of Mobile Phone and Base Station Radiofrequency Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Mike; Rowley, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background No health hazard has been established from exposure to radiofrequency fields up to the levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, in response to public concern and the perceived level of scientific uncertainty, there are continuing calls for the application of the precautionary principle to radiofrequency exposures from mobile phones and base stations. Objective We examined the international evolution of calls for precautionary...

  13. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  14. [Increased occurrence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Jud, F; Spiess, B

    2012-02-01

    We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown.

  15. Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Lyytinen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessary to develop new software packages to accomplish some tasks, such as data reduction and remote operation of autonomous systems based on high-sensitivity CCD video devices. The main characteristics of this software are described here.

  16. The Mediterranean Oscillation Teleconnection Index: Station-Based versus Principal Component Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different paradigms of the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO teleconnection index have been compared in this work: station-based definitions obtained by the difference of some climate variable between two selected points in the eastern and western basins (i.e., Algiers and Cairo, Gibraltar and Israel, Marseille and Jerusalem, or south France and Levantine basin and the principal component (PC approach in which the index is obtained as the time series of the first mode of normalised sea level pressure anomalies across the extended Mediterranean region. Interannual to interdecadal precipitation (P, evaporation (E, E-P, and net heat flux have been correlated with the different MO indices to compare their relative importance in the long-term variability of heat and freshwater budgets over the Mediterranean Sea. On an annual basis, the PC paradigm is the most effective tool to assess the effect of the large-scale atmospheric forcing in the Mediterranean Sea because the station-based indices exhibit a very poor correlation with all climatic variables and only influence a reduced fraction of the basin. In winter, the station-based indices highly improve their ability to represent the atmospheric forcing and results are fairly independent of the paradigm used.

  17. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-12-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell base station while in an office environment. It is found that, in average macrocell coverage and MP use-time conditions and for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System technology, the total exposure can be reduced by a factor of 20-40 by using an FBS, mostly due to the significant decrease in the output power of the MP. In general, the framework presented in this study can be used for any exposure scenario, featuring any number of technologies, base stations and/or access points, users and duration. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Magnetic Base Station Deceptions, a magnetovariational analysis along the Ligurian Sea coast, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bozzo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of high resolution airborne and shipborne magnetic surveys depends on accurate removal of temporal variations from the recorded total magnetic field intensity data. At mid latitudes, one or a few base stations are typically located within or near the survey area and are used to monitor and remove time dependent variations. These are usually assumed to be of external origin and uniform throughout the survey area. Here we investigate the influence on the magnetic base station correction of the time varying magnetic field variations generated by internal telluric currents flowing in anomalous regional 2D/3D conductivity structures. The study is based on the statistical analysis of a data set collected by four magnetovariational stations installed in northwestern Italy. The variometer stations were evenly placed with a spacing of about 60 km along a profile roughly parallel to the coastline. They recorded the geomagnetic field from the beginning to the end of April 2005, with a sampling rate of 0.33 Hz. Cross-correlation and coherence analysis applied to a subset of 125 five hours long magnetic events indicates that, for periods longer than 400 s, there is an high correlation between the horizontal magnetic field components at the different stations. This indicates spatial uniformity of the source field and of the induced currents in the 1D Earth. Additionally, the pattern of the induction arrows, estimated from single site transfer functions, reveals a clear electromagnetic signature of the Sestri-Voltaggio line, interpreted as a major regional tectonic boundary. Induced telluric currents flowing through this 2D/3D electrical conductivity discontinuity affect mainly the vertical magnetic component at the closer locations. By comparing this component at near (32 km and far (70 km stations, we have found that the mean value of the power spectra ratio, due to the electromagnetic induced field, is about 1.8 in the frequency

  19. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  20. Spin exchange optical pumping based polarized 3He filling station for the Hybrid Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C Y; Tong, X; Brown, D R; Culbertson, H; Graves-Brook, M K; Hagen, M E; Kadron, B; Lee, W T; Robertson, J L; Winn, B

    2013-06-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a new direct geometry spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument is equipped with polarization analysis capability with 60° horizontal and 15° vertical detector coverages. In order to provide wide angle polarization analysis for this instrument, we have designed and built a novel polarized (3)He filling station based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. It is designed to supply polarized (3)He gas to HYSPEC as a neutron polarization analyzer. In addition, the station can optimize the (3)He pressure with respect to the scattered neutron energies. The depolarized (3)He gas in the analyzer can be transferred back to the station to be repolarized. We have constructed the prototype filling station. Preliminary tests have been carried out demonstrating the feasibility of the filling station. Here, we report on the design, construction, and the preliminary results of the prototype filling station.

  1. Object tracking with robotic total stations: Current technologies and improvements based on image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The importance of automated prism tracking is increasingly triggered by the rising automation of total station measurements in machine control, monitoring and one-person operation. In this article we summarize and explain the different techniques that are used to coarsely search a prism, to precisely aim at a prism, and to identify whether the correct prism is tracked. Along with the state-of-the-art review, we discuss and experimentally evaluate possible improvements based on the image data of an additional wide-angle camera which is available for many total stations today. In cases in which the total station's fine aiming module loses the prism, the tracked object may still be visible to the wide-angle camera because of its larger field of view. The theodolite angles towards the target can then be derived from its image coordinates which facilitates a fast reacquisition of the prism. In experimental measurements we demonstrate that our image-based approach for the coarse target search is 4 to 10-times faster than conventional approaches.

  2. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zimeras, S., E-mail: zimste@aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece)

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  3. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  4. Fault diagnosis of main coolant pump in the nuclear power station based on the principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Junting; Xu Mi; Wang Guizeng

    2003-01-01

    The fault diagnosis method based on principal component analysis is studied. The fault character direction storeroom of fifteen parameters abnormity is built in the simulation for the main coolant pump of nuclear power station. The measuring data are analyzed, and the results show that it is feasible for the fault diagnosis system of main coolant pump in the nuclear power station

  5. Reflective electroabsorption modular for compact base station radio-over-fiber systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Chang, Wei-Xi; Yu, Paul K. L.

    2003-07-01

    A Radio-over-Fiber system with simplified Base Station (BS) is proposed in which a single chip DBR Reflective Electro-absorption Modulator (REAM) serves both as an optical transceiver and as a mixer at the BS. It enables full duplex optical transmission for base band and RF band services simultaneously due to good isolation between uplink and downlink at the same chip. Grating structure is incorporated into the EA modulator for the sake of system design. It also improves yield and efficiency of high-speed devices.

  6. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...... application. Also demonstrated is the effect of non-zero UFTPS output impedance on envelope tracking performance. At 13W average (156W peak) RF output, a reduction of DC input power consumption from 93W (14% efficiency) to 54W (24% efficiency) is obtained by moving from a fixed RF power amplifier supply...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a Pelton hydropower station based on a novel approach of turbine torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Beibei; Yan, Donglin; Chen, Diyi; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Changzhi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach of the turbine torque is proposed. • A unify model is capable of the dynamic characteristics of Pelton hydropower stations. • Sensitivity analysis from hydraulic parameters, mechanic parameters and electric parameters are performed. • Numerical simulations show the sensitivity ranges of the above three parameters. - Abstract: Hydraulic turbine generator units with long-running operation may cause the values of hydraulic, mechanic or electric parameters changing gradually, which brings a new challenge, namely that whether the operating stability of these units will be changed in the next thirty or forty years. This paper is an attempt to seek a relatively unified model for sensitivity analysis from three aspects: hydraulic parameters (turbine flow and turbine head), mechanic parameters (axis coordinates and axial misalignment) and electric parameters (generator speed and excitation current). First, a novel approach of the Pelton turbine torque is proposed, which can make connections between the hydraulic turbine governing system and the shafting system of the hydro-turbine generator unit. Moreover, the correctness of this approach is verified by comparing with other three models of hydropower stations. Second, this latter is analyzed to obtain the sensitivity of electric parameter (excitation current), the mechanic parameters (axial misalignment, upper guide bearing rigidity, lower guide bearing rigidity, and turbine guide bearing rigidity) on hydraulic parameters on the operating stability of the unit. In addition to this, some critical values and ranges are proposed. Finally, these results can provide some bases for the design and stable operation of Peltonhydropower stations.

  8. A Geometrical-based Vertical Gain Correction for Signal Strength Prediction of Downtilted Base Station Antennas in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2012-01-01

    -based extension to standard empirical path loss prediction models can give quite reasonable accuracy in predicting the signal strength from tilted base station antennas in small urban macro-cells. Our evaluation is based on measurements on several sectors in a 2.6 GHz Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network......, with electrical antenna downtilt in the range from 0 to 10 degrees, as well as predictions based on ray-tracing and 3D building databases covering the measurement area. Although the calibrated ray-tracing predictions are highly accurate compared with the measured data, the combined LOS/NLOS COST-WI model...

  9. TED 2013: The Young. The Wise. The Undiscovered.

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Select live sessions of Disrupt! and Dream! from TED 2013 (Technology, Education, Design) taking place in Long Beach, Florida will be screened in CERN’s Main Auditorium on 27 February, at 17:30 and 20:00.   The event, organised by TEDxCERN, is a curtain raiser for the TEDxCERN talks scheduled for 3 May on the theme "Multiplying Dimensions". The TEDxCERN May event reaches beyond particle physics to provide a stage for the expression of science in multiple dimensions and disciplines, unveiling a world in which physics intersects with other multi-dimensional disciplines and thought. TEDxCERN team is looking for volunteers. If you are interested, please e-mail us at info@tedxcern.com.

  10. [Tracheotomy-endoscop for dilatational percutaneous tracheotomy (TED)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Eckart

    2006-09-01

    While surgical tracheotomies are currently performed using state-of-the-art operative techniques, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is in a rapidly evolving state with regard to its technology and the number of techniques available. This has resulted in a range of new complications that are difficult to quantify on a scientific basis, given the fact that more than half of the patients who are tracheotomized in intensive care units die from their underlying disease. The new Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) is designed to help prevent serious complications in dilatational tracheotomies and facilitate their management. The endoscope has been specifically adapted to meet the require-ments of percutaneous dilatational tracheotomies. It is fully compatible with all current techniques of PDT. The method is easy to learn. The percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy with the Tracheotomy Endoscope is a seven-step procedure: Advantages of the Tracheotomy Endoscope: Injuries to the posterior tracheal wall ar impossible (tracheoesophageal fistulas, pneumothorax). Minor bleeding sites on the tracheal mucosa can be controlled with a specially curved suction-coagulation tube introudeced through the Tracheotomy Endoscope. In cases with heavy bleeding and a risk of aspiration, the rigid indwelling Tracheotomy Endoscope provides a secure route for reintubating the patient with a cuffed endotracheal tube. It also allows for rapid conversion to an open surgical procedure if necessary. All the parts are easy to clean and are autoclavable. This type of endoscopically guided PDT creates an optimal link between the specialties of intensive care medicine and otorhinolaryngology. The Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) increases the standard of safety in PDT.

  11. UMTS base station-like exposure, well-being, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Sabine J; Negovetic, Sonja; Röösli, Martin; Berdiñas, Veronica; Schuderer, Jürgen; Huss, Anke; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) of mobile communication systems are widespread in the living environment, yet their effects on humans are uncertain despite a growing body of literature. We investigated the influence of a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station-like signal on well-being and cognitive performance in subjects with and without self-reported sensitivity to RF EMF. We performed a controlled exposure experiment (45 min at an electric field strength of 0, 1, or 10 V/m, incident with a polarization of 45 degrees from the left back side of the subject, weekly intervals) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. A total of 117 healthy subjects (33 self-reported sensitive, 84 nonsensitive subjects) participated in the study. We assessed well-being, perceived field strength, and cognitive performance with questionnaires and cognitive tasks and conducted statistical analyses using linear mixed models. Organ-specific and brain tissue-specific dosimetry including uncertainty and variation analysis was performed. In both groups, well-being and perceived field strength were not associated with actual exposure levels. We observed no consistent condition-induced changes in cognitive performance except for two marginal effects. At 10 V/m we observed a slight effect on speed in one of six tasks in the sensitive subjects and an effect on accuracy in another task in nonsensitive subjects. Both effects disappeared after multiple end point adjustment. In contrast to a recent Dutch study, we could not confirm a short-term effect of UMTS base station-like exposure on well-being. The reported effects on brain functioning were marginal and may have occurred by chance. Peak spatial absorption in brain tissue was considerably smaller than during use of a mobile phone. No conclusions can be drawn regarding short-term effects of cell phone exposure or the effects of long-term base station-like exposure on human health.

  12. The effect of Base Transceiver Station waves on some immunological and hematological factors in exposed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Ghaffari, Jamileh; Rahimnejad, Samira; Khosroshahi, Behzad Nazel; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Eftekharian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Since the number of mobile subscribers has significantly increased in recent years, the installation and deployment of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennas sending and receiving signals has become common and inevitable in different regions. In this study, we have tried to evaluate the effect of the waves on some immunological and hematological parameters in exposed individuals. In this study, the exposed and non-exposed individuals were used as the test and control groups, respectively. The test group was healthy people who resided in the vicinity of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antenna and received the maximum of radiation. The control group was selected from the healthy individuals that were matched with the exposed group by age. They resided in a distance of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antenna and received the minimum of radiation. After stating complete explanations and obtaining the consent, the venous blood samples were taken from them. Then, CBC and the level of cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ were performed on the samples and the results were analyzed by SPSS software. In the test group, the whole number of white blood cells, the level of hematocrit, percent of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly lower than the control group. The number of red blood cells, their average volume and the mean concentration of hemoglobin were notably higher than the controls. There was not observed a significant difference between the two groups in hemoglobin, its mean concentration, platelet count, percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as serum levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ . It seems that radiation of mobile phone antennas influenced the blood and immune systems, but further study should be done to exactly determine the targets.

  13. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  14. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  15. SISTEM PAKAR TROUBLESHOOTING BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION UNTUK EFISIENSI KINERJA TEKNISI (STUDI KASUS : PT.KMS TELECOM PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Yunefri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBase Transceiver Station (BTS terdiri dari modul-modul yang memiliki indikator alarm untuk mengindikasikan adanya error pada komponen dalam sistemnya. Kurangnya tenaga ahli alarm BTS, menyebabkan para operator harus terlebih dahulu membuka buletin atau referensi lainnya untuk mengetahui penanganan dari tiap alarm sehingga tidak terjadi kesalahan fatal. Keterbatasan itulah yang menyebabkan PT.KMS Pekanbaru cukup kesulitan untuk melakukan troubleshooting dengan cepat.Kata Kunci : Base Transceiver Station, expert systems, TelecomunicationAbstractBase Transceiver Station ( BTS consists From the module - The module has an alarm indicator to indicate an error review their hearts IN Component system. Lack Expert BTS alarm , the operator causes the first Must Opens bulletin Other references to review the handling From each alarm know that NOT fatal error occurred.The limitations that cause PT.KMS Pekanbaru Quite difficult to review conduct tips Quick WITH .Keywords: Base Transceiver Station, expert systems, Telecomunication

  16. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  17. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-01-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell...

  18. Survei Topografi Untuk Menentukan Garis Tampak Pandang Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Nugraha, Arief; Sudarsono, Bambang

    2008-01-01

    Base Transceiver Station (BTS) representation one of appliance of supporter of telecommunicationsnetwork. The development of BTS have to each other in circuit by other BTS or which have been planned.The situation BTS in circuit between other BTS without obstacle are called Line of Sight (LoS). Thetopographic survey is method of survey work to make sure the Line of Sight BTS. The topographic surveyconsist of GPS survey and study map for determination of high of BTS antenna and the Line of Sigh...

  19. High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system risk-based inspection guide: Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.; Gunther, W.

    1992-10-01

    A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Pilgrim Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1989. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Pilgrim operating experience review have been compared with the results of of a similar, industry wide operating experience review. this comparison provides an indication of areas in the Pilgrim HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources

  20. L0 Confirmation with fast, Tsa based tracking in the T-stations

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Terrier, H

    2007-01-01

    A fast tracking algorithm to confirm the high $p_T$ L0 trigger objects with tracks from the T-stations is presented. The L0 trigger candidate is used to define a search window to a potential track. Using this, a seeded track search is performed. The track finding algorithm is based on the \\textit{TsaSeeding} algorithm~\\cite{bib:Tsa}. The efficiency to confirm a true L0 trigger signal is around 96\\%, the momentum can be measured up to $\\Delta p/p$=3\\%.

  1. Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mileusnic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

  2. SURVEI TOPOGRAFI UNTUK MENENTUKAN GARIS TAMPAK PANDANG BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Laila Nugraha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Base Transceiver Station (BTS representation one of appliance of supporter of telecommunicationsnetwork. The development of BTS have to each other in circuit by other BTS or which have been planned.The situation BTS in circuit between other BTS without obstacle are called Line of Sight (LoS. Thetopographic survey is method of survey work to make sure the Line of Sight BTS. The topographic surveyconsist of GPS survey and study map for determination of high of BTS antenna and the Line of Sight ofBTS can be made.

  3. Planning the base station layout in UMTS urban scenarios: a simulation approach to coverage and capacity estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Zola, Enrica Valeria; Barceló Arroyo, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of a base station layout for a UMTS network in a densely populated city. The study is carried out using snapshot simulations of an actual city (Barcelona, Spain) with specific traffic and propagation profiles. A first layout is proposed in order to guarantee good coverage with a minimum number of base stations. This layout is approached taking into account the link budget analytical calculations and the first simulation results for a single-cell environment...

  4. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwo, U. J. Victor; Jibiri, N. N.; Dada, S. S.; Onugba, A. A.; Ushie, P.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in ...

  5. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI KREDITOR DALAM PENGGUNAAN BASE TRANSCEIFER STATION (BTS) SEBAGAI OBJEK JAMINAN FIDUSIA DALAM PERJANJIAN KREDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Malikhatun Badriyah

    2016-01-01

    The development of telecommunications business major effect on development. However, this requires a relatively large funds , so that the telecommunications service provider is in need of funds from the bank to the credit agreement . Bank has a big risk in lending this , so we need guarantees, one of which fiduciary guarantee with objects Base Transceiver Station . The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the use of Base Transceiver Station in the credit agreement and what if th...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 1402 - Recommended Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on âHow To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antennaâ I Appendix I to Part 1402 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE STATION... Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna” I. Required...

  7. Representasi Kriminalitas Dalam Film “Ted” Dan “Ted 2”

    OpenAIRE

    WIlona, Merrie

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat representasi kriminalitas dalam film “Ted” dan “Ted 2”. Bentuk-bentuk tindakan kriminalitas adalah pencurian, penyalahgunaan narkoba, tindakan asusila, pencopetan, penjambretan, penodongan senjata tajam/api, kekerasan fisik, penganiayaan, Perusakan barang orang lain, pembunuhan, penipuan dan korupsi. Film “Ted” dan “Ted 2” dipilih karena menampilkan tokoh utama “Teddy Bear yang identik dengan anak-anak, namun banyak menuai kontroversi. Peneliti ini mengg...

  8. [Risk-oriented model of the control of the level of electric magnetic fields of base stations of cellular communications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, L A; Tulakin, A V; Egorova, A M; Mikhailova, O M; Gvozdeva, L L; Chigryay, E K

    The purpose of this study was to give the description of harmful effects of the impact of electromagnetic radiations from base stations of cellular communication as the most common sources of radio frequencies of electromagnetic fields in the environment. The highest values of the energy flux density were measured on the roofs of houses where antennas are installed - more than 10 pW/cm. The lowest values were recorded in inside premises with expositions of 0.1-1 pW/cm. In the close location of the railway station to the base stations of the cellular communication there was seen a cumulative effect. There are proposed both new safe hygienic approaches to the control for the safety of the work of base station and protective measures.

  9. Talk like TED the 9 public-speaking secrets of the world's top minds

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Ideas are the currency of the twenty-first century. In order to succeed, you need to be able to sell your ideas persuasively. This ability is the single greatest skill that will help you accomplish your dreams. TED Talks have redefined the elements of a successful presentation and become the gold standard for public speaking. TED--which stands for technology, entertainment, and design--brings together the world's leading thinkers. These are the presentations that set the world on fire, and the techniques that top TED speakers use will make any presentation more dynamic, fire up any team, and give anyone the confidence to overcome their fear of public speaking. Public speaking coach and bestselling author Carmine Gallo has broken down hundreds of TED talks and interviewed the most popular TED presenters, as well as the top researchers in the fields of psychology, communications, and neuroscience to reveal the nine secrets of all successful TED presentations. Gallo's step-by-step method makes it possible for ...

  10. Coupling of atom-by-atom calculations of extended defects with B kick-out equations: application to the simulation of boron ted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampin, E.; Cristiano, F.; Lamrani, Y.; Colombeau, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present simulations of B TED based on a complete calculation of the extended defect growth/shrinkage during annealing. The Si self-interstitial supersaturation calculated at the extended defect depth is coupled to the set of equations for the B kick-out diffusion through a generation/recombination term in the diffusion equation of the Si self-interstitials. The simulations are compared to the measurements performed on a Si wafer containing several B marker layers, where the amount of TED varies from one peak to the other. The good agreement obtained on this experiment is very promising for the application of these calculations to the case of ultra-shallow B + implants

  11. Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health effects of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Georg; Feychting, Maria; Hamnerius, Yngve; Kheifets, Leeka; Kuster, Niels; Ruiz, Ignacio; Schüz, Joachim; Uberbacher, Richard; Wiart, Joe; Röösli, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The increasing deployment of mobile communication base stations led to an increasing demand for epidemiological studies on possible health effects of radio frequency emissions. The methodological challenges of such studies have been critically evaluated by a panel of scientists in the fields of radiofrequency engineering/dosimetry and epidemiology. Strengths and weaknesses of previous studies have been identified. Dosimetric concepts and crucial aspects in exposure assessment were evaluated in terms of epidemiological studies on different types of outcomes. We conclude that in principle base station epidemiological studies are feasible. However, the exposure contributions from all relevant radio frequency sources have to be taken into account. The applied exposure assessment method should be piloted and validated. Short to medium term effects on physiology or health related quality of life are best investigated by cohort studies. For long term effects, groups with a potential for high exposure need to first be identified; for immediate effect, human laboratory studies are the preferred approach. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

  13. The precautionary principle in the context of mobile phone and base station radiofrequency exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mike; Rowley, Jack

    2009-09-01

    No health hazard has been established from exposure to radiofrequency fields up to the levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, in response to public concern and the perceived level of scientific uncertainty, there are continuing calls for the application of the precautionary principle to radiofrequency exposures from mobile phones and base stations. We examined the international evolution of calls for precautionary measures in relation to mobile phones and base stations, with particular focus on Australia and the United Kingdom. The precautionary principle is difficult to define, and there is no widespread agreement as to how it should be implemented. However, there is a strong argument that precautionary measures should not be implemented in the absence of reliable scientific data and logical reasoning pointing to a possible health hazard. There is also experimental evidence that precautionary advice may increase public concern. We argue that conservative exposure standards, technical features that minimize unnecessary exposures, ongoing research, regular review of standards, and availability of consumer information make mobile communications inherently precautionary. Commonsense measures can be adopted by individuals, governments, and industry to address public concern while ensuring that mobile networks are developed for the benefit of society.

  14. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  15. Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approach for Ranking Work Stations Based on Physical Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Salmanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Fuzzy Group Decision Making approach for ranking work stations based on physical pressure. Fuzzy group decision making approach allows experts to evaluate different ergonomic factors using linguistic terms such as very high, high, medium, low, very low, rather than precise numerical values. In this way, there is no need to measure parameters and evaluation can be easily made in a group. According to ergonomics much work contents and situations, accompanied with multiple parameters and uncertainties, fuzzy group decision making is the best way to evaluate such a chameleon of concept. A case study was down to utilize the approach and illustrate its application in ergonomic assessment and ranking the work stations based on work pressure and found that this approach provides flexibility, practicality, efficiency in making decision around ergonomics areas. The normalized defuzzification numbers which are resulted from this method are compared with result of quantitative assessment of Automotive Assembly Work Sheet auto, it’s demonstrated that the proposed method result is 10% less than Automotive Assembly Work Sheet, approximately.

  16. Energy-Aware Base Stations: The Effect of Planning, Management, and Femto Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koutitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of three base station management schemes on three different network topologies. In addition, we explore the effect of offloading traffic to heterogeneous femtocell layer upon energy savings taking into account the increase of base station switch-off time intervals. Fairness between mobile operator and femtocell owners is maintained since current femtocell technologies present flat power consumption curves with respect to served traffic. We model two different user-to-femtocell association rules in order to capture realistic and maximum gains from the heterogeneous network. To provide accurate findings and a holistic overview of the techniques, we explore a real urban district where channel estimations and power control are modeled using deterministic algorithms. Finally, we explore energy efficiency metrics that capture savings in the mobile network operator, the required watts per user and watts per bitrate. It is found that the newly established pseudo distributed management scheme is the most preferable solution for practical implementations and together with the femotcell layer the network can handle dynamic load control that is regarded as the basic element of future demand response programs.

  17. Improving Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Femtocell Networks via Base Station Switching Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woongsup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy efficiency (EE of cellular networks has become an important performance metric, and several techniques have been proposed to increase the EE. Among them, turning off base stations (BSs when not needed is considered as one of the most powerful techniques due to its simple operation and effectiveness. Herein, we propose a novel BS switching-off technique for cooperative femtocell networks where multiple femtocell BSs (FBSs simultaneously send packets to the same mobile station (MS. Unlike conventional schemes, cooperative operation of FBSs, also known as coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission, is considered to determine which BSs are turned off in the proposed technique. We first formulate the optimization problem to find the optimal set of FBSs to be turned off. Then, we propose a suboptimal scheme operating in a distributed manner in order to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal scheme. The suboptimal scheme is based on throughput ratio (TR which specifies the importance of a particular FBS for the cooperative transmission. Through simulations, we show that the energy consumption can be greatly reduced with the proposed technique, compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, we show that the suboptimal scheme also achieves the near-optimal performance even without the excessive computations.

  18. LoRa Mobile-To-Base-Station Channel Characterization in the Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaelens, Johnny; Van Torre, Patrick; Verhaevert, Jo; Rogier, Hendrik

    2017-08-18

    Antarctic conditions demand that wireless sensor nodes are operational all year round and that they provide a large communication range of several tens of kilometers. LoRa technology operating in sub-GHz frequency bands implements these wireless links with minimal power consumption. The employed chirp spread spectrum modulation provides a large link budget, combined with the excellent radio-wave propagation characteristics in these bands. In this paper, an experimental wireless link from a mobile vehicle which transmits sensor data to a base station is measured and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and packet loss. These measurements confirm the usefulness of LoRa technology for wireless sensor systems in polar regions. By deploying directional antennas at the base station, a range of up to 30 km is covered in case of Line-of-Sight radio propagation in both the 434 and 868 MHz bands. Varying terrain elevation is shown to be the dominating factor influencing the propagation, sometimes causing the Line-of-Sight path to be obstructed. Tropospheric radio propagation effects were not apparent in the measurements.

  19. Human-factors-based implementation of the remote characterization system high-level control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.; Richardson, B.S.; Rowe, J.C.; Draper, J.V.; Sandness, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of the numerous US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Defense waste disposal sites. DOE, through its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics and Technology Development Program, has developed the Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurfacecharacterization. The RCS consists of a low-metal-content (low-metallic-signature) remotely piloted vehicle, a high-level control station (HLCS) where operators can remotely control the vehicle and analyze real-time data from sensors, and an array of sensors that can be chosen to meet the survey task at hand. Communication between the vehicle and the base station is handled by a radio link. Site mapping is made possible through the use of geopositioning satellite data. The primary mode of vehicle operation is teleoperation, but provision has been made for semiautonomous or supervisory control that allows for automated sitesurvey on simple sites. Data analysis and display is supported for both real-time observation and postprocessing of data. The particular emphasis of this paper documents the human-factors-based design influences on the HLCS and describes the design in detail

  20. Unidirectional Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna for Base Station: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayachandran, Govindanarayanan; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy

    2018-04-01

    Unidirectional base station antenna design using Magneto-Electric Dipole (MED) has created enormous interest among the researchers due to its excellent radiation characteristics like low back radiation, symmetrical radiation at E-plane and H-plane compared to conventional patch antenna. Generally, dual polarized antennas are used to increase channel capacity and reliability of the communication systems. In order to serve the evolving mobile communication standards like long term evolution LTE and beyond, unidirectional dual polarized MED antenna are required to have broad impedance bandwidth, broad half power beamwidth, high port isolation, low cross polarization level, high front to back ratio and high gain. In this paper, the critical electrical requirements of the base station antenna and frequently used frequency bands for modern mobile communication have been presented. It is followed by brief review on broadband patch antenna and discussion on complementary antenna concepts. Finally, the performance of linearly polarized and dual polarized magneto-electric dipole antennas along with their feeding techniques are discussed and summarized. Also, design and modeling of developed MED antenna is presented.

  1. Thoracic lymph node station recognition on CT images based on automatic anatomy recognition with an optimal parent strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoping; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Cao, Hanqiang; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Xingyu

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there are many papers that have been published on the detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from medical images. However, it is still a challenging problem owing to low contrast with surrounding soft tissues and the variations of lymph node size and shape on computed tomography (CT) images. This is particularly very difficult on low-dose CT of PET/CT acquisitions. In this study, we utilize our previous automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) framework to recognize the thoracic-lymph node stations defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. The lymph node stations themselves are viewed as anatomic objects and are localized by using a one-shot method in the AAR framework. Two strategies have been taken in this paper for integration into AAR framework. The first is to combine some lymph node stations into composite lymph node stations according to their geometrical nearness. The other is to find the optimal parent (organ or union of organs) as an anchor for each lymph node station based on the recognition error and thereby find an overall optimal hierarchy to arrange anchor organs and lymph node stations. Based on 28 contrast-enhanced thoracic CT image data sets for model building, 12 independent data sets for testing, our results show that thoracic lymph node stations can be localized within 2-3 voxels compared to the ground truth.

  2. A cell-based study on pedestrian acceleration and overtaking in a transfer station corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Xuemei; Ran, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Pedestrian speed in a transfer station corridor is faster than usual and sometimes running can be found among some of them. In this paper, pedestrians are divided into two categories. The first one is aggressive, and the other is conservative. Aggressive pedestrians weaving their way through crowd in the corridor are the study object of this paper. During recent decades, much attention has been paid to the pedestrians' behavior, such as overtaking (also deceleration) and collision avoidance, and that continues in this paper. After sufficiently analyzing the characteristics of pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor, a cell-based model is presented in this paper, including the acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking analysis. Acceleration (also deceleration) in a corridor is fixed according to Newton's Law and then speed calculated with a kinematic formula is discretized into cells based on the fuzzy logic. After the speed is updated, overtaking is analyzed based on updated speed and force explicitly, compared to rule-based models, which herein we call implicit ones. During the analysis of overtaking, a threshold value to determine the overtaking direction is introduced. Actually, model in this paper is a two-step one. The first step is to update speed, which is the cells the pedestrian can move in one time interval and the other is to analyze the overtaking. Finally, a comparison between the rule-based cellular automata, the model in this paper and data in HCM 2000 is made to demonstrate our model can be used to achieve reasonable simulation of acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking among pedestrians.

  3. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer; Yilmazer, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software-CEDINFO-developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations

  4. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture; Yilmazer, Mehmet [Bogazici University, Kandilli, Istanbul (Turkey). Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software - CEDINFO - developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. (author)

  5. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuriye Peker Say; Muzaffer Yucel; Mehmet Yilmazer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool to enable decision makers to account for the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software CEDINFO developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power stations, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power stations) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level, From Mobile Base Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushie, P. O.; Nwankwo, U.J.V.; Osahun, O. D.; Ayinmode, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs using radio frequency (RF) meter (electromoge meter). The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of unavoidable factors suspected to be interferences from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is far below the standard limit (10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 ) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory agencies. The assessment was done in about ten (10) base stations in Ajaokuta, Kogi state. The position and elevation of the base stations were noted using a global positioning system (GPS) to ascertain the position of such stations on the world map. It was discovered that the limit of exposure to radio frequency radiation set by International Commission on Non-ionizing, Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 900MHz band expressed in the same unit as 10W/cm 2 or 10 7 μW/m 2 was not exceeded, the values were also influenced by some inevitable factors. Positions of most of the stations are sited close to homes.

  7. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia

    2016-01-01

    The Balearic Islands have one of the best telecommunications infrastructures in Spain, with more than 1500 Radio Base Stations (RBS) covering a total surface of 4.991,66 km². This archipelago has high energy consumption, with high CO2 emissions, due to an electrical energy production system mainly...... based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  8. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongdo; Hyeon, Seungheon; Choi, Seungwon

    2004-12-01

    A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS) operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  9. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seungheon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  10. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  11. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS......) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...... overall solution switching at 1MHz with 88-95% efficiency. In a class-AB RFPA amplifying a 50kHz bandwidth QAM Tetra2 signal at 4.6W average output power, the use of tracking supply voltage reduced power dissipation by 25W....

  12. Monte Carlo dose calculation using a cell processor based PlayStation 3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Lam, Phil; Jaffray, David A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of the EGSnrc computer code coupled with a Cell-based hardware in Monte Carlo simulation of radiation dose in radiotherapy. Performance evaluations of two processor-intensive functions namely, HOWNEAR and RANMAR G ET in the EGSnrc code were carried out basing on the 20-80 rule (Pareto principle). The execution speeds of the two functions were measured by the profiler gprof specifying the number of executions and total time spent on the functions. A testing architecture designed for Cell processor was implemented in the evaluation using a PlayStation3 (PS3) system. The evaluation results show that the algorithms examined are readily parallelizable on the Cell platform, provided that an architectural change of the EGSnrc was made. However, as the EGSnrc performance was limited by the PowerPC Processing Element in the PS3, PC coupled with graphics processing units or GPCPU may provide a more viable avenue for acceleration.

  13. Monte Carlo dose calculation using a cell processor based PlayStation 3 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C. L.; Lam, Phil; Jaffray, David A.

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the performance of the EGSnrc computer code coupled with a Cell-based hardware in Monte Carlo simulation of radiation dose in radiotherapy. Performance evaluations of two processor-intensive functions namely, HOWNEAR and RANMAR_GET in the EGSnrc code were carried out basing on the 20-80 rule (Pareto principle). The execution speeds of the two functions were measured by the profiler gprof specifying the number of executions and total time spent on the functions. A testing architecture designed for Cell processor was implemented in the evaluation using a PlayStation3 (PS3) system. The evaluation results show that the algorithms examined are readily parallelizable on the Cell platform, provided that an architectural change of the EGSnrc was made. However, as the EGSnrc performance was limited by the PowerPC Processing Element in the PS3, PC coupled with graphics processing units or GPCPU may provide a more viable avenue for acceleration.

  14. Risk-based Inspection Guide for the Susquehanna Station HPCI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, R.; Higgins, J.; Gunther, W.; Shier, W.

    1992-11-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A system Risk-based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) which is operated by Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light (PP ampersand L). Included in this S-RIG is a discussion of the role of HPCI in mitigating accidents and a presentation of PRA-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG uses industry operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples, to augment the basic PRA failure modes. It is designed to be used as a reference for both routine inspections and the evaluation of the significance of component failures

  15. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  16. Free-Suspension Residual Flexibility Testing of Space Station Pathfinder: Comparison to Fixed-Base Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Application of the free-suspension residual flexibility modal test method to the International Space Station Pathfinder structure is described. The Pathfinder, a large structure of the general size and weight of Space Station module elements, was also tested in a large fixed-base fixture to simulate Shuttle Orbiter payload constraints. After correlation of the Pathfinder finite element model to residual flexibility test data, the model was coupled to a fixture model, and constrained modes and frequencies were compared to fixed-base test. modes. The residual flexibility model compared very favorably to results of the fixed-base test. This is the first known direct comparison of free-suspension residual flexibility and fixed-base test results for a large structure. The model correlation approach used by the author for residual flexibility data is presented. Frequency response functions (FRF) for the regions of the structure that interface with the environment (a test fixture or another structure) are shown to be the primary tools for model correlation that distinguish or characterize the residual flexibility approach. A number of critical issues related to use of the structure interface FRF for correlating the model are then identified and discussed, including (1) the requirement of prominent stiffness lines, (2) overcoming problems with measurement noise which makes the antiresonances or minima in the functions difficult to identify, and (3) the use of interface stiffness and lumped mass perturbations to bring the analytical responses into agreement with test data. It is shown that good comparison of analytical-to-experimental FRF is the key to obtaining good agreement of the residual flexibility values.

  17. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  18. Heat flows and energetic behavior of a telecommunication radio base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraglia, Antonio; Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows a study on energetic consumption of BTSs (Base Transceiver Stations) for mobile communication, related to conditioning functions. An energetic “thermal model” of a telecommunication station is proposed and studied. The results have been validated with a BTS in central Italy, showing good agreement. Findings show a substantial high internal-external temperature difference in the containing shelter, particularly during daytime and warm months, due to sources of heat (equipment, external temperature and sun radiation) and to the difficulty in spread the warmth out. The necessity to keep the operating temperatures within a given range for the correct functioning of the electronic equipment requires the use of conditioning setups, and this significantly increases the energetic demand of the whole system. The analysis of thermal flows across the shelter can help to gather further data on its temperature behavior and to devise practical measures to lower the power demand, while keeping the operating parameters in the suggested ranges. The investigation of some operating parameters of the equipment and of the shelter, such as threshold set-points, air vent area, external wall transmittance and reflectivity, suggests annual energy savings between 10% and 30%. - Highlights: • A heat flow model for a telecommunication shelter was created. • Successful matching of the model and real-life cases was obtained. • The model addresses how each parameter affects energy consumption. • Reasonably savings of up to 30% of consumed energy can be expected

  19. Optimization of maintenance programme at Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station based on RCM analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min

    2003-01-01

    This paper begins with an introduction to Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) and gives a simple introduction to the operations and maintenance documentation system at GNPS. It then will review the maintenance program guidelines base and the associated problems prior to the application of reliability centered maintenance (RCM). How RCM was implemented at GNPS, how the results of RCM analysis were used to optimize the maintenance program and test program, and what is the interface between RCM and the existing maintenance program will be shown. Next, it will show the successful implementation of RCM at GNPS resulted in the following changes: A new understanding of equipment failure challenges operations and maintenance beliefs, maintenance concepts undergo a large change, maintenance program and periodic testing program are continuously modified and optimized, new on-condition maintenance technologies are introduced, non-productive scheduled overhauls are discarded, maintenance costs are effectively controlled, maintenance appropriateness has improved, management of hidden failures is more effective and timely. It will show the benefit of greater equipment reliability brought about by all of these changes, which in turn increases the reliability and safety of the entire power station. (author)

  20. Wind Energy Based Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Sitting. A GIS/Wind Resource Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation sector is severely correlated with major problems in environment, citizens’ health, climate and economy. Issues such as traffic, fuel cost and parking space have make life more difficult, especially in the dense urban environment. Thus, there is a great need for the development of the electric vehicle (EV sector. The number of cars in cities has increased so much that the current transportation system (roads, parking places, traffic lights, etc. cannot accommodate them properly. The increasing number of vehicles does not affect only humans but also the environment, through air and noise pollution. According to EPA, the 39.2% of total gas emissions in 2007 was caused by transportation activities. Studies have shown that the pollutants are not only gathered in the major roads and/or highways but can travel depending on the meteorological conditions leading to generic pollution. The promotion of EVs and the charging stations are both equally required to be further developed in order EVs to move out of the cities and finally confront the range problem. In this work, a wind resource and a GIS analysis optimizes in a wider area the sitting of wind based charging stations and proposes an optimizing methodology.

  1. A microcontroller-based data-acquisition system for meteorological station monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field's data acquisition from remote meteorological stations. The data transmission serves to collect field's meteorological information, such as temperature, humidity and radiation. In our study the experimental data is registered in a weather station located about 100 km from University of Almeria. Various existing techniques are studied, especially Radio, GSM (global system of mobile communication) and GPRS (general packet radio service). In the result of these studies has been designed a system of field's data acquisition (herein referred as Meteologger) which we are going to present in this paper. The system is based on an ATmega 16 microcontroller, which scans 8 sensors together at any programmable intervals. This paper presents the study of the mentioned project, application and some main characteristics of the prototype system and its program. We attempt to implement the system, and subsequently present the performance of tests regarding the mentioned system. To verify its functioning some comparison of this measurement system with two others commercial data-acquisition system (Campbell and Hobo H8) has been carried out

  2. A microcontroller-based data-acquisition system for meteorological station monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents a study of feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field's data acquisition from remote meteorological stations. The data transmission serves to collect field's meteorological information, such as temperature, humidity and radiation. In our study the experimental data is registered in a weather station located about 100 km from the University of Almeria. Various existing techniques are studied, especially Radio, GSM (global system of mobile communication) and GPRS (general packet radio service). In the result of these studies has been designed a system of field's data acquisition (herein referred as Meteologger) which we are going to present in this paper. The system is based on an ATmega 16 microcontroller, which scans 8 sensors together at any programmable intervals. This paper presents the study of the mentioned project, application and some main characteristics of the prototype system and its program. We attempt to implement the system, and subsequently present the performance of tests regarding the mentioned system. To verify its functioning some comparison of this measurement system with two others commercial data-acquisition system (Campbell and Hobo H8) has been carried out. (author)

  3. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2017-10-04

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  4. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham; Dai, Wenhan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Win, Moe Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  5. Electromagnetic impact by microcellular base stations: analysis and guidelines for a correct setting up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Reggiani, M.; Silvi, A.M.; Zari, A.; Ricci, A.

    2002-01-01

    During the last few years the development of mobile communications has required ever increasing number of base stations for both existing mobile operators and new ones. More and more users ask for a higher quality services so new technological solutions have been studied and applied to assure effective coverage for given geographical areas, as in squares or narrow streets, characterized by a very high traffic demand or where coverage by usual macro cells is very difficult. On the other side, modern societies of developed countries ask for a better and better quality of life and appropriate government policies. Several studies of national and international scientific organizations have been performed and are still in progress to establish any possible adverse effects on human health of non-ionizing radiation exposure. So, many governments, forced by public opinion pressure, have produced specific standards in agreement with scientific organization guidelines and prudent avoidance politics too. Nowadays, designing their networks, mobile operators have to respect requirements contained in these standards. So a hierarchical cellular system have been recently proposed to comply more easily with both coverage requirements and lower exposure limits. This new coverage strategy of geographical areas requires the presence of microcells beside the usual macro cells. In this paper the study of the distribution of the electromagnetic field levels produced by microcellular base stations characterized by different features and configurations is presented, in order to define a few guidelines for the correct setting up of antennas in compliance with current standard requirements. This is obtained comparing results of theoretical modeling, based on the radio electrical characteristics of each sources, and measurements data. Results achieved by measurements performed on a preliminary sample of microcells have been presented in this work

  6. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  7. Analysis of the effect of mobile phone base station antenna loading on localized SAR and its consequences for measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Thors, Björn; Törnevik, Christer

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the effect of antenna element loading on the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) has been analyzed for base station antennas. The analysis was conducted in order to determine whether localized SAR measurements of large multi-element base station antennas can be conducted using standardized procedures and commercially available equipment. More specifically, it was investigated if the antenna shifting measurement procedure, specified in the European base station exposure assessment standard EN 50383, will produce accurate localized SAR results for base station antennas larger than the specified measurement phantom. The obtained results show that SAR accuracy is affected by the presence of lossy material within distances of one wavelength from the tested antennas as a consequence of coupling and redistribution of transmitted power among the antenna elements. It was also found that the existing standardized phantom is not optimal for SAR measurements of large base station antennas. A new methodology is instead proposed based on a larger, box-shaped, whole-body phantom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  9. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 4: TEDS-M Released Mathematics and Mathematics Pedagogy Knowledge Assessment Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…

  10. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Ken H.; Van Wyk, Marthinus J.; Rowley, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from thes data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services. PMID:24044904

  11. Influence of mobile phone traffic on base station exposure of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen

    2010-11-01

    The influence of mobile phone traffic on temporal radiofrequency exposure due to base stations during 7 d is compared for five different sites with Erlang data (representing average mobile phone traffic intensity during a period of time). The time periods of high exposure and high traffic during a day are compared and good agreement is obtained. The minimal required measurement periods to obtain accurate estimates for maximal and average long-period exposure (7 d) are determined. It is shown that these periods may be very long, indicating the necessity of new methodologies to estimate maximal and average exposure from short-period measurement data. Therefore, a new method to calculate the fields at a time instant from fields at another time instant using normalized Erlang values is proposed. This enables the estimation of maximal and average exposure during a week from short-period measurements using only Erlang data and avoids the necessity of long measurement times.

  12. Base Station Activation and Linear Transceiver Design for Optimal Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Cheng; Hong, Mingyi; Liu, Ya-Feng; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2014-08-01

    In a densely deployed heterogeneous network (HetNet), the number of pico/micro base stations (BS) can be comparable with the number of the users. To reduce the operational overhead of the HetNet, proper identification of the set of serving BSs becomes an important design issue. In this work, we show that by jointly optimizing the transceivers and determining the active set of BSs, high system resource utilization can be achieved with only a small number of BSs. In particular, we provide formulations and efficient algorithms for such joint optimization problem, under the following two common design criteria: i) minimization of the total power consumption at the BSs, and ii) maximization of the system spectrum efficiency. In both cases, we introduce a nonsmooth regularizer to facilitate the activation of the most appropriate BSs. We illustrate the efficiency and the efficacy of the proposed algorithms via extensive numerical simulations.

  13. High Pressure Coolant Injection system risk-based inspection guide for Hatch Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.M.

    1993-05-01

    A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Hatch Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Hatch Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1992. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Hatch operating experience review have been compared with the results of a similar, industry wide operating, experience review. This comparison provides an indication of areas in the Hatch HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources

  14. High Density Interconnect Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5G Base Stations with Integrated Filtering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The elementary radiator of a planar array for next generation millimeter-wave (mm-wave 5G base stations is described. The antenna is designed for high density interconnect (HDI manufacturing for yielding a compact, densely-interconnected, and highly-integrable stacked structure. The layout of the single element is determined by directly optimizing key radiation features of the whole planar arrangement according to specific application-driven requirements. In addition, thanks to the exploitation of a spline-shaped modelling of the radiator, suitable performance in terms of impedance matching, realized gain, half-power beamwidth (HPBW, polarization purity, and inter-element isolation are achieved within the 28-GHz pass-band. Moreover, integrated out-of-band filtering capabilities are obtained in selected and wide non-contiguous stop-bands without additional circuitry.

  15. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K. H.; Van Wyk, M. J.; Rowley, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from these data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services. (authors)

  16. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  17. Simulation of a small muon tomography station system based on RPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Li, Q.; Ma, J.; Kong, H.; Ye, Y.; Gao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the performance of a small muon Tomography Station based on four glass resistive plate chambers(RPCs) with a spatial resolution of approximately 1.0mm (FWHM). We developed a simulation code to generate cosmic ray muons with the appropriate distribution of energies and angles. PoCA and EM algorithm were used to rebuild the objects for comparison. We compared Z discrimination time with and without muon momentum measurement. The relation between Z discrimination time and spatial resolution was also studied. Simulation results suggest that mean scattering angle is a better Z indicator and upgrading to larger RPCs will improve reconstruction image quality.

  18. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Gati, A.; Varsier, N.; Flach, B.; Wiart, J.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  19. Reconfigurable Magneto-Electric Dipole Antennas for Base Stations in Modern Wireless Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-electric (ME dipole antennas, with the function of changing the antenna characteristics, such as frequency, polarization, or radiation patterns, are reviewed in this paper. The reconfigurability is achieved by electrically altering the states of diodes or varactors to change the surface currents distributions or reflector size of the antenna. The purpose of the designs is to obtain agile antenna characteristics together with good directive radiation performances, such as low cross-polarization level, high front-to-back ratio, and stable gain. By reconfiguring the antenna capability to support more than one wireless frequency standard, switchable polarizations, or cover tunable areas, the reconfigurable ME dipole antennas are able to switch functionality as the mission changes. Therefore, it can help increase the communication efficiency and reduce the construction cost. This shows very attractive features in base station antennas of modern wireless communication applications.

  20. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time....

  1. Integrating stations from the North America Gravity Database into a local GPS-based land gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoberg, Thomas G.; Stoddard, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to augment local gravity surveys with additional gravity stations from easily accessible national databases can greatly increase the areal coverage and spatial resolution of a survey. It is, however, necessary to integrate such data seamlessly with the local survey. One challenge to overcome in integrating data from national databases is that these data are typically of unknown quality. This study presents a procedure for the evaluation and seamless integration of gravity data of unknown quality from a national database with data from a local Global Positioning System (GPS)-based survey. The starting components include the latitude, longitude, elevation and observed gravity at each station location. Interpolated surfaces of the complete Bouguer anomaly are used as a means of quality control and comparison. The result is an integrated dataset of varying quality with many stations having GPS accuracy and other reliable stations of unknown origin, yielding a wider coverage and greater spatial resolution than either survey alone.

  2. The role of the restructured Mobile Remote Service Base System (MBS) in support of Space Station maintenance and servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, T.; Krukewich, K.

    1992-08-01

    The critical parameters resulting from the restructuring of Space Station Freedom which necessitated the redesign of the Mobile Remote Service Base System (MBS) are described. These include optimization of robotic attachment locations for access to the Space Station truss-mounted orbital replacement units, transport of logistics carriers to the maintenance sites, minimization of EVA overhead associated with maintenance, self-maintenance of other mobile servicing system (MSS) elements on the MBS, and balancing of station EVA and extravehicular robotics in a complementary fashion to minimize maintenance overhead in general. Consideration is given to the configuration of the resulting MBS, which provides the program with maximum flexibility to utilize the assets of the MSS and optimizes end-to-end maintenance with regard to the use of station resources such as crew time and power. Maintenance and servicing scenarios which are instrumental to the reconfigured MBS as well as the results of improved maintenance capability are presented.

  3. Microwave radiation safety assessment around mobile telephone base station (MTBS) in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Mohd Anuar Abd Majid; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Roslan Md Dan; Sahirudden Mohd Nor

    2006-01-01

    Mobile telephone is one of the fastest popular consumer product introduced in the market. Since more people are using mobile telephone, the number of mobile telephone base station (MTBS) in Malaysia had also increased in order to provide a better coverage services to consumer. The antennas that are required for the mobile (or cellular) telephone network are located at MTBS. This antenna emits radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation. Due to the concerns that has been raised by the people that are living or working nearby to MTBS about the possibility of adverse health effects that might occur due to the exposure of this radiation, a project of microwave radiation safety assessment around MTBS by MINT was carried out (September 2003 - January 2006). It was involved with 128 MTBS from three biggest service providers in Malaysia. This assessment is required to establish a baseline data in term of pattern and trend of the radiation emission from the facilities as well as to develop a public confident. In this paper, it will describe the fact that radiation is critical to the MTBS system and without the radiation, the MTBS system is functionless. It will also highlight the result of the assessment's work that has been carried out by MINT around MTBS mounted on the rooftops and towers. The average reading varies between the detection limit of the instrument 2 ( 2 (7.204 V/m). The highest average reading corresponds to about 2.0% of the Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia (MCMC) exposure limit for public. The finding of this measurement confirms that the presence of RF and MW radiation in public accessible area around the base station was very low and comparable to the radiation levels in other places away from MTBS. There is also no evidence, from any laboratory or epidemiology studies that the exposure to RF energy levels recommended limits has any health significance for humans. (Author)

  4. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. GSM base stations: short-term effects on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Florian, Matthias; Pauser, Gernot; Oberfeld, Gerd; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular phone base station RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) exposure on psychological symptoms (good mood, alertness, calmness) as measured by a standardized well-being questionnaire. Fifty-seven participants were selected and randomly assigned to one of three different exposure scenarios. Each of those scenarios subjected participants to five 50-min exposure sessions, with only the first four relevant for the study of psychological symptoms. Three exposure levels were created by shielding devices in a field laboratory, which could be installed or removed during the breaks between sessions such that double-blinded conditions prevailed. The overall median power flux densities were 5.2 microW/m(2) during "low," 153.6 microW/m(2) during "medium," and 2126.8 microW/m(2) during "high" exposure sessions. For scenario HM and MH, the first and third sessions were "low" exposure. The second session was "high" and the fourth was "medium" in scenario HM; and vice versa for scenario MH. Scenario LL had four successive "low" exposure sessions constituting the reference condition. Participants in scenarios HM and MH (high and medium exposure) were significantly calmer during those sessions than participants in scenario LL (low exposure throughout) (P = 0.042). However, no significant differences between exposure scenarios in the "good mood" or "alertness" factors were obtained. We conclude that short-term exposure to GSM base station signals may have an impact on well-being by reducing psychological arousal. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sistem Pakar Troubleshooting Base Transceiver Station untuk Efisiensi Kinerja Teknisi (Studi Kasus: PT. KMS TELECOM PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Yunefri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDalam suatu jaringan telekomunikasi, Base Transceiver Station (BTS sangatlah penting, karena menghubungkan jaringan suatu operator telekomunikasi seluler dengan pelanggannya. Keterbatasan tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman dalam maintanance BTS akan menghambat pelayanan operator yang optimal kepada pelanggan, sehingga diperlukanlah suatu sistem pakar yang dapat menggantikan kemampuan dari tenaga ahli dalam melakukan penanganan troubleshooting BTS. Desain program troubleshooting BTS pada penelitian ini terdiri dari 3 bagian utama yaitu bagian pertama  user interface dimana user memilih jenis alarm yang muncul kemudian user dapat melakukan diagnosa kerusakan berdasarkan alarm yang muncul; bagian kedua admin interface, pada bagian ini diperuntukan bagi admin untuk menginputkan pengetahuan (knowledge, aturan (rule, selain itu digunakan untuk mengatur database; bagian ketiga pakar, pada bagian ini diperuntukkan bagi pakar untuk menginputkan pengetahuan (knowledge, user yang login sebagai pakar memiliki hak akses penuh untuk menginputkan basis pengetahuan. Kata kunci: Base Transceiver Station, Sistem Pakar, Troubleshooting Abstract Abstract prepared well, allowing the reader to identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests, and thus they can decide whether to read the document as a whole or not. Abstracts should be informative and really clear, providing a clear statement of what the existing problems, approaches or solutions proposed, and shows the main findings and conclusions. The length of abstract should be 100 to 150 words. Abstracts must be written in the form of passive / past. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. There was no citation in the abstract. List of key words provides an opportunity to add keywords, which are used to layaan's index pengabstrakan right and, in addition to the existing ones in the title. The use of the right

  7. Risk and benefit perceptions of mobile phone and base station technology in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Khan, Moin; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-06-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and rapid introduction of mobile communication technologies. This study aims to identify factors that are influential in determining the tradeoffs that Bangladeshi citizens make between risks and benefits in terms of mobile phone technology acceptance and health concerns associated with the technology. Bangladesh was selected as representative of many developing countries inasmuch as terrestrial telephone infrastructure is insubstantial, and mobile phone use has expanded rapidly over the last decade, even among the poor. Issues of importance were identified in a small-scale qualitative study among Bangladeshi citizens (n = 13), followed by a survey within a sample of Bangladeshi citizens (n = 500). The results demonstrate that, in general, the perceived benefits of mobile phone technology outweigh the risks. The perceived benefits are primarily related to the social and personal advantages of mobile phone use, including the ability to receive emergency news about floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters. Base stations were seen as a symbol of societal advance. The results furthermore suggest that overall risk perceptions are relatively low, in particular health risks, and are primarily driven by perceptions that related to crime and social inconvenience. Perceived health risks are relatively small. These findings show that risk communication and management may be particularly effective when contextual factors of the society where the system is implemented are taken into consideration.

  8. The Reduction of TED in Ion Implanted Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amitabh

    2008-01-01

    The leading challenge in the continued scaling of junctions made by ion implantation and annealing is the control of the undesired transient enhanced diffusion (TED) effect. Spike annealing has been used as a means to reduce this effect and has proven successful in previous nodes. The peak temperature in this process is typically 1050 deg. C and the time spent within 50 deg. C of the peak is of the order of 1.5 seconds. As technology advances along the future scaling roadmap, further reduction or elimination of the enhanced diffusion effect is necessary. We have shown that raising the peak temperature to 1175 deg. C or more and reduction of the anneal time at peak temperature to less than a millisecond is effective in eliminating enhanced diffusion. We show that it is possible to employ a sequence of millisecond anneal followed by spike anneal to obtain profiles that do not exhibit gradient degradation at the junction and have junction depth and sheet resistance appropriate to the needs of future technology nodes. We have implemented millisecond annealing using a carbon dioxide laser to support high-volume manufacturing of 65 nm microprocessors and system-on-chip products. We further show how the use of molecular ion implantation to produce amorphousness followed by laser annealing to produce solid phase epitaxial regrowth results in junctions that meet the shallow depth and abruptness requirements of the 32 nm node.

  9. The Reduction of TED in Ion Implanted Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amitabh

    2008-11-01

    The leading challenge in the continued scaling of junctions made by ion implantation and annealing is the control of the undesired transient enhanced diffusion (TED) effect. Spike annealing has been used as a means to reduce this effect and has proven successful in previous nodes. The peak temperature in this process is typically 1050 °C and the time spent within 50 °C of the peak is of the order of 1.5 seconds. As technology advances along the future scaling roadmap, further reduction or elimination of the enhanced diffusion effect is necessary. We have shown that raising the peak temperature to 1175 °C or more and reduction of the anneal time at peak temperature to less than a millisecond is effective in eliminating enhanced diffusion. We show that it is possible to employ a sequence of millisecond anneal followed by spike anneal to obtain profiles that do not exhibit gradient degradation at the junction and have junction depth and sheet resistance appropriate to the needs of future technology nodes. We have implemented millisecond annealing using a carbon dioxide laser to support high-volume manufacturing of 65 nm microprocessors and system-on-chip products. We further show how the use of molecular ion implantation to produce amorphousness followed by laser annealing to produce solid phase epitaxial regrowth results in junctions that meet the shallow depth and abruptness requirements of the 32 nm node.

  10. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  13. The US space station: Potential base for a spaceborne microwave facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconnell, D.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts for a U.S. space station were studied to achieve the full potential of the Space Shuttle and to provide a more permanent presence in space. The space station study is summarized in the following questions: Given a space station in orbit in the 1990's, how should it best be used to achieve science and applications objectives important at that time? To achieve those objectives, of what elements should the station be comprised and how should the elements be configured and equipped. These questions are addressed.

  14. Sensitivity and responsiveness of the patient-reported TED-QOL to rehabilitative surgery in thyroid eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayers, Tessa; Fayers, Peter M; Dolman, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    We tested the sensitivity and responsiveness of the TED-QOL to rehabilitative surgery in thyroid eye disease (TED). The 3-item TED-QOL and 16-item GO-QOL, which assess quality of life (QoL) in TED, were administered to consecutive patients undergoing rehabilitative surgery. The questionnaires were completed pre-and post-operatively to assess sensitivity (ability to discriminate between different surgical groups) and responsiveness (ability to detect within patient changes over time).56 patients underwent 69 procedures for TED (29 orbital decompressions, 15 strabismus operations, 25 eyelid procedures). The differences in scores between the three types of surgery (a measure of sensitivity) were statistically significant at the 5% level pre-operatively and post-operatively for all 3 TED-QOL scales and for both GO-QOL scales, but much more so for the TED-QOL scales in each case. The within-patient changes between the pre- and post-operative scores for the same subjects (a measure of responsiveness) were statistically very highly significant for the TED-QOL overall and appearance scales for each of the surgeries. The pre- and post-operative difference for the TED-QOL functioning scale was highly statistically significant for strabismus surgery but not for decompression or lid surgery. The change between the pre- and post-operative scores for the GO-QOL was significant for the functioning scale with strabismus and lid surgery, and was highly significant for the appearance scale with lid surgery but not for strabismus surgery or decompression. The 3-item TED-QOL is sensitive and responsive to rehabilitative surgery in TED and compares favorably with the lengthier GO-QOL for these parameters.

  15. Identification of Homogeneous Stations for Quality Monitoring Network of Mashhad Aquifer Based on Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For water resources monitoring, Evaluation of groundwater quality obtained via detailed analysis of pollution data. The most fundamental analysis is to identify the exact measurement of dangerous zones and homogenous station identification in terms of pollution. In case of quality evaluation, the monitoring improvement could be achieved via identifying homogenous wells in terms of pollution. Presenting a method for clustering is essential in large amounts of quality data for aquifer monitoring and quality evaluation, including identification of homogeneous stations of monitoring network and their clustering based on pollution. In this study, with the purpose of Mashhad aquifer quality evaluation, clustering have been studied based on Euclidean distance and Entropy criteria. Cluster analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other groups (clusters. SNI as a combined entropy measure for clustering calculated from dividing mutual information of two values (pollution index values to the joint entropy. These measures apply as similar distance criteria for monitoring stations clustering. Materials and Methods: First, nitrate data (as pollution index and electrical conductivity (EC (as covariate collected from the related locational situation of 287 wells in statistical period 2002 to 2011. Having identified the outlying data and estimating non-observed points by spatial-temporal Kriging method and then standardizes them, the clustering process was carried out. A similar distance of wells calculated through a clustering process based on Euclidean distance and Entropy (SNI criteria. This difference explained by characteristics such as the location of wells (longitude & latitude and the pollution index (nitrate. Having obtained a similar distance of each well to others, the hierarchical clustering

  16. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both...

  17. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI KREDITOR DALAM PENGGUNAAN BASE TRANSCEIFER STATION (BTS SEBAGAI OBJEK JAMINAN FIDUSIA DALAM PERJANJIAN KREDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Malikhatun Badriyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of telecommunications business major effect on development. However, this requires a relatively large funds , so that the telecommunications service provider is in need of funds from the bank to the credit agreement . Bank has a big risk in lending this , so we need guarantees, one of which fiduciary guarantee with objects Base Transceiver Station . The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the use of Base Transceiver Station in the credit agreement and what if the debtor defaults. The research  method is a normative juridical. From the results it can be seen that the Base Transceiver Station ( BTS is a moving object that can be the object of fiduciary guarantee . If the debtor defaults , BTS can be executed in accordance with the stipulated in Fiduciary Guarantee Act.

  18. Downlink Channel Estimation in Cellular Systems with Antenna Arrays at Base Stations Using Channel Probing with Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biguesh Mehrzad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile communication systems with multisensor antennas at base stations, downlink channel estimation plays a key role because accurate channel estimates are needed for transmit beamforming. One efficient approach to this problem is channel probing with feedback. In this method, the base station array transmits probing (training signals. The channel is then estimated from feedback reports provided by the users. This paper studies the performance of the channel probing method with feedback using a multisensor base station antenna array and single-sensor users. The least squares (LS, linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE, and a new scaled LS (SLS approaches to the channel estimation are studied. Optimal choice of probing signals is investigated for each of these techniques and their channel estimation performances are analyzed. In the case of multiple LS channel estimates, the best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE scheme for their linear combining is developed and studied.

  19. Performance of a radio link between a base station and a medical implant utilising the MICS standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders J

    2004-01-01

    Modern medical implants are of increasing complexity and with that, the need for fast and flexible communication with them grows. A wireless system is preferable and an inductive link is the most commonly used. But it has the drawback of a very short range, essentially limited to having the external transceiver touching the patient. The Medical Implant Communication System, MICS, is a standard aimed at improving the communication distance. It operates at a higher frequency band between 402 MHz and 405 MHz. We have by simulations and measurements investigated the channel properties of this band and calculated the link performance for a typical implant application. The result is a link speed between a base station and a bedridden patient of 600 kbit bits per second with a bit error rate of 2% in the downlink to the implant and 1 % in the uplink to the base station. Conclusions on the necessary complexity of the base station are also given.

  20. THE ROLES OF TED TALKS AND VLOG IN ENHANCING STUDENTS‘ ACTIVENESS IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candradewi Wahyu Anggraeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to describe the roles of TED Talks and Vlog in enhancing students‘ activeness in speaking class and to explain the students‘ perspectives toward the use of TED Talks and Vlog in speaking class. The research method used in this research is qualitative research design in the form of case study. The instruments of data collection are documents of students‘ vlog, observation, questionnaire, and interview. The participants of this research are the students of speaking class. This research has three significances which consist of theoretical, practical, and pedagogical significances. The theoretical significance is the research contributes to prove and add the speaking theories, whereas the practical significance is the research can be conducted by teachers, lecturers, or researchers to figure out the roles and the ways to improve students‘ participation in speaking class. In addition, the pedagogical significance shows that this research provides a reference of the use TED Talks and Vlog in enhancing students‘ activeness in speaking class, helps the students to be active in speaking class by following the lecturer‘s instruction toward the speaking activities given, and can be used as the empirical research finding toward students‘ activeness in speaking class. The findings show that TED Talks and Vlog have seven roles in order to help the students to be more active in speaking class and reveal the students‘ perceptions about virtues and hurdles toward the use of TED Talks and Vlog in speaking class.

  1. A community of curious souls: an analysis of commenting behavior on TED talks videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Andrew; Thelwall, Mike; Mongeon, Philippe; Sugimoto, Cassidy R

    2014-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Talks website hosts video recordings of various experts, celebrities, academics, and others who discuss their topics of expertise. Funded by advertising and members but provided free online, TED Talks have been viewed over a billion times and are a science communication phenomenon. Although the organization has been derided for its populist slant and emphasis on entertainment value, no previous research has assessed audience reactions in order to determine the degree to which presenter characteristics and platform affect the reception of a video. This article addresses this issue via a content analysis of comments left on both the TED website and the YouTube platform (on which TED Talks videos are also posted). It was found that commenters were more likely to discuss the characteristics of a presenter on YouTube, whereas commenters tended to engage with the talk content on the TED website. In addition, people tended to be more emotional when the speaker was a woman (by leaving comments that were either positive or negative). The results can inform future efforts to popularize science amongst the public, as well as to provide insights for those looking to disseminate information via Internet videos.

  2. A community of curious souls: an analysis of commenting behavior on TED talks videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tsou

    Full Text Available The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks website hosts video recordings of various experts, celebrities, academics, and others who discuss their topics of expertise. Funded by advertising and members but provided free online, TED Talks have been viewed over a billion times and are a science communication phenomenon. Although the organization has been derided for its populist slant and emphasis on entertainment value, no previous research has assessed audience reactions in order to determine the degree to which presenter characteristics and platform affect the reception of a video. This article addresses this issue via a content analysis of comments left on both the TED website and the YouTube platform (on which TED Talks videos are also posted. It was found that commenters were more likely to discuss the characteristics of a presenter on YouTube, whereas commenters tended to engage with the talk content on the TED website. In addition, people tended to be more emotional when the speaker was a woman (by leaving comments that were either positive or negative. The results can inform future efforts to popularize science amongst the public, as well as to provide insights for those looking to disseminate information via Internet videos.

  3. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  4. Final Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Base Exchange Service Station Underground Storage Tank Area, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This pilot test work plan presents the scope of an in situ enhanced biological degradation, or "bioventing", pilot test for treatment of gasoline- contaminated soils at the Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS...

  5. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for Naval Air Stations Dallas, Texas, and Memphis, Tennessee, Realigning to Carswell Air Reserve Base, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... This report provides the results of the audit of 16 projects, valued at $122 million, for the realignment of the Naval Air Stations Memphis, Tennessee, and Dallas, Texas, to Carswell Air Reserve Base, Texas...

  6. Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) and prevention of blood aspiration with superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) using the tracheotomy-endoscope (TED): results of numerical and experimental simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Andreas; Langebach, Robin; Klemm, Eckart; Heller, Winfried

    2012-04-01

    We describe an innovative computer-based method for the analysis of gas flow using a modified airway management technique to perform percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) with a rigid tracheotomy endoscope (TED). A test lung was connected via an artificial trachea with the tracheotomy endoscope and ventilated using superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation. Red packed cells were instilled during the puncture phase of a simulated percutaneous tracheotomy in a trachea model and migration of the red packed cells during breathing was continuously measured. Simultaneously, the calculation of the gas-flow within the endoscope was numerically simulated. In the experimental study, no backflow of blood occurred during the use of superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) from the trachea into the endoscope nor did any transportation of blood into the lower respiratory tract occur. In parallel, the numerical simulations of the openings of TED show almost positive volume flows. Under the conditions investigated there is no risk of blood aspiration during PDT using the TED and simultaneous ventilation with SHFJV. In addition, no risk of impairment of endoscopic visibility exists through a backflow of blood into the TED. The method of numerical simulation offers excellent insight into the fluid flow even under highly transient conditions like jet ventilation.

  7. Free-free and fixed base modal survey tests of the Space Station Common Module Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the testing aspects and the problems encountered during the free-free and fixed base modal surveys completed on the original Space Station Common Module Prototype (CMP). The CMP is a 40-ft long by 14.5-ft diameter 'waffle-grid' cylinder built by the Boeing Company and housed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) near Huntsville, AL. The CMP modal survey tests were conducted at MSFC by the Dynamics Test Branch. The free-free modal survey tests (June '90 to Sept. '90) included interface verification tests (IFVT), often referred to as impedance measurements, mass-additive testing and linearity studies. The fixed base modal survey tests (Feb. '91 to April '91), including linearity studies, were conducted in a fixture designed to constrain the CMP in 7 total degrees-of-freedom at five trunnion interfaces (two primary, two secondary, and the keel). The fixture also incorporated an airbag off-load system designed to alleviate the non-linear effects of friction in the primary and secondary trunnion interfaces. Numerous test configurations were performed with the objective of providing a modal data base for evaluating the various testing methodologies to verify dynamic finite element models used for input to coupled load analysis.

  8. Fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband noise radar with steerable power spectrum and colorless base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jianbin; Wei, Li; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Lixian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2014-03-10

    A fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar was achieved, which consists of a chaotic UWB noise source based on optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), a fiber-distributed transmission link, a colorless base station (BS), and a cross-correlation processing module. Due to a polarization modulation based microwave photonic filter and an electrical UWB pass-band filter embedded in the feedback loop of the OEO, the power spectrum of chaotic UWB signal could be shaped and notch-filtered to avoid the spectrum-overlay-induced interference to the narrow band signals. Meanwhile, the wavelength-reusing could be implemented in the BS by means of the distributed polarization modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion. The experimental comparison for range finding was carried out as the chaotic UWB signal was notch-filtered at 5.2 GHz and 7.8 GHz or not. Measured results indicate that space resolution with cm-level could be realized after 3-km fiber transmission thanks to the excellent self-correlation property of the UWB noise signal provided by the OEO. The performance deterioration of the radar raised by the energy loss of the notch-filtered noise signal was negligible.

  9. Flywheel-Based Distributed Bus Signalling Strategy for the Public Fast Charging Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stepjan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Fast charging stations (FCS) are able to recharge plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) in less than half an hour, thus representing an appealing concept to vehicle owners since the off-road time is similar as for refuelling at conventional public gas stations. However, since these FCS plugs...

  10. Optimal Allocation of Changing Station for Electric Vehicle Based on Queuing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle as the main development direction of the future automotive industry, has gained attention worldwide. The rationality of the planning and construction of the power station, as the foundation of energy supply, is an important premise for the development of electric vehicles. In full consideration of the electric demand and electricity consumption, this paper proposes a new construction mode in which charging station and centralized charging station are appropriately combined and presents a location optimization model. Not only can this model be applied to determine the appropriate location for the power station, but it can use the queuing theory to determine the optimal number of power equipment, with which we can achieve the minimum costs. Finally, taking a certain city as an example, the optimum plan for power station is calculated by using this model, which provides an important reference for the study of electric vehicle infrastructure planning.

  11. Minimum long-term cost solution for remote telecommunication stations on the basis of photovoltaic-based hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Ninou, I.; Zafirakis, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the telecommunication (T/C) services' expansion to rural and remote areas, the market generally responds with the minimum investments required. Considering the existing situation, cost-effective operation of the T/C infrastructure installed in these regions (i.e. remote T/C stations) becomes critical. However, since in most cases grid-connection is not feasible, the up-to-now electrification solution for remote T/C stations is based on the operation of costly, oil consuming and heavy polluting diesel engines. Instead, the use of photovoltaic (PV)-based hybrid power stations is currently examined, using as a case study a representative remote T/C station of the Greek territory. In this context, the present study is concentrated on the detailed cost-benefit analysis of the proposed solution. More precisely, the main part of the analysis is devoted to develop a complete electricity production cost model, accordingly applied for numerous oil consumption and service period scenarios. Note that in all cases examined, zero load rejections is a prerequisite while minimum long-term cost solutions designated are favorably compared with the diesel-only solution. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, demonstrating the impact of the main economic parameters on the energy production cost of optimum sized PV-diesel hybrid power stations, is also provided. - Research highlights: → Expansion of telecommunication (T/C) in remote areas is vital for their development. → Off-grid T/C stations employed in such areas operate on diesel engines. → The use of PV-diesel-battery hybrid power stations is currently examined. → A detailed long-term electricity production cost model is developed. → Cost-effectiveness of the proposed system is reflected for numerous configurations.

  12. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Educator and Future Teacher Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TEDS-M educator and future teacher data files. These derived variables were used to report data in the TEDS-M international reports. The variables that constitute the scales and indices are made available as part of the TEDS-M International Database to be used in…

  13. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Performance Analysis of 3D Massive MIMO Cellular Systems with Collaborative Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive MIMO have drawn considerable attention as they enable significant capacity and coverage improvement in wireless cellular network. However, pilot contamination is a great challenge in massive MIMO systems. Under this circumstance, cooperation and three-dimensional (3D MIMO are emerging technologies to eliminate the pilot contamination and to enhance the performance relative to the traditional interference-limited implementations. Motivated by this, we investigate the achievable sum rate performance of MIMO systems in the uplink employing cooperative base station (BS and 3D MIMO systems. In our model, we consider the effects of both large-scale and small-scale fading, as well as the spatial correlation and indoor-to-outdoor high-rise propagation environment. In particular, we investigate the cooperative communication model based on 3D MIMO and propose a closed-form lower bound on the sum rate. Utilizing this bound, we pursue a “large-system” analysis and provide the asymptotic expression when the number of antennas at the BS grows large, and when the numbers of antennas at transceiver grow large with a fixed ratio. We demonstrate that the lower bound is very tight and becomes exact in the massive MIMO system limits. Finally, under the sum rate maximization condition, we derive the optimal number of UTs to be served.

  15. Monte Carlo dose calculation using a cell processor based PlayStation 3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, James C L; Lam, Phil; Jaffray, David A, E-mail: james.chow@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-02-09

    This study investigates the performance of the EGSnrc computer code coupled with a Cell-based hardware in Monte Carlo simulation of radiation dose in radiotherapy. Performance evaluations of two processor-intensive functions namely, HOWNEAR and RANMAR{sub G}ET in the EGSnrc code were carried out basing on the 20-80 rule (Pareto principle). The execution speeds of the two functions were measured by the profiler gprof specifying the number of executions and total time spent on the functions. A testing architecture designed for Cell processor was implemented in the evaluation using a PlayStation3 (PS3) system. The evaluation results show that the algorithms examined are readily parallelizable on the Cell platform, provided that an architectural change of the EGSnrc was made. However, as the EGSnrc performance was limited by the PowerPC Processing Element in the PS3, PC coupled with graphics processing units or GPCPU may provide a more viable avenue for acceleration.

  16. Soil classification in 15 accelerographic stations, using methods based on ambient vibrations and VS30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The techniques H/V, FK and SPAC were applied, all based on the measurement of surface waves main generated by ambient vibrations, for the soil characterization of 15 selected sites. 12 of them corresponding to accelerographic stations of the Laboratorio de Ingenieria Sismica of the Universidad de Costa Rica. 8 sensors (triaxial geophones) were placed for that purpose in circular arrayz, and spectral ratios (from H/V) dispersion curves (from FK) and autocorrelation curves (from SPAC) were obtained for each site considered. The soil type was determined, based on above, according to the site characteristic period (T 0 ) read from H/V. Each site was also classified according to the Seismic Code of Costa Rica (2010) and the parameter Vs30 calculated from the inversion of dispersion curves and autocorrelation. The values of T 0 vary between 0,3 s to 1,5 s and the Vs30 between 244 m/s to 379 m/s have indicated that soils correspond to S 3 (soft soil, 67% of all cases). The discovery of sites whose classification corresponds to S 1 (rock) or S 4 (very soft soil) was discarded. (author) [es

  17. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Base Station Sleeping in Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    The energy consumption of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry, which has become a serious problem, is mostly due to the network infrastructure rather than the mobile terminals. In this paper, we focus on reducing the energy consumption of base stations (BSs) by adjusting their working modes (active or sleep). Specifically, the objective is to minimize the energy consumption while satisfying quality of service (QoS, e.g., blocking probability) requirement and, at the same time, avoiding frequent mode switching to reduce signaling and delay overhead. The problem is modeled as a dynamic programming (DP) problem, which is NP-hard in general. Based on cooperation among neighboring BSs, a low-complexity algorithm is proposed to reduce the size of state space as well as that of action space. Simulations demonstrate that, with the proposed algorithm, the active BS pattern well meets the time variation and the non-uniform spatial distribution of system traffic. Moreover, the tradeoff between the energy saving from BS sleeping and the cost of switching is well balanced by the proposed scheme.

  18. The success rate of TED upper eyelid retraction reoperations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Shani; Rootman, Dan B; Goldberg, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    Although reoperation rates for upper lid retraction surgery for thyroid eye disease (TED) typically range between 8% and 23%, there is little literature describing the outcomes of these second operations. In this retrospective observational cohort study, all patients that underwent surgery for upper eyelid retraction over a 14-year period at a single institution were included. Cases were included if a second eyelid retraction surgery was performed during the study period. Success of surgery was defined as a marginal reflex distance (MRD1) of 2.5 to 4.5 mm in each eye and less than 1 mm difference in MRD1 between the eyes. Overcorrection and undercorrection were defined as above and below these bounds, respectively. 72 eyes in 49 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 56.6 (±11.5) years. By definition, all patients had at least 1 lid lengthening surgery for upper eyelid retraction, and at least 1 subsequent surgery. For this second surgery, 61 eyes (85%) underwent retraction surgery and 11 eyes (15%) underwent ptosis surgery. After this second operation, 31% were undercorrected and 33% were overcorrected. A third surgery was performed in 19 eyes (25%), 12 had surgery for residual retraction and 7 for ptosis. After the third operation 10% of eyes were under corrected and 11% were over corrected. Four patients underwent a fourth surgery: one for retraction and three for ptosis. Success was noted in 35% after the second surgery and 44% after the third. Surgical success in eyelid retraction surgery increases from a second to a third consecutive surgery, and residual asymmetry was roughly equally distributed between over- and undercorrection.

  19. GAMBARAN GANGGUAN CEMAS MASYARAKAT DI SEKITAR MENARA BASE TRANCEIVER STATION/BTS DI BANDUNG DAN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA research on Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People Arround The Base Tranceiver Stations (BTSs in Jakarta and Bandung was conducted to study the influence of BTS existence on the residents’ mental health condition.The research design was cross-sectional The number of sample was 655 people scattered in 10 BTSs. The data was collected through interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI questionnaires, conducted by researchers of Center for Public Health Intervention Technology, NIHRD. Data processing and analysis were performed bivariate between the house’s distances from BTSs and the occurrences of anxiety disorder. The results showed that 64,8% of respondents in Bandung and 57,8% of respondents in Jakarta have a general health complaints such as dizziness/headaches, cough and fever, and suffering from degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus (DM. Specially for mental health, there is a significant association between respondents’ anxiety disorders and the distance of their house from the BTSs (p<0,05. The proportion of respondents suffering from anxiety disorder is higher for respondents whose house is located less than 100 meters from the BTSs than those who have their house at a greater distance (over 100 meters. The respondents living near BTSs in Bandung and Jakarta have general health problems. The anxiety disorder is most likely triggered by the BTSs existence near their house.Keywords : Base Transceiver Station, Radiation, Anxiety DisorderAbstrakTelah dilakukan Penelitian Pengaruh Medan Elektromagnetik Terhadap Kesehatan Masyarakat Di Sekitar Menara Pemancar Telepon Seluler (BTS di Jakarta dan Bandung, Disain dari penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan jumlah sampel 655 orang yang tersebar di sekitar 10 BTS. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara menggunakan kuesioner Mini International of Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI oleh peneliti

  20. Over 600 mobile base station measurements in Buenos Aires City, how far are general public limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Anibal; Dalmas Di Giovanni, Norberto; Garcia Diaz, Javier; Douthat, Analia; Munoz, Claudio; Saint Nom, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The general public worries about non ionizing radiation (NIR), produced by mobile base station aren't new, mainly in big cities like Buenos Aires where the amount of antennas of wide communication services (mobile, data links, FM Broadcasting, TV and others), are so considerable. Buenos Aires City has 3 million inhabitants in a surface of 203 km 2 and has about 700 mobile base stations between macro and micro cells. When public demand arrived to local government authorities, the first logical step was to promote a big measurement campaign to do a radiation map of the city. This measurement campaign has been done for two measurement teams, one with CITEFA NIR specialists and the other with ITBA NIR specialists, during 6 months. Local NRI measurement guidelines established that has to be taken between 12 and 16 points around NRI source in a 50 m or 100 m radius, depending on the neighbourhood buildings features (buildings located in the centre of the city aren't the same as a quiet house district). The obtained measured values had to be compared with Argentinean exposure limits, which are the same that ICNIRP limits. With over 7500 measured points in the entire city with wide band instruments (200 kHz-40 GHz), we have started our analysis. This information has been used by local authorities to upgrade a radiation map that can be consulted on the local government internet site. We have compared the obtained values with some international general public exposure limits. From this comparison we found that over 90% of measured points were under general public ICNIRP cell phone frequency limits, but the surprise was that, about 80% of them were below Russian limits (6 V/m) that are the strictest of the world. According to the obtained results and to provide a conclusion we could say that, if in a big city with a very high NIR sources density, we find a majority of lower limits values, this situation will be better in a little town with few NIR sources. However

  1. i-TED: A novel concept for high-sensitivity (n,γ) cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2016-07-01

    A new method for measuring (n , γ) cross-sections aiming at enhanced signal-to-background ratio is presented. This new approach is based on the combination of the pulse-height weighting technique with a total energy detection system that features γ-ray imaging capability (i-TED). The latter allows one to exploit Compton imaging techniques to discriminate between true capture γ-rays arising from the sample under study and background γ-rays coming from contaminant neutron (prompt or delayed) captures in the surrounding environment. A general proof-of-concept detection system for this application is presented in this paper together with a description of the imaging method and a conceptual demonstration based on Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Szyjkowska, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  3. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Infrared and near infrared emission spectra of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Shayesteh, Alireza; Fu, Dejian; Bernath, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    The vibration-rotation emission spectra for the X2Π ground state and the near infrared emission spectra of the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 system of the TeH and TeD free radicals have been measured at high resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. TeH and TeD were generated in a tube furnace with a DC discharge of a flowing mixture of argon, hydrogen (or deuterium), and tellurium vapor. In the infrared region, for the X2Π 3/2 spin component we observed the 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 vibrational bands for most of the eight isotopologues of TeH and the 1-0 and 2-1 bands for three isotopologues of TeD. For the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transition, we observed the 0-0 and 1-1 bands for TeH and the 0-0, 1-1, and 2-2 bands for TeD. Except for a few lines, the tellurium isotopic shift was not resolved for the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transitions of TeH and TeD. Local perturbations with Δ v = 2 between the two spin components of the X2Π state of TeH were found: X2Π 1/2, v = 0 with X2Π 3/2, v = 2; X2Π 1/2, v = 1 with X2Π 3/2, v = 3. The new data were combined with the previous data from the literature and two kinds of fits (Hund's case (a) and Hund's case (c)) were carried out for each of the 10 observed isotopologues: 130TeD, 128TeD, 126TeD, 130TeH, 128TeH, 126TeH, 125TeH, 124TeH, 123TeH, and 122TeH.

  5. Near-infrared emission bands of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, E. H.; Setzer, K. D.; Ramsay, D. A.; Vervloet, M.

    1989-11-01

    High-resolution emission spectra of TeH and TeD have been obtained in the region 4200 to 3600 cm -1 using a Bomem DA3.002 Fourier transform spectrometer. Analyses are given for the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of the X 22Π{1}/{2}-X 12Π{3}/{2} system of TeH and for the 0-0 band of TeD. In addition the 2-0 vibrational overtone bands of 130TeH, 128TeH, and 126TeH are observed and analyzed. Accurate molecular constants are given for the first time.

  6. Microporous metal organic framework [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO2/N2 separation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, William W.; Pramanik, Sanhita; Zhang, Zhijuan; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO2 is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO2 from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO2 and N2 adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn2(hfipbb)2(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO2 strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2, making it promising for capturing and separating CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures.

  7. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sistem Pakar Troubleshooting Base Transceiver Station untuk Efisiensi Kinerja Teknisi (Studi Kasus : Pt.kms Telecom Pekanbaru)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunefri, Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Dalam suatu jaringan telekomunikasi, Base Transceiver Station (BTS) sangatlah penting, karena menghubungkan jaringan suatu operator telekomunikasi seluler dengan pelanggannya. Keterbatasan tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman dalam maintanance BTS akan menghambat pelayanan operator yang optimal kepada pelanggan, sehingga diperlukanlah suatu sistem pakar yang dapat menggantikan kemampuan dari tenaga ahli dalam melakukan penanganan troubleshooting BTS. Desain program troubleshooting BTS pada peneliti...

  9. Modeled and perceived RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations in relation to symptom reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Technological changes have led to a rapid increase in the use of mobile technology. This is coupled with an increase in the number of mobile phone base stations that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). There are concerns about the potential health effects of this exposure among

  10. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on

  11. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. (authors)

  12. A High-Efficiency 100-W GaN Three-Way Doherty Amplifier for Base-Station Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelk, M.J.; Neo, W.C.E.; Gajadharsing, J.R.; Pengelly, R.S.; De Vreede, L.C.N.

    2008-01-01

    A three-way Doherty 100-W GaN base-station power amplifier at 2.14 GHz is presented. Simple, but accurate design equations for the output power combiner of the amplifier are introduced. Mixed-signal techniques are utilized for uncompromised control of the amplifier stages to optimize efficiency, as

  13. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  14. Study of variations of radiofrequency power density from mobile phone base stations with distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayinmode, B. O.; Farai, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    The variations of radiofrequency (RF) radiation power density with distance around some mobile phone base stations (BTSs), in ten randomly selected locations in Ibadan, western Nigeria, were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser. The maximum Global System of Mobile (GSM) communication 1800 signal power density was 323.91 μW m -2 at 250 m radius of a BTS and that of GSM 900 was 1119.00 μW m -2 at 200 m radius of another BTS. The estimated total maximum power density was 2972.00 μW m -2 at 50 m radius of a different BTS. This study shows that the maximum carrier signal power density and the total maximum power density from a BTS may be observed averagely at 200 and 50 m of its radius, respectively. The result of this study demonstrates that exposure of people to RF radiation from phone BTSs in Ibadan city is far less than the recommended limits by International scientific bodies. (authors)

  15. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, J. K.; Fletcher, J. J.; Darko, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 μW m -2 to as high as 10 μW m -2 for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 μW m -2 . The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years. (authors)

  16. Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Clemens

    2005-09-01

    Since a report in 1997 on an increased lymphoma incidence in mice chronically exposed to a mobile phone radiofrequency signal, none of the subsequent long-term studies in rodents have confirmed these results. On the other hand, several of the follow-up co- and carcinogenicity studies are still underway or are presently being initiated. Most of the published long-term studies used 1 exposure level only and suffer from a poor dosimetry which does not consider the animal's growth. Additional points of criticism are a limited, in some cases, questionable histopathology and inadequate group sizes. Overall, if dealing with new chemicals or drugs, these studies would not be acceptable for registration with the responsible authorities. The major critical points are taken into consideration within the European co- and carcinogenicity projects (CEMFEC and PERFORM-A), which are in their final stages and in the US long-term studies in mice and rats which are about to be initiated. Nevertheless, the WHO evaluation for health risk assessment of long-term telephone use and base station exposure will start in late 2005.

  17. Effect of Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Base Transiver Station on Liver Enzymes in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Ali Jelodar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was investigating the effect of electromagnetic wave generated by mobile and base transceiver station (900 MHz on liver enzymes in both mature and immature female age.Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 rats Sprague Dawley white mature female age 8 to 9 weeks and weight 180 to 200 g and 20 rats immature age 3 to 4 weeks, weight 80 to 100 g, each age group were randomly divided in two groups (control and test. Test groups, were daily for four hours and four different times exposed to electromagnetic waves with signal generator (900 MHz, 5-meter intervals. Control groups were kept at equal condition (themperature and light in laboratory during experiment. After at the end experimental period, blood was collected by heart puncture of all animal. Exposure to EMF generated by BTS had significant effect on liver enzymes composition in mature and immature rats.Results: AST, ALT and ALP in immature-test groups decreased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05. ALP in mature-test groups increased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: These result suggest that exposure to EMF generated by BTS has a deleterious effect on liver enzymes and that this effect is more sever in immature animals.

  18. Optimasi Peletakan Base Transceiver Station Di Kabupaten Mojokerto Menggunakan Algoritma Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadi Arif Nugraha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aspek penting dalam perencanaan infrastruktur jaringan seluler adalah Base Transceiver Station (BTS yang merupakan sebuah pemancar dan penerima sinyal telephone seluler. Di satu sisi, peningkatan jumlah menara memang akan mendukung tercapainya pemenuhan kebutuhan masyarakat terhadap layanan telekomunikasi. Namun di sisi lain, penempatan menara yang  tanpa perencanaan serta koordinasi yang tepat akan menimbulkan jumlah menara yang berlebih sehingga dapat mengganggu estetika lingkungan, tata ruang suatu wilayah, dan radiasi gelombang radio yang tidak terkontrol sehingga sangat mengganggu. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas, maka dapat diselesaikan dengan cara menyusun suatu master plan yang lengkap dan rinci tentang penataan lokasi menara di Kabupaten Mojokerto untuk lima tahun mendatang. Penataan lokasi menara dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Differential Evolution (DE untuk menemukan solusi penataan menara yang baik berdasarkan luas cakupan area sel yang dihasilkan, kemudian menggunakan software MapInfo sebagai media visualisasi peta lokasi penempatan menara telekomunikasi. Dalam perancangan menara BTS tahun 2019, Kabupaten Mojokerto membutuhkan 106 menara BTS 2G dan 36 menara BTS 3G. Penempatan menara BTS 2G dan 3G menggunakan algoritma differential evolution mampu mengoptimalkan 2,94% dari luas wilayah Kabupaten Mojokerto

  19. Soyuz-TM-based interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Babkov, Oleg I.; Timchenko, Vladimir A.; Craig, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using the available Soyuz-TM Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) spacecraft for the assurance of the safety of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew after the departure of the Space Shuttle from SSF was proposed by the NPO Energia and was accepted by NASA in 1992. The ACRV will provide the crew with the capability to evacuate a seriously injured/ill crewmember from the SSF to a ground-based care facility under medically tolerable conditions and with the capability for a safe evacuation from SSF in the events SSF becomes uninhabitable or the Space Shuttle flights are interrupted for a time that exceeds SSF ability for crew support and/or safe operations. This paper presents the main results of studies on Phase A (including studies on the service life of ACRV; spacecraft design and operations; prelaunch processing; mission support; safety, reliability, maintenance and quality and assurance; landing, and search/rescue operations; interfaces with the SSF and with Space Shuttle; crew accommodation; motion of orbital an service modules; and ACRV injection by the Expendable Launch Vehicles), along with the objectives of further work on the Phase B.

  20. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  1. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  2. Spherical Projection Based Straight Line Segment Extraction for Single Station Terrestrial Laser Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.

  3. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

  4. The vertical pattern of microwave radiation around BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antennae in Hashtgerd township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Monazzam, Mohammadreza; Beheshti, Meisam; Zare, Sajad; Mahvi, Amirhosein

    2013-12-20

    New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its height was collected from radio communication office, and then the measurements were carried out according to IEEE STD 95. 1 by the SPECTRAN 4060. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS16 using Kolmogorov Smirnov test and multiple regression method. Results indicated that in both operators of Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval (First Operator), the power density rose with an increase in measurement height or decrease in the vertical distance of broadcaster antenna. With mix model test, a significant statistical relationship was observed between measurement height and the average power density in both types of the operators. With increasing measuring height, power density increased in both operators. The study showed installing antennae in a crowded area needs more care because of higher radiation emission. More rigid surfaces and mobile users are two important factors in crowded area that can increase wave density and hence raise public microwave exposure.

  5. Exposure assessment in front of a multi-band base station antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in front of a multi-band base station antenna for mobile communications at 900, 1800, and 2100 MHz. Finite-difference time-domain method was used to first validate the antenna model against measurement results published in the literature and then investigate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in two heterogeneous, anatomically correct human models (Virtual Family male and female) at distances from 10 to 1000 mm. Special attention was given to simultaneous exposure to fields of three different frequencies, their interaction and the additivity of SAR resulting from each frequency. The results show that the highest frequency--2100 MHz--results in the highest spatial-peak SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue, while the whole-body SAR is similar at all three frequencies. At distances > 200 mm from the antenna, the whole-body SAR is a more limiting factor for compliance to exposure guidelines, while at shorter distances the spatial-peak SAR may be more limiting. For the evaluation of combined exposure, a simple summation of spatial-peak SAR maxima at each frequency gives a good estimation for combined exposure, which was also found to depend on the distribution of transmitting power between the different frequency bands. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Darko, E O

    2009-08-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 microW m(-2) to as high as 10 microW m(-2) for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 microW m(-2). The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years.

  8. Wind characteristics on the Yucatan Peninsula based on short term data from meteorological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando; Watson, Simon; Infield, David

    2010-01-01

    Due to the availability of sparsely populated and flat open terrain, the Yucatan Peninsula located in eastern Mexico is a promising region from the perspective of wind energy development. Study of the diurnal and seasonal wind resource is an important stage in the move towards commercial exploitation of wind power in this Latin American region. An analysis of the characteristics of the wind resource of the Yucatan Peninsula is presented in this paper, based on 10 min averaged wind speed data from nine meteorological stations, between 2000 and 2007. Hourly and monthly patterns of the main environmental parameters have been examined. Highly directional behaviour was identified that reflects the influence of winds coming from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The characteristics of the wind speed variation observed at the studied sites reflected their proximity to the coast and whether they were influenced by wind coming predominantly from over the land or predominantly from over the sea. The atmospheric stability over the eastern seas of the Yucatan Peninsula was also analysed to assess thermal effects for different wind directions. The findings were consistent with the variation in average wind speeds observed at the coastal sites where winds came predominantly from over the sea. The research presented here is to be used as a basis for a wind atlas for the Yucatan Peninsula.

  9. GIS-Based Locational Analysis of Petrol Filling Stations in Kaduna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara Sanda Tah

    significant impact in the petroleum industry which has also trigger the building of petrol .... The numbers of filling station in each road were determined. In addition tables .... operators when submitting their EIA report to include the geographic ...

  10. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Kyun Chung; Young-In Won; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim

    1998-01-01

    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both sola...

  11. Service Station Evaluation Problem in Catering Service of High-Speed Railway: A Fuzzy QFD Approach Based on Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catering Service of High-Speed Railway (CSHR starts at suppliers, includes distribution centers and service stations in cities, and ends at cabinets in high-speed trains. In Distribution System Design (DSD Problem for CSHR, it is critical to evaluate the alternatives of service stations, which is termed as Service Station Evaluation Problem in Catering Service of High-speed Railway (SSEP-CSHR. As a preparation work for DSD, SSEP-CSHR needs to be solved without detailed information and being accompanied with uncertainty. Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (F-QFD has been given in the literatures to deal with vagueness in Facility Location Evaluation (FLE. However, SSEP-CSHR that includes identifying and evaluating stations requires not only dealing with the vague nature of assessments but also confirming them. Based on evidence theory, this paper introduces the framework to give the truth of proposition “x is A.” Then it is incorporated into a two-phase F-QFD with an approximate reasoning to enable the truth of the decisions to be measured. A case study that refers to 85 alternative stations on Chinese high-speed railway will be carried out to verify the proposed method. Analysis shows that the proposed evaluation method enhances scientific credibility of FLE and allows decision makers to express how much is known.

  12. Transit Station Congestion Index Research Based on Pedestrian Simulation and Gray Clustering Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A congestion phenomenon in a transit station could lead to low transfer efficiency as well as a hidden danger. Effective management of congestion phenomenon shall help to reduce the efficiency decline and danger risk. However, due to the difficulty in acquiring microcosmic pedestrian density, existing researches lack quantitative indicators to reflect congestion degree. This paper aims to solve this problem. Firstly, platform, stair, transfer tunnel, auto fare collection (AFC machine, and security check machine were chosen as key traffic facilities through large amounts of field investigation. Key facilities could be used to reflect the passenger density of a whole station. Secondly, the pedestrian density change law of each key traffic facility was analyzed using pedestrian simulation, and the load degree calculating method of each facility was defined, respectively, afterwards. Taking pedestrian density as basic data and gray clustering evaluation as algorithm, an index called Transit Station Congestion Index (TSCI was constructed to reflect the congestion degree of transit stations. Finally, an evaluation demonstration was carried out with five typical transit transfer stations in Beijing, and the evaluation results show that TSCI can objectively reflect the congestion degree of transit stations.

  13. Analisa Unjuk Kerja Mobile Based Tranceiver Station untuk Kestabilan Infrastruktur Sistem Komunikasi Seluler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvi .

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stability of the telecommunications system infrastructure, particularly in the area experienced disastrous, should be restored as soon as possible to recover communication services. One solution for the recovery is by implementing a mobile Base Transceiver Station (BTS, which can be installed easily. In this work, an analysis of Arrow type Combat mobile BTS is conducted in the area of Terbanggi Agung, Central Lampung. The performance measurement and data analysis are performed on the three sectors of the cell coverage. The Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP, Call Completion Success Rate-Packet Switched (CCSR-PS and Call Completion Success RateCircuit Switched (CCSR-CS are taken at regular intervals (per hour for 24 hours, based on the standard Key Performance Indicator (KPI of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU. The results showed that the average value of RTWP on each sector is 105 dB, while the value of CCSR-PS and CCSR-CS are above 95%. Moreover, the measured value of RTWP are less than the standard, which is assumed due to interference from neighbour BTS uplink frequency, despite the possibility of interference was small. In overall, the RTWP values, the CCSR-PS and CCSR-CS meet the standards of the ITU-T Recommendation E.850.Keywords: mobile BTS, received total wideband power (RTWP, call completion success rate- packet switched (CCSRPS, call completion success rate-circuit switched (CCSR-CS

  14. Compliance boundaries for multiple-frequency base station antennas in three directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielens, Arno; Vermeeren, Günter; Kurup, Divya; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-09-01

    In this article, compliance boundaries and allowed output powers are determined for the front, back, and side of multiple-frequency base station antennas, based on the root-mean-squared electric field, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR), and the 10 g averaged SAR in both the limbs and the head and trunk. For this purpose, the basic restrictions and reference levels defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for both the general public and occupational exposure are used. The antennas are designed for Global System for Mobile Communications around 900 MHz (GSM900), GSM1800, High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), and Long Term Evolution (LTE), and are operated with output powers at the individual frequencies up to 300 W. The compliance boundaries are estimated using finite-difference time-domain simulations with the Virtual Family Male and have been determined for three directions with respect to the antennas for 800, 900, 1800, and 2600 MHz. The reference levels are not always conservative when the radiating part of the antenna is small compared to the length of the body. Combined compliance distances, which ensure compliance with all reference levels and basic restrictions, have also been determined for each frequency. A method to determine a conservative estimation of compliance boundaries for multiple-frequency (cumulative) exposure is introduced. Using the errors on the estimated allowed powers, an uncertainty analysis is carried out for the compliance distances. Uncertainties on the compliance distances are found to be smaller than 122%. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  16. The generation of simple compliance boundaries for mobile communication base station antennas using formulae for SAR estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, B; Hansson, B; Törnevik, C

    2009-07-07

    In this paper, a procedure is proposed for generating simple and practical compliance boundaries for mobile communication base station antennas. The procedure is based on a set of formulae for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) in certain directions around a class of common base station antennas. The formulae, given for both whole-body and localized SAR, require as input the frequency, the transmitted power and knowledge of antenna-related parameters such as dimensions, directivity and half-power beamwidths. With knowledge of the SAR in three key directions it is demonstrated how simple and practical compliance boundaries can be generated outside of which the exposure levels do not exceed certain limit values. The conservativeness of the proposed procedure is discussed based on results from numerical radio frequency (RF) exposure simulations with human body phantoms from the recently developed Virtual Family.

  17. Severity Classification of a Seismic Event based on the Magnitude-Distance Ratio Using Only One Seismological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic event characterization is often accomplished using algorithms based only on information received at seismological stations located closest to the particular event, while ignoring historical data received at those stations. These historical data are stored and unseen at this stage. This characterization process can delay the emergency response, costing valuable time in the mitigation of the adverse effects on the affected population. Seismological stations have recorded data during many events that have been characterized by classical methods, and these data can be used as previous "knowledge" to train such stations to recognize patterns. This knowledge can be used to make faster characterizations using only one three-component broadband station by applying bio-inspired algorithms or recently developed stochastic methods, such as kernel methods. We trained a Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm with seismograph data recorded by INGEOMINAS's National Seismological Network at a three-component station located near Bogota, Colombia. As input model descriptors, we used the following: (1 the integral of the Fourier transform/power spectrum for each component, divided into 7 windows of 2 seconds and beginning at the P onset time, and (2 the ratio between the calculated logarithm of magnitude (Mb and epicentral distance. We used 986 events with magnitudes greater than 3 recorded from late 2003 to 2008. The algorithm classifies events with magnitude-distance ratios (a measure of the severity of possible damage caused by an earthquake greater than a background value. This value can be used to estimate the magnitude based on a known epicentral distance, which is calculated from the difference between P and S onset times. This rapid (< 20 seconds magnitude estimate can be used for rapid response strategies. The results obtained in this work confirm that many hypocentral parameters and a rapid location of a seismic event can be obtained using a few

  18. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  19. A geomorphology-based ANFIS model for multi-station modeling of rainfall-runoff process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Komasi, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques for predicting daily runoff at multiple gauging stations. Uncertainty and complexity of the rainfall-runoff process due to its variability in space and time in one hand and lack of historical data on the other hand, cause difficulties in the spatiotemporal modeling of the process. In this paper, an Integrated Geomorphological Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (IGANFIS) model conjugated with C-means clustering algorithm was used for rainfall-runoff modeling at multiple stations of the Eel River watershed, California. The proposed model could be used for predicting runoff in the stations with lack of data or any sub-basin within the watershed because of employing the spatial and temporal variables of the sub-basins as the model inputs. This ability of the integrated model for spatiotemporal modeling of the process was examined through the cross validation technique for a station. In this way, different ANFIS structures were trained using Sugeno algorithm in order to estimate daily discharge values at different stations. In order to improve the model efficiency, the input data were then classified into some clusters by the means of fuzzy C-means (FCMs) method. The goodness-of-fit measures support the gainful use of the IGANFIS and FCM methods in spatiotemporal modeling of hydrological processes.

  20. Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) performance model data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document was originally to be a working document summarizing Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) hardware and software design, configuration, performance and estimated loading data from a myriad of source documents such that the parameters provided could be used to build a dynamic performance model of the DMS. The document is published at this time as a close-out of the DMS performance modeling effort resulting from the Clinton Administration mandated Space Station Redesign. The DMS as documented in this report is no longer a part of the redesigned Space Station. The performance modeling effort was a joint undertaking between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) and the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Spacecraft Data Systems Research Branch. The scope of this document is limited to the DMS core network through the Man Tended Configuration (MTC) as it existed prior to the 1993 Clinton Administration mandated Space Station Redesign. Data is provided for the Standard Data Processors (SDP's), Multiplexer/Demultiplexers (MDM's) and Mass Storage Units (MSU's). Planned future releases would have added the additional hardware and software descriptions needed to describe the complete DMS. Performance and loading data through the Permanent Manned Configuration (PMC) was to have been included as it became available. No future releases of this document are presently planned pending completion of the present Space Station Redesign activities and task reassessment.

  1. Generation of real-time global ionospheric map based on the global GNSS stations with only a sparse distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zishen; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Min; Zhou, Kai; Yuan, Yunbin; Yuan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is part of the atmosphere stretching from an altitude of about 50 km to more than 1000 km. When the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal emitted from a satellite travels through the ionosphere before reaches a receiver on or near the Earth surface, the GNSS signal is significantly delayed by the ionosphere and this delay bas been considered as one of the major errors in the GNSS measurement. The real-time global ionospheric map calculated from the real-time data obtained by global stations is an essential method for mitigating the ionospheric delay for real-time positioning. The generation of an accurate global ionospheric map generally depends on the global stations with dense distribution; however, the number of global stations that can produce the real-time data is very limited at present, which results that the generation of global ionospheric map with a high accuracy is very different when only using the current stations with real-time data. In view of this, a new approach is proposed for calculating the real-time global ionospheric map only based on the current stations with real-time data. This new approach is developed on the basis of the post-processing and the one-day predicted global ionospheric map from our research group. The performance of the proposed approach is tested by the current global stations with the real-time data and the test results are also compared with the IGS-released final global ionospheric map products.

  2. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18...

  3. Perancangan Photovoltaic Stand Alone Sebagai Catu Daya Pada Base Transceiver Station Telekomunikasi Di Pulau Nusa Penida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Eka Indrawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu perangkat dalam jaringan komunikasi seluler adalah BTS (Base Transceiver Station. BTS yang ada di pulau Nusa Penida adalah BTS Nusa Penida dengan alamat desa kutampi dengan luas 500 m2. Sistem kelistrikan BTS  Nusa Penida dipasok oleh PLN dan genset,  dimana pada saat terjadi pemadaman energi listrik pada umumnya mempergunakan genset sebagai sumber energi listrik. Penggunaan genset mengakibatkan biaya operasional sangat tinggi, untuk itu diperlukan sumber lain yang lebih efisien. Besarnya potensi insolasi sinar harian matahari di Nusa penida, bisa sebagai  alternatif lain untuk sumber energi listrik dimana energi matahari bisa sebagai energi terbarukan untuk catu daya tambahan di BTS Nusa Penida yang pada akhirnya dapat menjaga  kestabilan suplai energi listrik ke BTS dan akses masyarakat terhadap informasi melalui seluler menjadi tidak terganggu. PV (Photovoltaic merupakan salah satu energi terbarukan yang dapat digunakan sebagai energi terbarukan untuk catu daya tambahan di BTS. Sistem PV yang dikembangkan untuk mensuplai energi listrik di BTS direncanakan sebesar 25%, adalah sistem PV yang hybrid dengan suplai listrik PLN. Besar daya PV yang dibangkitkan untuk mensuplai energi listrik di BTS adalah 9 kWp, yang dihasilkan dari panel PV sebanyak 45 panel dengan kapasitas panel PV adalah 200Wp dan kapasitas baterai yang akan digunakan adalah 3.800 Ah dengan total baterai 16. Analisis kelayakan investasi PV tanpa baterai dan PV dengan baterai yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan NPV, PI dan DPP menunjukkan hasil bahwa investasi PV layak untuk dilaksanakan. Untuk nilai NPV dan PI didapatkan kedua hasil investasi (> 0. Sedangkan untuk DPP didapatkan kedua hasil investasi dihasilkan lebih kecil dari periode umur proyek yang sudah ditetapkan, yaitu selama 25 tahun.

  4. Knowledge-based decision support for Space Station assembly sequence planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    A complete Personal Analysis Assistant (PAA) for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly sequence planning consists of three software components: the system infrastructure, intra-flight value added, and inter-flight value added. The system infrastructure is the substrate on which software elements providing inter-flight and intra-flight value-added functionality are built. It provides the capability for building representations of assembly sequence plans and specification of constraints and analysis options. Intra-flight value-added provides functionality that will, given the manifest for each flight, define cargo elements, place them in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) cargo bay, compute performance measure values, and identify violated constraints. Inter-flight value-added provides functionality that will, given major milestone dates and capability requirements, determine the number and dates of required flights and develop a manifest for each flight. The current project is Phase 1 of a projected two phase program and delivers the system infrastructure. Intra- and inter-flight value-added were to be developed in Phase 2, which has not been funded. Based on experience derived from hundreds of projects conducted over the past seven years, ISX developed an Intelligent Systems Engineering (ISE) methodology that combines the methods of systems engineering and knowledge engineering to meet the special systems development requirements posed by intelligent systems, systems that blend artificial intelligence and other advanced technologies with more conventional computing technologies. The ISE methodology defines a phased program process that begins with an application assessment designed to provide a preliminary determination of the relative technical risks and payoffs associated with a potential application, and then moves through requirements analysis, system design, and development.

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 12 to 14. The TEDS Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…

  6. Kanada helilooja Ted Dawsoniga Pärnu orelifestivalilt Kristoferi festivalile Vilniuses / Sirje Normet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normet, Sirje

    2006-01-01

    Kanada heliloojast Ted Dawsonist, sidemetsest Eestiga, tema vokaaltsükli "Andres Ehin Cycle" esiettekandest Pärnu orelifestivalil ja klaverikontserdi "Wisteria" Euroopa esiettekandest Vilniuses toimunud ning 28. augustil lõppenud kirikumuusika festivali "St Christophoruse Festival" lõppkontserdil. Klaverikontserdi esitasid Aleksandra Juozapenaite-Eesmaa ja festivali kammerorkester Donatas Katkuse juhatusel

  7. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to...

  8. Investigating Student Choices in Performing Higher-Level Comprehension Tasks Using TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesca; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes a first experiment in the use of TED talks and open tagging exercises to train higher-level comprehension skills, and of automatic logging of the student's actions to investigate the student choices while performing analytical tasks. The experiment took advantage of an interactive learning platform--LearnWeb--that…

  9. 50 CFR Figure 13 to Part 223 - Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 223—Singl...

  10. Leveraging Automatic Speech Recognition Errors to Detect Challenging Speech Segments in TED Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat; Meshgi, Kourosh; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems to epitomize second language (L2) listeners' problems in perception of TED talks. ASR-generated transcripts of videos often involve recognition errors, which may indicate difficult segments for L2 listeners. This paper aims to discover the root-causes of the ASR errors…

  11. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223...

  12. Acute thyroid eye disease (TED): principles of medical and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verity, D H; Rose, G E

    2013-03-01

    The active inflammatory phase of thyroid eye disease (TED) is mediated by the innate immune system, and management is aimed at aborting this self-limited period of autoimmune activity. In most patients with TED, ocular and adnexal changes are mild and management involves controlling thyroid dysfunction, cessation of smoking, and addressing ocular surface inflammation and exposure. In patients with acute moderate disease, this being sufficient to impair orbital functions, immunosuppression reduces the long-term sequelae of acute inflammation, and adjunctive fractionated low-dose orbital radiotherapy is used as a steroid-sparing measure. Elective surgery is often required following moderate TED, be it for proptosis, diplopia, lid retraction, or to debulk the eyelid, and this should be delayed until the disease is quiescent, with the patient stable and weaned off all immunosuppression. Thus, surgical intervention during the active phase of moderate disease is rarely indicated, although clinical experience suggests that, where there is significant orbital congestion, early orbital decompression can limit progression to more severe disease. Acute severe TED poses a major risk of irreversible loss of vision due to marked exposure keratopathy, 'hydraulic' orbital congestion, or compressive optic neuropathy. If performed promptly, retractor recession with or without a suture tarsorrhaphy protects the ocular surface from severe exposure and, in patients not responding to high-dose corticosteroid treatment, decompression of the deep medial orbital wall and floor can rapidly relieve compressive optic neuropathy, as well as alleviate the inflammatory and congestive features of raised orbital pressure.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Smart Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring has become a crucial thing in light of a huge growing in the number of plants and cars in Iraqi cities including the city of Babylon which leading to increase the air pollution that leads to growing the number of people suffering from cancer and other diseases. Therefore, The Weather Station is proposed to monitor specific environmental elements in the Babylon city. A number of Internet of Things (IoT technologies have been used to form the proposed system. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and Ethernet are the main technologies that are utilized with the proposed station. The design of the Weather Station consists of three parts: Hardware, Software and Web application. The Web APP is designed using JavaScript, AJAX, PHP, HTML, CSS, and MYSQL. This Web app has been shared on the public server to be accessed by authorized persons from anywhere around the world.

  14. A new type industrial total station based on target automatic collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Dabao; Zhou, Weihu; Ji, Rongyi; Dong, Dengfeng; Xiong, Zhi; Wei, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of industrial field measurement, the present measuring instruments work with manual operation and collimation, which give rise to low efficiency for field measurement. In order to solve the problem, a new type industrial total station is presented in this paper. The new instrument can identify and trace cooperative target automatically, in the mean time, coordinate of the target is measured in real time. For realizing the system, key technology including high precision absolutely distance measurement, small high accuracy angle measurement, target automatic collimation with vision, and quick precise controlling should be worked out. After customized system assemblage and adjustment, the new type industrial total station will be established. As the experiments demonstrated, the coordinate accuracy of the instrument is under 15ppm in the distance of 60m, which proved that the measuring system is feasible. The result showed that the total station can satisfy most industrial field measurement requirements.

  15. Noise test system of rotating machinery in nuclear power station based on microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xincai; Guan, Jishi; Qi, Liangcai

    2017-12-01

    Rotating machinery plays an important role in all walks of life. Once the equipment fails, equipment maintenance and shutdown will cause great social harm and economic losses. Equipment safety operations at nuclear power stations have always been of top priority. It is prone to noise when the equipment is out of order or aging. Failure to find or develop equipment at the initial stage of equipment failure or ageing will pose a serious threat to the safety of the plant’s equipment. In this paper, sound imaging diagnosis technology is applied as a supplementary method to the condition monitoring and diagnosis system of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations. It provides a powerful guarantee for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations.

  16. N2 gas station and gas distribution system for TLD personnel monitoring gas based semi-automatic badge readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasiya, G.; Pradhan, S.M.; Kher, R.K.; Bhatt, B.C

    2003-01-01

    Full text: New improvised hot gas based Auto TLD badge reader has several advantages over the earlier contact heating based manual badge reader. It requires constant supply of N 2 gas for its operation; The gas supplied using replaceable individual gas cylinders may have some safety hazards in their handling. It was therefore considered worthwhile to setup a N 2 gas assembly/ station outside the lab area and to bring regulated gas supply through network of tubes with proper regulation to the individual readers. The paper presents detailed description of the gas station and distribution system. The system is quite useful and offers several practical advantages for readout of TLD badges on the semiautomatic badge readers based on gas heating. Important advantage from dosimetric point of view is avoidance of gas flow rate fluctuations and corresponding variations in TL readouts

  17. Mobile phone base station-emitted radiation does not induce phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2007-02-01

    An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family.

  18. Experimental attempts of using the Wiki-based knowledge sharing system at Syowa Station by 47th JARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Sawagaki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A web-based knowledge sharing system was experimentally developed on the LAN using the INTERSAT communication system, at Syowa Station during the wintering period of the 47th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE47, 2005-2007. The system works on "wiki", which is a collaborative technology for organizing information on web sites. Wiki allows users to catch up on information produced by various activities at the station to date, linking and tracing among a large number of pages. A number of wiki systems have been developed under the GNU General Public License. JARE47 experimentally introduced a "PukiWiki" system in which all data are stored in hypertext format, and binary files can be attached to any pages. PukiWiki is able to extend its functions by using plug-ins, which allow users to modify the system. The wiki at Syowa Station was started on a small scale and expanded to permit storage of data entered by individual members, and to permit sharing of information up to date among all members, becoming a portal site for wintering members. During the complicated operations in summer season when many groups pursued the individual field activities, wiki played an important role for reconfirming and modifying procedures among members, as the key station around the Syowa area.

  19. GIS-based locational analysis of petrol filling stations in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of environmental sensitive commercial and service activities in densely populated urban areas are guided by planning principles and standards, expressed in either structure plans or land use development plans. There has been an upsurge of filling stations within Kaduna metropolis thereby raising the questions ...

  20. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  1. Atmospheric methane variability at the Peterhof station (Russia): ground-based observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Maria; Kirner, Oliver; Poberovskii, Anatoliy; Imhasin, Humud; Timofeyev, Yuriy; Virolainen, Yana; Makarov, Boris

    2014-05-01

    MF from the true ones were detected for the Peterhof station (0.4% for TC and -0.2% for MF). It should be also noted that the limited number of sunny days may distort the annual cycle estimated from FTIR data (comparing to true). This fact have to take into account when mean levels of CH4 TC and MF obtained from FTIR compare against climatological or averaged model data. Ground-based in situ (local) observations of CH4 mole fraction (LMF) are being performed by LGR GGA-24r-EP gas analyzer since 2013 (at the Peterhof station). The monthly averaged amplitude of LMF diurnal cycle shows variations which are similar to the temporal behavior of MF CH4 retrieved from FTIR for 2013. It is suggested that the value of the amplitude of CH4 LMF diurnal variation characterizes the intensity of methane sources for the North-western region of Russia and can be used to explain the observed features of the annual variation of FTIR MF CH4. However, to prove this statement further simultaneous FTIR and in situ measurements of CH4 should be continued. Both, FTIR observations and EMAC simulations, revealed the positive trend of CH4 over 2009-2012 of about 0.2% per year (statistically significant). FTIR data for 2013 that were taken into account led to a decrease in trend value from 0.2%/yr (2009-2012) to 0.13%/yr (2009-2013). It may indicate the end of the period of extremely high growth rates of methane in the atmosphere that have been registered by different observational systems since 2006. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Saint-Petersburg State University (grant No.11.0.44.2010), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No.12-05-00596, 14-05-897). Measurement facilities were provided by Geo Environmental Research Center "Geomodel" of Saint-Petersburg State University.

  2. RADIASI DI SEKITAR MENARA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION DI BANDUNG DAN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2014-02-01

    umum radiasi di sekitar BTS  telah  melampaui  masih  di  bawah  nilai  yang  direkomendasikan  oleh  WHO  dan  ITU  maupun  Keputusan  Ditjen Parpostel tahun 2007, tetapi di beberapa titik pengukuran telah melampaui nilai yang direkomendasikan oleh peraturan tersebut.   Mengingat  efek  yang  ditimbulkan  oleh  pajanan  radiasi  ini  bersifat  kronis,  maka  perlu  adanya  pemantauan besaran radiasi maupun kondisi kesehatan masyarakat di sekitar BTS.Kata Kunci: Menara telepon seluler, radiasi, medan elektromagnetikAbstractResearch of Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People around the Base Transceiver Station (BTS in Jakarta and Bandung.  The aim of the  research is to study the health effects of  BTS existence and BTS radiation exposure to the community who lives near the stations.  The research design  was  cross-sectional  with the number of samples in each location was 10 (7  BTSs with GSM system and 3 BTSs with CDMA system. The samples were chosen purposively. Data collection was performed by measuring the power density in 16 points with a radius of 100 meters around the BTS (every  22,5o angle. According to these measurement results, a further measurement was performed for every 50, 150,200, and 300 meters in the direction where the largest power density was found. The measuring tool used was  Radio Frequency  Electromagnetic  Field  Strength  Meters  SPECTRAN®  HF-2025E.  Afterwards, electromagnetic  field measurement  data  was  mapped  based  on  the  measurement  points  in  each  BTS  and  compared  with  the  existingregulations.  Result:  At  a  distance  of  100  meters  from  BTS,  the  power  density  of  900  MHz  wave  was  ranged  from undetected to 396  W/cm2 with a modus value of 2  W/cm2. For the 1800 MHz wave, the power density was ranged from undetected to 282  W/cm2 with a modus value of 0,4  W/cm2. Meanwhile, the 2200 MHz wave was found to

  3. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  4. Minimization of green house gases emission by using hybrid energy system for telephony base station site application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, Pragya; Rangnekar, Saroj; Nema, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular mobile service is a rapidly expanding and a very competitive business worldwide, including developing countries. This paper proposes that the suitable alternative solution of grid power is the stand-alone PV/wind hybrid energy system with diesel generator as a backup for cellular mobile telephony base station site in isolated areas. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system would provide very good opportunities for mobile telephony base station in near future. In addition, protecting the environment and combating climate change are two of the most pressing challenges facing humankind. As energy prices soar, network operators are increasingly scrutinizing their environmental and social responsibilities. This system will be more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. Approximately 70-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and the emission of CO 2 and other harmful gasses in environments were reduced. (author)

  5. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  6. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqiang; He, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuehui; Duan, Tao; Wang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hong; He, Yusheng

    2010-02-01

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  7. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xueqiang; He Xiaofeng; Wang Yuehui; Li Chunguang; Zhang Qiang; Li Hong; He Yusheng [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan Tao; Wang Guizhen; Zhang Yan [Datang Mobile Communications Equipment Co., Ltd, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  8. Development of a HTS transceiver sub-system for 3G mobile communication TD-SCDMA base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueqiang; He Xiaofeng; Wang Yuehui; Li Chunguang; Zhang Qiang; Li Hong; He Yusheng; Duan Tao; Wang Guizhen; Zhang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transceiver sub-system for applications in a TD-SCDMA, one of the third generation (3G) communication standards, base station has been developed. Both the HTS sub-system and the conventional counterpart have been implemented into a TD-SCDMA commercial communication network and comparison test studies were carried out. The measured results showed that the HTS sub-system could remarkably improve the RF performance of both transmitting and receiving chains.

  9. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  10. Development and radiation evaluation of mobile station for personnel monitoring system based on indigenous plastic scintillator sensor rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, H.S.; Parihar, A.; Senwar, K.R.; Prakash, V.; Rathore, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Mobile Station for Personnel Monitoring (MSPM) system has been designed and developed for rapid screening of personnel with respect to radiation contamination during nuclear or radiological emergency; it can also be used for prevention of illicit movement of radioactive sources. The objective was to develop a modular, transportable and easily deployable gamma portal monitoring system based on indigenous DLJ developed plastic scintillator sensors. The Gamma radiation response of the system is presented here

  11. Decentralized energy management strategy based on predictive controllers for a medium voltage direct current photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, Juan P.; García-Triviño, Pablo; Fernández-Ramirez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic, batteries and grid connection is analyzed. • The bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system by decentralized approach. • Decentralized control approach facilities the enlargement of the system. • Photovoltaic and battery systems are controlled by model predictive controllers. • Response by model predictive controllers improves that by PI controllers. - Abstract: The use of distributed charging stations based on renewable energy sources for electric vehicles has increased in recent years. Combining photovoltaic solar energy and batteries as energy storage system, directly tied into a medium voltage direct current bus, and with the grid support, results to be an interesting option for improving the operation and efficiency of electric vehicle charging stations. In this paper, an electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic solar panels, batteries and with grid connection is analysed and evaluated. A decentralized energy management system is developed for regulating the energy flow among the photovoltaic system, the battery and the grid in order to achieve the efficient charging of electric vehicles. The medium voltage direct current bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. The battery is controlled by a model predictive controller in order to keep the bus voltage at its reference value. Depending on the state-of-charge of the battery and the bus voltage, the photovoltaic system can work at maximum power point tracking mode or at bus voltage sustaining mode, or even the grid support can be needed. The results demonstrate the proper operation and energy management of the electric vehicle charging station under study.

  12. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  13. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  14. Design of electric vehicle charging station based on wind and solar complementary power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Electric vehicles have become a major trend in the development of the automobile industry. Green energy saving is an important feature of their development. At the same time, the related charging facilities construction is also critical. If we improve the charging measures to adapt to its green energy-saving features, it will be to a greater extent to promote its further development. This article will propose a highly efficient green energy-saving charging station designed for the electric vehicles.

  15. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus) in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g) RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg) RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary constraints that may

  16. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Blanco-Pérez

    Full Text Available Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV, the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary

  17. TED, an Autonomous and Rare Maize Transposon of the Mutator Superfamily with a High Gametophytic Excision Frequency[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K.

    2013-01-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor. PMID:24038653

  18. TED, an autonomous and rare maize transposon of the mutator superfamily with a high gametophytic excision frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K

    2013-09-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor.

  19. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5. Appendix: Requirements data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Appendix A contains data that characterize the system functions in sufficient depth as to determine the requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS). This data is in the form of: (1) top down traceability report; (2) bottom up traceability report; (3) requirements data sheets; and (4) cross index of requirements paragraphs of the source documents and the requirements numbers. A data base users guide is included that interested parties can use to access the requirements data base and get up to date information about the functions.

  20. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  1. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Geonhwa; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Changsup; Kim, Yong Ha

    2014-06-01

    Since the operation of the King Sejong Station (KSS) started in Antarctic Peninsula in 1989, there have been continuous efforts to perform the observation for the upper atmosphere. The observations during the initial period of the station include Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) and Michelson Interferometer for the mesosphere and thermosphere, which are no longer in operation. In 2002, in collaboration with York University, Canada, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) was installed to observe the temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region and it has still been producing the mesopause temperature data until present. The observation was extended by installing the meteor radar in 2007 to observe the neutral winds and temperature in the MLT region during the day and night in collaboration with Chungnam National University. We also installed the all sky camera in 2008 to observe the wave structures in the MLT region. All these observations are utilized to study on the physical characteristics of the MLT region and also on the wave phenomena such as the tide and gravity wave in the upper atmosphere over KSS that is well known for the strong gravity wave activity. In this article, brief introductions for the currently operating instruments at KSS will be presented with their applications for the study of the upper atmosphere

  2. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhwa Jee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the operation of the King Sejong Station (KSS started in Antarctic Peninsula in 1989, there have been continuous efforts to perform the observation for the upper atmosphere. The observations during the initial period of the station include Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI and Michelson Interferometer for the mesosphere and thermosphere, which are no longer in operation. In 2002, in collaboration with York University, Canada, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI was installed to observe the temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region and it has still been producing the mesopause temperature data until present. The observation was extended by installing the meteor radar in 2007 to observe the neutral winds and temperature in the MLT region during the day and night in collaboration with Chungnam National University. We also installed the all sky camera in 2008 to observe the wave structures in the MLT region. All these observations are utilized to study on the physical characteristics of the MLT region and also on the wave phenomena such as the tide and gravity wave in the upper atmosphere over KSS that is well known for the strong gravity wave activity. In this article, brief introductions for the currently operating instruments at KSS will be presented with their applications for the study of the upper atmosphere.

  3. Magnetic properties of a metal-organic porous network [Ni2(BODC)2(TED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Tan; Danilovic, D.; Li, Kunhao; Li, Jing

    2008-04-01

    A new material [Ni2(BODC)2(TED)], (BODC =4,4'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane dicarboxylate and TED =triethylene-4,4'-diamine), which is a guest-free, porous metal-organic coordination network, has been successfully synthesized. The crystal structure of this compound is tetragonal with the space group P4/mmm. It is a three-dimensional network that can be deconstructed into rectangular gridlike layers along ab planes. These planes are formed by BODC and Zn2O4 paddle-wheel-like clusters, and the TED ligands from the axial directions of the paddle-wheels connect the layers into a three-dimesional structure. There are no guest molecules found in the pores. The shortest Ni-Ni distance within the paddle wheel is found to be 2.613Å. Magnetic susceptibility χ(T )=M(T)/H and isothermal magnetization M(H ) measurements have been measured on powder samples of this compound. The results of χ(T ) show that there is a rapid increase in the susceptibility below 20K due to a spontaneous ordering of the Ni2+ moments. The effective moment μeff of Ni2+ is about 2.20μB at room temperature. The M(H ) result at 1.8K shows a clear hysteresis with a coercivity of Hcoe≈1700G. The behavior of this compound is discussed in terms of Ni-Ni coupling within the Ni dimers and dimer chains.

  4. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2–112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them. PMID:29725476

  5. Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712

  6. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m 2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m 2 ) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

  7. [Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Cała, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS) as an electromagnetic field (EMF) source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method) or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method) are also presented). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  9. User-centered design of a patient’s work station for haptic robot-based telerehabilitation after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Ekaterina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic therapy devices have been an important part of clinical neurological rehabilitation for several years. Until now such devices are only available for patients receiving therapy inside rehabilitation hospitals. Since patients should continue rehabilitation training after hospital discharge at home, intelligent robotic rehab devices could help to achieve this goal. This paper presents therapeutic requirements and early phases of the user-centered design process of the patient’s work station as part of a novel robot-based system for motor telerehabilitation.

  10. 8×8 Planar Phased Array Antenna with High Efficiency and Insensitivity Properties for 5G Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    An insensitive planar phased array antenna with high efficiency function for 5G applications is introduced in this study. 64-elements of compact slot-loop antenna elements have been used to form the 8×8 planar array. The antenna is designed on a low cost FR4 substrate and has good performance in ...... at both sides of the substrate and could be used for mobile base station (MBS) applications. The proposed planar array could be integrated with the transceivers on the low-cost printed circuit boards (PCBs) to reduce the manufacturing cost....

  11. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  12. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  13. GFR and Blood Lead Levels in Gas Station Workers Based on δ-Alad Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-04-01

    showed that the proportion of ALAD genotype for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 were 94.7%, 5.3%, and 0% respectively. The mean of serum levels in homozygous 1-1 was 15.94 ppb and heterozygote 1-2 was 1.15 ppb. GFR of participants ranged from 71.11 mL/min to 185.20 mL/min with a mean of 117.34mL/min. There was no correlation between serum Pb and GFR (p = 0.19. Study also could not determine the correlation between GFR and ALAD gene Polymorphism. Discussion: Study then concluded that there was no correlation between blood lead levels in the GFR on each δ-ALAD genotypes. Keywords: Lead intoxication, GFR, δ-ALAD, gas station workers

  14. Primary Dendrite Array Morphology: Observations from Ground-based and Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard; Erdmann, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, "Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST)". Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K/cm (MICAST6) and 28 K/cm (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 micron/s) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 micron/s). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  15. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  16. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  17. Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network Based on Mobile Base Station%基于移动基站的动态无线传感器网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小佳; 吴侠; 闫斌

    2011-01-01

    针对无线传感器网络(WSN)中的“路由热点”问题,提出了在簇头移动的前提下基于事件驱动的基站簇头混合移动策略BS-CH HMS(base station-cluster head hybrid mobile strategy).该策略根据CH(cluster head)移动时的能量损耗确定CH的移动轨迹,制定基站的协作移动策略.理论分析和仿真结果表明:采用所提出的混合移动策略,簇头的能量消耗比采用单独移动CH的路由策略节省30%,提高了移动簇头的能量效率,延长了网络的生命周期.%In order to investigate the route hotspot problem in wireless sensor network ( WSN), a BS-CH (base station-cluster head) hybrid mobile strategy based on event-driven, BS-CH HMS (base station-cluster head hybrid mobile strategy) , was proposed on the assumption of CH mobility. In this strategy, the mobile path of CH ( cluster head ) is determined and the cooperative mobile strategy of the base station is designed in light of the energy consumption of moving CH. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that using the BS-CH HMS compared with using a single CH mobile strategy, CH energy consumption is decreased by 30% to enhance the energy efficiency of moving CH and prolong the lifetime of WSN.

  18. Reduction of Averaging Time for Evaluation of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields from Cellular Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chan; Park, Seong-Ook

    In order to determine exposure compliance with the electromagnetic fields from a base station's antenna in the far-field region, we should calculate the spatially averaged field value in a defined space. This value is calculated based on the measured value obtained at several points within the restricted space. According to the ICNIRP guidelines, at each point in the space, the reference levels are averaged over any 6min (from 100kHz to 10GHz) for the general public. Therefore, the more points we use, the longer the measurement time becomes. For practical application, it is very advantageous to spend less time for measurement. In this paper, we analyzed the difference of average values between 6min and lesser periods and compared it with the standard uncertainty for measurement drift. Based on the standard deviation from the 6min averaging value, the proposed minimum averaging time is 1min.

  19. National Scale Rainfall Map Based on Linearly Interpolated Data from Automated Weather Stations and Rain Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alconis, Jenalyn; Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Lester Saddi, Ivan; Mongaya, Candeze; Figueroa, Kathleen Gay

    2014-05-01

    In response to the slew of disasters that devastates the Philippines on a regular basis, the national government put in place a program to address this problem. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, or Project NOAH, consolidates the diverse scientific research being done and pushes the knowledge gained to the forefront of disaster risk reduction and management. Current activities of the project include installing rain gauges and water level sensors, conducting LIDAR surveys of critical river basins, geo-hazard mapping, and running information education campaigns. Approximately 700 automated weather stations and rain gauges installed in strategic locations in the Philippines hold the groundwork for the rainfall visualization system in the Project NOAH web portal at http://noah.dost.gov.ph. The system uses near real-time data from these stations installed in critical river basins. The sensors record the amount of rainfall in a particular area as point data updated every 10 to 15 minutes. The sensor sends the data to a central server either via GSM network or satellite data transfer for redundancy. The web portal displays the sensors as a placemarks layer on a map. When a placemark is clicked, it displays a graph of the rainfall data for the past 24 hours. The rainfall data is harvested by batch determined by a one-hour time frame. The program uses linear interpolation as the methodology implemented to visually represent a near real-time rainfall map. The algorithm allows very fast processing which is essential in near real-time systems. As more sensors are installed, precision is improved. This visualized dataset enables users to quickly discern where heavy rainfall is concentrated. It has proven invaluable on numerous occasions, such as last August 2013 when intense to torrential rains brought about by the enhanced Southwest Monsoon caused massive flooding in Metro Manila. Coupled with observations from Doppler imagery and water level sensors along the

  20. Evaluation Of Geo-Spatial Proximity Of Mobile Communication GSM Base Transceiver Stations To Buildings In Ile-Ife Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient placement of radio facilities for the communication base transceiver station CBS of the two small global system for mobile communication GSM has being an area of research due to fast growing of GSM market in Nigeria. In line with this development Nigerian Communication Commission NCC and Nigeria Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency NESREA have stated the setback between communication base station and the nearest infrastructure as 5 m and 10 m respectively. To evaluate the degree of the implementation of these setbacks in Ile-Ife the study area the research study identified the spatial locations of the CBS using a global communication for satellite GPS receiver and also employed the use of a high resolution satellite imagery which were processed using geo-spatial techniques. The results of this study revealed that 45.6 and 59.5 of the CBS had setback to building structures at 5 m and 10 m respectively with spatial variability between 30 m to 17074 m at elevation between 193 m to 377 m.