Sample records for technology-mediated rural learning

  1. Videos Bridging Asia and Africa: Overcoming Cultural and Institutional Barriers in Technology-Mediated Rural Learning (United States)

    Van Mele, Paul; Wanvoeke, Jonas; Akakpo, Cyriaque; Dacko, Rosaline Maiga; Ceesay, Mustapha; Beavogui, Louis; Soumah, Malick; Anyang, Robert


    Will African farmers watch and learn from videos featuring farmers in Bangladesh? Learning videos on rice seed management were made with rural women in Bangladesh. By using a new approach, called zooming-in, zooming-out, the videos were of regional relevance and locally appropriate. When the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) introduced them to…

  2. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.


    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  3. Technology-Mediated Learning for Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Majchrzak, Tim; Busch, Peter André

    , such as the successive outbreak of a pandemic. Due to the novelty of the topic, research particularly exists on theoretical aspects of resilience. Targeting learning – and thereby the local population – is a rather new emergence. To effectively reach, involve, and engage citizens, technology can play a key role. Based...... on four actual cases from communities we analyse the impact technology has on learning about resilience. We then scrutinize the effectiveness and propose future steps. Thereby, we seek to provide practical advice to local governments and to enrich the theory at the same time....

  4. Technological mediation as a learning tool for writing and reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Molano Caro


    Full Text Available This article disclosed the progress a technological mediation has built to the adquisition, use and development of reading and writing from Cognitive Affective Method for Learning -MACPA-. A development like the one being proposed, is an option for children and young people to, activate, promote, develop and / or enhance the learning of reading and writing. Likewise, it is an option to consider the results achieved in the PISA test and case reports, done by teachers by teachers, showing that that elementary students do not perform production of texts so spontaneous or directed; and they fail to make progress in reading comprehension levels. Given this context, the partial results achieved in the second phase of the research aims to implement a technology platform based mediation MACPA as an educational resource to enhance the processes of reading and writing among students from first to fourth grades of primary education. Accordingly, through Article basis be found in a software for reading and writing that takes into account the particularities of learning of students with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities in students who have not evidenced difficulties in academic learning processes, though they require a new method to accelerate learning.

  5. Grounded in Theory: Immersing Preservice Teachers in Technology-Mediated Learning (United States)

    DeGennaro, Donna


    The integration of technology into preservice teacher education continues to be emphasized as important. The hope is that if future teachers obtain technology skills they will design meaningful technology-mediated learning experiences for their students. However, gaining technology skills alone does not ensure the ability to envision and employ…

  6. Instrumental Genesis in Technology-Mediated Learning: From Double Stimulation to Expansive Knowledge Practices (United States)

    Ritella, Giuseppe; Hakkarainen, Kai


    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the socio-cultural foundations of technology-mediated collaborative learning. Toward that end, we discuss the role of artifacts in knowledge-creating inquiry, relying on the theoretical ideas of Carl Bereiter, Merlin Donald, Pierre Rabardel, Keith Sawyer and L. S. Vygotsky. We argue that epistemic…

  7. Process is king: Evaluating the performance of technology-mediated learning in vocational software training


    Söllner, Matthias; Bitzer, Philipp; Janson, Andreas; Leimeister, Jan Marco


    Technology-mediated learning (TML) is a major trend in education, since it allows to integrate the strengths of traditional- and IT-based learning activities. However, TML providers still struggle in identifying areas for improvement in their TML offerings. One reason for their struggles is inconsistencies in the literature regarding drivers of TML performance. Prior research suggests that these inconsistencies in TML literature might stem from neglecting the importance of considering the pro...

  8. Music Technology-Mediated Teaching and Learning Approach for Music Education: A Case Study from an Elementary School in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin


    This study aims to show how music technology mediated (or music software mediated) music teaching and learning can provide an effective pedagogy in music education. It also seeks to demonstrate that music technology mediated teaching is in accordance with socio-educational trends for both postmodern values and IT mediated learning. The new…

  9. Culture's Impact on Technology Mediated Learning: The Role of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism


    Steven Hornik; Anna Tupchiy


    The horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism are an important characteristic of cultures. These dimensions have many implications for the ways in which individual learners use and respond to interactive technologies. This article reports on a study that investigated the impact of culture, specifically horizontal individualism (HI), vertical individualism (VI), horizontal collectivism (HC), and vertical collectivism (VC) on the effectiveness of technology mediated l...

  10. Learning Circles: A Collaborative Technology-Mediated Peer-Teaching Workshop (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin; Marshall, Kevin; Tangney, Brendan


    This research study explores peer teaching and learning without a domain expert teacher, within the context of an activity where teams of second level students (~16 years old) are required to create a learning experience for their peers. The study looks at how participants would like to be taught and how they would teach their peers if given the…

  11. Technology-mediated collaborative learning: theoretical contributions based on analysis of educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Collaborative learning has been a subject of great interest in the context of educational research, giving rise to many studies emphasizing the potential of the collaboration process in student learning, knowledge building, the development of diverse abilities and improved academic performance. Based on a conceptual review and thorough reflection on this topic, this article presents the results of a case study carried out in different schools in the Autonomous Community of Castile y Leon (Spain in an attempt to identify patterns of common action through the implementation of collaborative learning methods mediated by information and communication technologies (ICT. Among the many outcomes of this study, we conclude by highlighting the need to plan collaborative work very carefully, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by ICT as communicative environments where it is possible to construct joint and shared learning

  12. Simulating care: technology-mediated learning in twenty-first century nursing education. (United States)

    Diener, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Nelda


    The increased reliance on simulation classrooms has proven successful in learning skills. Questions persist concerning the ability of technology-driven robotic devices to form and cultivate caring behaviors, or sufficiently develop interactive nurse-client communication necessary in the context of nursing. This article examines the disconnects created by use of simulation technology in nursing education, raising the question: "Can learning of caring-as-being, be facilitated in simulation classrooms?" We propose that unless time is spent with human beings in the earliest stages of nursing education, transpersonal caring relationships do not have space to develop. Learning, crafting, and maturation of caring behaviors threatens to become a serendipitous event or is no longer perceived as an essential characteristic of nursing. Technology does not negate caring-the isolation it fosters makes transpersonal caring all the more important. We are called to create a new paradigm for nursing education that merges Nightingale's vision with technology's promise. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Towards a Pragmatic Model for Group-Based, Technology-Mediated, Project-Oriented Learning - An Overview of the B2C Model (United States)

    Lawlor, John; Conneely, Claire; Tangney, Brendan

    The poor assimilation of ICT in formal education is firmly rooted in models of learning prevalent in the classroom which are largely teacher-led, individualistic and reproductive, with little connection between theory and practice and poor linkages across the curriculum. A new model of classroom practice is required to allow for creativity, peer-learning, thematic learning, collaboration and problem solving, i.e. the skills commonly deemed necessary for the knowledge-based society of the 21st century. This paper describes the B2C model for group-based, technology-mediated, project-oriented learning which, while being developed as part of an out of school programme, offers a pragmatic alternative to traditional classroom pedagogy.

  14. Towards a Phenomenology of Technologically Mediated Moral Change: Or, What Could Mark Zuckerberg Learn from Caregivers in the Southern Netherlands? (United States)

    Sharon, Tamar


    Kamphof offers an illuminating depiction of the technological mediation of morality. Her case serves as the basis for a plea for modesty up and against the somewhat heroic conceptualizations of techno-moral change to date-less logos, less autos, more practice, more relationality. Rather than a displacement of these conceptualizations, I question whether Kamphof's art of living offers only a different perspective: in scale (as a micro-event of techno-moral change), and in unit of analysis (as an art of living oriented to relations with others rather than the relation to the self). As a supplement and not an alternative, this modest art has nonetheless audacious implications for the ethics of surveillance.

  15. BRIDGE21--Exploring the Potential to Foster Intrinsic Student Motivation through a Team-Based, Technology-Mediated Learning Model (United States)

    Lawlor, John; Marshall, Kevin; Tangney, Brendan


    It is generally accepted that intrinsic student motivation is a critical requirement for effective learning but formal learning in school places a huge reliance on extrinsic motivation to focus the learner. This reliance on extrinsic motivation is driven by the pressure on formal schooling to "deliver to the test." The experience of the…

  16. Learning maternity: the experiences of rural nurses. (United States)

    MacKinnon, Karen


    Two research studies explored rural nurses' experience with the provision of maternity care in rural British Columbia, Canada. Frontline nurses, managers, and health-care providers were interviewed and their practices observed. One of the main challenges identified by rural nurses was ensuring that a knowledgeable/skilled maternity or perinatal nurse was always available at the local hospital. Learning how to provide safe and supportive maternity care is difficult for nurses working in small rural hospitals today due to declining birth rates, increased workloads, and a decrease in opportunities for mentoring. Decisions about the allocation of time off and resources for rural nurses' continuing professional education (CPE) were structured by discourses of personal responsibility for "continuing competence." These institutional work processes increase the burden on rural nurses, negatively affecting their opportunities for CPE and their experiences of providing maternity care, with implications for both patient safety and nurse retention.

  17. Science Learning in Rural Australia: Not Necessarily the Poor Cousin (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Symington, David


    There is considerable evidence suggesting that students in rural schools lag behind their city counterparts in measures of science literacy and attitude to science learning. If we are to address this situation we need to build as full a picture as we can of the key features of what is a complex and varied rural schooling context. In this article…

  18. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks (United States)

    Marchant, Jillian


    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  19. Portrait of a rural health graduate: exploring alternative learning spaces. (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; Pillay, Daisy


    Given that the staffing of rural facilities represents an international challenge, the support, training and development of students of rural origin at institutions of higher learning (IHLs) should be an integral dimension of health care provisioning. International studies have shown these students to be more likely than students of urban origin to return to work in rural areas. However, the crisis in formal school education in some countries, such as South Africa, means that rural students with the capacity to pursue careers in health care are least likely to access the necessary training at an IHL. In addition to challenges of access, throughput is relatively low at IHLs and is determined by a range of learning experiences. Insight into the storied educational experiences of health care professionals (HCPs) of rural origin has the potential to inform the training and development of rural-origin students. Six HCPs of rural origin were purposively selected. Using a narrative inquiry approach, data were generated from long interviews and a range of arts-based methods to create and reconstruct the storied narratives of the six participants. Codes, categories and themes were developed from the reconstructed stories. Reid's four-quadrant model of learning theory was used to focus on the learning experiences of one participant. Alternative learning spaces were identified, which were made available through particular social spaces outwith formal lecture rooms. These offered opportunities for collaboration and for the reconfiguring of the participants' agency to be, think and act differently. Through the practices enacted in particular learning spaces, relationships of caring, sharing, motivating and mentoring were formed, which contributed to personal, social, academic and professional development and success. Learning spaces outwith the formal lecture theatre are critical to the acquisition of good clinical skills and knowledge in the development of socially accountable

  20. Does online learning click with rural nurses? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Riley, Kim; Schmidt, David


    To explore the factors that influence rural nurses engagement with online learning within a rural health district in New Sound Wales (NSW), Australia. This qualitative study based on appreciative inquiry methodology used semi-structured interviews with managers and nurses. Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit facility managers, whereas convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses in 2012-2013. Three public health facilities in rural NSW. Fourteen nurses were involved in the study, including Health Service Managers (n = 3), Nurse Unit Manager (n = 1), Clinical Nurse Specialists (n = 3), Registered Nurses (n = 2), Enrolled Nurses (n = 2) and Assistant in Nursing (n = 3). The research found that online learning works well when there is accountability for education being undertaken by linking to organisational goals and protected time. Nurses in this study valued the ability to access and revisit online learning at any time. However, systems that are hard to access or navigate and module design that did not provide a mechanism for users to seek feedback negatively affected their use and engagement. This study demonstrates that rural nurses' engagement with online learning would be enhanced by a whole of system redesign in order to deliver a learning environment that will increase satisfaction, engagement and learning outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Transforming K-12 Rural Education through Blended Learning: Teacher Perspectives (United States)

    Kellerer, Paula; Kellerer, Eric; Werth, Eric; Werth, Lori; Montgomery, Danielle; Clyde, Rozella; Cozart, Joe; Creach, Laura; Hibbard, Laura; LaFrance, Jason; Rupp, Nadine; Walker, Niki; Carter, Theresa; Kennedy, Kathryn


    A qualitative study exploring rural teacher perspectives on the impact of blended learning on students and teachers was conducted in Idaho during the Fall of 2013. Researchers from Northwest Nazarene University's DOCEO Center in partnership with Idaho Digital Learning Academy (IDLA) and the International Association for K-12 Online Learning…

  2. Factors impacting on organisational learning in three rural health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a relatively new concept in the healthcare system.1. A learning ... challenges to those working in a rural setting because of the distance from academic ... ness to change entire routines and standard operating procedures embedded in ... priorities for an intervention to create learning organisations of district hospitals and ...

  3. Factors Impacting on Organisational Learning in Three Rural Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assessment of hospital leadership as being supportive of learning were significant predictors of attendance among doctors. Conclusions: Despite severe staff shortages in these rural districts, at facilities where there was a perception of leadership and teamwork the professional staff generally attended learning sessions.

  4. Teaching Responsibly with Technology-Mediated Communication (United States)

    Veltsos, Jennifer R.; Veltsos, Christophe


    Technology-mediated communication, or "new media," such as blogs, Twitter, wikis, and social network sites, can be an endless source of ideas for activities or inspiration for classroom discussion. Many instructors ask students to monitor current events by following keywords and industry leaders on Twitter and reading both corporate and…

  5. Sustainable rural development and communicative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Langvad, Anne-Mette


    Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach that is ......Functional differentiation within society at large poses a major challenge to practising sustainable rural development. Multiplication of perspectives on sustainability calls for a theoretical position that is based on the integrity of each of the perspectives in play and for an approach...

  6. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Sangi


    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  7. Technology Mediated Instruction and its Effect on Cognitive Scaffolding, motivation and Academic Performance in EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Berenji


    Full Text Available Technology mediated learning brings together the users with shared interests. This method makes learners informally engaged in language learning. This study intended to investigate the effect of technology mediated instruction on cognitive scaffolding, academic performance and motivation. Employing a quasi-experimental research, 80 learners from two intact classes at Islamic Azad University, Osku Branch were selected as the experimental and control groups. Telegram as a tool was used in the experimental group, while the control group received traditional way of instruction. Critical ethnography approach was implemented to consider the amount of cognitive scaffolding. To measure the students’ motivational level in both groups, Course Interest Survey (CIS was administered at the end of the semester. The total average score for each group was calculated. To compare students’ academic achievement, their average scores in the final academic test were considered. An Independent samples t-test in was used to compare the mean scores. The results indicated that technology mediated learning brought about cognitive scaffolding and the students in the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of motivation and academic achievement. The results of the study suggest that to bring about academically successful students, practitioners should use technology mediated instruction.

  8. Living and learning in a rural environment: a nursing student perspective. (United States)

    Pront, Leeanne; Kelton, Moira; Munt, Rebecca; Hutton, Alison


    This study investigates the influences on nursing student learning who live and learn in the same rural environment. A declining health workforce has been identified both globally and in Australia, the effects of which have become significantly apparent in the rural nursing sector. In support of rural educational programs the literature portrays rural clinical practice experiences as significant to student learning. However, there is little available research on what influences learning for the nursing student who studies in their own rural community. The aim of this study was to understand what influences student learning in the rural clinical environment. Through a multiple case study design five nursing students and two clinical preceptors from a rural clinical venue were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to identify factors that influenced student learning outcomes. The most significant influence on nursing student learning in the rural clinical environment was found to include the environment itself, the complex relationships unique to living and studying in a rural community along with the capacity to link theory to practice. The rural environment influences those in it, the demands placed on them, the relationships they form, the ability to promote learning and the time to teach and learn. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Technological Mediation and Power: Postphenomenology, Critical Theory, and Autonomist Marxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantwal Rao, M.; Jongerden, J.P.; Lemmens, P.C.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.


    This article focuses on the power of technological mediation from the point of view of autonomist Marxism (Hardt, Negri, Virno, Berardi, Lazzarrato). The first part of the article discusses the theories developed on technological mediation in postphenomenology (Ihde, Verbeek) and critical theory of

  10. On-line Professional Learning Communities: Increasing Teacher Learning and Productivity in Isolated Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Salazar


    Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.

  11. L'apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies (ALMT – Étude d'un domaine de recherche émergent à travers les publications de la revue Alsic Technology-mediated language learning: an emergent research domain under study through the review of a French scientific journal's publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guichon


    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, il est postulé que l'apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies (ALMT est un domaine de recherche qui s'intéresse au développement et à l'intégration des technologies dans l'enseignement-apprentissage d'une langue. Ce domaine étant émergent, la présente recherche vise tout d'abord à comprendre comment s'est formée la communauté de chercheurs autour de cet objet. Puis, à travers l'analyse critique de 79 articles publiés dans la revue en ligne francophone Alsic entre 1998 et 2010, la présente contribution s'emploie à définir les contours épistémologiques de ce domaine en étudiant les moyens de production de connaissance.In this study, it is postulated that technology mediated language learning is a research domain that focuses on the design and integration of technologies for language learning and teaching. Because this domain is emergent, the present study first aims at understanding how a community of researchers has developed around this object. Then, thanks to the critical analysis of 79 articles published in Alsic, a French-speaking online journal, the present article endeavours to define the epistemological contours of this research domain by studying the means employed to produce knowledge.

  12. Lifelong learning of Chinese rural physicians: preliminary psychometrics and influencing factors. (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Wang, Ziwei; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang


    There are more than 4.9 million rural health workers undertaking the health care need of rural population of over 629 million in China. The lifelong learning of physicians is vital in maintaining up-to-date and qualified health care, but rural physicians in many developing countries lack adequate medical professional developments. There has also been no empirical research focused on the lifelong learning of rural physician populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the primary levels of lifelong learning of the rural physicians and to analyze group differences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1197 rural physicians using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL). Cronbach's α coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test were performed to analyze the data. For Chinese rural physicians, the JSPLL was reliable (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.872) and valid, with exploratory factor analysis fitting a 3-factor model and accounting for a total of 60.46 % of the variance. The mean lifelong learning score was 45.56. Rural physicians generally performed worse in the technical skills in seeking information domain. Rural physicians with 21-30 working years have a lower score of lifelong learning (P < 0.05) than other phases of working years. Career satisfaction and professional titles had a significantly positive influence on physicians' orientation towards lifelong learning (P < 0.05). The overall lifelong learning scores of physicians who received more training after completion of medical school were higher than those with less additional post-medical school training (P <0.05). The JSPLL is effective for the Chinese rural physician population. In order to cope with impacting factors on rural physicians' lifelong learning, the results of the study reinforced the importance of continuing medical education and career satisfaction for lifelong

  13. Transformative learning theory: facilitating mammography screening in rural women. (United States)

    Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey


    To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.

  14. Student Readiness for Online Learning – A case study in rural Bolivia


    Blass, Silvia


    The present paper describes the research of the students’ online learning readiness in a rural university in Bolivia. In particular, it examines through a quantitative research the influences of some variables on the students’ attitudes toward online learning. These variables were established based on theoretical fundaments and selected and confirmed through a qualitative research based in semi-structured interviews with lecturers and directors of the university’s rural centers. This study...

  15. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane


    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  16. Grandma's Games Project: Bridging Tradition and Technology Mediated Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vasileva


    Full Text Available This article presents a project entitled "Grandma’s games", following a research idea to enrich the educational process of K9 students by introducing the traditional children games of our ancestors in the learning environment, revived and adapted for modern students with the aid of information and communication technology. While creating a strong connection between our heritage and the modern educational trends, the project’s intention goes beyond mere fulfilment of educational goals, striving to increase the interest and motivation of primary education students to develop their creativity and originality while learning, with respect of their own personal preferences and cultural heritage. The "Grandma’s games" research project engaged twelve traditional games in the educational activities at primary schools from both rural and non-rural environments in Republic of Macedonia. Descriptive statistics was applied on the data set sampled from the extensive survey conducted among teachers in these schools, to illustrate the benefits from the application of the Grandma’s games in educational process.

  17. Employment and Training Schemes for Rural Youth: Learning from Experience. (United States)

    Phan-Thuy, N.


    Over the past two decades a number of African and Asian governments have experimented with various types of youth mobilization or employment and training schemes in trying to cope with rural youth unemployment. A critical appraisal is made of some of these in an attempt to establish criteria that productive employment programs for rural youth…

  18. Multiple Intelligences, Motivations and Learning Experience Regarding Video-Assisted Subjects in a Rural University (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina; Anderson, Neil; Tabibzadeh, Seyed Asadollah


    This study investigates multiple intelligences in relation to online video experiences, age, gender, and mode of learning from a rural Australian university. The inter-relationships between learners' different intelligences and their motivations and learning experience with the supplementary online videos utilised in their subjects are…

  19. Designing E-Learning Programs for Rural Social Transformation and Poverty Reduction (United States)

    Murthy, C. S. H. N.; Mathur, Gaurav


    While the conventional education system with different forms of E-learning and rigid academic instructive curriculum could not bring desired changes in specified timeframe work at rural level in the targeted communities and groups, a multipronged sociological approach with a sociable and flexible curriculum in new E-Learning programs becomes need…

  20. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha


    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  1. Scaffolded Semi-Flipped General Chemistry Designed to Support Rural Students' Learning (United States)

    Lenczewski, Mary S.


    Students who lack academic maturity can sometimes feel overwhelmed in a fully flipped classroom. Here an alternative, the Semi-Flipped method, is discussed. Rural students, who face unique challenges in transitioning from high school learning to college-level learning, can particularly profit from the use of the Semi-Flipped method in the General…

  2. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource (United States)

    Lear, Glenna


    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  3. Collaborative innovations with rural and regional secondary teachers: enhancing student learning in mathematics (United States)

    Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra


    When questioned, secondary mathematics teachers in rural and regional schools in Australia refer to their limited opportunities to engage and share experiences with peers in other schools as an under-utilised and cost-effective mechanism to support their professional learning and enhance their students' learning. The paper reports on the creation and evaluation of a network of learning communities of rural secondary mathematics teachers around a common purpose—enhancement and increased engagement of student learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, teams of teachers from six rural schools identified an issue hindering improved student learning of mathematics in their school. Working collaboratively with support from university personnel with expertise in curriculum, assessment and quality pedagogy, teachers developed and implemented strategies to address an identified issue in ways that were relevant to their teaching contexts. The research study identifies issues in mathematics of major concern to rural teachers of mathematics, the successes and challenges the teachers faced in working in learning communities on the issue they identified, and the efficacy of the professional learning model.

  4. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart? (United States)

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E


    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul


    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  6. School Quality and Learning Gains in Rural Guatemala (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.


    I use unusually detailed data on schools, teachers and classrooms to explain student achievement growth in rural Guatemala. Several variables that have received little attention in previous studies--including the number of school days, teacher content knowledge and pedagogical methods--are robust predictors of achievement. A series of…

  7. E-karaoke learning for gender empowerment in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)


    textabstractA folksongs karaoke product has been created to increase usage of subtitled media to enhance literacy and technology use, particularly among girls in rural India. This entails generating and proliferating popular local folksongs with social and cultural themes of interest to girls,

  8. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning. (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain


    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  9. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp


    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...

  10. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew


    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  11. The Community Reclaims Control? Learning Experiences from Rural Broadband Initiatives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen; Strijker, Dirk; Bosworth, Gary


    Based on four illustrative case studies from the Netherlands, this article discusses learning experiences gained from rural broadband initiatives. As an example of the big society' (or participatiesamenleving' in Dutch), initiatives try to step in where the market and the government fail. The main

  12. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson


    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  13. Unpacking Global Service-Learning in Developing Contexts: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania (United States)

    Oberhauser, Ann M.; Daniels, Rita


    This article examines intercultural aspects of global service learning (GSL) focused on gender and sustainable development in rural Tanzania. The discussion draws from critical development and postcolonial feminist approaches to examine how GSL addresses globalization, social histories, and political economies of development. The empirical…

  14. English Cooperative Learning Mode in a Rural Junior High School in China (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Peng, Wen; Sun, Liuhua


    Cooperative learning is one of the most recognized and fruitful research areas in modern education practice. It has been widely used in many countries as an effective teaching strategy to improve class efficiency and students' comprehensive language ability since the 1990's. This paper takes JA Junior High School, a rural junior high school in…

  15. Wheelbarrows full of frogs: social learning in rural resource management : international research and reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Pyburn, R.; Röling, N.G.


    Standing in contrast to technological interventions and economics, ‘social learning’ reflects the idea that the shared learning of interdependent stakeholders is a key mechanism for arriving at more desirable solutions to complex problems in rural environments. Degradation of natural resources,

  16. Urban and Rural High School Students' Perspectives of Productive Peer Culture for Mathematics Learning (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.


    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perspectives about productive peer culture (PPC) in general and for mathematics learning. The urban and rural high school students in this study have participated for at least one year in either an Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) for daily mathematics instruction and/or worked as mathematics…

  17. Positive Examples and Lessons Learned from Rural Small Business Adoption of E-Commerce Strategies (United States)

    Lamie, R. David; Barkley, David L.; Markley, Deborah M.


    Rural small businesses struggling against the current of competition from "big box" retailers, weak consumer demand, and on-line shopping options must find strategies that work. Many are finding that adoption of e-commerce strategies is a key to survival, even prosperity. This article highlights the lessons learned from a recent case study…

  18. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom


    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research ...

  19. Ciclovia in a Rural Latino Community: Results and Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Ko, Linda K; Hernandez, Lidia; Ortiz, Rosa; Linde, Sandra

    Ciclovias involve the temporary closure of roads to motorized vehicles, allowing for use by bicyclists, walkers, and runners and for other physical activity. Ciclovias have been held in urban and suburban communities in the United States and Latin America. We evaluated the first ciclovia held in a rural, predominantly Latino community in Washington State. Three blocks within a downtown area in a rural community were closed for 5 hours on a Saturday in July 2015. The evaluation included observation counts and participant intercept surveys. On average, 200 participants were present each hour. Fourteen percent of youth (younger than 18 years) were observed riding bikes. No adults were observed riding bikes. A total of 38 surveys were completed. Respondents reported spending on average 2 hours at the ciclovia. Seventy-nine percent reported that they would have been indoors at home involved in sedentary activities (such as watching TV, working on computer) if they had not been at the ciclovia. Regularly held ciclovias, which are free and open to anyone, could play an important role in creating safe, accessible, and affordable places for physical activity in rural areas. Broad community input is important for the success of a ciclovia.

  20. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Owamani


    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  1. Teaching pathology via online digital microscopy: positive learning outcomes for rurally based medical students. (United States)

    Sivamalai, Sundram; Murthy, Shashidhar Venkatesh; Gupta, Tarun Sen; Woolley, Torres


    Technology has revolutionised teaching. Teaching pathology via digital microscopy (DM) is needed to overcome increasing student numbers, a shortage of pathology academics in regional medical schools, and difficulties with teaching students on rural clinical placement. To identify whether an online DM approach, combining digital pathology software, Web-based slides and classroom management software, delivers effective, practical pathology teaching sessions to medical students located both on campus and on rural placement. An online survey collected feedback from fourth and fifth year undergraduate James Cook University medical students on the importance of 16 listed benefits and challenges of using online DM to teach pathology, via a structured five-point Likert survey. Fifty-three students returned the survey (response rate = 33%). Benefits of online DM to teach pathology rated as 'very important' or 'extremely important' by over 50% of students included: higher quality images; faster learning; more convenient; better technology; everyone sees the same image; greater accessibility; helpful annotations on slides; cost savings; and more opportunity for self-paced learning out-of-hours and for collaborative learning in class. Challenges of online DM rated as 'very important' or 'extremely important' by over 50% of students included: Internet availability in more remote locations and potential problems using online technology during class. Nearly all medical students welcomed learning pathology via online digital technology. DM should improve the quantity, quality, cost and accessibility of pathology teaching by regional medical schools, and has significant implications for the growing emphasis in Australia for decentralised medical education and rural clinical placements. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.



    Reshma S; Soumya Eappan; Sr. Juli A D


    The life of knowledge and human skills today is shorter than ever, mounting the pressure to remain up to date with ones education and training throughout a career. In the age of globalization and technological revolution, four-year degrees are just the start of a forty-year continuing education. Life-long learning is quickly becoming an imperative in today’s world. E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. The use of network technology to design, deliver, s...

  3. The Development, Validation and Use of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES) (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Joy; Young, Janelle


    Research in rural and remote schools and communities of Queensland resulted in the development and validation of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES). Samples of 252 teachers and 191 community members were used to validate the structure of this questionnaire. It was developed within the standard…

  4. The Importance of Rural, Township, and Urban Life in the Interaction between Social and Emotional Learning and Social Behaviors (United States)

    Totan, Tarik; Ozyesil, Zümra; Deniz, M. Engin; Kiyar, Fatma


    Whether an individual lives in a rural or urban setting may have direct impact on a wide variety of psychological patterns adopted by students. In this study, the effects of positive and negative social behaviors on the relationship between social and emotional learning needs and skills gaps of students who reside in both rural and urban areas…

  5. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang


    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  6. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni


    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...... of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp, Sweden. NJF-Seminar 369, June 15-17, 2005. Electronic version available at ISSN 1653-2015...

  7. Exploratory Study of Rural Physicians' Self-Directed Learning Experiences in a Digital Age. (United States)

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Simmons, Karla; Ravalia, Mohamed; Snow, Pamela


    The nature and characteristics of self-directed learning (SDL) by physicians has been transformed with the growth in digital, social, and mobile technologies (DSMTs). Although these technologies present opportunities for greater "just-in-time" information seeking, there are issues for ensuring effective and efficient usage to compliment one's repertoire for continuous learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the SDL experiences of rural physicians and the potential of DSMTs for supporting their continuing professional development (CPD). Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of rural physicians. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo analytical software and thematic analysis. Fourteen (N = 14) interviews were conducted and key thematic categories that emerged included key triggers, methods of undertaking SDL, barriers, and supports. Methods and resources for undertaking SDL have evolved considerably, and rural physicians report greater usage of mobile phones, tablets, and laptop computers for updating their knowledge and skills and in responding to patient questions/problems. Mobile technologies, and some social media, can serve as "triggers" in instigating SDL and a greater usage of DSMTs, particularly at "point of care," may result in higher levels of SDL. Social media is met with some scrutiny and ambivalence, mainly because of the "credibility" of information and risks associated with digital professionalism. DSMTs are growing in popularity as a key resource to support SDL for rural physicians. Mobile technologies are enabling greater "point-of-care" learning and more efficient information seeking. Effective use of DSMTs for SDL has implications for enhancing just-in-time learning and quality of care. Increasing use of DSMTs and their new effect on SDL raises the need for reflection on conceptualizations of the SDL process. The "digital age" has implications for our CPD credit systems and the roles

  8. Seeking surprise : rethinking monitoring for collective learning in rural resource management


    Guijt, I.M.


    Commonsense says that monitoring systems should be able to provide feedback that can help correct ineffective actions. But practice shows that when dealing with complex rural development issues that involve collaborative action by a changing configuration of stakeholders, monitoring practice often falls short of its potential. In this thesis, I describe my search to understand why practice is so limited and what might be needed to design monitoring processes that foster learning in concerted ...

  9. Using i2b2 to Bootstrap Rural Health Analytics and Learning Networks. (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R; Baus, Adam D; Harper, Tamela J; Jarrett, Traci D; Pollard, Cecil R; Talbert, Jeffery C


    We demonstrate that the open-source i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside) data model can be used to bootstrap rural health analytics and learning networks. These networks promote communication and research initiatives by providing the infrastructure necessary for sharing data and insights across a group of healthcare and research partners. Data integration remains a crucial challenge in connecting rural healthcare sites with a common data sharing and learning network due to the lack of interoperability and standards within electronic health records. The i2b2 data model acts as a point of convergence for disparate data from multiple healthcare sites. A consistent and natural data model for healthcare data is essential for overcoming integration issues, but challenges such as those caused by weak data standardization must still be addressed. We describe our experience in the context of building the West Virginia/Kentucky Health Analytics and Learning Network, a collaborative, multi-state effort connecting rural healthcare sites.

  10. Integration of academic learning and service development through guided projects for rural practitioners in India. (United States)

    Vyas, Rashmi; Zachariah, Anand; Swamidasan, Isobel; Doris, Priya; Harris, Ilene


    Christian Medical College Vellore (CMC) aspired through its Fellowship in Secondary Hospital Medicine (FSHM), a 1-year distance-learning program, to integrate academic learning and service development through guided projects for junior doctors working in small rural hospitals. The purpose of this article is to report the evaluation of the effectiveness of the project work in the FSHM program. Mixed method evaluation was done using focus group discussion with students, written surveys for students and faculty, and telephone interviews with students and medical superintendents. Evidence for validity was gathered for the written survey. Criteria for trustworthiness were applied for the qualitative data analysis. The major strengths of the project work identified were that students became aware of local health problems and how to deal with them, learned to work as a team, and had a sense of doing something useful. Recommendations for improvement were to have more interactions between guides and students. The benefits of projects to the hospital were providing improved clinical care, improved health systems, cost effective care management and benefits to the community. Service learning through guided project work should be incorporated into distance-learning educational programs for junior doctors working in rural hospitals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. H. N.MURTHY


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWhile the conventional education system with different forms of E-learning and rigid academic instructive curriculum could not bring desired changes in specified timeframe work at rural level in the targeted communities and groups, a multipronged sociological approach with a sociable and flexible curriculum in new E-Learning programs becomes need of hour. The impact of socializing influence of these E-Learning programs should be properly exploited to motivate and inspire the rural target groups. The benefits of E-learning then become extensive and soon integrate with the needs of the lower strata of the society in order for achieving a rapid social transformation in the lives of the farmers, vocational groups, artisans and small income self help groups comprising women, girls and physically challenged. The paper suggests a number of new generation E-Learning programs as strategies of development communication with a promise of high returns for the industry for its investment in these programs with socially relevant messages and media convergence.

  12. Successful Teaching, Learning, and Use of Digital Mapping Technology in Mazvihwa, Rural Zimbabwe (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Madzoro, S.; Solera, J.; Mhike Hove, E.; Changarara, A.; Ndlovu, D.; Chirindira, A.; Ndlovu, A.; Gwatipedza, S.; Mhizha, M.; Ndlovu, M.


    Participatory mapping is now a staple of community-based work around the world. Particularly for indigenous and rural peoples, it can represent a new avenue for environmental justice and can be a tool for culturally appropriate management of local ecosystems. We present a successful example of teaching and learning digital mapping technology in rural Zimbabwe. Our digital mapping project is part of the long-term community-based participatory research of The Muonde Trust in Mazvihwa, Zimbabwe. By gathering and distributing local knowledge and also bringing in visitors to share knowledge, Muonde has been able to spread relevant information among rural farmers. The authors were all members of Muonde or were Muonde's visitors, and were mentors and learners of digital mapping technologies at different times. Key successful characteristics of participants included patience, compassion, openness, perseverance, respect, and humility. Important mentoring strategies included: 1) instruction in Shona and in English, 2) locally relevant examples, assignments, and analogies motivated by real needs, 3) using a variety of teaching methods for different learning modalities, 4) building on and modifying familiar teaching methods, and 5) paying attention to the social and relational aspects of teaching and learning. The Muonde mapping team has used their new skills for a wide variety of purposes, including: identifying, discussing, and acting on emerging needs; using digital mapping for land-use and agropastoral planning; and using mapping as a tool for recording and telling important historical and cultural stories. Digital mapping has built self-confidence as well as providing employable skills and giving Muonde more visibility to other local and national non-governmental organizations, utility companies, and educational institutions. Digital mapping, as taught in a bottom-up, collaborative way, has proven to be both accessible and of enormous practical use to rural Zimbabweans.

  13. Enhancing Care for Older People Living in Nursing Homes in Rural Australia Using Action Learning as a Catalyst for Change (United States)

    Penney, Wendy; Meyer, Julienne; Cash, Penny; Clinnick, Lisa; Martin, Louise


    The implementation of action learning workshops in three nursing homes in rural Victoria, Australia has been critical in the re-visioning of how care can be enhanced for residents. The workshops were designed with the intent of improving quality of care for residents by providing health care staff with opportunities to learn together and effect…

  14. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China (United States)

    Yang, Xinrong


    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  15. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia. (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce


    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  16. Teacher perceptions of usefulness of mobile learning devices in rural secondary science classrooms (United States)

    Tighe, Lisa

    The internet and easy accessibility to a wide range of digital content has created the necessity for teachers to embrace and integrate digitial media in their curriculums. Although there is a call for digital media integration in curriculum by current learning standards, rural schools continue to have access to fewer resources due to limited budgets, potentially preventing teachers from having access to the most current technology and science instructional materials. This dissertation identifies the perceptions rural secondary science teachers have on the usefulness of mobile learning devices in the science classroom. The successes and challenges in using mobile learning devices in the secondary classroom were also explored. Throughout this research, teachers generally supported the integration of mobile devices in the classroom, while harboring some concerns relating to student distractability and the time required for integrating mobile devices in exisiting curriculum. Quantitative and qualitative data collected through surveys, interviews, and classroom observations revealed that teachers perceive that mobile devices bring benefits such as ease of communication and easy access to digitial information. However, there are perceived challenges with the ability to effectively communicate complex scientific information via mobile devices, distractibility of students, and the time required to develop effective curriculum to integrate digital media into the secondary science classroom.

  17. A Place to Learn: Cultivating Engaging Learning Environments for Young Rural Aboriginal Australians (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tregeagle, Susan; Burnstein, Jodi; Stanley, Helena


    Rural Aboriginal Australians experience disadvantage across a number of significant social and economic outcomes, including educational engagement and achievement. Current debate postulates that educational environments and systems perpetuate this disadvantage. This qualitative study aimed to contribute to the debate by taking a broader ecological…

  18. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele


    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  19. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.


    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  20. The best I can be: how self-accountability impacts product choice in technology mediated environments


    Rowe, Zoe O.; Wilson, Hugh; Dimitriu, Radu; Breiter, Katja; Charnley, Fiona


    Technology-mediated environments are important not only as the location for an increasing proportion of purchases, but also as an even more pervasive part of the purchase journey. While most research into online consumer behavior focuses on attitudes as an antecedent of product choice, this article focuses on an important but hardly explored variable that may be impacted by technology-mediated environments: self-accountability. Laboratory experiments suggest that self-accountability may influ...

  1. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups


    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul


    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods: Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First...

  2. Eliciting and utilizing rural students' funds of knowledge in the service of science learning: An action research study (United States)

    Lloyd, Ellen M.

    Several researchers have pointed out the failures of current schooling to adequately prepare students in science and called for radical reform in science education to address the problem. One dominant critique of science education is that several groups of students are not well served by current school science practices and discourses. Rural students represent one of these underserved populations. Yet, there is little in the literature that speaks specifically to reforming the science education of rural students. Utilizing action research as a methodology, this study was designed to learn more about the unique knowledge and life experiences of rural students, and how these unique knowledge, skills and interests could suggest new ways to improve science education in rural schools. Informed by this ultimate goal, I created an after school science club where the participating high school students engaged in solving a local watershed problem, while explicitly bringing to bear their unique backgrounds, local knowledge and life experiences from living in a rural area of Upstate New York. Using Funds of Knowledge as the theoretical framework, this after-school club served as the context to investigate the following research questions: (1) What science-related funds of knowledge do rural high school students have? (2) How were these funds of knowledge capitalized on to support science learning in an after-school setting?

  3. The rural school meal as a site for learning about food. (United States)

    Torres, Irene; Benn, Jette


    The aim of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the school meal as a site for learning about food, nutrition and the wider determinants of health in three small rural schools of Ecuador. Based on a year-long qualitative fieldwork, the multiple case study associates Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning with Noddings' theory of care to analyze the findings. In the study, elements of care in the relationships between children and adults seemed to promote dialogue and, in this way, adults were able to model what is required to care for others and oneself. This entails that a focus solely on food or limitations on social interaction during the school meal may reduce its learning opportunities. The study concurs with the research that the food is better received when it is more aligned with the students' expectations. In addition, the findings support the view that rural school meal programs should address the views of parents and teachers because of their influence on how the meal is prepared and provided. The article proposes that schools work within a flexible framework emphasizing attention to the caring aspects of the meal, as a means to develop this dimension of the school meal. The study also contends that a collaborative reshaping of conditions formally set by school food policy is consistent with a critical approach to food and nutrition. In connection with this, the study concludes by highlighting the value of revisiting Noddings' perspective of care as deriving from the practice of opening up and meeting the other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Botha


    Full Text Available This article draws upon the experiences gained in participating in an Information and Communication Technology for Rural Education (ICT4RED initiative, as part of a larger Technology for Rural Education project (TECH4RED in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation, design and application of an innovative teacher professional development course for rural teachers, enabling them to use tablets to support teaching and learning in their classrooms. The course, as outcome, is presented as a Teacher Tablet Toolkit, designed to meet the challenges inherent to the 21st century rural technology enhanced teaching and learning environment. The paper documents and motivates design decisions, derived from literature and adapted through three iterations of a Design Science Research Process, to be incorporated in the ICT4RED Teacher Professional Development Course. The resulting course aims to equip participating teachers with a toolkit consisting of technology hardware, pragmatic pedagogical and technology knowledge and skills, and practice based experience. The significance of game design elements such as simulation and fun, technology in need rather than in case, adequate scaffolding and a clear learning path with interim learning goals are noted.

  5. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea (United States)

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo


    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  6. A learning-based approach to understanding success in rural electrification : insights from micro hydro projects in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkwaard, ir. W.; Kirkels, A.F.; Romijn, H.A.


    The paper analyzes the performance of a set of rural Micro Hydro Power (MHP) projects and MHP-implementing organizations in Bolivia, using a learning-based analytical perspective. Rather than identifying a generic set of critical success factors such as access to finance, adequate technological

  7. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities (United States)

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert


    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  8. Developing Multiliteracies in a Technology-Mediated Environment (United States)

    Cooper, Natalie; Lockyer, Lori; Brown, Ian


    Evolving technologies and globalisation presents educators with the challenge of creating learning experiences to help students develop competencies to enable them to function successfully in a dynamic society. Today's learner is expected to be multiliterate--able to analyse and construct multi-modal texts. A qualitative embedded multi-case study…

  9. Figuring It out on Their Own: How Rural Adult Online Students Negotiate Barriers to Learning Online (United States)

    Peich, Alysia


    The health of rural communities depends, in part, on the education level of rural adults. Economic vitality is impacted by degree completion, and the rate of degree completion by rural adults lags behind that of their urban and suburban counterparts. Low completion rates suggest that there are conditions for rural students that prevent them from…

  10. Contextual attributes promote or hinder self-regulated learning: A qualitative study contrasting rural physicians with undergraduate learners in Japan. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yasushi; Nakaya, Motoyuki; Okazaki, Hitoaki; Leppink, Jimmie; van der Vleuten, Cees


    Previous studies support the notion that East Asian medical students do not possess sufficient self-regulation for postgraduate clinical training. However, some East Asian physicians who are employed in geographically isolated and educationally underserved rural settings can self-regulate their study during the early phase of their postgraduate career. To explore the contextual attributes that contribute to self-regulated learning (SRL), we examined the differences in self-regulation between learning as an undergraduate and in a rural context in East Asia. We conducted interviews and diary data collection among rural physicians (n = 10) and undergraduates (n = 11) in Japan who undertook self-study of unfamiliar diseases. We analyzed three domains of Zimmerman's definition of SRL: learning behaviors, motivation, and metacognition using constructivist grounded theory. Rural physicians recognized their identity as unique, and as professionals with a central role of handling diseases in the local community by conducting self-study. They simultaneously found themselves being at risk of providing inappropriate aid if their self-study was insufficient. They developed strategic learning strategies to cope with this high-stakes task. Undergraduates had a fear of being left behind and preferred to remain as one of the crowd with students in the same school year. Accordingly, they copied the methods of other students for self-study and used monotonous and homogeneous strategies. Different learning contexts do not keep East Asian learners from being self-regulated. Awareness of their unique identity leads them to view learning tasks as high-stakes, and to initiate learning strategies in a self-regulated manner. Teacher-centered education systems cause students to identify themselves as one of the crowd, and tasks as low-stakes, and to accordingly employ non-self-regulated strategies.

  11. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers' Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning. (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong


    Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs' competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers' education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs-the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs-the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses' knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1.63 (95% CI 1.08-2.48; P=.02). Among PHCWs in

  12. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers’ Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng


    Background Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs’ competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers’ education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. Methods The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs—the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs—the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses’ knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). Results The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; Plearning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1

  13. Application of Deep Learning and Supervised Learning Methods to Recognize Nonlinear Hidden Pattern in Water Stress Levels from Spatiotemporal Datasets across Rural and Urban US Counties (United States)

    Eisenhart, T.; Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.


    In the wake of recent water crises, the need to understand and predict the risk of water stress in urban and rural areas has grown. This understanding has the potential to improve decision making in public resource management, policy making, risk management and investment decisions. Assuming an underlying relationship between urban and rural water stress and observable features, we apply Deep Learning and Supervised Learning models to uncover hidden nonlinear patterns from spatiotemporal datasets. Results of interest includes prediction accuracy on extreme categories (i.e. urban areas highly prone to water stress) and not solely the average risk for urban or rural area, which adds complexity to the tuning of model parameters. We first label urban water stressed counties using annual water quality violations and compile a comprehensive spatiotemporal dataset that captures the yearly evolution of climatic, demographic and economic factors of more than 3,000 US counties over the 1980-2010 period. As county-level data reporting is not done on a yearly basis, we test multiple imputation methods to get around the issue of missing data. Using Python libraries, TensorFlow and scikit-learn, we apply and compare the ability of, amongst other methods, Recurrent Neural Networks (testing both LSTM and GRU cells), Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines to predict urban water stress. We evaluate the performance of those models over multiple time spans and combine methods to diminish the risk of overfitting and increase prediction power on test sets. This methodology seeks to identify hidden nonlinear patterns to assess the predominant data features that influence urban and rural water stress. Results from this application at the national scale will assess the performance of deep learning models to predict water stress risk areas across all US counties and will highlight a predominant Machine Learning method for modeling water stress risk using spatiotemporal

  14. Exploring How Technology Mediates the Types of Relationships Formed in Sociotechnical Systems (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai


    This work presents an exploratory study of how technology mediates the different types of relationships that are formed in sociotechnical systems. More people each day are connecting with each other through social networks, online communities, and other forms of virtual environments. Whether for education, information seeking, friendship,…

  15. What is the Better Social Media for Mathematics Learning? A Case Study at A Rural School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sulisworo


    Full Text Available The penetration of social media in the community has been very high. Nowadays, almost all students at the school are using smartphones for their daily activities. This study is a descriptive quantitative exploratory research to find out how the students' response when learning using social media is implemented as a mobile learning system. Data were taken from four different schools in the rural area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Mathematics learning using a different social media (WeChat, Line@, Socrative, and Edmodo was applied to student of grade 7 of each school. Data collection used USE questionnaire which measured whether the implemented learning model using social media could be well received by students and appropriate learning expectations. USE questionnaire has 4 measured factors i.e. usefulness, ease to use, ease of learning, and satisfaction. From the data, it shows that all factors were high. The highest one was satisfaction (3.15 then, usefulness (3.11, ease to learn (3.00, and ease to use (2.94 respectively. On average, the social media got the highest student’s response as a learning system was Socrative (3.18, then Edmodo (3.15, Line@ (3.00 and WeChat (2.89. Further analysis using statistical technique showed that students have good perception to Socrative and Edmodo. This finding implies that the social media especially Socrative and Edmodo are valuable to be used in the leaning using flexible learning strategy.

  16. Beyond knowledge and skills: the use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy. (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Frantz, Jose; Bozalek, Vivienne


    While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond "having" knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the

  17. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups. (United States)

    Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul


    Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to be a problem; they believe willpower to be an

  18. Lessons learned in using realist evaluation to assess maternal and newborn health programming in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Adams, Alayne; Sedalia, Saroj; McNab, Shanon; Sarker, Malabika


    Realist evaluation furnishes valuable insight to public health practitioners and policy makers about how and why interventions work or don't work. Moving beyond binary measures of success or failure, it provides a systematic approach to understanding what goes on in the 'Black Box' and how implementation decisions in real life contexts can affect intervention effectiveness. This paper reflects on an experience in applying the tenets of realist evaluation to identify optimal implementation strategies for scale-up of Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) programmes in rural Bangladesh. Supported by UNICEF, the three MNH programmes under consideration employed different implementation models to deliver similar services and meet similar MNH goals. Programme targets included adoption of recommended antenatal, post-natal and essential newborn care practices; health systems strengthening through improved referral, accountability and administrative systems, and increased community knowledge. Drawing on focused examples from this research, seven steps for operationalizing the realist evaluation approach are offered, while emphasizing the need to iterate and innovate in terms of methods and analysis strategies. The paper concludes by reflecting on lessons learned in applying realist evaluation, and the unique insights it yields regarding implementation strategies for successful MNH programming. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  19. Informal mobile learning in nurse education and practice in remote areas--a case study from rural South Africa. (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Brysiewicz, Petra; Linxen, Sebastian; Walters, Fiona; Chipps, Jennifer; Gröhbiel, Urs


    With the proliferation of portable digital technology, mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular in nursing education and practice. Most of the research in this field has been concentrated on small-scale projects in high income countries. Very little is known about the ways in which nurses and midwives use mobile technology in remote and resource poor areas in informal learning contexts in low and middle income countries. To address this gap, this study investigates whether nurses use mobile phones as effective educational tools in marginalized and remote areas, and if so, how and why. In rural South Africa, 16 nurses who attended an advanced midwifery education program, facilitators and clinical managers were interviewed about their use of digital mobile technology for learning. Techniques of qualitative content analysis were used to examine the data. Several rich "organically-grown", learning practices were identified: mobile phone usage facilitated (1) authentic problem solving; (2) reflective practice; (3) emotional support and belongingness; (4) the realization of unpredictable teaching situations; and (5) life-long learning. It is concluded that mobile phones, and the convergence of mobile phones and social media, in particular, change learning environments. In addition, these tools are suitable to connect learners and learning distributed in marginalized areas. Finally, a few suggestions are made about how these insights from informal settings can inform the development of more systematic mobile learning formats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Jane Jacobs and the Dilemma of Life and Learning in Rural Areas. (United States)

    Howley, Craig B.

    Recent work by both neoclassical and political economists suggests the scope of the influence of economic structures on rural socioeconomic conditions and rural education. In particular, dual labor-market analyses look beneath the surface of the macroeconomy--the national economy--to the underlying reality of regional or sectoral economic…

  1. Symbiotic Relationship between Telecentre and Lifelong Learning for Rural Community Development: A Malaysian Experience (United States)

    Malek, Jalaluddin Abdul; Razaq Ahmad, Abdul; Mahzan Awang, Mohd; Alfitri


    Telecentres in the 21st century may be able to improve standard of living, quality of life, and stability of knowledge for the rural population. The role of telecentres is widely increasing in developing political and management awareness, economic, socio-culture, technology, education and regulation awareness in rural communities. Telecentres in…

  2. Benchmarking Local Government Performance on Rural Sanitation : Learning from Himachal Pradesh, India


    World Bank


    Open defecation is a traditional behavior in rural India. Conventional rural sanitation programs have been based on the assumption that people defecate in the open because they are too poor to afford the cost of constructing a toilet. Therefore, subsidies for upfront capital costs were provided to generate demand for 'sanitation,' interpreted narrowly as a pour-flush toilet. These programs...

  3. Relation of Opportunity to Learn Advanced Math to the Educational Attainment of Rural Youth (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew; Byun, Soo-yong; Smiley, Whitney S.; Hutchins, Bryan C.


    Our study examined the relation of advanced math course taking to the educational attainment of rural youth. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002. Regression analyses demonstrated that when previous math achievement is accounted for, rural students take advanced math at a significantly lower rate than urban students.…

  4. Interactive E-learning module in pharmacology: a pilot project at a rural medical college in India. (United States)

    Gaikwad, Nitin; Tankhiwale, Suresh


    readily available Microsoft PowerPoint tool appealed to medical educators to use this kind of simple E-learning technology blended with traditional teaching to encourage active learning among students especially in a rural setup is attractive.

  5. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School


    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming


    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  6. Learning professionalism during the third year of medical school in a 9-month-clinical rotation in rural Minnesota. (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Brooks, Kathleen D


    Professionalism is now an explicit part of the medical school curricula. To examine the components that are part of developing professionalism during the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) experience, a 9-month rotation in a rural community during the third year of medical school. Two researchers analysed 3 years of essays for themes. IRB approval was obtained. Themes were organized using Van de Camp's model of professionalism. Students described how patients taught them about illnesses, the affects on their lives and the lives of their families. Preceptors role-modelled how to relate to patients with compassion and respect (Professionalism Towards the Patient). As a member of the health care team, clinic and hospital staff taught students how to be a good team member (Towards Other Health Care Professionals). Shadowing preceptors in their roles as physicians and community members, students learned about their responsibilities to the community (Towards the Public). Multiple opportunities for self-evaluation and reflection taught students to know themselves and find balance between work responsibilities and their personal lives (Towards Oneself). The RPAP appears to create a supportive learning environment that incorporates psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas and time for reflection - an ideal environment for developing professionalism.

  7. Cooperative movement as tool of the rural territorial development: Concrete experiences, challenges and learnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo Pavletic Favi


    Full Text Available The models of economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean are characterized by a political and economic concentration in big cities, leaving the rural world behind and neglecting the basic needs of a large portion of the population. It is because of this, that the region has chosen the Rural & Territorial Development as an answer and as an alternative to the traditional models, understanding that only endogenous development in each particular territory will be successful.   This work aims to make a reflection on why the farming and agriculture cooperatives are means of the Rural & Territorial Development based on the work experience of the NGO CESAL in The Dominican Republic.

  8. Using LEGO Blocks for Technology-Mediated Task-Based English Language Learning (United States)

    Gadomska, Agnieszka


    LEGO blocks have been played with by generations of children worldwide since the 1950s. It is undeniable that they boost creativity, eye-hand coordination, focus, planning, problem solving and many other skills. LEGO bricks have been also used by educators across the curricula as they are extremely motivating and engaging and, in effect, make…

  9. the use of learning Support Materials in rural Schools of Maputaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discovery of a colony of coelacanths, a prehistoric species of fish, off the coast of ... The relationship between active learning, oBE and learning ...... Biodiversity and the National Research Foundation are acknowledged for the opportunity.

  10. Effectiveness of distance learning strategies for continuing professional development (CPD) for rural allied health practitioners: a systematic review. (United States)

    Berndt, Angela; Murray, Carolyn M; Kennedy, Kate; Stanley, Mandy J; Gilbert-Hunt, Susan


    Allied health professionals working in rural areas face unique challenges, often with limited access to resources. Accessing continuing professional development is one of those challenges and is related to retention of workforce. Effectiveness of distance learning strategies for continuing professional development in rural allied healthcare workers has not been evaluated. We searched 17 databases and the grey literature up to September 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines. Any primary studies were included that focussed on allied health and distance delivery regardless of education topic or study design. Two independent reviewers extracted data and critically appraised the selected studies. The search returned 5257 results. With removal of duplicate references, we reviewed 3964 article titles and abstracts; n = 206 appeared potentially eligible and were scrutinised via full text screening; n = 14 were included. Studies were published between 1997 and 2016, were of varied methodological quality and were predominantly from Australia, USA and Canada with a focus on satisfaction of learners with the delivery method or on measures of educational outcomes. Technologies used to deliver distance education included video conference, teleconference, web based platforms and virtual reality. Early papers tended to focus more on the technology characteristics than educational outcomes. Some studies compared technology based delivery to face to face modes and found satisfaction and learning outcomes to be on par. Only three studies reported on practice change following the educational intervention and, despite a suggestion there is a link between the constructs, none measured the relationship between access to continuing professional development and workforce retention. Technology based options of delivery have a high utility, however the complex inter-relatedness of time, use, travel, location, costs, interactivity, learning outcomes and educational design suggest a need

  11. Including Migrant Worker Children in the Learning and Social Context of the Rural Primary School (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula


    Many of the larger towns and cities within the UK have long experienced a cosmopolitan mix of cultures, resulting in ethnically and linguistically diverse schools. However, the wider expansion of the European Union in 2004 has brought about significant changes and challenges for many schools, particularly for those in more rural areas. This…

  12. Dimensional evaluation of a rural mobile learning teacher professional development curriculum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele


    Full Text Available Education Development (ICT4RED) TPD Curriculum was designed and validated as a standalone intervention in a single district, for rural teachers, but did it carry Higher Education Institution accreditation. This implementation gap is addressed in its adaption...

  13. Testing the "Learning Journey" of MSW Students in a Rural Program (United States)

    Wall, Misty L.; Rainford, Will


    Using a quasi-experimental one-group, pretest-posttest design with non-random convenience sampling, the researchers assessed 61 advanced standing MSW students who matriculated at a rural intermountain Northwest school of social work. Changes in students' knowledge and attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people were measured using…

  14. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand (United States)

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn


    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  15. Teacher Identity in a Multicultural Rural School: Lessons Learned at Vista Charter (United States)

    Wenger, Kerri J.; Dinsmore, Jan; Villagomez, Amanda


    In this paper, we describe a 30-month qualitative exploration of diverse teachers' identities in a high-poverty, bilingual, K-8 public charter school in rural eastern Oregon. First, we use the perspectives of saberes docentes and a situated view of teacher development to document the life histories of monolingual and bilingual teachers at Vista…

  16. Seeking surprise : rethinking monitoring for collective learning in rural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, I.M.


    Commonsense says that monitoring systems should be able to provide feedback that can help correct ineffective actions. But practice shows that when dealing with complex rural development issues that involve collaborative action by a changing configuration of stakeholders, monitoring practice often

  17. Exploring Teachers' Blended Learning Experiences in a Rural Alabama High School (United States)

    Jones, Aslean Madison


    The use of blended learning is fast becoming a practice used in public schools to address 21st century learning challenges. However, despite the growing use of instructional delivery models that blend online learning platforms with traditional instruction in brick and mortar classrooms, little is known about teachers' experiences with the…

  18. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course (United States)

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim


    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  19. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun


    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  20. Peer mentoring supports the learning needs of nurses providing palliative care in a rural acute care setting. (United States)

    Rabbetts, Lyn


    A specific set of assessment scales can underpin the management of distressing symptoms of patients requiring palliative care. A research assistant supported nurses working in a rural hospital setting during the introduction of these scales. A secondary analysis was conducted to further explore the qualitative data of a previously reported mixed-method study. In particular, the experiences of nurses working alongside a research assistant in the facilitation of using a new assessment form. Purposeful sampling was employed: participating nurses were invited to attend one of three focus group meetings. Data analysis revealed three main themes: a contact person, coach/mentor and extra help initiatives. Three to four subthemes corresponded with each main theme. Findings suggest nurses benefit from having someone to assist in learning about new documentation. Nurses respond positively to mentorship and practical guidance when integrating a new assessment form into routine evidence-based practice.

  1. “Out of My Comfort Zone”: Understanding the Impact of a Service-Learning Experience in Rural El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Beckman


    Full Text Available This qualitative case study was designed to explore the impact of a two-week service-learning experience in rural El Salvador on students' perceptions of its impact on them personally, professionally and their global awareness. Students stayed in an economically impoverished village in rural El Salvador and worked on projects that promoted education for children in the village. Participants included 15 graduate and undergraduate students; 13 from the College of Education of a large university in the northeastern part of the United States. Multiple data sources were used to understand these impacts including: open-ended interviews conducted two to four months after the trip; field notes from participant observations in large and small group activities, group reflections; and informal incidents and conversations; review of documents related to the class (student journals; student final papers, and daily activity and health logs. While the initial process of adjustment was difficult for some students, all students felt that their participation in this experience had an important, positive impact on them. Data indicated that this impact occurred in all three major areas addressed in this study, including: personal (e.g. sense of appreciation, gaining perspective, rethinking consumption, clarifying values, and learning they “could do it”/self-efficacy, professional (affirming career choices, ability to work with Latino children and families; improving professional skills and global awareness (e.g. perspectives on poverty and social justice, views of immigration, understanding of the world. Findings will be discussed in terms of exant literature related to the impact of short-term service experiences.

  2. Technology-Mediated Interventions and Quality of Life for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Cho, Hwayoung; Iribarren, Sarah; Schnall, Rebecca


    As HIV/AIDS is considered a chronic disease; quality of life (QoL) has become an important focus for researchers and healthcare providers. Technology-mediated interventions have demonstrated improved clinical effectiveness in outcomes, such as viral suppression, for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). However, the evidence to support the impact of these interventions on QoL is lacking. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of technology-mediated interventions on QoL and to identify the instruments used to measure the QoL of PLWH. For this review we followed the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases in April 2016. Inclusion criteria limited articles to those with technology-mediated interventions as compared to usual care; articles with the population defined as HIV-infected patients; and articles with QoL measured as a health outcome in randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. Of the 1,554 peer-reviewed articles returned in the searches, 10 met the inclusion criteria. This systematic review identified four types of technology-mediated interventions and two types of QoL instruments used to examine the impact of technology-mediated interventions on PLWH. Four studies of technology-mediated interventions resulted in improvement in QoL. Four studies considered QoL as a secondary outcome and resulted in a negative or neutral impact on QoL. Overall, four studies had a low risk of bias, one study had a moderate risk of bias, and the other five studies had a high risk of bias. The evidence to support the improvement of QoL using technology-mediated interventions is insufficient. This lack of research highlights the need for increased study of QoL as an outcome measure and the need for consistent measures to better understand the role of technology-mediated interventions in improving QoL for PLWH.

  3. Benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires of nurses related to distance learning in rural island communities. (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Richardson, Karol; Mobley, Joseph


    This study assessed distance learning needs among nurses on the Neighbor Islands in Hawaii. An exploratory study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative design. Of the 37 nurses who completed the study, 7 were nurse administrators and 30 were staff nurses. There were 18 focus groups of nurses recruited from six public hospitals on the Neighbor Islands. Three major themes related to distance learning emerged in this study: benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires. Each major theme had several linkages to categories and subcategories. Overall findings were as follows: (1) cost was mentioned more often in three major thematic areas (benefit, barriers, and intentions/desires); (2) the need to revisit and address current curriculum approaches and practices in distance learning programs was identified; and (3) strong recommendations were made for programs and organizational support for distance learning in hospital settings. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia (United States)

    Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel


    In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

  5. Learning from the energetic rural area. Background report; Leren van het energieke platteland. Achtergrondrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnouts, R.; Van den Born, G. J.; Daalhuizen, F.; Farjon, H.; Pols, L.; Tekelenburg, T.; Tisma, S.; Van Veen, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Gerritsen, A.; Verburg, R. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wiering, M. [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roovers, G. [Oranjewoud, Heerenveen (Netherlands)


    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  6. [Potential of cooperative learning in project development : Relevance of cooperative participation procedure for the further development of generation-appropriate accomodation in structurally weak rural areas]. (United States)

    Kaufmann, Gerd; Frankenberg, Olga; Sommer, Ralf-Rüdiger; Jost, Annemarie


    A joint initiative of existing senior care organizations, the municipality of Meyenburg and the state of Brandenburg was further developed by affiliation of an institute of the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (ABV) in cooperation with members of the architecture and social work departments in 2014. A cooperative process between different players was central to create an appropriate structure of services for this region. Cooperative projects are necessary to establish new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas. Cooperative learning methods are needed to develop new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas, which take the diversity of elderly people, the rural context, intergenerational residential arrangements and affordable accommodation that meets the requirements of the social security system into account. Furthermore, the project had to reflect the recent developments of the German care insurance. The article describes the participatory methods, the coordination process and the resulting concept.

  7. Development of a virtual tool for learning basic organisation and planning in rural engineering projects (United States)

    Redel-Macías, María Dolores; Castillo, Carlos; Aguilar Porro, Cristina; Polo, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.


    This paper presents a virtual lab for the contents of an Engineering project, for designing an agro-industrial building, which is also useful for a range of different transversal courses in Engineering sciences. The aims of this tool are to analyse the most important contents of a project-document (calculation, regulations, drawings and budgets), as well as their relationship with the activities which make up the work and the schedule. The design criteria we considered were: its online applications and their compatibility with Moodle; the inclusion of different learning approaches, such as exploratory learning and inquiry-based learning; its interactivity, and the use of multimedia elements for visualisation and direct analysis on material common to Engineering subjects. The students' perceptions of the improvements brought by the virtual lab were analysed statistically through a series of questions over two academic years. The results of the questionnaires suggested that most of those who had used the e-learning tool valued positively its overall suitability for reaching the objectives in their subject as well as the way it improved the working methodology. The practical knowledge acquired by the students was also highly valued. In addition, the lack of constraints commonly related to field trips (expenses, time and complexity) illustrates the utility of self-access learning tools in key transversal disciplines such as Engineering projects.

  8. Beyond the Glow: Children's Broadband Access, Digital Learning Initiatives, and Academic Achievement in Rural Florida (United States)

    Mardis, Marcia


    Approximately 26 million Americans have no access to broadband's social and economic benefits. A persistent level of non-adoption stems from adults' lack of perceived need or benefit. Florida's unique move to all digital instructional materials and required online learning by 2015 may make home broadband essential for maintaining a learning…

  9. A Harvest of Practical Insights : Lessons Learned in Agriculture, Agribusiness, Sustainable Rural Development, and Climate Change


    International Finance Corporation


    This IFC SmartBook is a compilation of sixteen IFC SmartLessons that presents practical lessons learned by staff from across the IFC and the World Bank on approaches for engaging in agriculture that have led to success. Agribusiness is a crucial economic sector, for food security of course, for managing water stress and ecosystem services, but also as a source of employment in emerging mar...

  10. The Effect of Individualized Technology-Mediated Feedback on EFL Learners’ Argumentative Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Soltanpour


    Full Text Available This quantitative quasi-experimental study, which followed a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest design, was aimed at investigating the effect of individualized technology-mediated feedback (henceforth, ITMF on the overall quality of Iranian EFL learners’ argumentative essays. The effect of ITMF, as the experimental treatment, was compared with the common written corrective feedback (henceforth, CWCF strategies as the control treatment. 57 learners, studying at general EFL courses at upper-intermediate level, formed the participants. They were assigned to two groups: ITMF and CWCF, which, in this study, is meant as the pen-and-paper form of direct and indirect feedback. Each group received six sessions of treatment. The writing tasks and tests were all of argumentative type. First, whether there was any significant difference between the ITMF and CWCF in the overall quality of the essays was investigated. The ITMF group significantly outperformed the CWCF one. Then, whether the difference between the groups varied over time was explored, and it was revealed that the ITMF was still significantly superior over the CWCF. Next, whether there would be any significant change in the ITMF in the long term was examined, and no change was seen. The study supports the advocates of screencasting feedback, revision and teacher-learner negotiation following the feedback.

  11. Enhancing the routine health information system in rural southern Tanzania: successes, challenges and lessons learned. (United States)

    Maokola, W; Willey, B A; Shirima, K; Chemba, M; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mshinda, H; Alonso, P; Tanner, M; Schellenberg, D


    To describe and evaluate the use of handheld computers for the management of Health Management Information System data. Electronic data capture took place in 11 sentinel health centres in rural southern Tanzania. Information from children attending the outpatient department (OPD) and the Expanded Program on Immunization vaccination clinic was captured by trained local school-leavers, supported by monthly supervision visits. Clinical data included malaria blood slides and haemoglobin colour scale results. Quality of captured data was assessed using double data entry. Malaria blood slide results from health centre laboratories were compared to those from the study's quality control laboratory. The system took 5 months to implement, and few staffings or logistical problems were encountered. Over the following 12 months (April 2006-March 2007), 7056 attendances were recorded in 9880 infants aged 2-11 months, 50% with clinical malaria. Monthly supervision visits highlighted incomplete recording of information between OPD and laboratory records, where on average 40% of laboratory visits were missing the record of their corresponding OPD visit. Quality of microscopy from health facility laboratories was lower overall than that from the quality assurance laboratory. Electronic capture of HMIS data was rapidly and successfully implemented in this resource-poor setting. Electronic capture alone did not resolve issues of data completeness, accuracy and reliability, which are essential for management, monitoring and evaluation; suggestions to monitor and improve data quality are made. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Modelling seasonal farm labour demand: What can we learn from rural Kakamega district, western Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Canwat


    Full Text Available Seasonality of agricultural activities causes fluctuation in the quantity of labour consumed by these activities, and yet many rural labour studies in developing countries still treat labour demand in agriculture as if it is the same across different farm operations. To unearth the amount of information hidden by this aggregated analysis, labour demand for specific farm operations was estimated based on data collected from Kakamega District. This analysis shows that increasing household size increases labour demand for planting, weeding and harvesting. Increasing the share of elderly household members has a negligible effect on labour demand for farm activities except for land preparation, with which it is positively related. Participation of primary school-going children in farm activities is the highest in planting and harvesting. Participation in off-farm employment seems to increase labour demand only during peak seasons. The area planted appears to have an insignificant effect on labour demand for land preparation. Planting sugar cane appears to reduce labour demand for weeding and primary processing, but planting tea increases labour demand for planting. Mechanising land preparation only reduces labour demand for land preparation, but it seems to be offset by other labour-intensive farm operations. The distance from water source is positively related to labour demand for land preparation, but the distance to the market is negatively related to labour demand for weeding and harvesting. These observations point to the need for supporting and investing in technological and organisational innovations in agriculture.

  13. Mobile-based blended learning for capacity building of health providers in rural Afghanistan. (United States)

    Tirmizi, Syeda Nateela; Khoja, Shariq; Patten, Scott; Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Scott, Richard E; Durrani, Hammad; Khoja, Wafa; Husyin, Nida


    Mobile-based blended learning initiative was launched in November 2014 in Badakshan province of Afghanistan by Tech4Life Enterprises, Aga Khan Health Service, Afghanistan (AKHS, A), and the University of Calgary, Canada. The goal of this initiative was to improve knowledge of health providers related to four major mental health problems, namely depression, psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug abuse. This paper presents the results of quasi-experimental study conducted in 4 intervention districts in Badakshan for improvement in the knowledge among health providers about depression. The results were compared with three control districts for the change in knowledge scores. Sixty-two health providers completed pre and post module questionnaires from case district, while 31 health providers did so from the control sites. Significant change was noticed in the case districts, where overall knowledge scores changed from 45% in pre-intervention test to 63% in post-intervention test. Overall background knowledge of pre to post module test scores changed from 30% to 40%, knowledge of symptoms showed correct responses raised from 25% to 44%, knowledge related to causes of depression from overall districts showed change from 22% to 51%, and treatment knowledge of depression improved from 29% to 35%. Average gain in scores among cases was 16.06, compared to 6.8 in controls. The study confirms that a blended Learning approach with multiple learning techniques for health providers in Badakshan, Afghanistan, enhanced their knowledge and offers an effective solution to overcome challenges in continuing education. Further research is needed to confirm that the gains in knowledge reported here translate into better practice and improved mental health.

  14. The rural school meal as a site for learning about food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene; Benn, Jette


    school meal programs should address the views of parents and teachers because of their influence on how the meal is prepared and provided. The article proposes that schools work within a flexible framework emphasizing attention to the caring aspects of the meal, as a means to develop this dimension......'s sociocultural theory of learning with Noddings' theory of care to analyze the findings. In the study, elements of care in the relationships between children and adults seemed to promote dialogue and, in this way, adults were able to model what is required to care for others and oneself. This entails...

  15. Libraries in Continuing Education Centres: Life-Long Learning Facilities for Rural People in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sudha Rani


    Full Text Available The key aim of the establishment of Adult Education centers is to promote literacy and foster informal learning so that the adults are empowered to pursue any educational endeavor that they wish to undertake. The success of Adult Education Centre depends upon the kind of programms and activities conducted by it. In order to improve the quality of life of the people, and to keep them abreast of knowledge, libraries are being established in Adult Education Centres. The purpose of the establishment of library will serve only if the learners utilize it properly. Otherwise the effort may not be meaningful In view of this, a study was under taken on provision and the utilization of library services in adult education centres. 120 beneficiaries from 12 centres of six Mandals of Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh State were selected as the sample and the findings and suggestions were presented in the paper.

  16. Community Based Integrated Intervention, Lesions Learn from Rural Remote Areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, Shamim; Farhana, Dina; Shajedul Haque, Haque; Maruf, Kazi


    Full text: Background and Objective: Like other south Asian countries, Bangladesh has frequently taken early steps to tackle malnutrition. The country is thus a signatory to a number of international declarations, which has been demonstrated locally as evidenced by the number of nutrition policies and programs at different times initiated by Government and other partners. Country’s public health aspect’s still struggling with achieving MDGs, despite remarkable progress has made in some aspects of child and maternal health. Inappropriate IYCF practices are the major concern and contributing malnutrition mostly. Under this context, World Vision Bangladesh has taken a five years project focusing in increasing uptake of health and nutrition services including reduction of moderate and acute malnutrition in the rural community of Bangladesh through integrated approached, livelihood and food security. This current effort assessed the extent of achievement in terms of output, outcome and goal level project and program indicators after implementing five years project successfully. Methodology: The evaluation study followed cross sectional design using both qualitative and quantitative methods. This study used 30 cluster sample design, 30 villages were identified as clusters, 27 households were systematically chosen from the master household listings. With this and the sample size derived from statistical calculations total of 810 households were identified. Purposive sampling method was used to determine the qualitative sample size. 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGD), 32 Key Informants Interview (KII), 6 Case Studies and 30 interviews for “Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT)” analysis were used. Results: The proportion of children is low compared to the population aged > 50 years. The mean family size was 4.1, around 10.1% of the total population was married before the age of 18 and agriculture is the primary occupation in that locality. In terms of

  17. A "Teacher Tablet Toolkit" to Meet the Challenges Posed by 21st Century Rural Teaching and Learning Environments (United States)

    Botha, Adèle; Herselman, Marlien


    This article draws upon the experiences gained in participating in an Information and Communication Technology for Rural Education (ICT4RED) initiative, as part of a larger Technology for Rural Education project (TECH4RED) in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation, design…

  18. Formal, Nonformal, and Informal Learning in Rural India: The Case of Fishing Families on the Chilika Lagoon (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Wilmshöfer, Simon


    The vast majority--70%--of the Indian population lives in rural areas. They are far removed from India's image as a society with an emerging middle class and well-regarded schools. This research focuses on education and opportunities for skill development for this rural population. The researchers investigated the area around the Chilika Lagoon, a…

  19. A Legacy of Leadership and Lessons Learned: Results from the Rural Systemic Initiatives for Improving Mathematics and Science Education (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Smith, Keith


    This report pays tribute to the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Rural Systemic Initiatives (RSIs), an investment of more than $140 million to improve mathematics and science education in some of rural America's most impoverished communities. The report illustrates the impact of NSF's RSI program on a national scale. Each RSI planned a project…

  20. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil. (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina


    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  1. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento


    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  2. Leveraging open-source technology and adapting open eLearning content to improve the knowledge and motivation of Ghana’s rural nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mwaikambo


    Full Text Available Access to training opportunities is strongly correlated with health workers’ motivation because it enables health workers to take on more challenging duties. Mobile technology can be leveraged for professional development support by providing access to open education resources. Community Health Nurses (CHNs in Ghana are the frontline health workers of the Ghana Health Service (GHS and play a vital role in extending maternal and child health care to rural communities. However, as the lowest credentialed nurses, they are at the bottom of the GHS hierarchy. CHNs have limited opportunities for career advancement and report challenges with isolation and lack of resources. Leveraging open-source technology platforms and open eLearning content, the Care Community Hub (CCH project sought to address these barriers in CHN motivation by developing and deploying a mobile application (app, CHN on the Go, to CHNs in five rural districts. The app supports CHNs through tools for continuous learning, diagnostic decision-making, and improved nurse-supervisor interactions. This paper focuses on the adaptation and use of the open eLearning content to address CHNs’ motivation challenges and, ultimately, improve their knowledge and job performance as a result of having access to open education resources.

  3. Exploring the Use of Electronic Mobile Technologies among Distance Learners in Rural Communities for Safe and Disruptive Learning (United States)

    Ntloedibe-Kuswani, Gomang Seratwa


    Several studies indicated the potential of electronic mobile technologies in reaching (safe learning) under-served communities and engaging (disruptive learning) disadvantaged peoples affording them learning experiences. However, the potential benefits of (electronic mobile learning) e-mobile learning have not been well understood from the…

  4. Technologically-mediated communication: student expectations and experiences in a FOMO society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela T. Ragusa


    Full Text Available Abstract While technology enables a wider section of society to access higher education, accessing, as a process, fundamentally differs from acquiring the individual and systemic skills required for online learning. This study presents primary data about perceptions of, and experiences with, online learning in an Australian university from a survey of 289 distance education (DE students. Epistemologically, it prioritises giving agency and voice to an increasingly disempowered collective, online learners, who often are institutionally pursued for economic advantage, rather than pedagogical interest in serving students’ unique, individual needs/preferences. Participants’ comparison of face-to-face and online learning experiences allowed for benefits and disadvantages of online learning to emerge from lived-experiences. While a key benefit of online learning was its perceived ‘flexibility’, findings revealed difference between students’ conceptualisation of flexibility and institutional realities. Although DE students longed for non-technologically-medicated communication with peers and lecturers, the process of learning how to become a DE student failed to address students’ needs/concerns beyond technical skill acquisition and subject content mastery. Students’ ‘fear they were missing out’ (FOMO on ‘better’ internal classroom and learning experiences was a key limitation 85% perceived about DE. Whereas traditional classroom experiences generally were recalled favourably, online learning was described by its shortcomings. Findings demonstrate need for deeper investigation of how/why educational technologies are implemented. Conclusions suggest critical research investigating whether embedded technologies meet student and/or institutional needs and aspirations in globally competitive learning environments may assuage DE’s stigma, realign expectations and improve teaching/learning experiences.

  5. Investigation of Using Analytics in Promoting Mobile Learning Support (United States)

    Visali, Videhi; Swami, Niraj


    Learning analytics can promote pedagogically informed use of learner data, which can steer the progress of technology mediated learning across several learning contexts. This paper presents the application of analytics to a mobile learning solution and demonstrates how a pedagogical sense was inferred from the data. Further, this inference was…

  6. Supporting Learning with Wireless Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arttu Perttula


    Full Text Available In this article, learning is studied in in situ applications that involve sensors. The main questions are how to conceptualize experiential learning involving sensors and what kinds of learning applications using sensors already exist or could be designed. It is claimed that experiential learning, context information and sensor data supports twenty first century learning. The concepts of context, technology-mediated experiences, shared felt experiences and experiential learning theory will be used to describe a framework for sensor-based mobile learning environments. Several scenarios and case examples using sensors and sensor data will be presented, and they will be analyzed using the framework. Finally, the article contributes to the discussion concerning the role of technology-mediated learning experiences and collective sensor data in developing twenty first century learning by characterizing what kinds of skills and competences are supported in learning situations that involve sensors.

  7. Technology-Mediation and Tutoring: How Do They Shape Progressive Inquiry Discourse? (United States)

    Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Hakkarainen, Kai


    In higher education, there is a challenge to gain the full benefit of the potentials of learning technology for collaborative knowledge advancement and for scaffolding practices of academic literacy and scientific argumentation. The technology, ideally, would be used to provide support that enables students to deal with more demanding tasks than…

  8. The Influence of Rule Structure and Problem Composition on Conceptual Learning Among Rural Hawaiian Children. Technical Report #75. (United States)

    Ciborowski, Tom; Price-Williams, D.

    The conceptual and problem solving skills of Hawaiian rural elementary school students in the Kamehameha Early Education Program were investigated by comparing the logical connecting rules of conjunction (red and triangle) to inclusive disjunction (red and/or triangle) with respect to Traditional problems (selection of attributes from 2 different…

  9. Calming the Spirit and Ensuring Super-Vivencia: Rural Mexican Women-Centred Teaching and Learning Spaces (United States)

    Galvan, Ruth Trinidad


    The changing social, cultural and economic conditions of transmigrant communities in rural Mexico require that women who stay behind, while their loved ones travel back and forth to the USA, create social relations that ensure their survival. From over five years of ethnographic research, this article explores the healing potential of…

  10. Tackling Poverty in Rural Mexico: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 4. (United States)

    Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to teach secondary school social studies students about an integrated rural development project in Mexico, and how it is helping to raise the standard of living for six million Mexicans in 131 microregions throughout Mexico. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip,…

  11. Creative practicum leadership experiences in rural settings. (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Deborah Perry; Valde, Jill Gaffney


    Rural healthcare systems provide rich learning environments for nursing students, where strong nursing leaders manage care for people with diverse health problems across the lifespan. The authors describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of rural clinical leadership practicum, a prelicensure course that specifically focuses on the application of leadership concepts in small rural healthcare systems.

  12. Lessons learned while developing, adapting and implementing a pilot parent-mediated behavioural intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Blake, Jasmine M; Rubenstein, Eric; Tsai, Peng-Chou; Rahman, Hafizur; Rieth, Sarah R; Ali, Hasmot; Lee, Li-Ching


    Low- and middle-income countries often have limited resources, underdeveloped health systems and scarce knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop and adapt intervention materials and to train a native clinician to implement a community-based parent-mediated behavioural intervention in rural Gaibandha, Bangladesh. Intervention materials to support parents' use of behavioural strategies were developed and refined by US behavioural intervention experts and Bangladesh field experts. Study investigators trained a native child psychologist in developmental milestones and behavioural intervention techniques. The native clinician delivered a 1-day group education session attended by 10 families of children aged 7-9 years with autism spectrum disorder, followed by two one-on-one training sessions with each family to train and practice individualized strategies for targeted challenging behaviours. Preliminary qualitative results indicate the importance of materials that are culturally appropriate and at an adequate literacy level. All families expressed strong desires to have learned the behavioural strategies when their child was younger and vocalized their need for further support and tools to help their children. This study is a preliminary step to creating sustainable and low-cost autism spectrum disorder interventions in rural Bangladesh, and possibly for families in regions with similar cultural and socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  13. Dialectic Antidotes to Critics of the Technology Acceptance Model: Conceptual, Methodological, and Replication Treatments for Behavioural Modelling in Technology-Mediated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Marc Lim


    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM is a prominent and parsimonious conceptual lens that is often applied for behavioural modelling in technology-mediated environments. However, TAM has received a great deal of criticism in recent years. This article aims to address some of the most pertinent issues confronting TAM through a rejoinder that offers dialectic antidotes—in the form of conceptual, methodological, and replication treatments—to support the continued use of TAM to understand the peculiarities of user interactions with technology in technology-mediated environments. In doing so, this article offers a useful response to a common but often inadequately answered question about how TAM can continue to be relevant for behavioural modelling in contemporary technology-mediated environments.

  14. Rural Airports (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  15. The development and evaluation of online stories to enhance clinical learning experiences across health professions in rural Australia. (United States)

    Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Stupans, Leva; Parker, Vicki; Piper, Donella; Gillan, Pauline; Lea, Jackie; Jarrott, Helen Mary; Wilson, Rhonda; Hudson, Judith N; Fagan, Anthea


    Clinical placement learning experiences are integral to all health and medical curricula as a means of integrating theory into practice and preparing graduates to deliver safe, high-quality care to health consumers. A growing challenge for education providers is to access sufficient clinical placements with experienced supervisors who are skilled at maximising learning opportunities for students. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of an innovative online learning program aimed at enhancing student and clinical supervisors' preparedness for effective workplace-based learning. The evidence-based learning program used 'story-telling' as the learning framework. The stories, which were supported by a range of resources, aimed to engage the learners in understanding student and supervisor responsibilities, as well as the expectations and competencies needed to support effective learning in the clinical environment. Evaluation of this program by the learners and stakeholders clearly indicated that they felt authentically 'connected' with the characters in the stories and developed insights that suggested effective learning had occurred.

  16. Pedagogy for rural health. (United States)

    Reid, Stephen J


    As the body of literature on rural health has grown, the need to develop a unifying theoretical framework has become more apparent. There are many different ways of seeing the same phenomenon, depending on the assumptions we make and the perspective we choose. A conceptual and theoretical basis for the education of health professionals in rural health has not yet been described. This paper examines a number of theoretical frameworks that have been used in the rural health discourse and aims to identify relevant theory that originates from an educational paradigm. The experience of students in rural health is described phenomenologically in terms of two complementary perspectives, using a geographic basis on the one hand, and a developmental viewpoint on the other. The educational features and implications of these perspectives are drawn out. The concept of a 'pedagogy of place' recognizes the importance of the context of learning and allows the uniqueness of a local community to integrate learning at all levels. The theory of critical pedagogy is also found relevant to education for rural health, which would ideally produce 'transformative' graduates who understand the privilege of their position, and who are capable of and committed to engaging in the struggles for equity and justice, both within their practices as well as in the wider society. It is proposed that a 'critical pedagogy of place,' which gives due acknowledgement to local peculiarities and strengths, while situating this within a wider framework of the political, social and economic disparities that impact on the health of rural people, is an appropriate theoretical basis for a distinct rural pedagogy in the health sciences.

  17. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle


    Full Text Available systems should benefit from the opportunities offered by mobile phone access. 2. Research context Unisa’s ODL policy is entrenched in providing open learning, student support, flexibility in methods and criteria for assessing learning process... in an environment of their choice. Mobile phones have been used for providing students with interfaces for assignment completion, submission, and receiving feedback. Many of the mobile based assessment systems are multiple choice based and there are also...

  18. Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi State, Nigeria and the ... Majority were males (88 %), single (51 %), literate (99 %) and had rural ... most of them (78 %) said was learned through parents (non-formal sources).

  19. Digital Learning in the Wild: Re-Imagining New Ruralism, Digital Equity, and Deficit Discourses through the Thirdspace (United States)

    Cirell, Anna Montana


    Digital media is becoming increasingly important to learning in today's changing times. At the same time, digital technologies and related digital skills are unevenly distributed. Further, deficit-based notions of this digital divide define the public's educational paradigm. Against this backdrop, I forayed into the social reality of one rural…

  20. Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in Their Community (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.


    Guided by sociocultural perspectives on the importance of place as a resource for learning, we investigated 14- and 15-year old students' understandings of their community and water quality during a school-based watershed unit. Methods included a theory-driven thematic analysis of field notes and video transcripts from four biology classrooms, a…

  1. Combining University Student Self-Regulated Learning Indicators and Engagement with Online Learning Events to Predict Academic Performance (United States)

    Pardo, Abelardo; Han, Feifei; Ellis, Robert A.


    Self-regulated learning theories are used to understand the reasons for different levels of university student academic performance. Similarly, learning analytics research proposes the combination of detailed data traces derived from technology-mediated tasks with a variety of algorithms to predict student academic performance. The former approach…

  2. Patchworking as a Metaphor for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas


    In the thesis I propose and argue for the metaphor of ‘patchworking’ as a way of understanding, analysing and methodologically approaching technology mediated learning processes. The notion of patchworking has emerged through closely following and analysing the work of the Nordic team of power...

  3. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approaches on Students’ Academic Achievement and Laboratory Proficiency in Biology Subject in Selected Rural Schools, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyayu Molla


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cooperative learning methods on students’ academic achievement and laboratory proficiency in biology subject. Quasi-experimental control group interrupted time series design was employed. Data pertaining to these variables were collected from 369 students and 18 biology teachers in three schools. A series of biological tests and semistructured questionnaire were used to collect data. Multivariate analysis (two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the test scores exposed by teaching methods, and semistructured questionnaire was administered to comprehend factors that hamper the successive execution of CL. Hence, multivariate analysis revealed that there was no significant (P>0.05 difference in the pretest score of the learner academic performance; however, there were significant differences (P<0.01 in the posttest results by teaching methods, but not by schools. Correspondingly, there were significant differences in the pretest P<0.05 and posttest (P<0.01 results of the students’ laboratory proficiency by teaching methods. The results exemplify that there was significant learning gain obtained via CLAD followed by cooperative discussion group (CDG. The result from the questionnaire survey showed that the number of students, lack of laboratory equipment, and so on hamper consecutive execution of CL.

  4. Rural Aging (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  5. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study. (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M


    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  6. National scale-up of integrated community case management in rural Ethiopia: implementation and early lessons learned. (United States)


    Although under-five mortality in Ethiopia has decreased 67% in the past two decades, many, children still die from preventable or treatable conditions, mainly pneumonia, newborn problems, diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition. Most of these deaths can be avoided with timely and appropriate care, but access to and use of treatment remains inadequate. Community health workers, appropriately trained, supervised, and supplied with essen- tial equipment and medicines, can deliver case management or referral to most sick children. In 2010, Ethiopia added pneumonia to diarrhea, malaria and severe acute malnutrition, targeted for treatment in the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy. This article describes the national scale-up of iCCM implementation and early lessons learned. We reviewed data related to iCCM program inputs and processes from reports, minutes, and related documents from January 2010 through July 2013. We describe introduction and scale-up through eight health system components. The government and partners trained and supplied 27,116 of the total 32,000 Health Extension Workers and mentored 80% of them to deliver iCCM services to over one million children. The government led a strong-iCCM partnership that attracted development partners in implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and research. Service utilization and weak supply chain remain-major challenges. Strong MOH leadership, policy support, and national partnerships helped successful national iCCM scale-up and should help settle remaining challenges.

  7. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rural Areas (United States)

    Ler, Ee Chop


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the rural "cultural" problems and to determine their effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools…

  8. Teaching and Learning Resilience: Building Adaptive Capacity for Rural Practice. A Report and Subsequent Analysis of a Workshop Conducted at the Rural Medical Educators Conference, Savannah, Georgia, May 18, 2010 (United States)

    Longenecker, Randall; Zink, Therese; Florence, Joseph


    Purpose: Resilience, the capacity to endure and overcome hardship, has been suggested as a basic competency for rural medical practice. Unfortunately for physician educators, the medical education literature offers only limited guidance for nurturing this adaptive capacity. We describe the process and subsequent analysis of a daylong curriculum…

  9. When Rural Reality Goes Virtual. (United States)

    Husain, Dilshad D.


    In rural towns where sparse population and few business are barriers, virtual reality may be the only way to bring work-based learning to students. A partnership between a small-town high school, the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and a high-tech business will enable students to explore the workplace using virtual reality. (JOW)

  10. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole


    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  11. Rural science education as social justice (United States)

    Eppley, Karen


    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  12. The impact of nursing students on the health-related quality of life and perceived social support of a rural population in Ecuador: effects of a service-based learning course. (United States)

    Walcott, Rebecca L; Murcia, Angela M; Berry, Gloria M; Juna, Christian F; Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra S


    Students seeking degrees in healthcare in Ecuador participate in community improvement projects and provide free health services under the supervision of faculty health professionals. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of a community-based intervention delivered by nursing students on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and perceived social support of a rural population in Ecuador. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design study was conducted in two rural communities in Tumbaco, Ecuador. Families from one rural community were invited to participate in the intervention, receiving 8 weekly home visits from nursing students. Families from a neighboring community were similarly recruited as wait-list controls. One member of each family was consented into the study; the final sample included 43 intervention participants and 55 control participants. HRQoL and perceived social support were assessed before and after the intervention in both groups. The SF-12 was used to measure HRQoL, including eight domain scores and two composite scores, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List was used as an indicator of perceived social support. Difference-in-differences (DD) analyses were conducted to mitigate the effects of any baseline differences in the non- equivalent control group design. When compared to the control group, the intervention group realized significant improvements in the physical component summary score of the SF-12 (4.20, p based learning on recipient populations.

  13. Challenges of implementing a large scale larviciding campaign against malaria in rural Burkina Faso – lessons learned and recommendations derived from the EMIRA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dambach


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent malaria control and elimination attempts show remarkable success in several parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control via larval source management represents a new and to date underrepresented approach in low income countries to further reduce malaria transmission. Although the positive impact of such campaigns on malaria incidence has been researched, there is a lack of data on which prerequisites are needed for implementing such programs on a routine basis on large scale. Our objectives are to point out important steps in implementing an anti-malaria larviciding campaign in a resource and infrastructure restraint setting and share the lessons learned from our experience during a three-year intervention study in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We describe the approaches we followed and the challenges that have been encountered during the EMIRA project, a three-year study on the impact of environmental larviciding on vector ecology and human health. An inventory of all performed work packages and associated problems and peculiarities was assembled. Results Key to the successful implementation of the larviciding program within a health district was the support and infrastructure from the local research center run by the government. This included availability of trained scientific personnel for local project management, data collection and analysis by medical personnel, entomologists and demographers and teams of fieldworkers for the larviciding intervention. A detailed a priori assessment of the environment and vector breeding site ecology was essential to calculate personnel requirements and the need for larvicide and application apparel. In our case of a three-year project, solid funding for the whole duration was an important issue, which restricted the number of possible donors. We found the acquisition of qualified field personnel in fair numbers not to be always easy and training in application techniques and basic

  14. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college (United States)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  15. Learner Analysis Framework for Globalized E-Learning (United States)

    Saxena, Mamta


    The digital shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and the increased global connectivity has led to the rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The…

  16. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (United States)

    González-Lloret, Marta


    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…

  17. What do beginning students, in a rurally focused medical course, think about rural practice? (United States)

    Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A


    found for positive views of the rural doctor role and negative views of rural practice. Participants from a capital city background reported a significantly higher percentage of responses related to negative views of rural practice than their regional and rural counterparts. Students from capital city areas had significantly more negative views about the rural doctor role, especially related to workload, limited resources and isolation than students from rural and regional areas. Students entering medical school already have both positive and negative views about the life and work of a rural doctor. Those students from capital city areas have significantly more negative views despite being selected to enter a medical course with a rural focus based on their expressed rural perceptions. Further work is required to refine selection criteria and the year level experiences and learning opportunities which may positively influence student perceptions about rural medical practice to overcome early negative perceptions at the beginning of medical school.

  18. Learning from the energetic rural area. Local and regional coalitions for sustainable development of rural areas; Leren van het energieke platteland. Lokale en regionale coalities voor duurzame plattelands ontwikkeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjon, H.; Arnouts, R.


    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  19. Studying the "I" in Our Teaching and Learning: Influences of Identity on Pedagogy for Faculty of Color at a Rural University (United States)

    Conrad, Dennis; Conrad, Deborah; Misra, Anjali; Pinard, Michele; Youngblood, John


    We report how the cultural identities of three Black professors influence their pedagogy at a rural, predominantly white, university in the USA. Two critical friends seek clarification prior to the analysis, critique the primary researchers' narratives, and add their voices to the discourse. The primary participants' narratives reveal how values…

  20. New Border Crossings for the Interaction Hypothesis: The Effects of Feedback on Gonja Speakers Learning English in a Rural School in Ghana (United States)

    Sherris, Ari; Burns, M. Susan


    While Ghanaians in urban and rural settings are multilingual, English is the language of Ghanaian newspapers, politicians, the courts, much of television and radio in the metropolitan centres of the country. Indeed, urban Ghanaian adolescents have expanding opportunities to use English, the only official language of Ghana, even when not in school.…

  1. Medicaid and Rural Health (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  2. The development of pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers: New opportunities through technology-mediated reflection and peer-exchange (United States)

    Madeira, M. Cheryl-Ann

    This design-based research study investigates the development of pedagogical content knowledge among nine teacher-participants (N = 9) in three design phases. PCK is a particular type of teacher knowledge that addresses not only the teacher's understanding of the content to be instructed, but also ways of how to teach that content effectively. This knowledge has been well documented over several decades, and is seen as central to teacher expertise. However, its actual development has been difficult for researchers to investigate. This study offers a detailed perspective on how teachers developed PCK with their engagement in lesson planning and enactment of a project-based technology-enhanced lesson. The study includes two specific interventions designed to enhance teachers' development of PCK: (1) scaffolded reflection that occurs throughout the practices; and (2) peer-exchange of lesson plans, enactment ideas, and completed reflections. The findings demonstrate that teachers improve their planning and enactment of project-based technology-enhanced lessons with scaffolded reflection and peer exchange. Positive correlations were seen between teachers' engagement in the reflections and the quality of their lesson planning. Teachers who participated more deeply in the scaffolded reflections were able to understand how their lesson plans and enactment patterns fostered student understanding of relevant science concepts. Positive correlations were also seen between community influence and teacher lesson plans and enactment. Additionally, positive correlations were confirmed between teachers' level of participation in the peer exchange activities and the quality of their lesson planning and enactments. Teachers who contributed more deeply within the online and face-to-face peer community meetings benefited from the different perspectives of their peers about student learning and the best ways to succeed with project-based instruction. This study allowed some insight into

  3. Tensions between the local and the global: contemporary rural and teaching in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Clementino de Souza


    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate potential tensions between local and global context of contemporary ruralities, emphasizing the times, rhythms and spaces constructed from the experiences of teachers and students in the organization of the routines of rural schools. The paper presents theoretical considerations resulting from two studies in the Graduate Program in Education and Contemporary - PPGEduC / UNEB. The clipping and analysis undertaken focus on education developed in rural areas and tensions present in this context in view, discuss issues concerning the new ruralities contemporary. This discussion has as its central theme the issues of timing and the rhythm in schools with multigrade classes Island Tide that articulates with dilemmas and tensions surrounding the experience lived by teachers of geography of the city engaged in teaching in rural areas in semi-arid region of Bahia. Research has pointed to difficulties faced by rural school to consider the different temporalities that exist in rural areas in their educational processes, as well as difficulties of articulation in these contexts of learning, between the local-global dimensions through which passes the contemporary space. This movement creates stress for teachers’ work, since it complicates the relationship between the times established, standardized and rigid, with times of personal students and teachers, covering aspects such as age, life histories, movements and experiences socio-historical and geographical subjects involved in the processes of teaching and learning in rural settings in contemporary times.

  4. Growing health partnerships in rural and remote communities: what drives the joint efforts of primary schools and universities in maintaining service learning partnerships? (United States)

    Kirby, Sue; Held, Fabian P; Jones, Debra; Lyle, David


    Aim This study explored the partnership between universities and local primary schools to deliver a classroom-based paediatric communication impairment service provided by undergraduate speech pathology students. It aimed to understand how partnerships work to facilitate programme replication. The partners included universities sending students on rural clinical placement, local host academic units and primary schools who worked together to provide paediatric speech and language services in primary schools in three sites in Australia. Rural and remote communities experience poorer health outcomes because of chronic workforce shortages, social disadvantage and high Aboriginality, poor access to services and underfunding. The study was in twofold: qualitative analysis of data from interviews/focus group with the partners in the university and education sectors, and quantitative social network analysis of data from an electronic survey of the partners. Findings Factors supporting partnerships were long-term, work and social relationships, commitment to community, trust and an appetite for risk-taking. We postulate that these characteristics are more likely to exist in rural communities.

  5. Time for a Change: College Students' Preference for Technology-Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Help for Emotional Distress. (United States)

    Lungu, Anita; Sun, Michael


    Even with recent advances in psychological treatments and mobile technology, online computerized therapy is not yet popular. College students, with ubiquitous access to technology, experiencing high distress, and often nontreatment seekers, could be an important area for online treatment dissemination. Finding ways to reach out to college students by offering psychological interventions through technology, devices, and applications they often use, might increase their engagement in treatment. This study evaluates college students' reported willingness to seek help for emotional distress through novel delivery mediums, to play computer games for learning emotional coping skills, and to disclose personal information online. We also evaluated the role of ethnicity and level of emotional distress in help-seeking patterns. A survey exploring our domains of interest and the Mental Health Inventory ([MHI] as mental health index) were completed by 572 students (mean age 18.7 years, predominantly Asian American, female, and freshmen in college). More participants expressed preference for online versus face-to-face professional help. We found no relationship between MHI and help-seeking preference. A third of participants were likely to disclose at least as much information online as face-to-face. Ownership of mobile technology was pervasive. Asian Americans were more likely to be nontreatment seekers than Caucasians. Most participants were interested in serious games for emotional distress. Our results suggest that college students are very open to creative ways of receiving emotional help such as playing games and seeking emotional help online, suggesting a need for online evidence-based treatments.

  6. It’s about Understanding Each Other’s Culture – Improving the Outcomes of Mobile Learning by Avoiding Culture Conflicts


    Ernst, Sissy-Josefina; Janson, Andreas; Söllner, Matthias; Leimeister, Jan Marco


    Mobile learning enables learners to integrate learning activities into daily routines. Information systems research emphasizes that technology-mediated learning (TML) has to be adapted to cultural differences. Integrating a mobile learning application into a new context can cause conflicts as values embedded in the mobile learning application can conflict with values of the context in which it is introduced. With this paper, we propose a theory-driven design approach to avoid culture conflict...

  7. What Is Rural? Revised (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016


    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  8. An Evaluation of iPad as a Learning Tool in Higher Education within a Rural Catchment: A Case Study at a South African University (United States)

    Wario, Ruth Diko; Ireri, Bonface Ngari; De Wet, Lizette


    Since Apple released the iPad in 2010, it has been widely adopted for teaching and learning. Its graphical user interface combined with touch screen features engages users by attracting their attention. However, the level of engagement that would influence learning is not well understood. This case study investigated the use of iPads when engaging…

  9. The second pillar of the CAP: the role of Commission policy learning in the creation and reform of EU rural development policy (1968-1999)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    argument advanced in this thesis is that policy learning is a multifaceted phenomenon that can most reliably be examined employing 'method pluralism' (documentary analysis, elite interviews, and survey techniques). A second theoretical assertion is that policy learning can change the beliefs - termed......This thesis examines the concept of 'policy learning' and explores its applicability to the European Commission's role in EU policymaking. Policy learning refers to 'knowledge-based' policy formulation, where content of policy proposals is shaped to a 'non-trivial' extent by administrative...... 'policy strategy' - of political actors. A third theoretical contribution is the concept of 'bureaucratic policy learning capability' (BPLC) which refers to an organisation's ability and inclination to utilise available policy-relevant knowledge. I assess the Commission's BPLC through a survey, designed...

  10. Performance of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities on Multiplication Facts Comparing Teacher-Mediated and Technology-Mediated Interventions: A Preliminary Investigation (United States)

    Bryant, Brian R.; Ok, Minwook; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Min Kyung; Lang, Russell; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Pfannestiel, Kathleen


    Instructional applications (apps) are educational software programs that can be accessed via mobile technologies (e.g., iPad, smartphone) and used to help students acquire various academic skills, including mathematics. Although research suggests that app-based instruction (AI) can be effective, there is a paucity of research comparing AI, to…

  11. A Multi-Case Study of University Students' Language-Learning Experience Mediated by Mobile Technologies: A Socio-Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Ma, Qing


    Emerging mobile technologies can be considered a new form of social and cultural artefact that mediates people's language learning. This multi-case study investigates how mobile technologies mediate a group of Hong Kong university students' L2 learning, which serves as a lens with which to capture the personalised, unique, contextual and…

  12. Remote but Not Removed: Professional Networks That Support Rural Educators (United States)

    Parsley, Danette


    The Northwest Rural Innovation and Student Engagement (NW RISE) Network connects rural educators in the Pacific Northwest to help them succeed in the profession and overcome the challenges caused by teacher isolation. In this article, the author takes stock of what was learned in the four years since the network was established. She also shares…

  13. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area. (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle


    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  14. Producing "science/fictions" about the rural and urban poor: Community-based learning at a medical college in South India (United States)

    Arur, Aditi Ashok

    This dissertation is an ethnographic case study of a community-based teaching program (CBTP) in public health at a medical college in South India that explored how the CBTP produced particular ways of seeing and understanding rural and urban poor communities. Drawing from critical, feminist, and postcolonial scholars, I suggest that the knowledge produced in the CBTP can be understood as "science/fictions", that is, as cultural texts shaped by transnational development discourses as well as medical teachers' and students' sociospatial imaginations of the rural and urban poor. I explored how these science/fictions mediated medical students' performative actions and interactions with a rural and an urban poor community in the context of the CBTP. At the same time, I also examined how knowledge produced in students' encounters with these communities disrupted their naturalized understandings about these communities, and how it was taken up to renarrativize science/fictions anew. Data collection and analyses procedures were informed by critical ethnographic and critical discourse analysis approaches. Data sources includes field notes constructed from observations of the CBTP, interviews with medical teachers and students, and curricular texts including the standardized national textbook of public health. The findings of this study illustrate how the CBTP staged the government and technology as central actors in the production of healthy bodies, communities, and environments, and implicitly positioned medical teachers and students as productive citizens of a modern nation while rural and urban poor communities were characterized sometimes as empowered, and at other times as not-yet-modern and in need of reform. However, the community also constituted an alternate pedagogical site of engagement in that students' encounters with community members disrupted students' assumptions about these communities to an extent. Nevertheless, institutionalized practices of assessment

  15. Learner Analysis Framework for Globalized E-Learning: A Case Study (United States)

    Saxena, Mamta


    The shift to technology-mediated modes of instructional delivery and increased global connectivity has led to the rise in globalized e-learning programs. Educational institutions face multiple challenges as they seek to design effective, engaging, and culturally competent instruction for an increasingly diverse learner population. The purpose of…

  16. Introducing Online Training in an Early Childhood Professional Development System: Lessons Learned in One State (United States)

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi; Douglass, Anne


    Online educational opportunities provide improved access to high quality professional development for the early education and care workforce. Online and technology mediated learning can create sustainable education and development opportunities for states when face-to-face training is financially prohibitive. This study examined one state's…

  17. Brief Report: Evaluation of an Intelligent Learning Environment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Warren, Zachary; Weitlauf, Amy; Fu, Qiang; Zhao, Huan; Swanson, Amy; Sarkar, Nilanjan


    Researchers are increasingly attempting to develop and apply innovative technological platforms for early detection and intervention of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study designed and evaluated a novel technologically-mediated intelligent learning environment with relevance to early social orienting skills. The environment was…

  18. Community-Based Rural Tourism in Inter-Organizational Collaboration: How Does It Work Sustainably? Lessons Learned from Nglanggeran Tourism Village, Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Manaf


    Full Text Available In recent years, socio-economic disparities, especially between rural and urban areas (Gini index up to 0.4 have attracted significant concern from the Government of Indonesia, which developed a community-based rural tourism program as one of the attempts to overcome this problem. Though the program seems quite promising, the implementation was challenging, especially regarding sustainability. Therefore, successful and sustainable practical examples are needed. This paper analyzes the results of a case study from the experiences of community-based tourism implementation in Nglanggeran Tourism Village, Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, which was considered as successful and sustainable. The main focus of this research is on how the collaboration and involvement of the related inter-organizational stakeholders, initiated by the local community, particularly the youth, has contributed to the program sustainability. Data and information for this study were obtained through in-depth interviews, observation, and documents review. This study found that the local community has a major role in implementing the program, among those various entities of stakeholders. Hence, the paper states this is the key to the success and sustainability of the program.

  19. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi


    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  20. Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital. (United States)

    Harmon, Lisa M


    This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Time trends of technology mediated communication with friends among bullied and not bullied children in four Nordic countries between 2001 and 2010. (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Löfstedt, P; Bjarnason, T; Tynjälä, J; Välimaa, R; Petzold, M


    Friends are important in childhood and adolescence, especially to bullied children. Technology mediated communication (TMC) could be used both to develop and maintain friendship. The present study examined (1) trends in the use of TMC with friends between 2001 and 2010; (2) possible differences between bullied and not bullied children and (3) differences between children with few close friends and children with several close friends. Data were obtained from three waves of the serial cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden during 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. The total sample consisted of 65 953 children aged 11, 13 and 15. Two trends were observed. The first trend showed an increased use of TMC in all countries. Children that were not bullied and/or had several close friends had increased their use of TMC with friends from 2001 to 2010. The second trend was applicable only for bullied children with few close friends; they had not as other children increased their use of TMC and thus remained at the same levels as in 2001/2002. Bullied children with few close friends were excluded from communication forums that usually allow children to maintain and develop friendships. This is a concern because friends are important during childhood and adolescence, especially for bullied children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Repurposeable Learning Objects Linked to Teaching and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dunning


    Full Text Available Multimedia learning objects are an essential component of high quality, technology-mediated instruction. Learning objects allow the student to use the content learned in a particular part of a course and; 1. demonstrate mastery of the content, 2. apply that knowledge to solving a problem, and 3. use the content in a critical thinking exercise that both demonstrates mastery and allows the student to place the content within the context of the larger topic of the course. The difficulty associated with the use of learning objects on a broad scale is that they require programming skills most professors and instructors do not possess. Learning objects also tend to be custom productions and are defined in terms of the programming and code terminology, further limiting the professor's ability to understand how they are created. Learning objects defined in terms of styles of learning and teaching allow professors and instructors to develop a deeper understanding of the learning objects and the design process. A set of learning objects has been created that are designed for some of the important styles of learning and teaching. They include; visual learning, writing skills, critical thinking, time-revealed scenarios, case studies and empirical observation. The learning objects are designed and described in terms that the average instructor can readily understand , redesign and incorporate into their own courses. They are also designed in such a way that they can readily be repurposed for new applications in other courses and subject areas, with little or no additional programming.

  3. Rural Health Concerns (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  4. Medicare and Rural Health (United States)

    ... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...

  5. Seasonality of Rural Finance


    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed


    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Medical Explorers a Case Study Curriculum on Critical Thinking, Attitude Toward Life Science, and Motivational Learning Strategies in Rural High School Students (United States)

    Brand, Lance G.


    The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth

  7. Bring Your Own Devices Classroom: Exploring the Issue of Digital Divide in the Teaching and Learning Contexts (United States)

    Adhikari, Janak; Mathrani, Anuradha; Scogings, Chris


    Purpose: Over the past few years, technology-mediated learning has established itself as a valuable pathway towards learners' academic and social development. However, within the adoption stages of information and communications technology-enabled education, further questions have been raised in terms of equity of information literacy and learning…

  8. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff


    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  9. Experience of safety monitoring in the context of a prospective observational study of artemether-lumefantrine in rural Tanzania: lessons learned for pharmacovigilance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanywanyi Abdunoor M


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify and implement strategies that help meet safety monitoring requirements in the context of an observational study for artemether-lumefantrine (AL administered as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania. Methods Pharmacovigilance procedures were developed through collaboration between the investigating bodies, the relevant regulatory authority and the manufacturer of AL. Training and refresher sessions on the pharmacovigilance system were provided for healthcare workers from local health facilities and field recorders of the Ifakara Health Demographic Surveillance System (IHDSS. Three distinct channels for identification of adverse events (AEs and serious adverse events (SAEs were identified and implemented. Passive reporting took place through IHDSS and health care facilities, starting in October 2007. The third channel was through solicited reporting that was included in the context of a survey on AL as part of the ALIVE (Artemether-Lumefantrine In Vulnerable patients: Exploring health impact study (conducted only in March-April 2008. Results Training was provided for 40 healthcare providers (with refresher training 18 months later and for six field recorders. During the period 1st September 2007 to 31st March 2010, 67 AEs were reported including 52 under AL, five under sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, one under metakelfin, two after antibiotics; the remaining seven were due to anti-pyretic or anti-parasite medications. Twenty patients experienced SAEs; in 16 cases, a relation to AL was suspected. Six of the 20 cases were reported within 24 hours of occurrence. Discussion Safety monitoring and reporting is possible even in settings with weak health infrastructure. Reporting can be enhanced by regular and appropriate training of healthcare providers. SMS text alerts provide a practical solution to communication challenges. Conclusion Experience gained in this setting could help to improve

  10. Oral Health in Rural Communities (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  11. Rural and Urban Youth Programs. (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  12. Rural nurse job satisfaction. (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A


    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  13. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  14. 77 FR 27015 - Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funding for FY 2012 of the Distance Learning and... awards for its Distance Learning and Telemedicine (DLT) Grant Program. For Fiscal Year 2012, $15 million...

  15. Educational strategies for rural new graduate registered nurses. (United States)

    Dowdle-Simmons, Sara


    Rural health care facilities are geographically remote, tend to be small, and often possess limited resources. Although newly graduated registered nurses are important to the work force of many rural communities, maintaining a formal preceptorship/mentorship program within a rural hospital may prove difficult as a result of limited resources. Unfortunately, the new graduate may become overwhelmed by the many expectations for clinical practice and the facility can experience high turnover rates of new graduate hires. This article explores the unique traits of the rural hospital and the new graduate nurse as well as the pros and cons of a formal preceptorship program within a rural setting. Constructivist learning theory is used to develop practical teaching strategies that can be used by the preceptor and the new graduate. These strategies are inexpensive, yet effective, and are feasible for even the smallest of facilities. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Pico hydro turbines for electricity in rural areas


    Descotte, Gérard


    This article discusses the feedback and lessons learned, particularly from a survey carried out following the deployment program of a pico hydro power solution in a very isolated rural area in north Laos. This project is part of the strategic development for the rural electrification of Laos, in which pico hydro power facilities constitute the main avenue of progress for the electrification of isolated villages.

  17. Libre learning: OER and equality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, K


    Full Text Available This presentation discusses open education resources, educational projects in rural areas, enabling communities to empower themselves with knowledge etc. The MobilED (mobile education) initiative is aimed at designing learning and teaching...

  18. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd


    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  19. Tourism in rural Alaska (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski


    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  20. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.


    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  1. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  2. Networking the rural community. (United States)

    Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I


    A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.

  3. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration. (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  4. The Effectiveness of the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS and Its Impact on Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamer Ali Shakroum


    Full Text Available Several studies and experiments have been conducted in recent years to examine the value and the advantage of using the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS.The investigation of the influence of the GBLS mode on the learning outcomes is still scarce. Most previous studies did not address more than one category of learning outcomes (cognitive, affective outcomes, etc. at the same time when used to understand the impact of GBLS. Moreover, none of these studies considered the difference in students’ characteristics such as learning styles and spatial abilities. Therefore, a comprehensive empirical research on the impact of the GBLS mode on learning outcomes is needed. The purpose of this paper is to fill in the gap and to investigate the effectiveness of the GBLS mode on learning using Technology Mediated Learning (TML models. This study revealed that the GBLS mode has greater positive impact on students’ learning outcomes (cognitive and affective outcomes when compared with other two learning modes that are classified as Computer Simulation Software Learning (CSSL mode and conventional learning mode. In addition, this study also found that the GBLS mode is capable of serving all students with different learning styles and spatial ability levels. The results of this study revealed that the GBLS mode outperformed the existing learning methods by providing a unique learning experience that considers the differences between students. The results have also shown that the Kinect user interface can create an interactive and an enjoyable learning experience.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA


    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  6. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  7. Teaching undergraduate students in rural general practice: an evaluation of a new rural campus in England. (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Pritchard, Katie; Lewis, Leo; Hays, Richard B; Mckinley, Robert K


    One approach to facilitating student interactions with patient pathways at Keele University School of Medicine, England, is the placement of medical students for 25% of their clinical placement time in general practices. The largest component is a 15-week 'student attachment' in primary care during the final year, which required the development of a new network of teaching practices in a rural district of England about 90 km (60 mi) from the main campus in North Staffordshire. The new accommodation and education hub was established in 2011-2012 to enable students to become immersed in those communities and learn about medical practice within a rural and remote context. Objectives were to evaluate the rural teaching from the perspectives of four groups: patients, general practice tutors, community hospital staff and students. Learning outcomes (as measured by objective structured clinical examinations) of students learning in rural practices in the final year were compared with those in other practices. Data were gathered from a variety of sources. Students' scores in cohort-wide clinical assessment were compared with those in other locations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with general practice tutors and community hospital staff. Serial focus groups explored the perceptions of the students, and questionnaires were used to gather the views of patients. Patients reported positive experiences of students in their consultations, with 97% expressing willingness to see students. The majority of patients considered that teaching in general practice was a good thing. They also expressed altruistic ideas about facilitating learning. The tutors were enthusiastic and perceived that teaching had positive impacts on their practices despite negative effects on their workload. The community hospital staff welcomed students and expressed altruistic ideas about helping them learn. There was no significant difference between the rurally placed students' objective

  8. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.


    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  9. Performing rurality. But who?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymitrow Mirek


    Full Text Available Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.

  10. Culture and rural health. (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Marley, Julia V; Reid, John; Bracksley, Stacey; Johnson, Nicole


    This paper considers the role of culture in rural health, suggesting that the concept and its impacts are insufficiently understood and studied. It reviews some of the ways that culture has been considered in (rural) health, and states that culture is either used ambiguously and broadly - for example, suggesting that there is a rural culture, or narrowly - indeed perhaps interchangeably with ethnicity, for example Aboriginal culture as a unity. The paper notes that, although culture is a dynamic social concept, it has been adopted into a biomedical research paradigm as though it is fixed. Culture is often treated as though it is something that can be addressed simplistically, for example, through cultural sensitivity education. Authors suggest that culture is an unaddressed 'elephant in the room' in rural health, and that exploring cultural differences and beliefs and facing up to cultural differences are vital in understanding and addressing rural health and health system challenges. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma (United States)

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul


    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  12. CALL from an Ecological Perspective: How a Teacher Perceives Affordance and Fosters Learner Agency in a Technology-Mediated Language Classroom (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Chao, Chin-Chi


    The possibility of exploiting technology for more robust and meaningful learning and teaching has invoked messianic responses from the language education community. Yet to be explored are teachers' pedagogical choices based on the perceived technological affordances as well as interactions between teacher and student agency mediated by these…

  13. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities


    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina


    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  14. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN


    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  15. Rural Health Information Hub (United States)

    ... U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities Source: Southwest Rural Health Research Center Online Library » Resource and Referral Service Need help finding information? RHIhub can provide free assistance customized to your ...

  16. Development in Rural Uganda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /or single among .... labour supply, consumer demand, pcr capita income, productivity, etc. ..... The respondents were asked to state the reasons for their status in the social ..... purehase grains from the market for consumption, rural dwellers are.

  17. Rural Wellness and Prevention (United States)

    ... they are a captive audience. To create healthier work environments, governors in recent years have banned smoking in ... alerts also available FEATURED MODEL Faith, Activity, and Nutrition view details RELATED TOPICS Chronic Disease in Rural ...

  18. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  19. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  20. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements (United States)

    Leist, Jay


    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  2. Instructional Leadership Challenges and Practices of Novice Principals in Rural Schools (United States)

    Wiezorek, Douglas; Manard, Carolyn


    We report on a phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of six novice, rural public school principals in a midwestern U.S. state. We situated our analysis within existing research on leadership for learning, particularly how novice principals interpreted instructional leadership challenges in the context of rural school leadership. Our…

  3. The Cognitive Relevance of Indigenous and Rural: Why Is It Critical to Survival? (United States)

    Kassam, Karim-Aly S.; Avery, Leanne M.; Ruelle, Morgan L.


    Using two case studies of children's knowledge, this paper sheds light on the value, diversity, and necessity of Indigenous and place-based knowledge to science and engineering curricula in rural areas. Rural contexts are rich environments for cultivating contextual knowledge, hence framing a critical pedagogy of teaching and learning. Indigenous…

  4. Leading Education Innovations in Rural Schools: Reflections from i3 Grantees (United States)

    Fox, Tom; Friedrich, Linda; Harmon, Hobart; McKithen, Clarissa; Phillips, Andie; Savell, Susan; Schaefer, Victoria; Silva, Mihiri


    The Investing in Innovation (i3) Improving Rural Achievement Community, a professional learning community of grantees under the US Department of Education's i3 program, created this document to share knowledge and experiences related to working in rural districts across the United States. Grounded in field-based experiences and lessons, it serves…

  5. Tolerance of ambiguity, perfectionism and resilience are associated with personality profiles of medical students oriented to rural practice. (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Leung, Janni K; Campbell, Narelle; Cloninger, C Robert


    Resilience, coping with uncertainty and learning from mistakes are vital characteristics for all medical disciplines - particularly rural practice. Levels of coping constructs were examined in medical students with and without a rural background or an interest in rural practice. Cross-sectional surveys identified two personality profiles, and their association with levels of Tolerance of Ambiguity, Resilience, Perfectionism-High Standards and Concern over mistakes as constructs indicative of coping. Medical students (N = 797) were stratified by rural background and degree of rural interest. Mediation analysis tested the effect of personality profile on levels of the coping constructs. More (72%) rural background students had Profile 1 which was associated with higher levels of Tolerance of Ambiguity, High standards, and Resilience, but lower Concern over mistakes. Non-rural background students reporting a strong rural interest also had Profile 1 (64%) and similar levels of coping constructs. Personality profile mediated the association between rural interest and levels of coping constructs regardless of background. Having a rural background or strong rural interest are associated with a personality profile that indicates a better capacity for coping. Personality may play a part in an individual's interest in rural practice. Rural workforce initiatives through education should encourage and nurture students with a genuine interest in rural practice - regardless of background.



    Elena, SIMA


    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  7. producto turismo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García Henche


    Full Text Available El turismo rural lleva un largo periodo establecido en Europa, pero en los últimos años crece su importancia ya que supone un nuevo producto turístico y una fuente de ingresos para la economía rural. Actualmente, los turistas buscan experiencias distintas al tradicional turismo de sol y playa, prefieren un turismo más individualizado y flexible, buscan nuevas formas de alojamiento y muestran un interés creciente por el contacto con la naturaleza. La oferta turística rural ha de adaptarse a las exigencias de esta demanda, lo que implica más flexibilidad y alojamientos y pueblos adaptados a las necesidades emergentes. Se ha de definir el turismo rural como una alternativa de adaptación a los cambios en las necesidades de los consumidores. El presente documento muestra los componentes del turismo rural. Los recursos turísticos son la materia prima, a la que se ha de añadir los servicios. Estos servicios pueden ser básicos o complementarios. Además de los servicios hay que añadir las actividades complementarias e infraestructuras No hay duda de que el turismo rural puede beneficiarse de la aplicación del marketing. El marketing implica entender qué es lo que los consumidores desean y crear productos para satisfacer sus necesidades, además de comercializar el producto correctamente.

  8. Rural maternity care. (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer


    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  9. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya. (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen


    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  10. Characterizing Rural Food Access in Remote Areas. (United States)

    Bardenhagen, Chris J; Pinard, Courtney A; Pirog, Rich; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus


    Residents of rural areas may have limited access to healthy foods, leading to higher incidence of diet related health issues. Smaller grocers in rural areas experience challenges in maintaining fresh produce and other healthy foods available for customers. This study assessed the rural food environment in northeast Lower Michigan in order to inform healthy food financing projects such as the Michigan Good Food Fund. The area's retail food businesses were categorized using secondary licensing, business, and nutrition program databases. Twenty of these stores were visited in person to verify the validity of the categories created, and to assess the availability of healthy foods in their aisles. In-depth interviews with key informants were carried out with store owners, economic development personnel, and other food system stakeholders having knowledge about food access, in order to learn more about the specific challenges that the area faces. Out-shopping, seasonality, and economic challenges were found to affect healthy food availability. Mid-sized independent stores were generally found to have a larger selection of healthy foods, but smaller rural groceries also have potential to provide fresh produce and increase food access. Potential healthy food financing projects are described and areas in need of further research are identified.

  11. Small hydropower for rural electrification in South Africa - using experiences from other African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, WE


    Full Text Available Local hydropower sources can play an important role in the electrification of rural areas in South Africa remote from the national electricity grid. To ensure the sustainability of hydropower developments it is essential that lessons learned...

  12. A Framework for Revitalisation of Rural Education and Training Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening the Human Resource Base for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods (United States)

    Wallace, Ian


    Recent studies of the current state of rural education and training (RET) systems in sub-Saharan Africa have assessed their ability to provide for the learning needs essential for more knowledgeable and productive small-scale rural households. These are most necessary if the endemic causes of rural poverty (poor nutrition, lack of sustainable…

  13. Rural women caregivers in Canada. (United States)

    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly


    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Bux JUMANI


    to rural people in solving the problems of rural development. They felt the need of starting school broadcasting .radio was being utilized for apprising villagers with their problem. There was need of maintaining more educational programmes. Rural programmes were to be in mother tongue.It was recommended that for educational purposes Radio Pakistan and AIOU may produce programmes which have their strong links/roots in the surroundings of the rural people. Radio schools like Interactive Radio instruction (IRI may be used for effective teaching learning process in rural areas. Time of educational programmes should be enhanced. Programmes like radio rural forum may be started as well as open broadcasting should be adopted for rural development programme.

  15. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana. (United States)

    Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaetse, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa


    Botswana's medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. This study explored the impact of rural training on students' attitudes towards rural practice. The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The thirty-six participants' age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirtythree desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas.Keyords: rural health, student perceptions.

  16. Transforming rural health systems through clinical academic leadership: lessons from South Africa. (United States)

    Doherty, J E; Couper, I D; Campbell, D; Walker, J


    Under-resourced and poorly managed rural health systems challenge the achievement of universal health coverage, and require innovative strategies worldwide to attract healthcare staff to rural areas. One such strategy is rural health training programs for health professionals. In addition, clinical leadership (for all categories of health professional) is a recognised prerequisite for substantial improvements in the quality of care in rural settings. Rural health training programs have been slow to develop in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and the impact of clinical leadership is under-researched in such settings. A 2012 conference in South Africa, with expert input from South Africa, Canada and Australia, discussed these issues and produced recommendations for change that will also be relevant in other LMICs. The two underpinning principles were that: rural clinical leadership (both academic and non-academic) is essential to developing and expanding rural training programs and improving care in LMICs; and leadership can be learned and should be taught. The three main sets of recommendations focused on supporting local rural clinical academic leaders; training health professionals for leadership roles in rural settings; and advancing the clinical academic leadership agenda through advocacy and research. By adopting the detailed recommendations, South Africa and other LMICs could energise management strategies, improve quality of care in rural settings and impact positively on rural health outcomes.

  17. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  18. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty. (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher


    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of teaching and learning in the rural environment was directly linked to the high rate of drop- out. Although some ... tion that leaving school after the completion of basic school ...... There are several ways by which the informal apprenticeship ...

  20. ICTs in rural education: Let the game begin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele


    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 255 teachers at 26 schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the very rural Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, have been using mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning...

  1. Instructional Technology for Rural Schools: Access and Acquisition (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.; Sundeen, Darrelanne M.


    Integrating instructional technology into all classrooms has the potential to transform modern education and student learning. However, access to technology is not equally available to all districts or schools. Decreased funding and budgetary restraints have had a direct impact on technology acquisition in many rural school districts. One of the…

  2. High Stakes Testing and Its Impact on Rural Schools. (United States)

    Hodges, V. Pauline


    The movement to standardization and high-stakes testing has been driven by ideological and political concerns and has adversely affected teaching/learning, democratic discourse, and educational equity. Rural schools are hit harder because of geographic isolation and insufficient staff and resources. Testing used for purposes other than measuring…

  3. Teaching Hinduism through a Rural Homestay in South India (United States)

    Ulrich, Edward T.


    For the first time, in 2008, I offered a world religions study abroad course in South India. The special emphasis was meeting and befriending locals, and the centerpiece of the course was a six-night stay in rural homes. I considered this immersion in a Hindu context to be the best setting for learning Hindu thought. However, the environment was…

  4. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  5. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  6. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans. (United States)


    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  7. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas (United States)

    ... challenges for rural communities: Behavioral health and detoxification (detox) services are not as readily available in rural ... the supplemental services necessary for positive outcomes. Detoxification (detox) services, for example, provide the initial treatment for ...

  8. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, A


    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  9. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.


    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  10. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    In this article I will review the historical, cultural and social formation of rural development policies in Denmark and situate these in a Scandinavian context. The review is based on a reading of commission reports, law documents and texts produced by the planners and scholars involved...... paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  11. Rural women's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly


    ... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...

  12. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  13. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.


    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  14. A snapshot of research in learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe


    Full Text Available The papers in this issue present a convenient snapshot of current research in learning technology, both in their coverage of the issues that concern us and the methods that are being used to investigate them. This issue shows that e-learning researchers are interested in: what technologies are available and explorations of their potential (Nie et al. explore the role of podcasting, how to design technology-mediated learning activities in ways which support specific learning outcomes (Simpson evaluates the role of ‘book raps' in supporting critical thinking, the identification of critical success factors in implementations (Cochrane's observation of three mobile learning projects and how such e-learning initiatives can be sustained within an institutional context (Gunn's examination of the challenges of embedding ‘grass roots' initiatives. Finally e-learning research is concerned with investigating the impact of emerging technologies on education – in this case Traxler's discussion of mobile, largely student-owned, devices. Together these five papers demonstrate the scope of research in learning technology and it is with this in mind that we will soon be referring to this journal by its subtitle: Research in Learning Technology.

  15. Social Welfare in Rural Europe. (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others


    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  16. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.


    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  17. Energy for sustainable rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.; Hulscher, W.S.; Hommes, E.W.; Hommes, E.W.


    Rural energy in developing countries is discussed with a view to sustainable development. The project-oriented approach in rural energy which has often dominated in the past, is contrasted with an overall strategy for sustainable rural energy demand and supply. An outline for a demand-oriented

  18. Rural Youth: The Policy Agenda. (United States)

    Dey, Ian; Jentsch, Birgit

    With the advent of a Scottish Parliament and a Minister and Parliamentary Committee for Rural Affairs, there is now a broad consensus that policies are needed to generate "quality jobs" for young people in rural Scotland. This agenda is politically appealing, since it addresses various rural problems, including retention of young people…

  19. Primary and Secondary Virtual Learning in New Zealand: Examining Barriers to Achieving Maturity (United States)

    Barbour, Michael; Davis, Niki; Wenmoth, Derek


    This paper describes the organisational development of virtual learning in networked rural schools in New Zealand, specifically the obstacles that e-learning clusters of rural schools face in their journey to sustainability and maturity through the lens of the Ministry's Learning Communities Online Handbook. Analysis of a nationwide purposeful…

  20. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman


    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  1. Stakeholder views of rural community-based medical education: a narrative review of the international literature. (United States)

    Somporn, Praphun; Ash, Julie; Walters, Lucie


    Rural community-based medical education (RCBME), in which medical student learning activities take place within a rural community, requires students, clinical teachers, patients, community members and representatives of health and government sectors to actively contribute to the educational process. Therefore, academics seeking to develop RCBME need to understand the rural context, and the views and needs of local stakeholders. The aim of this review is to examine stakeholder experiences of RCBME programmes internationally. This narrative literature review of original research articles published after 1970 utilises Worley's symbiosis model of medical education as an analysis framework. This model proposes that students experience RCBME through their intersection with multiple clinical, social and institutional relationships. This model seeks to provide a framework for considering the intersecting relationships in which RCBME programmes are situated. Thirty RCBME programmes are described in 52 articles, representing a wide range of rural clinical placements. One-year longitudinal integrated clerkships for penultimate-year students in Anglosphere countries were most common. Such RCBME enables students to engage in work-integrated learning in a feasible manner that is acceptable to many rural clinicians and patients. Academic results are not compromised, and a few papers demonstrate quality improvement for rural health services engaged in RCBME. These programmes have delivered some rural medical workforce outcomes to communities and governments. Medical students also provide social capital to rural communities. However, these programmes have significant financial cost and risk student social and educational isolation. Rural community-based medical education programmes are seen as academically acceptable and can facilitate symbiotic relationships among students, rural clinicians, patients and community stakeholders. These relationships can influence students' clinical

  2. Teacher education program explores building professional learning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 2, 2016 ... Teacher education program explores building professional learning ... table in the Bengaluru Rural District Institute of Education and Training ICT lab. ... more people go online in Asia, digital privacy is increasingly seen as an ...

  3. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology (United States)

    McEachern, Diane


    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  4. Teachers as Rural Educators (United States)

    Kristiansen, Andrew


    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  5. Reluctant Rural Regionalists (United States)

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela


    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  6. Encountering Rural Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm


    . The presence of “The controlled ruin at the church” in the rural village catalyzed an exchange of memories of the place among the local inhabitants. Furthermore, the subsequent decay process showed a positive influence on the local attitude towards the implemented strategy. Bringing in surveyed examples...

  7. Dismantling Rural Stereotypes (United States)

    Bryant, James A., Jr.


    The natural beauty that surrounds many rural schools hides the troubling realities that students in these schools frequently live in poverty and the schools struggle to give these students the education they need. James A. Bryant believes that one source of the problem is the fact that so many school reforms are designed with urban schools in…

  8. Plan of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This presentation shows the policies of the Government of Guatemala on renewable energy for the rural population, the current demand of energy and trends for 2004. Also presents the budget for financing electrification projects with solar energy and hydro energy and the number of users to be included by geographical zone

  9. Problems Facing Rural Schools. (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  10. Rural Health Disparities (United States)

    ... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...

  11. Information and Rural Development. (United States)

    Storm, Bonnie L.


    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  12. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel


    to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...

  13. Teachers' experiences of teaching in a blended learning environment. (United States)

    Jokinen, Pirkko; Mikkonen, Irma


    This paper considers teachers' experiences of teaching undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. The basic idea of the study programme was to support students to reflect on theory and practice, and provide with access to expert and professional knowledge in real-life problem-solving and decision making. Learning was organised to support learning in and about work: students worked full-time and this provided excellent opportunities for learning both in practice, online and face-to-face sessions. The aim of the study was to describe teachers' experiences of planning and implementing teaching and learning in a blended-learning-based adult nursing programme. The research method was qualitative, and the data were collected by three focus group interviews, each with four to six participants. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the blended learning environment constructed by the combination of face-to-face learning and learning in practice with technology-mediated learning creates challenges that must be taken into consideration when planning and implementing blended teaching and learning. However, it provides good opportunities to enhance students' learning in and about work. This is because such programmes support student motivation through the presence of "real-life" and their relevance to the students' own places of work. Nevertheless, teachers require knowledge of different pedagogical approaches; they need professional development support in redesigning teaching and learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana. (United States)

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C


    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction

  15. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir


    In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH......) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit...

  16. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran


    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher


    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  17. Institucionalidad y desarrollo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Ruiz Camargo


    Full Text Available La institucionalidad entendida como el conjunto de normas y reg las formales e informales que regulan una comunidad determinada puede influir al impulsar y acrecentar el desarrollo rural o también frenarlo, permitiendo o no la participación o también obstaculizando la organización y la expresión de las comunidades rurales; lo cual puede reflejarse en carencias de sentido económico, social y cultural. Estas temáticas han sido exploradas en el presente trabajo, mediante el contacto directo con las comunidades rura les del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá y complementado con la revisión teórica a nivel bibliográfica sobre los temas de la institucionalidad y el desarrollo rural sustentable. Dada la importancia de las familias campesinas asentadas en estos territorios de minifundios y economía campesina, en la reproducción de su propia subsistencia y el aporte a la producción de bienes para la alimentación de la población urbana y suministro de mano de obra necesaria en la prestación de servicios y la industria nacional, se encontró que las carencias de tipo económico y social por parte de la población se reflejan en índices de pobreza elevada, debido a la poca capacidad de consumo y acumulación, pues la propiedad privada sustentada en el minifundio utilizado en actividades agropecuarias no genera ingresos suficientes para financiar la alimentación, la educación, la salud, la vivienda, la recreación y tampoco posibilita el ahorro. Por otra parte, la producción de bienes y servicios de origen rural es vendida o intercambiada en el mercado a precios por debajo de los costos de producción, con lo cual se transfiere la riqueza producida en el campo hacia la ciudad, reproduciéndose el circulo de la pobreza rural donde la institucionalidad practicada y existente no permite la participación de los habitantes rurales en la toma de decisiones; entre otras cosas, porque carecen de organización y liderazgo y porque tradicionalmente la

  18. A Review of the Impact of ICT in Rural Education in Nigeria | David ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experts in education suggest that networks and digital communication technologies will cause an even more dramatic prototype for E-learning, since learning over the Internet is neither time bound nor place bound. This paper reviews some of these techniques that could aid rural education. AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Review of final-year medical students' rural attachment at district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 15, 2013 ... This paper presents the first phase of an ongoing quality ... a rural district hospital can provide unique learning opportunities for students if the ..... Peabody C, Block A, Jain S. Multi-disciplinary service learning: a medico-legal.

  20. La violencia rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Bejarano


    Full Text Available Dossier Comunicación y Drogas. En la Colombia rural, el narcotráfico, la guerrilla y la delincuencia común son factores de inseguridad y violencia. A pesar de la incertidumbre social que generan, gran parte de los medios de comunicación de ese país solo se limitan a describir los hechos en forma superficial. ¡Las amenazas a los periodistas son reales!

  1. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, K.


    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  2. Culture and Rural Development


    Wüpper, David Johannes


    History is an important determinant of current economic development. One reason is cultural learning, which includes imitating behaviors from ancestors in order to save individual learning costs. Amongst anthropologists, there is widespread agreement that it is cultural learning that makes humans so adaptive in comparison to other species, which imitate less or worse. Nevertheless, culture also makes humans less adaptive than economists assume for the homo economicus (because humans imitate m...




  4. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.


    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... Aiding (MCDA) technique "Group Analytic Hierarchy Process" (GAHP). The validity of this MC-SDSS was tested on three rural municipalities of Apulia Region (Southern Italy). In particular, a GIS was used to detect the rural resources and existing linear elements, which were used to perform overlay mapping...

  5. Big Pharma on the Farm: Students Are Exposed to Pharmaceutical Marketing More Often in Rural Clinics. (United States)

    Evans, David V; Keys, Toby; Desnick, Laurel; A Andrilla, C Holly; Bienz, Danielle; Rosenblatt, Roger


    Pharmaceutical marketing techniques are effective in changing the behavior of health care providers in ways that deviate from evidence-based practices. To mitigate the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on learners, academic medical centers (AMCs) have adopted policies to limit student/industry interaction. Many clinical experiences occur outside of the AMC. The purpose of this study was to compare medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing in off-campus rural and urban underserved clinical sites. The University of Washington School of Medicine Rural and Underserved Opportunities Program (RUOP) places rising second-year medical students in underserved clinical sites in five northwestern states. We surveyed RUOP students to evaluate their exposure to pharmaceutical marketing. Of 120 students, 86 (72%) completed surveys. Sixty-five (76%) did their RUOP rotation in rural areas. Students in rural locations were more likely to report exposure to pharmaceutical marketing. Distribution of free drug samples was reportedly three times higher in rural than urban sites (54% versus 15%). Doctors meeting with sales representatives were reported as four times higher in rural clinics (40% versus 10%). Students at rural sites reported exposure to pharmaceutical marketing more than those in urban settings. Rural medical educators should provide faculty development for community clinicians on the influences of pharmaceutical marketing on learners. Medical schools must review local clinic and institution-wide policies to limit pharmaceutical marketing exposure to learners in the rural learning environment.

  6. [Historical succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural China.]. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Xian; Li, Ning-Xiu; Ren, Xiao-Hui


    There was considerable attention paid to the succour of poverty with widespread practice in China's history. Succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural areas were closely connected with famine relief carried out by the rulers. The mutual assistance of emotional and moral support long-term in rural communities is the most important form of medical assistance. A succour of poverty and medical assistance system in the modern sense should inherit and learn from the past consideration of poverty assistance and bring in the fine tradition of multiple forces to participate, in order to establish a succour of poverty and medical assistance system compatible with economic and social development. This is not only an important component of anti-poverty strategy in rural areas but also an inevitable requirement of historical development.

  7. Is [Rural] Property Tax Relevant?


    Villaveces-Niño, Marta-Juanita


    The present document presents the general notions and the definition of property taxation and, as part of it, the working definition of rural property taxation emphasizing that property taxation is a matter of “property” and rural property taxation is linked with rural property, specifically with land ownership. In addition, the document presents some facts about the performance of property taxation based on a secondary source of cross-country analysis. In order to giv...

  8. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel


    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  9. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  10. Work of female rural doctors. (United States)

    Wainer, Jo


    To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are

  11. Rural electrification or village energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D V


    Decentralized power generation using renewable energy resources is more appropriate to the energy needs of the rural Third World. These countries often look to the rural electrification programs of the US and Soviet Union as the answer to their problem even though studies consistently show this to be inefficient and frequently ineffective, often reinforcing existing social and economic inequities. When the uses of energy in rural villages are examined in detail, the only approach which will supply energy to the rural poor must be based on a local and regional match of need to indigenous energy sources and to the development of local talent and enthusiasm. 29 references. (DCK)

  12. Impact of rural residence and health system structure on quality of liver care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Rongey

    Full Text Available Specialist physician concentration in urban areas can affect access and quality of care for rural patients. As effective drug treatment for hepatitis C (HCV becomes increasingly available, the extent to which rural patients needing HCV specialists face access or quality deficits is unknown. We sought to determine the influence of rural residency on access to HCV specialists and quality of liver care.The study used a national cohort of 151,965 Veterans Health Administration (VHA patients with HCV starting in 2005 and followed to 2009. The VHA's constant national benefit structure reduces the impact of insurance as an explanation for observed disparities. Multivariate cox proportion regression models for each quality indicator were performed.Thirty percent of VHA patients with HCV reside in rural and highly rural areas. Compared to urban residents, highly rural (HR 0.70, CI 0.65-0.75 and rural (HR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.97 residents were significantly less likely to access HCV specialty care. The quality indicators were more mixed. While rural residents were less likely to receive HIV screening, there were no significant differences in hepatitis vaccinations, endoscopic variceal and hepatocellular carcinoma screening between the geographic subgroups. Of note, highly rural (HR 1.31, CI 1.14-1.50 and rural residents (HR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10 were more likely to receive HCV therapy. Of those treated for HCV, a third received therapy from a non-specialist provider.Rural patients have less access to HCV specialists, but this does not necessarily translate to quality deficits. The VHA's efforts to improve specialty care access, rural patient behavior and decentralization of HCV therapy beyond specialty providers may explain this contradiction. Lessons learned within the VHA are critical for US healthcare systems restructuring into accountable care organizations that acquire features of integrated systems.

  13. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  14. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali. (United States)

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique


    While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. The programme consisted of four classroom modules--clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills--and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed

  15. Human transportation needs in rural Oklahoma. (United States)


    Mobility is extremely important, especially in rural areas, which have dispersed populations and locations. : This study was conducted among rural minority populations to evaluate human transportation needs of the : underserved rural population in Ok...

  16. Violence and Abuse in Rural America (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  17. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...

  18. Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to Myanmar's rural poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, Alex; Ackom, Emmanuel


    Myanmar's rural population has very low access to electricity, mainly due to low disposal income and the remoteness of communities. This paper attempts to test the potential applicability of Grameen Shakti-Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), which is a Bangladeshi public private...... partnership microfinance model, to rural Myanmar towards enhanced solar home systems (SHS) deployment. Rural poor are enabled by this microfinancing scheme to own SHSs in a few years for as low as US$6.40 per month. The objectives of this paper are to assess the experience of Grameen Shakti-IDCOL and other...... similar projects for invaluable lessons, identify barriers to sustainable electrification for Myanmar's rural poor and to apply these lessons learned to overcome barriers by developing policy recommendations for sustainable electrification for rural poor in Myanmar. Recommendations are provided suggesting...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč


    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  20. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu


    Full Text Available Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements.

  1. Rural entrepreneurship: Between place and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    for a better use of rural resource-bases as well as for sustainable economic development. On the basis of an exploration of the spatial dynamics of rural entrepreneurship we develop propositions concerning rural entrepreneurship as a distinct form of entrepreneurial activity, emphasising bricolage, mixed......This paper proposes a distinction between rural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in the rural. While the latter is incidentally located in a rural area, the former engages with the localised resources of the rural area. We argue that rural entrepreneurship in this form holds promise...

  2. Rural hospital wages (United States)

    Hendricks, Ann M.


    Average fiscal year 1982 wages from 2,302 rural American hospitals were used to test for a gradient descending from hospitals in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas to those not adjacent. Considerable variation in the ratios of adjacent to nonadjacent averages existed. No statistically significant difference was found, however. Of greater importance in explaining relative wages within States were occupational mix, mix of part-time and full-time workers, case mix, presence of medical residencies, and location in a high-rent county within the State. Medicare already adjusts payments for only two of these variables. PMID:10313454

  3. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina


    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  4. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  5. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.


    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  6. Development of Sustainable Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kantar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.



    Spio, Kojo; Groenewald, Jan A.


    The paper seeks to present an in depth overview of rural financial markets in developing countries. Attention is given to the role of financial markets in the development process, approaches to rural finance in developing countries, and formal and informal financial markets. The pro and cons of the various financial markets were also considered.

  8. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  9. Rural poverty in transition countries


    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo


    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  10. Going Digital in Rural America. (United States)

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and…

  11. Portrait of Rural Virtual Schooling (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.


    Over the past two decades, distance education has become a reality of rural schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador. In this article, I provide historical background into the challenges facing rural schools in the province and how distance education was introduced to address that challenge. I also describe how that system of distance education…

  12. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.


    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  13. ‘One day I will pick up a snake, wanting to read it’: Becoming a successful reader in a rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline van der Mescht


    Full Text Available Children learning to read and write in rural areas in Southern Africa perform poorly compared to children in urban schools. The poor results of rural schools in national assessments of reading literacy are explained by the deficits of rural areas: poverty, under-resourced schools and under-qualified teachers. Children in rural areas are frequently not exposed to home literacy practices, which prepare them for formal literacy learning at school. Whilst acknowledging the impact of rural poverty on children’s performance, this article explores a role-playing game amongst pre-school and school-going children of rural villages that enabled some children to become successful learners. Focusing on affect, I analyse the way in which the game motivated these children and suggest some of the benefits that promoting this practice may have for teaching and learning in rural areas. The continued underperformance of children in rural schools makes a compelling case for investigating ways of promoting learning and reading in rural homes.

  14. Los cambios socioculturales y el turismo rural: el caso de una posada familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Beber, Ana Maria


    Full Text Available This article aims to identify some socio cultural changes in native families that can be associated with the beginning of rural tourism activities at their farm, “Pousada do Cavalinho” (Horse´s Inn. This is a fancy name to preserve the identity of interviewees according to social sciences ethics. These changes were observed using participative observation method and interviews were held in order to learn from the actors´ voice. Basic concepts in this research are rural tourism, puriactivity as a way to cope with rural production problems in Brazil, and tourism as a factor of cultural change

  15. Women in rural development. (United States)

    Palmer, I


    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  16. Rural-Urban Interdependence in Food Systems in Nsukka Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    by influencing the decision to migrate, remain in the rural area, or provide urban services in ..... (dried cassava) processing machines, vehicles, corrugated iron houses. A final .... It can also influence learning and adoption rates of new ..... 18.3. 8 . Palm tree. Small. 46.7. 73.3. Medium. 51.7. 3.3. Large. 1.7. None. 0.0. 23.3 ...

  17. Discussion based on the adaptability design for the construction of rural tourism for the revival of villages in China (United States)

    Xie, Guanyi; Li, Xingyi; Zhao, Hanyu


    Tourist development has been an increasingly popular part in rural construction in contemporary China, and has become a juncture of rural renewal and revival. Taking the three perspectives of rural physical form, rural culture, human action and activities, this article summarizes the problems and conflicts created by Chinese rural tourism, and analyzes the root reason for the conflicts. We try to generalize valuable experience learned from Chinese New Village experimental base so far from different aspects such as architectural forms, spatial scales, ecological environment, arts and culture and residential life, integrated with notion of ‘adaptability design’ in the theoretical system of sustainable development, and then deduct a strategy for designing rural sustainable development, under the intervention of tourism. Lastly, the example of a Chinese village - Fenshui Village is chosen to practice, and construction conception is raised accordingly.

  18. Materializing morality. Design ethics and technological mediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.


    During the past decade, the "script" concept, indicating how technologies prescribe human actions, has acquired a central place in STS. Until now, the concept has mainly functioned in descriptive settings. This article will deploy it in a normative setting. When technologies coshape human actions,

  19. Rural African women and development. (United States)

    Kabadaki, K


    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  20. Creating sustainable empowering learning environments through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as these impede optimal learning especially among rural and immigrant communities in South Africa, Canada and the world over. The primary focus of all papers herein therefore is on the creation of sustainable empowering learning environments through engaged scholarship spearheaded by the university.

  1. Red Rural, Blue Rural: The Geography of Presidential Voting in Rural America (United States)

    Scala, Dante J.; Johnson, Kenneth M.


    Political commentators routinely treat rural America as an undifferentiated bastion of strength for Republicans. In fact, rural America is a deceptively simple term describing a remarkably diverse collection of places encompassing nearly 75 percent of the U.S. land area and 50 million people. Voting trends in this vast area are far from…

  2. Popular video for rural development in Peru. (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M


    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.

  3. Rural male suicide in Australia. (United States)

    Alston, Margaret


    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The rural areas are rich in their ecological and cultural diversity. The dimension and complexity of the rural communities make difficult a generalization regarding their problems or values, even if some common characteristics exist. For a long time in their existence, the rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But, in the 20th century, the great technological, political and economical changes have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, and other renewable industrial resources, fact which led the rural communities to a dependency towards these. Although these changes occurred, many reasons for optimism still exist. Involvement of new households in offering touristic services constitutes a new dimension of the development of the rural areas, and on a secondary plane the touristic activity in the rural environment registers new ways of manifestation. Even more, we are able to appreciate the dimensions and evolution of one of the most spectacular social – economic phenomena; the rural tourism.

  5. Barriers to Change: Findings from Three Literacy Professional Learning Initiatives (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Parsons, Seth A.; Morewood, Aimee; Ankrum, Julie W.


    In this article, we describe lessons learned from three separate literacy professional learning initiatives that took place in elementary schools in three different locations: high-poverty urban, medium-poverty rural, and low-poverty suburban. The professional learning initiatives were also diverse in scope: one was a three-year, school-wide…

  6. Defining and Describing Rural: Implications for Rural Special Education Research and Policy (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Bovaird, James A.; McCormick, Carina M.; Welch, Greg W.; Arthur, Ann M.; Bash, Kirstie


    A critical aspect of rural research is carefully defining and describing the rural context. This is particularly important in rural special education research because different definitions of rural may influence resource allocation, grant funding eligibility, and/or research findings. In order to highlight the importance of operationalizing rural,…

  7. Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam: Trends and Determinants


    Nguyen , Trung Hung


    This dissertation aims to investigate the Trends and Determinants of the Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam since the global economic crisis occurred in 2007 with the focus on the household's diversification; the involvement of rural individuals in Rural Non-Farm Employment; Rural Labor Market development; and assessment of a specific labor market policy.

  8. Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian


    Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

  9. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.


    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females).

  10. Rural Pennsylvanians--A Troubled People. (United States)

    Hillman, Arnold

    This report presents the problems of rural Pennsylvania and proposes solutions to those problems. Because the news media does not systematically report on rural situations, the public lacks awareness concerning the problems in rural Pennsylvania. Rural problems include high unemployment rates, high welfare expenditures, out migration, low…

  11. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara


    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  12. El emprendedurismo femenino rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Guadalupe Chong-González


    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra la participación económica de las mujeres en el espacio rural y se confirma que se involucran principalmente en la gestión emprendedora, realizando actividades por cuenta propia, la mayoría de ellas inicia su entrada en el mercado en condiciones de irregularidad e inestabilidad. La actividad emprendedora de las mujeres es diversa y abarca casi todos los sectores económicos. Esta investigación se realizó con base en un trabajo de campo llevado a cabo en 2014 en el municipio de Coatepec Harinas, Estado de México y con base en los censos del INEGI.

  13. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli


    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  14. Mixed embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in rural areas. Some studies have shown that in-migrants and returnees are overrepresented among rural entrepreneurs, and that their entrepreneurship might be more important for local development than the efforts of local entrepreneurs, at least...... in terms of economic value creation. Other studies have shown that local embeddedness is a significant source of opportunities for rural entrepreneurs, yet at the same time, over-embeddedness can inhibit entrepreneurial activities. These contrasting studies suggest that some form of mixed embeddedness...

  15. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  16. Develop of the rural electrification; Desarrollo de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tancredi, R [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas, UTE, Montevideo (Uruguay)


    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power.

  17. School Gardens and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiemensma, Britt Due


    This paper outlines the changing discourse on school gardens as a learning object as well as a learning environment in urban and rural schools in Denmark and Norway, two small states in Northern Europe. School and community gardens are to be found all over the world, and in Scandinavian...... they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...... of children learning to plant and care for plants in a school garden....

  18. M-Learning: The New Horizon of Learning at SQU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Khanjari


    Full Text Available M-learning extends the theory and practice of learning and mobility in converging technological environments. Developing a smart course in order to improve the standard of education at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU is one of the main aims of the current authors. This proposal requires developing innovative applications for ubiquitous, mobile technologies for learning. This kind of development covers new educational and technological methods and concepts for supporting formal and informal learning. SQU is currently using Moodle as the open source e-learning management system to support and enhance traditional learning. Although elearning in SQU has proven its importance in enhancing traditional learning, it is limited to areas and locations where a personal computer exists. This constraint is a burden to many e-learning users who are staff or students, especially if they live in rural areas of Oman. To overcome this drawback, an investigative survey of the importance of m-learning was designed and distributed to SQU students. The results showed that almost all students favored and supported the idea and requested the implementation of a m-learning application. As a step forward, this paper proposes an extension for e-learning—a new m-learning tool to support learners who use mobile device technologies. Our goal in introducing m-learning at SQU is not to replace e-learning but to complement and improve it so both modalities are available, since each grants certain advantages to users.

  19. Rural Communatcation: legitimizing digital inclusion in rural field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Correa Bernardes


    Full Text Available Through contemporary analysis, it was noted that the countryside of São Paulo experienced drastic transformation and demanded rural family farmers to adapt themselves to technological innovations, where the most striking is the use of the internet in search of information to the sustainable development of rural property.  The research adopted a methodological way of exploratory, through the case study, which analyzed the general objective the dissemination and usability of information and communication technologies in rural areas in the interior of forms-based applied to farmers in the family farms belonging to theAssociation of banana growers of Tupã. In seeking to achieve this goal, reflected on the use of internet in rural areas and measured-factors that enhance digital communication barriers in rural addressing the digital divide becomes a limiting factor to access. In this sense, the rural communication emerges as relational link mediating solutions and incorporating the diffusion of innovations in the pursuit of digital literacy of farmers contributing to the democratization of society in the information age.

  20. Thriving Together: Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development = Prosperando juntos: La conexion entre el mejoramiento de la escuela rural y el desarrollo comunitario. (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…

  1. Financial Performance of Rural Medicare ACOs. (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew C; Mueller, Keith; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi


    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has facilitated the development of Medicare accountable care organizations (ACOs), mostly through the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP). To inform the operation of the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's (CMMI) ACO programs, we assess the financial performance of rural ACOs based on different levels of rural presence. We used the 2014 performance data for Medicare ACOs to examine the financial performance of rural ACOs with different levels of rural presence: exclusively rural, mostly rural, and mixed rural/metropolitan. Of the ACOs reporting performance data, we identified 97 ACOs with a measurable rural presence. We found that successful rural ACO financial performance is associated with the ACO's organizational type (eg, physician-based) and that 8 of the 11 rural ACOs participating in the Advanced Payment Program (APP) garnered savings for Medicare. Unlike previous work, we did not find an association between ACO size or experience and rural ACO financial performance. Our findings suggest that rural ACO financial success is likely associated with factors unique to rural environments. Given the emphasis CMS has placed on rural ACO development, further research to identify these factors is warranted. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  3. Rural Veterans by State (2015) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  4. Rural Veterans by State (2014) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  5. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.


    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  6. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper


      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  7. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...

  8. Develop of the rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredi, R.


    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU


    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  10. A double whammy! New baccalaureate registered nurses' transitions into rural acute care. (United States)

    Smith, Jean; Vandall-Walker, Virginia


    Transitioning into the Canadian rural acute care environment can be challenging for new RNs, and so retention is of concern. Currently, few seasoned registered nurses (RNs) are available to support new RNs during transition because (a) the Canadian RN workforce countrywide is aging and significant numbers are retiring, and (b) the number of Canadian RNs working rurally has plummeted in the past 10 years. Investigations into the phenomenon of new RNs\\' transitions into the workforce have been conducted, but little is known about this phenomenon as it relates to Canadian rural acute care hospitals. Most findings have been based on data from urban or mixed rural–urban samples. An interpretive description research approach was used to understand new RNs\\' transition experiences into the Alberta, Canada, rural acute care environment including supports and challenges specific to recruitment and retention. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 12 new RNs who had been employed in one or more Alberta rural acute care hospitals from 1 month to less than 2 years. In this study, participants experienced a double whammy consisting of learning I\\'m a generalist! and managing the responsibility of I\\'m it! Participants experienced contradictory emotions of exhilaration and shock that set them on an emotional roller coaster, a finding that differs from previously reported findings, wherein transition was frequently identified as only shocking. The few participants who were well supported by their colleagues and employersreportedexperiencing minor emotional fluctuations and described transition as exciting, good, and manageable. Thosewho were not experienced major fluctuations from exhilaration to shock. They described transition as exhilarating, but overwhelming, and unsafe. Notably, 9 of the 12 participants changed jobs within their first 2 years of practice. Other significant findings included problems with the outdated definitions of rural

  11. Fifth-year medical students’ perspectives on rural training in Botswana: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kebaabetswe


    Full Text Available Background. The curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Botswana includes rural community exposure for students throughout their 5 years of training. In addition to community exposure during the first 2 years, students complete 16 weeks of family medicine and 8 weeks of public health medicine. However, as a new faculty, students’ experiences and perceptions regarding rural clinical training are not yet known. Objective. To describe the experiences and perceptions of the 5th-year medical students during their rural training and solicit their recommendations for improvement. Methods. This qualitative study used face-to-face interviews with 5th-year undergraduate medical students (N=36 at the end of their family medicine rotation in Mahalapye and Maun villages. We used a phenomenological paradigm to underpin the study. Voice-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas TI version 7 software (USA. Results. Three main themes were identified: (i experiences and perceptions of the rural training environment; (ii perceptions of the staff at rural sites; and (iii perceptions of clinical benefits and relevance during rural training. While the majority of students perceived rural training as beneficial and valuable, a few felt that learning was compromised by limited resources and processes, such as medical equipment, internet connectivity and inadequate supervision. Conclusion. While the majority of students perceived rural training as beneficial, students identified limitations in both resources and supervision that need to be improved. Understanding students’ rural training experiences and perceptions can help the Faculty of Medicine, stakeholders and site facilitators to guide future rural training implementation.

  12. A new inter-professional course preparing learners for life in rural communities. (United States)

    Medves, Jennifer; Paterson, Margo; Chapman, Christine Y; Young, John H; Tata, Elizabeth; Bowes, Denise; Hobbs, Neil; McAndrews, Brian; O'Riordan, Anne


    The 'Professionals in Rural Practice' course was developed with the aim of preparing students enrolled in professional programs in Canada to become better equipped for the possible eventuality of professional work in a rural setting. To match the reality of living and working in a rural community, which by nature is interprofessional, the course designers were an interprofessional teaching team. In order to promote group cohesiveness the course included the participation of an interprofessional group of students and instructors from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, teacher education, and theology. The format of the course included three-hour classes over an eight-week period and a two-day field experience in a rural community. The course utilized various experiential and interactive teaching and learning methods, along with a variety of assessment methods. Data were collected from student participants over two iterations of the course using a mixed methods approach. Results demonstrate that students value the interprofessional and experiential approach to learning and viewed this course as indispensable for gaining knowledge of other professions and preparation for rural practice. The data reveal important organizational and pedagogical considerations specific to interprofessional education, community based action research, and the unique interprofessional nature of training for life and work in a rural community. This study also indicates the potential value of further longitudinal study of participants in this course. Key words: Canada, community based action research, education, interdisciplinary, interprofessional.

  13. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  14. Programa único o diferenciado: especificidad curricular de la escuela rural uruguaya - Common or differentiated school programs: uruguayan rural school curriculum specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limber Elbio Santos, Uruguay


    Full Text Available O artigo se refere ao fenômeno da especificidade curricular que as escolas rurais uruguaias têm tido durante mais de um século e à ruptura histórica registrada em 2009 quando se começou a aplicar uma estrutura curricular comum a escolas urbanas e rurais. Analisam-se as circunstâncias históricas da pedagogia rural e, em particular, uma de suas materialidades simbolicamente mais potentes constituída pelo Programa para Escolas Rurais de 1949. Assim mesmo, refere-se ao peso que essa pedagogia continua tendo atualmente e da maneira como influi na gestão curricular do programa único. As especificidades social e didática da escola rural têm efeitos evidentes sobre o programa curricular no seu sentido mais amplo, com alcances muito mais extensos que os relativos ao currículo prescrito. No entanto, o desafio da escola rural atual de abordar a nova estrutura curricular de caráter único não é tão diferente do que se registrou historicamente: dialogar com o meio de igual para igual e maximizar o potencial de aprendizagem proporcionado pela instituição educacional, pela comunidade e estrutura multidisciplinar do grupo.Palavras-chave: escola rural, currículo, programa, pedagogia rural. COMMON OR DIFFERENTIATED SCHOOL PROGRAMS: URUGUAYAN RURAL SCHOOL CURRICULUM SPECIFICITY AbstractThe paper refers to the phenomenon of the Curriculum specificity to which the Rural Schools had for more than a century inUruguayand to the historic rupture registered in 2009 when a common Curriculum for Rural and Urban schools was introduced. The paper analyses the historic circumstances of the Rural Pedagogy and, in particular, one of its most potent symbolic materiality constituted of the 1949 program for Rural Education. The analysis show that the challenge to current Rural Education is not that different to that registered historically: to dialogue with the environment and take maximum advantage of the potential to learn which is provided by the

  15. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena


    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros


    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  17. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  18. Factors influencing students' choices in considering rural radiography careers at Makerere University, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Mubuuke Aloysius; Kiguli-Malwadde, E.; Francis, Businge; Rosemary, Byanyima K.


    Introduction: The Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University is the oldest health professions training institution in East Africa having started in 1924. The radiography degree course started in 2001 and Makerere remains the only institution in the East African region offering this degree course. The faculty adopted a Problem based Learning/Community based education curriculum in order to stimulate students' interests to consider working in rural areas. Attracting and retaining radiographers and other health professionals in rural areas is a recognized problem in Uganda and overseas and strategic actions to enhance the rural health workforce and its ability to deliver the required services are paramount. A range of factors in different domains can be associated with recruitment and retention. By consulting students, some of these factors can be identified and addressed. Methodology: It was a descriptive exploratory study involving 31 students. Data was collected through a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results: 58% of the students reported that they would consider rural radiography practice while 42% would not. Key motivational factors cited to work in rural areas were; attractive salaries/incentives, community based training curricular, opportunities for further training and well equipped rural health facilities. Conclusion: This study has shown that students would consider working in rural areas provided the working conditions are improved upon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomba Clifford


    Full Text Available A technological divide exists in Zimbabwe between urban and rural schools that puts rural based students at a disadvantage. In Zimbabwe, the government, through the president donated computers to most rural schools in a bid to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban schools. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of Advanced Level students using computers at two rural boarding Catholic High Schools in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by two research questions: (1 How do Advanced level students in the rural areas use computers at their school? and (2 What is the experience of using computers for Advanced Level students in the rural areas of Zimbabwe? By performing this study, it was possible to understand from the students’ experiences whether computer usage was for educational learning or not. The results of the phenomenological study showed that students’ experiences can be broadly classified into five themes, namely worthwhile (interesting experience, accessibility issues, teachers’ monopoly, research and social use, and Internet availability. The participants proposed teachers use computers, but not monopolize computer usage. The solution to the computer shortage may be solved by having donors and government help in the acquisitioning of more computers.

  20. Factors influencing students' choices in considering rural radiography careers at Makerere University, Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Mubuuke Aloysius [Makerere University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kampala (Uganda)], E-mail:; Kiguli-Malwadde, E.; Francis, Businge [Makerere University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kampala (Uganda); Rosemary, Byanyima K. [Mulago Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kampala (Uganda)


    Introduction: The Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University is the oldest health professions training institution in East Africa having started in 1924. The radiography degree course started in 2001 and Makerere remains the only institution in the East African region offering this degree course. The faculty adopted a Problem based Learning/Community based education curriculum in order to stimulate students' interests to consider working in rural areas. Attracting and retaining radiographers and other health professionals in rural areas is a recognized problem in Uganda and overseas and strategic actions to enhance the rural health workforce and its ability to deliver the required services are paramount. A range of factors in different domains can be associated with recruitment and retention. By consulting students, some of these factors can be identified and addressed. Methodology: It was a descriptive exploratory study involving 31 students. Data was collected through a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results: 58% of the students reported that they would consider rural radiography practice while 42% would not. Key motivational factors cited to work in rural areas were; attractive salaries/incentives, community based training curricular, opportunities for further training and well equipped rural health facilities. Conclusion: This study has shown that students would consider working in rural areas provided the working conditions are improved upon.

  1. Recruiting and retaining mental health professionals to rural communities: an interdisciplinary course in Appalachia. (United States)

    Meyer, Deborah; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Tice, Carolyn; Safran, Steven; Bolon, Douglas; Rose-Grippa, Kathleen


    Faculty from 5 disciplines (health administration, nursing, psychology, social work, and special education) collaborated to develop and teach a distance-learning course designed to encourage undergraduate and graduate students to seek mental health services employment in rural areas and to provide the skills, experience, and knowledge necessary for successful rural practice. The primary objectives of the course, developed after thorough review of the rural retention and recruitment literature, were to (1) enhance interdisciplinary team skills, (2) employ technology as a tool for mental health practitioners, and (3) enhance student understanding of Appalachian culture and rural mental health. Didactic instruction emphasized Appalachian culture, rural mental health, teamwork and communication, professional ethics, and technology. Students were introduced to videoconferencing, asynchronous and synchronous communication, and Internet search tools. Working in teams of 3 or 4, students grappled with professional and cultural issues plus team process as they worked through a hypothetical case of a sexually abused youngster. The course required participants to engage in a nontraditional manner by immersing students in Web-based teams. Student evaluations suggested that teaching facts or "content" about rural mental health and Appalachian culture was much easier than the "process" of using new technologies or working in teams. Given that the delivery of mental health care demands collaboration and teamwork and that rural practice relies increasingly more on the use of technology, our experience suggests that more team-based, technology-driven courses are needed to better prepare students for clinical practice.

  2. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools (United States)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  3. Mapping the interprofessional education landscape for students on rural clinical placements: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Walker, Lorraine; Cross, Merylin; Barnett, Tony


    Interprofessional collaboration and effective teamwork are core to optimising rural health outcomes; however, little is known about the opportunities available for interprofessional education (IPE) in rural clinical learning environments. This integrative literature review addresses this deficit by identifying, analysing and synthesising the research available about the nature of and potential for IPE provided to undergraduate students undertaking rural placements, the settings and disciplines involved and the outcomes achieved. An integrative review method was adopted to capture the breadth of evidence available about IPE in the rural context. This integrative review is based on a search of nine electronic databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Search terms were adapted to suit those used by different disciplines and each database and included key words related to IPE, rurality, undergraduate students and clinical placement. The inclusion criteria included primary research and reports of IPE in rural settings, peer reviewed, and published in English between 2000 and mid-2016. This review integrates the results of 27 primary research studies undertaken in seven countries: Australia, Canada, USA, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Africa and Tanzania. Despite geographical, cultural and health system differences, all of the studies reviewed were concerned with developing collaborative, interprofessional practice-ready graduates and adopted a similar mix of research methods. Overall, the 27 studies involved more than 3800 students (range 3-1360) from 36 disciplinary areas, including some not commonly associated with interprofessional education, such as theology. Interprofessional education was provided in a combination of university and rural placement settings including hospitals, community health services and other rural venues. The education activities most frequently utilised were

  4. Leadership development for rural health. (United States)

    Size, Tim


    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  5. Learning to Learn. (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin


    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  6. Creation of a mobile rural workforce following undergraduate longitudinal rural immersion. (United States)

    Playford, Denese E; Ng, Wen Qi; Burkitt, Tessa


    This study followed the workforce choices of 10-years of graduates from a longitudinal rural immersion programme, which involved living for one academic year in a rural location as a medical student. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia is a whole-of-state Rural Clinical School partnership involving two medical schools and fourteen rural/remote towns. For this longitudinal cohort study, all consenting graduates were contacted annually after graduation, with the outcome measure being rural work location (defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification -Remoteness Area) of any duration. There were 417 consenting graduates. Between 16 and 50% of contacted alumni worked rurally for a period of each post-graduate year. Aggregated over time, the majority took up to 30% of their postgraduate training rurally. There was considerable movement in and out of rural work. About 17% of contacted and practicing graduates were working full time rurally at the 2013 contact point. The majority remained in their state of training. The majority identified with GP and other rural-related colleges, and College-affiliation predicted amount of rural training time. Entry into rural work was equivalent for urban-origin and rural origin alumni, suggesting one year of RCS is sufficient to convert commitment to rural work. Undergraduate rural immersion is sufficient to create a graduate rural workforce that is far more mobile that was previously appreciated.

  7. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain


    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh. Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  8. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU


    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  9. The Implementation of TTG Book Service Done By Community Library in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup


    Full Text Available The problem of poverty in rural areas cannot be separated from the following aspects: poverty, lack of education facilities, low level of entrepreneurial skills, health, lack of learning facilities, population distribution, infrastructure and facilities are inadequate, access to information, and other aspects that are still limited. The Village Library and Community Library as part of the affordable infrastructure and learning facilities are, not yet available in every village. This study tried to introduce pilot models Appropriate Technology Implementation Services Book through Rural Libraries and the community library to a number of poor people in the village. The result could contribute in improving the skills of a number of rural poor in entrepreneurship-based reading. This service models can be applied in other similar villages.

  10. rurales en Yehualtepec, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Marcial Romero


    Full Text Available Estudios recientes consideran aspectos objetivos y subjetivos para medir la calidad de vida. En el presente estudio el objetivo es cuantificar la calidad de vida de hogares en cuatro localidades de alta marginación en Yehualtepec, Puebla, considerando elementos objetivos y subjetivos, lo que permite identificar factores de riesgo que deben formar parte de la agenda municipal. La metodología aplicada consistió en talleres participativos y una encuesta estructurada en 72 hogares, con ello se construyó un indicador sintético de Calidad de vida. Entre los principales resultados, se encontro que 40% de los hogares sobreviven en condiciones de baja calidad de vida; los factores que explican esa situacion se ubican en las dimensiones subjetiva y objetiva, es decir, material, humana y de seguridad alimentaria. Limitaciones: el trabajo realizado en la región sur del estado de Puebla, aborda la situación de las familias en varias localidades de un municipio rural, con características específicas, representativo de esta zona del estado. Difícilmente resulta pertinente para intentar explicar la situación de todos los municipios con características similares. Quizá esa sea una limitación del estudio, no obstante, es superada por la propuesta metodológica, para medir esa situación, explicarla y atenderla, rescatando lo valioso del documento. Como conclusion se identifican factores objetivos en la diversidad dietética, y la percepcion subjetiva y salud, como factores asociados con calidad de vida en el hogar.

  11. Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) network: first-person accounts in a community-university partnership. (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Alter, Theodore R; Brown, Leigh Gordon; Corbin, Marilyn A; Flaherty-Craig, Claire; McPhail, Lindsay G; Nevel, Pauline; Shoop, Kimbra; Sterner, Glenn; Terndrup, Thomas E; Weaver, M Ellen


    Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider's perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership's efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare.

  12. NRHM - the panacea for rural health in India: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bajpai


    Full Text Available There has been news of the Central Government’s flag ship rural health care scheme - National Rural Health Mission (NRHM being given an extension till 2015; albeit there is little talk of what we have learned from the experiences of NRHM till now so as to remove the bottle necks in its implementation. After seven years of implementation NRHM has failed to achieve its stated objectives. This calls for a scrutiny of this failure. This article analyzes fundamental conceptual dilemmas inherent to the Mission to draw lessons for future. The most important lesson that ought to be learnt is that ‘the health of the people is not a standalone phenomenon that can be improved through healthcare alone. It requires a comprehensive action plan encompassing food security, employment and poverty alleviation as well

  13. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.Assessment......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  14. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia. (United States)

    Bariabagar, H


    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  15. Libyan intuitive for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.


    One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  16. Career and Technical Education's Role in Rural Education. Issue Sheet (United States)

    Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), 2015


    Technical, academic and employability knowledge and skills are essential for youth and adults to be lifelong learners, informed citizens and prepared and adaptable members of the workforce. CTE imparts these skills through engaging, relevant hands-on learning, integrated with academics, for all students, including those living in rural settings…

  17. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail


    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  18. the impact of ict in rural education: case study - enugu state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the vast majority of rural areas in Enugu State so as to build mechanisms to support ICT in order to increase the rate ... work only in towns and cities. There is a growing ..... opportunity to learn almost anytime, anywhere. It is the use of network ...

  19. A study on gender mainstreaming: the case of a rural university in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on gender mainstreaming: the case of a rural university in Limpopo Province ... for promoting gender equality in institutions of higher learning worldwide, not ... UNIVEN makes use of the Employment Equity Act of 1998, but it is not clear ...

  20. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md


    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  1. History, Hollywood, and the Hood: Challenging Racial Assumptions in Rural Central Wisconsin (United States)

    Pruitt, John


    In light of research on diversity learning and teaching, this article describes how an introductory course on cinematic depictions of African Americans taught at a predominately white, rural university campus leads students to see the impact of history and Hollywood on their own local and statewide communities. Like others who teach courses on…

  2. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens. (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne


    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  3. Just-in-Time Online Professional Development Activities for an Innovation in Small Rural Schools (United States)

    Hamel, Christine; Allaire, Stephane; Turcotte, Sandrine


    This article describes the just-in-time online professional development offered to teachers in the Remote Networked Schools (RNS), a systemic initiative funded by the Quebec Ministry of Education (Canada), which aims at enriching the learning environment of small rural schools with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The…

  4. Recruiting and Retaining Mental Health Professionals to Rural Communities: An Interdisciplinary Course In Appalachia (United States)

    Meyer, Deborah; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Tice, Carolyn; Safran, Steven; Bolon, Douglas; Rose-Grippa, Kathleen


    Faculty from 5 disciplines (health administration, nursing, psychology, social work, and special education) collaborated to develop and teach a distance-learning course designed to encourage undergraduate and graduate students to seek mental health services employment in rural areas and to provide the skills, experience, and knowledge necessary…

  5. Social entrepreneurship: A foundation for “creative capitalism” in rural African communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Rensburg, JFJ


    Full Text Available The authors wish to share some of their current learning in the creation of social enterprises to act as primary support mechanisms for Infopreneurs (“creative capitalists”) in the rural African communities. The objective is to attract interested...

  6. Rural Schooling in Mobile Modernity: Returning to the Places I've Been (United States)

    Corbett, Michael


    In my book "Learning to Leave: The Irony of Schooling in a Coastal Community" (Corbett, 2007) I make the claim that there is a deep and established connection between formal education and mobility out of rural areas. The book reports on a study undertaken in a coastal community in Atlantic Canada focusing on the educational and life…

  7. What Are We Missing? A Review of the Educational and Vocational Interests of Marginalised Rural Youth. (United States)

    Gidley, J. M.; Wildman, P. H.


    Survey of 22 rural Australian youth, aged 12-18 and not attending school or work, found that youth were strongly motivated towards creative, practical, and life skills learning. Describes a model of the phenomenon of "street kids" at the intersection of youth unemployment, homelessness, and truancy. Recommends establishment of pilot…

  8. Parenting Education: An Exemplary Program for Rural/Migrant Youth and Adults. Final Report. (United States)

    Baum, Rosemere; And Others

    Designed for use in a parenting education course for rural/migrant youth and adults, this parenting education learning kit consists of a coordinator's manual and bilingual instructional materials for seven course sessions. Issues addressed in the coordinator's manual include program content, program format, orientation for experienced parents,…

  9. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development. (United States)

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  10. Effects of a Metacognitive Social Skill Intervention in a Rural Setting with At-Risk Adolescents (United States)

    Whetstone, Patti J.; Gillmor, Susan C.; Schuster, Jonathan G.


    Ten at-risk students in a rural high school completed a social skills program based on metacognitive strategies and aligned with social and emotional learning principles. The intervention's primary goal was to stimulate the development of metacognitive strategies for internal locus of control in the students, rather than attempting to change their…

  11. The folksong jukebox: Singing along for social change in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)


    textabstractIn designing digital literacy content for marginalized demographics, we need to garner local resources to structure engaging and meaningful media experiences. This paper examines the socio-cognitive implications of a novel edutainment product in rural India on learning, stemming from an

  12. Compounding medications in a rural setting: an interprofessional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S


    Full Text Available Selina Taylor,1 Catherine Hays,1 Beverley Glass2 1Mount Isa Centre for Rural and Remote Health, James Cook University, Mount Isa, QLD, Australia; 2College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia Background: Interprofessional learning (IPL which focuses on the pharmacist’s role in specialty practices as part of a multidisciplinary health care team has not been explored. This study aimed to determine health care students’ understanding of the role of the pharmacist in compounding medications to optimize health outcomes for patients in rural and remote health care services.Methods: Four workshops followed by focus group interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy, medical, nursing, physiotherapy, dentistry, Aboriginal public health, and speech pathology students (n=15. After an introductory lecture, students working in multidisciplinary teams undertook to compound three products. Focus groups were held at the end of the compounding workshops to explore students’ understanding and perceptions of these compounding activities. Thematic analysis was undertaken on the qualitative data obtained from the focus groups.Results: Student participants responded positively both to the opportunity to undertake a compounding exercise and being part of an interprofessional team, perceiving benefit for their future rural and remote health practice. Four major themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: improved knowledge and understanding; application to practice; interprofessional collaboration; and rural, remote, and Indigenous context. Students acknowledged that the workshops improved their understanding of the role of the pharmacist in compounding and how they, as part of a multidisciplinary team, could deliver better health outcomes for patients with special needs, especially in a rural and remote context.Conclusion: This study highlights that workshops of this nature have a role to play in developing

  13. Collaborative Practice Improvement for Childhood Obesity in Rural Clinics: The Healthy Eating Active Living Telehealth Community of Practice (HEALTH COP)


    Shaikh, U; Nettiksimmons, J; Joseph, JG; Tancredi, D; Romano, PS


    © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality. This study assessed the impact of participation in a virtual quality improvement (QI) learning network on adherence to clinical guidelines for childhood obesity prevention in rural clinics. A total of 7 primary care clinics in rural California included in the Healthy Eating Active Living TeleHealth Community of Practice and 288 children seen in these clinics for well-child care participated in this prospective observational pre-post study. Cl...

  14. The significance of parental involvement in early childhood learner development in Mafikeng rural school / Nicholas Maikanya Lebopa


    Lebopa, Nicholas Maikanya


    The study aims at investigating the importance of parental involvement in the teaching and learning of learners in their early years of schooling, especially in rural areas. The researcher is of the opinion that many parents in rural areas are illiterate and poor. Their disadvantages are therefore vast to their counterparts who live in urban areas. Parents could become involved in several activities occurring at school which could provide opportunities for them to be familiar w...

  15. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  16. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Program offers direct loans and/or grants for essential community facilities in rural areas, which can include ...

  17. The developing rural electrification plan continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica


    The article overviews the current situation of the rural electrification in Guatemala, including demand and supply of energy and the plans of the government in covering the rural areas through the promotion of renewable energy sources

  18. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei


    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  19. Population dynamics and rural poverty. (United States)

    Fong, M S


    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  20. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  1. Pedagogy of the Rural: Implications of Size on Conceptualisations of Rural (United States)

    Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Ludecke, Michelle; Kline, Jodie


    This paper proposes a concept of Pedagogy of the Rural that draws together current rural education theory and practice to illustrate the complexities of rural space and place often overlooked in teacher education more broadly. We firstly examine notions of size, and then we explore how this impacts on the ways in which teachers in rural locations…

  2. Rural Cultural Houses (A New Approach to Rural Youth Work in Iran). (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Cyrus

    Based on field work in rural areas of Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1973-74, an examination of the nature of rural cultural houses in Iran was undertaken. Set up by royal decree in 1968, the rural cultural houses have had as their objective to assist peasantry in general and rural youth in particular to achieve a socially enriched…

  3. Connecting College Learners with Rural Entrepreneurship Opportunities: The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit (United States)

    Frazier, Barbara J.; Niehm, Linda S.; Stoel, Leslie


    The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit (RETU) is designed to acquaint university retailing and hospitality majors with rural entrepreneurship opportunities. The unit is an outcome of a federal grant focused on the contribution of the local retail sector to rural community resilience. The RETU integrates knowledge regarding rural development,…

  4. Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away (United States)

    Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan


    This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

  5. The End of Rural Society and the Future of Rural Sociology. (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    Rural sociology confronts a continuing crisis of identity because of its failure to develop a sociology of agriculture. Historically, despite an initial focus on agriculture, rural sociology became deflected to the analysis of rurality. Recent emphasis of rural sociologists on the turnaround phenomenon is symptomatic, but fails to deal with the…

  6. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia (United States)

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana


    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  7. The role of rural libraries in the attainment of rural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the role that rural libraries could play in the attainment of rural development with a view to accelerate growth in all areas of human endeavors in rural areas of Nigeria. The study took cognizance of inherent problems that undermine the establishment of rural libraries such as funding, illiteracy, clientele ...

  8. Perceptions by medical students of their educational environment for obstetrics and gynaecology in metropolitan and rural teaching sites. (United States)

    Carmody, Dianne F; Jacques, Angela; Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Puddey, Ian; Newnham, John P


    Medical student education in Western Australia is expanding to secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites to accommodate workforce demands and increasing medical student numbers. To determine if students' perceptions of the teaching environment for obstetrics and gynaecology differ between tertiary, secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites, and to determine if students' perceptions of their learning environment are associated with improved academic performance. An evaluation was conducted of medical students' perceptions of their learning environment during an obstetrics and gynaecology program at a variety of sites across metropolitan and rural Western Australia. The evaluation was based on the Dundee Ready Education Environmental Measure (DREEM) questionnaire. There were no significant differences in students' perceptions of their learning environment between the tertiary hospital, combined programs involving a tertiary and secondary metropolitan hospital, rural sites with a population of more than 25,000 and rural sites with a population less than 25,000 people. Perceptions were similar in male and female students. The overall mean score for all perceptions of the learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were in the range considered to be favorable. Higher scores of perceptions of the learning environment were associated positively with the measures of academic achievement in the clinical, but not written, examination. Medical students' perceptions of their learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were not influenced by the geographical site of delivery or their gender but were positively related to higher academic achievement. Providing appropriate academic and clinical support systems have been put in place the education of medical students can be extended outside major hospitals and into outer metropolitan and rural communities without any apparent reduction in perceptions of the quality of their learning

  9. Open, trusting relationships underpin safety in rural maternity a hermeneutic phenomenology study. (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth


    There are interwoven personal, professional and organisational relationships to be navigated in maternity in all regions. In rural regions relationships are integral to safe maternity care. Yet there is a paucity of research on how relationships influence safety and nurture satisfying experiences for rural maternity care providers and mothers and families in these regions. This paper draws attention to how these relationships matter. This research is informed by hermeneutic phenomenology drawing on Heidegger and Gadamer. Thirteen participants were recruited via purposeful sampling and asked to share their experiences of rural maternity care in recorded unstructured in-depth interviews. Participants were women and health care providers living and working in rural regions. Recordings were transcribed and data interpretively analysed until a plausible and trustworthy thematic pattern emerged. Throughout the data the relational nature of rural living surfaced as an interweaving tapestry of connectivity. Relationships in rural maternity are revealed in myriad ways: for some optimal relationships, for others feeling isolated, living with discord and professional disharmony. Professional misunderstandings undermine relationships. Rural maternity can become unsustainable and unsettling when relationships break down leading to unsafeness. This study reveals how relationships are an important and vital aspect to the lived-experience of rural maternity care. Relationships are founded on mutual understanding and attuned to trust matter. These relationships are forged over time and keep childbirth safe and enable maternity care providers to work sustainably. Yet hidden unspoken pre-understandings of individuals and groups build tension in relationships leading to discord. Trust builds healthy rural communities of practice within which everyone can flourish, feel accepted, supported and safe. This is facilitated by collaborative learning activities and open respectful

  10. Medical abortion: understanding perspectives of rural and marginalized women from rural South India. (United States)

    Sri, B Subha; Ravindran, T K Sundari


    To understand how rural and other groups of marginalized women define safe abortion; their perspectives and concerns regarding medical abortion (MA); and what factors affect their access to safe abortion. Focus group discussions were held with various groups of rural and marginalized women in Tamil Nadu to understand their perspectives and concerns on abortion, especially MA. Nearly a decade after mifepristone was approved for abortion in India, most study participants had never heard of MA. When they learned of the method, most preferred it over other methods of abortion. The women also had questions and concerns about the method and recommendations on how services should be provided. Their definition of a "safe abortion" included criteria beyond medical safety. They placed a high priority on "social safety," including confidentiality and privacy. In their view, factors affecting access to safe abortion and choice of provider included cost, assurance of secrecy, promptness of service provision, and absence of provider gatekeeping and provider-imposed conditions for receiving services. Women's preference for MA shows the potential of this technology to address the problem of unsafe abortion in India. Women need better access to information and services to realize this potential, however. Women's preferences regarding information dissemination and service provision need to be taken into account if policies and programs are to be truly responsive to the needs of marginalized women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Rural tourism: the content, features and types


    Yuriy Onoyko


    Despite the active development of rural tourism in Ukraine, this phenomenon is still under scientific study nowadays, which has been manifested by the uncertainty of the key terms; by the lack of clear boundaries, which can separate this type of tourism from other types of tourism activities; by debates about the essence and types of rural tourism. After analyzing the available information the author offers own generalized definition of rural tourism. Rural tourism is a specific entertaining ...

  12. Do benefits accrue from longer rotations for students in Rural Clinical Schools? (United States)

    Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Shannon, Susan; Murdoch, Campbell J; Newbury, Jonathon W


    The Australian Government has provided funding for Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) to provide substantial rural clinical experience to medical students. The strategy aims to acculturate students into rural living with the intended long-term outcome of increasing the availability and viability of rural health services. When evaluators from two of the Rural Clinical Schools discussed findings and insights relating to rural rotations from their in-depth evaluation studies of their respective schools they found a range of similarities. This article is a collaboration that articulates parallel findings from evaluations over 2 years, using three different approaches to students' placements across the two RCS: (1) students based long term in one centre (with only a few days away at a time); (2) students based long term in one centre with short-term rotations of 3-6 weeks away from home base; and (3) week rotations without a home base. The two RCS, as part of their initial establishment, put comprehensive internal evaluation processes in place, including the employment of dedicated evaluators extant from the teaching and assessment of the rural medical curriculum. Data were collected and analysed according to standard education evaluation procedures. Home-base preference: most students preferred having a home base in one centre and having as little time as possible away from that centre, while recognising that sometimes the requirement to go and learn elsewhere was useful. The reasons for this were three-fold: academic, clinical and social. Academic benefits: students enjoyed the excellence of teaching and learning opportunities in their rural sites and did not want their discipline of learning interrupted by what they perceived as unnecessary change. Students with a home base used their learning opportunities qualitatively differently from those students who had 6 week rotations. Their learning became self-directed and students sought opportunities to extend and consolidate

  13. Learning Styles. (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  14. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility (United States)

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.


    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  15. Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Rural America Series. (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.

    This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…

  16. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  17. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools (United States)

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian


    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The failure in developemental endeavours in the rural areas of Africa does not stem substantially from the lack of funds. Rather, other factors conspire to make rural development a difficult task. One of these factors is communication. This paper examines the role of communication in the process of rural development.

  19. Place branding, embeddedness and endogenous rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, Mechthild; Horlings, Lummina; Fort, Fatiha; Vellema, Sietze


    This article deals with place branding on the regional scale, in the rural context of food and tourism networks in Europe. Place branding is linked to the concepts of endogenous rural development, territory and embeddedness, by analysing how the valorisation of specific rural assets takes shape.

  20. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison


    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  1. Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles (United States)

    Crowden, Andrew


    Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

  2. Rural electrification strategies for distributed generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zerriffi, Hisham


    Small-scale Distributed Generation (DG), which run off diesel generators, could provide electricity to rural communities without an electricity grid. Rural Electrification compares around 20 DG enterprises and projects in Brazil, Cambodia and China, and each is a possible model for distributed rural electrification.

  3. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services (United States)

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin


    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  4. Rural Math Talent, Now and Then (United States)

    Howley, Craig B.; Showalter, Daniel; Klein, Robert; Sturgill, Derek J.; Smith, Michael A.


    This article interprets inequality evident at the intersection of three realms: (a) mathematical talent (as a cultural phenomenon); (b) rural place and rural life; and (c) future economic, political, and ecological developments. The discussion explains this outlook on inequality, contextualizes interest in rural mathematics education, presents the…

  5. Homo Voluntarius and the Rural Idyll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    Based on Mancur Olson’s and Robert Putnam’s theories, this article discusses whether it is more difficult to recruit volunteers in urban than in rural areas. We use data from the Danish Rural-Urban Barometer (2011/12), which contains 2000 valid responses from urban and rural respondents. We show...

  6. Exploring the character of rural businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Hanne Bat; Bosworth, Gary


    these assets can create value for ural businesses. Understanding these issues can better inform organisations that are seeking to support the rural economy adn rural communities.It can also guide buisness owners themselves as to how the may benefit from being a part of, or associated with, the rural economy...

  7. Paediatric case mix in a rural clinical school is relevant to future practice. (United States)

    Wright, Helen M; Maley, Moira A L; Playford, Denese E; Nicol, Pam; Evans, Sharon F


    Exposure to a representative case mix is essential for clinical learning, with logbooks established as a way of demonstrating patient contacts. Few studies have reported the paediatric case mix available to geographically distributed students within the same medical school. Given international interest in expanding medical teaching locations to rural contexts, equitable case exposure in rural relative to urban settings is topical. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia locates students up to 3500 km from the urban university for an academic year. There is particular need to examine paediatric case mix as a study reported Australian graduates felt unprepared for paediatric rotations. We asked: Does a rural clinical school provide a paediatric case mix relevant to future practice? How does the paediatric case mix as logged by rural students compare with that by urban students? The 3745 logs of 76 urban and 76 rural consenting medical students were categorised by presenting symptoms and compared to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). Rural and urban students logged core paediatric cases, in similar order, despite the striking difference in geographic locations. The pattern of overall presenting problems closely corresponded to Australian paediatric hospital admissions. Rural students logged 91% of cases in secondary healthcare settings; urban students logged 90% of cases in tertiary settings. The top four presenting problems were ENT/respiratory, gastrointestinal/urogenital, neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal; these made up 60% of all cases. Rural and urban students logged similar proportions of infants, children and adolescents, with a variety of case morbidity. Rural clinical school students logged a mix of core paediatric cases relevant to illnesses of Australian children admitted to public hospitals, with similar order and pattern by age group to urban students, despite major differences

  8. Is There A Rural-Urban Technology Gap? Results of the ERS Rural Manufacturing Survey


    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.


    Advanced technology use is less prevalent in rural than in urban manufacturing plants, but plants of comparable size in the same industry use about the same level of technology, regardless of urban/rural location. The rural gap comes about because the mix of rural industries is more heavily weighted with "low-technology" industries. Both rural and urban businesses rate inadequate worker skills as the most important barrier to use of new production technologies and management practices, while ...

  9. From pipelines to pathways: the Memorial experience in educating doctors for rural generalist practice. (United States)

    Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Graham, Wendy; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka


    &L). Among Memorial MD-graduating classes of 2011-2020, 56% spent the majority of their lives before their 18th birthday in a rural location and 44% in an urban location. As of September 2016, 23 Memorial MD students self-identified as Aboriginal, of which 2 (9%) were from an urban location and 20 (91%) were from rural locations. For Year 3 Family Medicine, graduating classes 2011 to 2019, 89% of placement weeks took place in rural communities and 8% took place in rural towns. For Memorial MD graduating classes 2011-2013 who completed Memorial Family Medicine vocational training residencies, (N=49), 100% completed some rural training. For these 49 residents (vocational trainees), the average amount of time spent in rural areas was 52 weeks out of a total average FM training time of 95 weeks. For Family Medicine residencies from July 2011 to October 2016, 29% of all placement weeks took place in rural communities and 21% of all placement weeks took place in rural towns. For 2016-2017 first-year residents, 53% of the first year training is completed in rural locations, reflecting an even greater rural experiential learning focus. Memorial's pathways approach has allowed for the comprehensive training of rural generalists for Newfoundland and Labrador and the rest of Canada and may be applicable to other settings. More challenges remain, requiring ongoing collaboration with governments, medical associations, health authorities, communities, and their physicians to help achieve reliable and feasible healthcare delivery for those living in rural and remote areas.

  10. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana


    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from

  11. Restrictions and Countermeasures of Rural Vocational Education in Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Developing rural vocational education is of great significance to urban-rural integration: developing rural vocational education is helpful to cultivating new farmers for construction of new socialist countryside,favorable to improving farmers’ ability of finding jobs and starting undertaking, and beneficial to transfer of rural surplus labor and acceleration of urbanization. Restrictions on development rural vocational education mainly include: low value cognition of society and social assessment of rural vocational education; out of balance of cost and expected return of rural vocational education; the quality of supply of rural vocational education failure to satisfy demand of socio-economic development; imperfect rural vocational education system. In view of these,following countermeasures and suggestions are put forward: strengthen propaganda and guidance to build environment of public opinion for rural vocational education; push forward rural vocational compulsory education system to lay social foundation for rural vocational education; reinforce policy support to assist in building rural vocational education system; improve education system to build overall framework of rural vocational education; perfect laws and regulations to establish system and norm for development of rural vocational education.

  12. Can Cooperative Learning Maximize the Effectiveness of WebQuest Used in Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitah Spian


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cooperative learning can maximize the effectiveness of webQuest used as a medium in teaching and learning in Islamic education. The present study also examined the perception of students towards WebQuest and cooperative learning method. Muslim students were selected from a rural school in Penang, Malaysia. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. The results showed that WebQuest used in teaching and learning in Islamic education had positive impact on students’ learning'. However, cooperative learning method did not influence the students’ learning outcome. Nevertheless, students were interested in the medium of instruction used. Integration of ICT in class lesson in Islamic subject enables the creation of interactive and fun learning among students. Therefore, the application of WebQuest in lessons is suitable and should be applied by all teachers in their learning activities to increase students’ interest and performance in Islamic education.

  13. Lay discourses of the rural and stated and revealed preferences for rural living; some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van F.; Heins, S.; Elbersen, B.S.


    Dutch rural areas have changed into a post-modern countryside and have become marketable commodities. The demand for rural space and rural amenities has increased, with concomitant tensions on the rural housing market, tensions which are enhanced by the restrictive spatial policy in Dutch rural

  14. Sex Education in Rural Churches. (United States)

    Isberner, Fred R.; And Others


    Describes Open Communication Teens or Parents Understanding Sexuality (OCTOPUS), rural teenage pregnancy prevention program. Program presented in religious setting to improve sexual attitudes and parent-child communication. Finds that participants generally gained in knowledge and self-assessment, but teenagers showed no improvement in attitude…

  15. Rural tourism: Serbia's missed chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Miroljub


    Full Text Available Rural tourism is both old and new phenomenon. The interest for recreation in the countryside began to grow as early as XIX century, as a reaction to the pressure of growing urbanization and industrialization. Serbia has great potentials for development of rural tourism. Natural beauty in combination with culture, tradition, festivals, gastronomic specialties and music, might become recognizable tourist brand, which could contribute to the significant monetary influx and improve the overall image of the country. However, current level of Serbia's competitiveness in the area of rural tourism is not particularly high, regardless of the fact that all of the natural, cultural and social prerequisites for its development already exist (natural potentials, significant farming land, great number of agriculturally active population, traditional approach to agriculture, lack of ground pollution as well as the possibility of producing 'healthy food', good potential for development of complementary activities such as hiking, recreation, hunting, fishing, riding and participating in everyday activities of the country folk, traditional local gastronomical specialties etc.. The goal of this paper is to show the resources of Serbia in the area of rural tourism as well as the possible development potentials of this form of tourism.

  16. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Wang, L.


    This paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated using the

  17. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)


    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  18. South-Moravian Rural Borderland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, A.; Šťastná, M.; Trnka, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Zapletalová, Jana


    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2013), s. 115-132 ISSN 1803-8417 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : borderland * landscape * rural settlement * economy * Moravia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Rural Poverty in Latin America


    Keith Griffin


    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  20. Amenidades ambientais e desenvolvimento rural


    Dentinho, Tomaz; Rodrigues, Orlando


    Este texto sobre amenidades ambientais e desenvolvimento rural trata, fundamentalmente, da incerteza resultante da reacção das pessoas e das instituições face aos recursos naturais que exploram e quanto ao efeito das políticas que são implementadas.

  1. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) (United States)

    Cash, Terry


    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  2. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  3. Rural Electricity and Isolated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Otto; Solorzano, Benjamin


    The paper describes the impact of the cost of investment, operation and trading of rural electricity and discuss cost-benefit analysis. This evaluation covers a three different periods: before 1990, the period 1990-1996 and 1997-1999. Also the trends of demand and supply of energy are presented


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviews current literature in the field in both farm and non-farm occupations and ... One major negative effect is withdrawal of critical labour from the family farm which ... rural women to equip them with the necessary skills to work in non-farm .... stratification of roles by gender in African households, but also because the ...

  5. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.


    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  6. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Davison, A.; Logan-Sinclair, P.; Sturt University, Dubbo, NSW; Greenough, R.


    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Study of rural transportation issues. (United States)


    This report is in response to Section 6206 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (PL : 110-246), which directs the Secretaries of Agriculture and Transportation jointly to conduct a : study of rural transportation issues. The report revie...

  8. Rural Labour in Latin America. (United States)

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others


    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  9. Rural Tourism : A Gender Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloeze, te J.W.


    Research on the subject of rural tourism and agritourism in the Netherlands has shown that most of the work in this field is done by women. Moreover, without the consent and initiative of the women, no agritourist activities would have been started. In the paper the position of women in agritourist

  10. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  11. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma


    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  12. Perceptions of rural addictions and related HIV. (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Godlaski, T


    Rural addictions and related HIV behaviors, including drug use and sexual behaviors, have received limited attention in United States rural areas when compared with urban areas. However, prevalence rates are similar for alcohol and tobacco in rural and urban United States areas. The perception of policymakers and others is generally that drug use and HIV are urban problems, and resources are more likely to be directed to urban areas than rural areas. A major trend for the future is the continued expectation of limited resources for rural areas.

  13. The status of rural garbage disposal (United States)

    Qin, Ruqiong; Chen, Hong


    With the development of rural construction and the improvement of the living standard of residents, the production of rural living waste is increasing day by day. These wastes not only pollute the environment, destroy the rural landscape, but also spread disease, threaten the life safety of human beings, and become one of the public hazards. The problem of rural living waste is a major environmental problem facing China and the world. This paper make a summary analysis about the present situation of municipal waste in China, this paper expounds the problems in rural garbage treatment, and in view of status quo of municipal waste in China put forward comprehensive countermeasures.

  14. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren


    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  15. Rural development--national improvement. (United States)

    Malhotra, R C


    Rural development should be viewed as the core of any viable strategy for national development in developing countries where an average 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. Rural development is multisectoral, including economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural aspects of rural life. Initially, the focus is on the provision of basic minimum needs in food, shelter, clothing, health, and education, through optimum use and employment of all available resources, including human labor. The development goal is the total development of the human potential. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid. At the base are basic minimum needs for subsistence whose fulfillment leads to a higher set of sociopolitical needs and ultimately to the goal of total developmentand the release of creative energies of every individual. If development, as outlined, were to benefit the majority of the people then they would have to participate in decision making which affects their lives. This would require that the people mobilize themselves in the people'ssector. The majority can equitably benefit from development only if they are mobilized effectively. Such mobilization requires raising the consciousness of the people concerning their rights and obligations. All development with the twin objectives of growth with equity could be reduced to restructuring the socioeconomic, and hence political relationships. Desinging and implementing an intergrated approach to rural development is the 1st and fundamental issue of rural development management. The commonly accepted goals and objectives of a target group oriented antipoverty development strategy include: higher productivity and growth in gross national product (GNP); equitable distribution of the benefits of development; provision of basic minimum needs for all; gainful employment; participation in development; self reliance or self sustaining growth and development; maintenance of

  16. Girl child in rural India. (United States)

    Devendra, K


    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  17. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario. (United States)

    Kumari, R


    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  18. Educational Process Reengineering and Diffusion of Innovation in Formal Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Rongbutsri, Nikorn


    administration and evaluation and assessment. Educational environments are flexible and not governed by standard operating procedures, making technology use lithe. Theory of diffusion of innovations‟ is recommended to be integrated to reason and measure acceptance or rejection of EPR selected technology......In technology mediated learning while relative advantages of technologies is proven, lack of contextualization and process centric change, and lack of user driven change has kept intervention and adoption of educational technologies among individuals and organizations as challenges. Reviewing...... the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, this study focuses on the formal part. This paper coins the term 'Educational Process Reengineering (EPR) based on the established concept of 'Business Process Reengineering (BPR) for process improvement of teaching learning activities, academic...

  19. Meeting Increasing Demands for Rural General Surgeons. (United States)

    Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J


    Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.

  20. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  1. Comparison of perceptions among rural versus nonrural secondary science teachers: A multistate survey (United States)

    Baird, William E.; Preston Prather, J.; Finson, Kevin D.; Oliver, J. Steve

    A 100-item survey was distributed to science teachers in eight states to determine characteristics of teachers, schools, programs, and perceived needs. Results from 1258 secondary science teachers indicate that they perceive the following to be among their greatest needs: (1) to motivate students to want to learn science; (2) to discover sources of free and inexpensive science materials; (3) to learn more about how to use computers to deliver and manage instruction; (4) to find and use materials about science careers; and (5) to improve problem solving skills among their students. Based on whether teachers classified themselves as nonrural or rural, rural teachers do not perceive as much need for help with multicultural issues in the classroom or maintaining student discipline as their nonrural peers. Rural teachers report using the following classroom activities less often than nonrural teachers: cooperative learning groups, hands-on laboratory activities, individualized strategies, and inquiry teaching. More rural than nonrural teachers report problems with too many class preparations per day, a lack of career role models in the community, and lack of colleagues with whom to discuss problems. Among all secondary science teachers, the most pronounced problems reported by teachers were (in rank order): (1) insufficient student problem-solving skills; (2) insufficient funds for supplies; (3) poor student reading ability; (4) lack of student interest in science: and (5) inadequate laboratory facilities.

  2. Desarrollo rural vs. desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Moreno, M.ª Luisa


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the discussion about the concepts of rural development and local development starting from the different lines that tend in their making up: the Geographic epistemology, the politics based on them and the material processes of development. The issues of this discussion are: the difficulty of reflect this development processes in quantitative evidences (indicators due to their rather qualitative character; the ambiguous definition of their scale, and related to that, their condition spread or concentrated; their suitability to make compatible objectives of both territorial and social cohesion; the limitations to be extrapolated the concept of stakeholders, own of local development, to rural development; the lack of coordination between economic planning and urban planning to the detriment of a true sustainability and, in the opposite, the threats that are to the rural space the application of sustainability politics designed from the urban context.

    El objeto de este artículo es la discusión de los conceptos de desarrollo rural y local a partir de las distintas líneas que convergen en su definición: las elaboraciones epistemológicas de la Geografía, los instrumentos de planificación en ellos basados y los procesos reales. Los términos de esta discusión son los siguientes: La dificultad de expresar en indicadores los resultados de estos procesos de desarrollo, dado su carácter más cualitativo que cuantitativo; la ambigua definición de su escala, y, en relación con ello, su carácter difuso o concentrado; su idoneidad para compatibilizar objetivos de cohesión social y territorial; las limitaciones de la extrapolación al desarrollo rural del concepto de «actores» propio del desarrollo local; la carencia de coordinación entre planificación económica y urbana en detrimento de una sostenibilidad real y, a la inversa, las amenazas para el espacio rural derivadas de la aplicación de políticas de

  3. Rural Tourism: Development, Management and Sustainability in Rural Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Villanueva-Álvaro


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the economic driving forces of Spain: the consolidation of existing tourist destinations and new market niches encourage an upward trend of tourism. The economic impacts produced by tourism are one of the major concerns of the authorities; the question is whether it is possible to continue growing without compromising our environment. This work attempts to answer this issue by analysing one of the tourism segments with higher growth in recent years: rural tourism. Using a model of partial least squares (PLS, we will analyse the environmental impacts from the point of view of the supply and its relationships with the environmental management conducted. We will also analyse the rural establishments from a global point of view and, depending on their category, explain the factors which determine the sustainable behaviour of providers, and identify that the establishments of low categories have a more sustainable conduct.

  4. Bringing Produce to the People: Implementing a social marketing food access intervention in rural food deserts (United States)

    Ramirez, A. Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K.; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana


    To describe and evaluate the process of implementation of a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. Case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in the implementation of such strategies and underscore the importance of community involvement in decision-making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and a reconsideration of the problem of “access” in rural areas. PMID:27956000

  5. Free open access medical education can help rural clinicians deliver 'quality care, out there'. (United States)

    Leeuwenburg, Tim J; Parker, Casey


    Rural clinicians require expertise across a broad range of specialties, presenting difficulty in maintaining currency of knowledge and application of best practice. Free open access medical education is a new paradigm in continuing professional education. Use of the internet and social media allows a globally accessible crowd-sourced adjunct, providing inline (contextual) and offline (asynchronous) content to augment traditional educational principles and the availability of relevant resources for life-long learning. This markedly reduces knowledge translation (the delay from inception of a new idea to bedside implementation) and allows rural clinicians to further expertise by engaging in discussion of cutting edge concepts with peers worldwide.

  6. Bringing Produce to the People: Implementing a Social Marketing Food Access Intervention in Rural Food Deserts. (United States)

    Ramirez, A Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana


    This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking (United States)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob


    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  8. The Chinese electricity access model for rural electrification: Approach, experience and lessons for others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Ohiare, Sanusi


    analyses what China did and how China achieved 100% electrification. ► It explains the financing mechanism for rural electrification. ► It indicates what others can learn from this experience.

  9. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles


    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  10. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles


    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)



    John MPOFU, Zimbabwe Open University ZIMBABWE; Sylod CHIMHENGA; Onias MAFA,


    Zimbabwe Distance Open University is enrols students from both urban and rural settings. The majority of students living and working in rural areas have limited or no access to computers and electricity as a result the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the learning process is very limited. Though government has realized the importance of developing ICT for learning purposes, in practice very little has materialized in the provision of the ICT technology especially in ru...

  12. Technology Integration through Professional Learning Community (United States)

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Maxwell, Gerri; Bulu, Sanser


    We describe efforts to build a learning community to support technology integration in three rural school districts and the contributions of various program strategies toward teacher growth. The Stages of Adoption Inventory, classroom observations, the Questionnaire for Technology Integration, interviews, STAR evaluation surveys, a survey of…

  13. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming


    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  14. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington


    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  15. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico. (United States)

    Del Rio, Michelle; Hargrove, William L; Tomaka, Joe; Korc, Marcelo


    This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1) 84% for health services; (2) 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3) 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident's health through improved access to: (1) health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2) education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3) economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1) long distances to travel; (2) difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3) poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  16. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Del Rio


    Full Text Available This Health Impact Assessment (HIA informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1 84% for health services; (2 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident’s health through improved access to: (1 health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2 education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3 economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1 long distances to travel; (2 difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3 poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  17. Coroners' records of rural and non-rural cases of youth suicide in New South Wales. (United States)

    Dudley, M; Kelk, N; Florio, T; Waters, B; Howard, J; Taylor, D


    The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of certain putative risk factors for youth suicide in New South Wales (especially use of alcohol, social class, unemployment, and internal migration) in metropolitan and rural settings. A review of 137 files for 10-19-year-old subjects judged by the Coroner to have committed suicide in 1988-1990 was carried out. One hundred and fifteen males and 21 females were identified (one subjects sex was unavailable). The male-female ratio was higher in rural (13.0) areas than non-rural (4.9 chi 2 = 12.14, p Australia, most migrated in a rural direction, and most to rural shires. Unemployment was somewhat more common among rural (38.5%) than non-rural (28.9%) subjects (chi 2 = 0.75, p = 0.39). Eleven of 50 non-rural parents of the deceased, but none of the 11 rural parents, were ranked as being in social classes 2 or 3. Alcohol consumption appeared more common in rural shires (44%) than metropolitan areas (32.9%), but this was not statistically significant. Medical services were less utilised prior to death in rural (15%) than non-rural (25%) areas (chi 2 = 1.69, p = 0.19), and a psychiatric diagnosis was recorded more commonly in non-rural areas. Incomplete coronial file data and relatively small numbers limit this study's conclusions. Male suicides, principally by firearms, predominated in rural areas. Youth firearm access remains highly relevant to rural communities. Possible trends among rural subjects toward rural migration, higher unemployment, lower social class and lower medical attendance may point to resource deprivation among this group; these matters require further investigation.

  18. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase


    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  19. Peculiaridades campesinas del Morelos rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Guzmán-Gómez


    Full Text Available En el campo morelense la actividad rural es aún importante a pesar de la cercanía y la competencia de recursos con grandes urbes, procesos industriales y crecimiento del sector terciario. Las tierras agrícolas sostienen múltiples cultivos destinados al autoabasto y al mercado. Los pequeños productores, desde la organización de su grupo familiar, recursos económicos propios y redes familiares y sociales, integran un complejo de objetivos, decisiones y actividades con las que se estructuran estrategias de reproducción campesina que marcan la viabilidad de la forma de vida rural, además de brindar múltiples servicios a la sociedad general.

  20. Measurement of Learning Process by Semantic Annotation Technique on Bloom's Taxonomy Vocabulary (United States)

    Yanchinda, Jirawit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Chakpitak, Nopasit


    A lack of science and technology knowledge understanding of most rural people who had the highest education at elementary education level more than others level is unsuccessfully transferred appropriate technology knowledge for rural sustainable development. This study provides the measurement of the learning process by on Bloom's Taxonomy…